Science.gov

Sample records for hiv-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

  1. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIV{sub KU2} infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Hill, Lori; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Feng Lei; Simmons, Johnny; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2008-01-05

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-{gamma}-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIV{sub KU2}. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-{gamma} production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-{gamma} producing CD4{sup +} cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies.

  2. Neutralizing antibodies decrease the envelope fluidity of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Shinji Monde, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Kimura, Tetsuya; Maeda, Yosuke; Yusa, Keisuke

    2008-01-05

    For successful penetration of HIV-1, the formation of a fusion pore may be required in order to accumulate critical numbers of fusion-activated gp41 with the help of fluidization of the plasma membrane and viral envelope. An increase in temperature to 40 {sup o}C after viral adsorption at 25 {sup o}C enhanced the infectivity by 1.4-fold. The enhanced infectivity was inhibited by an anti-CXCR4 peptide, T140, and anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (0.5{beta} and 694/98-D) by post-attachment neutralization, but not by non-neutralizing antibodies (670-30D and 246-D) specific for the C5 of gp120 and cluster I of gp41, respectively. Anti-HLA-II and an anti-HTLV-I gp46 antibody, LAT27, neutralized the molecule-carrying HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}. The anti-V3 antibodies suppressed the fluidity of the HIV-1{sub C-2} envelope, whereas the non-neutralizing antibodies did not. The anti-HLA-II antibody decreased the envelope fluidity of HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}, but not that of HIV-1{sub C-2}. Therefore, fluidity suppression by these antibodies represents an important neutralization mechanism, in addition to inhibition of viral attachment.

  3. Structural Basis for Membrane Anchoring of HIV-1 Envelope Spike

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S.; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We use NMR to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An N-terminal coiled-coil and a C-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sliepen, Kwinten; Sanders, Rogier W

    2016-01-01

    The long pursuit for a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has recently been boosted by a number of exciting developments. An HIV-1 subunit vaccine ideally should elicit potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), but raising bNAbs by vaccination has proved extremely difficult because of the characteristics of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). However, the isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected patients demonstrates that the human humoral immune system is capable of making such antibodies. Therefore, a focus of HIV-1 vaccinology is the elicitation of bNAbs by engineered immunogens and by using vaccination strategies aimed at mimicking the bNAb maturation pathways in HIV-infected patients. Important clues can also be taken from the successful subunit vaccines against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus. Here, we review the different types of HIV-1 immunogens and vaccination strategies that are being explored in the search for an HIV-1 vaccine that induces bNAbs.

  5. HIV-1 VACCINES. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J; Burger, Judith A; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne C; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G; Seaman, Michael S; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Klasse, Per Johan; LaBranche, Celia; Schief, William R; Wilson, Ian A; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R; Ward, Andrew B; Montefiori, David C; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P

    2015-07-10

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.

  6. A New Approach to Produce HIV-1 Envelope Trimers

    PubMed Central

    AlSalmi, Wadad; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Ananthaswamy, Neeti; Hamlin, Christopher; Flores, Dalia; Gao, Guofen; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2015-01-01

    The trimeric envelope spike of HIV-1 mediates virus entry into human cells. The exposed part of the trimer, gp140, consists of two noncovalently associated subunits, gp120 and gp41 ectodomain. A recombinant vaccine that mimics the native trimer might elicit entry-blocking antibodies and prevent virus infection. However, preparation of authentic HIV-1 trimers has been challenging. Recently, an affinity column containing the broadly neutralizing antibody 2G12 has been used to capture recombinant gp140 and prepare trimers from clade A BG505 that naturally produces stable trimers. However, this antibody-based approach may not be as effective for the diverse HIV-1 strains with different epitope signatures. Here, we report a new and simple approach to produce HIV-1 envelope trimers. The C terminus of gp140 was attached to Strep-tag II with a long linker separating the tag from the massive trimer base and glycan shield. This allowed capture of nearly homogeneous gp140 directly from the culture medium. Cleaved, uncleaved, and fully or partially glycosylated trimers from different clade viruses were produced. Extensive biochemical characterizations showed that cleavage of gp140 was not essential for trimerization, but it triggered a conformational change that channels trimers into correct glycosylation pathways, generating compact three-blade propeller-shaped trimers. Uncleaved trimers entered aberrant pathways, resulting in hyperglycosylation, nonspecific cross-linking, and conformational heterogeneity. Even the cleaved trimers showed microheterogeneity in gp41 glycosylation. These studies established a broadly applicable HIV-1 trimer production system as well as generating new insights into their assembly and maturation that collectively bear on the HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:26088135

  7. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env) clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml) of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. PMID:21843318

  8. Structural constraints determine the glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope trimers

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Laura K.; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Seabright, Gemma E.; Cupo, Albert; Ringe, Rajesh; Kim, Helen J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Doores, Katie J.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Moore, John P.; Crispin, Max

    2015-01-01

    A highly glycosylated, trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates HIV-1 cell entry. The high density and heterogeneity of the glycans shield Env from recognition by the immune system but, paradoxically, many potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes involving this glycan shield. To better understand Env glycosylation and its role in bNAb recognition, we characterized a soluble, cleaved recombinant trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664) that is a close structural and antigenic mimic of native Env. Large, unprocessed oligomannose-type structures (Man8-9GlcNAc2) are notably prevalent on the gp120 components of the trimer, irrespective of the mammalian cell expression system or the bNAb used for affinity-purification. In contrast, gp41 subunits carry more highly processed glycans. The glycans on uncleaved, non-native oligomeric gp140 proteins are also highly processed. A homogeneous, oligomannose-dominated glycan profile is therefore a hallmark of a native Env conformation and a potential Achilles’ heel that can be exploited for bNAb recognition and vaccine design. PMID:26051934

  9. Cloning and characterization of functional subtype A HIV-1 envelope variants transmitted through breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Stephanie M J; Wu, Xueling; Nduati, Ruth; Nedellec, Rebecca; Mosier, Donald; John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Overbaugh, Julie

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies of HIV-1 variants transmitted from mother-to-infant have focused primarily on computational analyses of partial envelope gene sequences, rather than analyses of functional envelope variants. There are very few examples of well-characterized functional envelope clones from mother-infant pairs, especially from envelope variants representing the most prevalent subtypes worldwide. To address this, we amplified the envelope variants present in 4 mother-infant transmission pairs, all of whom were infected with subtype A and three of whom presumably transmitted HIV-1 during the breastfeeding period. Functional envelope clones were constructed, either encoding full-length envelope sequences from the mother and baby or by making chimeric envelope clones in a common backbone sequence. The infant envelope sequences were genetically homogeneous compared to the maternal viruses, and pseudoviruses bearing these envelopes all used CCR5 as a coreceptor. The infant viruses were generally resistant to neutralization by maternal antibodies present near the time of transmission. There were no notable differences in sensitivity of the mother and infant envelope variants to neutralization by heterologous plasma or monoclonal antibodies 2G12 and b12, or to inhibition by sCD4, PSC-RANTES or TAK779. This collection of viral envelopes, which can be used for making pseudotyped viruses, may be useful for examining the efficacy of interventions to block mother-infant transmission, including sera from vaccine candidates, purified antibodies under consideration for passive immunization and viral entry inhibitors.

  10. Maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L; Overman, R Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Denny, Thomas N; Moody, M Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-07-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3-specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT.

  11. Nine Crystal Structures Determine the Substrate Envelope of the MDR HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-03-27

    Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistant, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment. It is known that nine substrate cleavage site peptides bind to wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease in a conserved pattern. However, how the multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease binds to the substrate cleavage site peptides is yet to be determined. MDR769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90) was selected for present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. MDR769 HIV-1 protease was co-crystallized with nine substrate cleavage site hepta-peptides. Crystallographic studies show that MDR769 HIV-1 protease has an expanded substrate envelope with wide open flaps. Furthermore, ligand binding energy calculations indicate weaker binding in MDR769 HIV-1 protease-substrate complexes. These results help in designing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by targeting the MDR HIV-1 protease.

  12. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Trimeric Envelope Protein from an Indian Clade C HIV-1 Isolate*

    PubMed Central

    Sneha Priya, Rangasamy; Veena, Menon; Kalisz, Irene; Whitney, Stephen; Priyanka, Dhopeshwarkar; LaBranche, Celia C.; Sri Teja, Mullapudi; Montefiori, David C.; Pal, Ranajit; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from India mainly belong to clade C and are quite distinct from clade C isolates from Africa in terms of their phylogenetic makeup, serotype, and sensitivity to known human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Because many of these properties are associated with the envelope proteins of HIV-1, it is of interest to study the envelope proteins of Indian clade C isolates as part of the ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV-1. To this end, we purified trimeric uncleaved gp145 of a CCR5 tropic Indian clade C HIV-1 (93IN101) from the conditioned medium of 293 cells. The purified protein was shown to be properly folded with stable structure by circular dichroism. Conformational integrity was further demonstrated by its high affinity binding to soluble CD4, CD4 binding site antibodies such as b12 and VRC01, quaternary epitope-specific antibody PG9, and CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody 17b. Sera from rabbits immunized with gp145 elicited high titer antibodies to various domains of gp120 and neutralized a broad spectrum of clade B and clade C HIV-1 isolates. Similar to other clade B and clade C envelope immunogens, most of the Tier 1 neutralizing activity could be absorbed with the V3-specific peptide. Subsequent boosting of these rabbits with a clade B HIV-1 Bal gp145 resulted in an expanded breadth of neutralization of HIV-1 isolates. The present study strongly supports the inclusion of envelopes from Indian isolates in a future mixture of HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:25691567

  13. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies for Antigenic Discrimination of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sealy, Robert E.; Jones, Bart G.; Surman, Sherri L.; Branum, Kristen; Howlett, Nanna M.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the influenza virus field, antibody reagents from research animals have been instrumental in the characterization of antigenically distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane molecules. These small animal reagents continue to support the selection of components for inclusion in human influenza virus vaccines. Other cocktail vaccines against variant pathogens (e.g., polio virus, pneumococcus) are similarly designed to represent variant antigens, as defined by antibody reactivity patterns. However, a vaccine cocktail comprising diverse viral membrane antigens defined in this way has not yet been advanced to a clinical efficacy study in the HIV-1 field. In this study, we describe the preparation of mouse antibodies specific for HIV-1 gp140 or gp120 envelope molecules. Our experiments generated renewable reagents able to discriminate HIV-1 envelopes from one another. Monoclonals yielded more precise discriminatory capacity against their respective immunogens than did a small panel of polyclonal human sera derived from recently HIV-1-infected patients. Perhaps these and other antibody reagents will ultimately support high-throughput cartography studies with which antigenically-distinct envelope immunogens may be formulated into a successful HIV-1 envelope cocktail vaccine. PMID:26544795

  14. The Envelope Gene of Transmitted HIV-1 Resists a Late Interferon Gamma-Induced Block

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, Suzannah J.; Foster, Toshana L.; Busnadiego, Idoia; Aziz, Muhamad Afiq; Hughes, Joseph; Neil, Stuart J. D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferon (IFN) signaling engenders an antiviral state that likely plays an important role in constraining HIV-1 transmission and contributes to defining subsequent AIDS pathogenesis. Type II IFN (IFN-γ) also induces an antiviral state but is often primarily considered to be an immunomodulatory cytokine. We report that IFN-γ stimulation can induce an antiviral state that can be both distinct from that of type I interferon and can potently inhibit HIV-1 in primary CD4+ T cells and a number of human cell lines. Strikingly, we find that transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1 viruses can resist a late block that is induced by type II IFN, and the use of chimeric IFN-γ-sensitive/resistant viruses indicates that interferon resistance maps to the env gene. Simultaneously, in vitro evolution also revealed that just a single amino acid substitution in the envelope can confer substantial resistance to IFN-mediated inhibition. Thus, the env gene of transmitted HIV-1 confers resistance to a late block that is phenotypically distinct from blocks previously described to be resisted by env and is therefore mediated by unknown IFN-γ-stimulated factor(s) in human CD4+ T cells and cell lines. This important unidentified block could play a key role in constraining HIV-1 transmission. IMPORTANCE The human immune system can hinder invading pathogens through interferon (IFN) signaling. One consequence of this signaling is that cells enter an antiviral state, increasing the levels of hundreds of defenses that can inhibit the replication and spread of viruses. The majority of HIV-1 infections result from a single virus particle (the transmitted/founder) that makes it past these defenses and colonizes the host. Thus, the founder virus is hypothesized to be a relatively interferon-resistant entity. Here, we show that certain HIV-1 envelope genes have the unanticipated ability to resist specific human defenses mediated by different types of interferons. Strikingly, the envelope

  15. HIV-1 Interacts with Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HML-2) Envelopes Derived from Human Primary Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brinzevich, Daria; Young, George R.; Sebra, Robert; Ayllon, Juan; Maio, Susan M.; Deikus, Gintaras; Chen, Benjamin K.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Simon, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are viruses that have colonized the germ line and spread through vertical passage. Only the more recently acquired HERVs, such as the HERV-K (HML-2) group, maintain coding open reading frames. Expression of HERV-Ks has been linked to different pathological conditions, including HIV infection, but our knowledge on which specific HERV-Ks are expressed in primary lymphocytes currently is very limited. To identify the most expressed HERV-Ks in an unbiased manner, we analyzed their expression patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We observe that three HERV-Ks (KII, K102, and K18) constitute over 90% of the total HERV-K expression in primary human lymphocytes of five different donors. We also show experimentally that two of these HERV-K env sequences (K18 and K102) retain their ability to produce full-length and posttranslationally processed envelope proteins in cell culture. We show that HERV-K18 Env can be incorporated into HIV-1 but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles. Moreover, HERV-K18 Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions is dependent on HIV-1 matrix. Taken together, we generated high-resolution HERV-K expression profiles specific for activated human lymphocytes. We found that one of the most abundantly expressed HERV-K envelopes not only makes a full-length protein but also specifically interacts with HIV-1. Our findings raise the possibility that these endogenous retroviral Env proteins could directly influence HIV-1 replication. IMPORTANCE Here, we report the HERV-K expression profile of primary lymphocytes from 5 different healthy donors. We used a novel deep-sequencing technology (PacBio SMRT) that produces the long reads necessary to discriminate the complexity of HERV-K expression. We find that primary lymphocytes express up to 32 different HERV-K envelopes, and that at least two of the most expressed Env proteins

  16. Quaternary contact in the initial interaction of CD4 with the HIV-1 envelope trimer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingbo; Acharya, Priyamvada; Dolan, Michael A; Zhang, Peng; Guzzo, Christina; Lu, Jacky; Kwon, Alice; Gururani, Deepali; Miao, Huiyi; Bylund, Tatsiana; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Zhou, Tongqing; Rice, William J; Wigge, Christoph; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S; Kwong, Peter D; Lusso, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Binding of the gp120 envelope (Env) glycoprotein to the CD4 receptor is the first step in the HIV-1 infectious cycle. Although the CD4-binding site has been extensively characterized, the initial receptor interaction has been difficult to study because of major CD4-induced structural rearrangements. Here we used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize the initial contact of CD4 with the HIV-1 Env trimer at 6.8-Å resolution. A single CD4 molecule is embraced by a quaternary HIV-1-Env surface formed by coalescence of the previously defined CD4-contact region with a second CD4-binding site (CD4-BS2) in the inner domain of a neighboring gp120 protomer. Disruption of CD4-BS2 destabilized CD4-trimer interaction and abrogated HIV-1 infectivity by preventing the acquisition of coreceptor-binding competence. A corresponding reduction in HIV-1 infectivity occurred after the mutation of CD4 residues that interact with CD4-BS2. Our results document the critical role of quaternary interactions in the initial HIV-Env-receptor contact, with implications for treatment and vaccine design.

  17. Biochemical evidence of a role for matrix trimerization in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Mariia; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Freed, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    The matrix (MA) domain of HIV Gag has important functions in directing the trafficking of Gag to sites of assembly and mediating the incorporation of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) into assembling particles. HIV-1 MA has been shown to form trimers in vitro; however, neither the presence nor the role of MA trimers has been documented in HIV-1 virions. We developed a cross-linking strategy to reveal MA trimers in virions of replication-competent HIV-1. By mutagenesis of trimer interface residues, we demonstrated a correlation between loss of MA trimerization and loss of Env incorporation. Additionally, we found that truncating the long cytoplasmic tail of Env restores incorporation of Env into MA trimer-defective particles, thus rescuing infectivity. We therefore propose a model whereby MA trimerization is required to form a lattice capable of accommodating the long cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 Env; in the absence of MA trimerization, Env is sterically excluded from the assembling particle. These findings establish MA trimerization as an obligatory step in the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. As such, the MA trimer interface may represent a novel drug target for the development of antiretrovirals. PMID:26711999

  18. Reciprocal functional pseudotyping of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 viral genomes by the heterologous counterpart envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Klase, Zachary; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2013-08-15

    HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can infect CD4+ T cells and can co-infect the same individual. In principle, it is possible that both viruses can infect the same CD4+ T cells in dually infected persons. Currently, how efficiently HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infects the same cell and the full extent of their biological interactions are not well-understood. Here, we report evidence confirming that both viruses can infect the same cells and that HTLV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HIV-1 viral particles and HIV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HTLV-1 virions to mediate subsequent infections of substrate cells. We also show that the construction of a chimeric HTLV-1 molecular clone carrying the HIV-1 Env in place of its HTLV-1 counterpart results in a replication competent moiety. These findings raise new implications of viral complementation and assortment between HIV-1 and HTLV-1 in dually infected persons.

  19. Bispecific Antibodies Targeting Different Epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope Exhibit Broad and Potent Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, M.; Rudicell, R. S.; Louder, M.; McKee, K.; O'Dell, S.; Stewart-Jones, G.; Wang, K.; Xu, L.; Chen, X.; Choe, M.; Chuang, G.; Georgiev, I. S.; Joyce, M. G.; Kirys, T.; Ko, S.; Pegu, A.; Shi, W.; Todd, J. P.; Yang, Z.; Bailer, R. T.; Rao, S.; Kwong, P. D.; Nabel, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potency and breadth of the recently isolated neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1 have stimulated interest in their use to prevent or to treat HIV-1 infection. Due to the antigenically diverse nature of the HIV-1 envelope (Env), no single antibody is highly active against all viral strains. While the physical combination of two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can improve coverage against the majority of viruses, the clinical-grade manufacturing and testing of two independent antibody products are time and resource intensive. In this study, we constructed bispecific immunoglobulins (IgGs) composed of independent antigen-binding fragments with a common Fc region. We developed four different bispecific IgG variants that included antibodies targeting four major sites of HIV-1 neutralization. We show that these bispecific IgGs display features of both antibody specificities and, in some cases, display improved coverage over the individual parental antibodies. All four bispecific IgGs neutralized 94% to 97% of antigenically diverse viruses in a panel of 206 HIV-1 strains. Among the bispecific IgGs tested, VRC07 × PG9-16 displayed the most favorable neutralization profile. It was superior in breadth to either of the individual antibodies, neutralizing 97% of viruses with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.055 μg/ml. This bispecific IgG also demonstrated in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters comparable to those of the parental bNAbs when administered to rhesus macaques. These results suggest that IgG-based bispecific antibodies are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE To prevent or treat HIV-1 infection, antibodies must potently neutralize nearly all strains of HIV-1. Thus, the physical combination of two or more antibodies may be needed to broaden neutralization coverage and diminish the possibility of viral resistance. A bispecific antibody that has two different

  20. Uncleaved prefusion-optimized gp140 trimers derived from analysis of HIV-1 envelope metastability

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Leopold; He, Linling; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Morris, Charles D.; Azadnia, Parisa; Sok, Devin; Zhou, Bin; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical for host immune recognition and neutralization. Despite advances in trimer design, the roots of Env trimer metastability remain elusive. Here we investigate the contribution of two Env regions to metastability. First, we computationally redesign a largely disordered bend in heptad region 1 (HR1) of SOSIP trimers that connects the long, central HR1 helix to the fusion peptide, substantially improving the yield of soluble, well-folded trimers. Structural and antigenic analyses of two distinct HR1 redesigns confirm that redesigned Env closely mimics the native, prefusion trimer with a more stable gp41. Next, we replace the cleavage site between gp120 and gp41 with various linkers in the context of an HR1 redesign. Electron microscopy reveals a potential fusion intermediate state for uncleaved trimers containing short but not long linkers. Together, these results outline a general approach for stabilization of Env trimers from diverse HIV-1 strains. PMID:27349805

  1. Uncleaved prefusion-optimized gp140 trimers derived from analysis of HIV-1 envelope metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Leopold; He, Linling; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Morris, Charles D.; Azadnia, Parisa; Sok, Devin; Zhou, Bin; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical for host immune recognition and neutralization. Despite advances in trimer design, the roots of Env trimer metastability remain elusive. Here we investigate the contribution of two Env regions to metastability. First, we computationally redesign a largely disordered bend in heptad region 1 (HR1) of SOSIP trimers that connects the long, central HR1 helix to the fusion peptide, substantially improving the yield of soluble, well-folded trimers. Structural and antigenic analyses of two distinct HR1 redesigns confirm that redesigned Env closely mimics the native, prefusion trimer with a more stable gp41. Next, we replace the cleavage site between gp120 and gp41 with various linkers in the context of an HR1 redesign. Electron microscopy reveals a potential fusion intermediate state for uncleaved trimers containing short but not long linkers. Together, these results outline a general approach for stabilization of Env trimers from diverse HIV-1 strains.

  2. DC-SIGN Increases the Affinity of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Interaction with CD4

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Karolin; Wang, Yufei; Scala, Carlo; Jeffs, Simon; Longstaff, Colin; Stieh, Daniel; Haggarty, Beth; Vanham, Guido; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Jones, Ian M.; Hoxie, James; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    Mannose-binding C-type lectin receptors, expressed on Langerhans cells and subepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) of cervico-vaginal tissues, play an important role in HIV-1 capture and subsequent dissemination to lymph nodes. DC-SIGN has been implicated in both productive infection of DCs and the DC-mediated trans infection of CD4+ T cells that occurs in the absence of replication. However, the molecular events that underlie this efficient transmission have not been fully defined. In this study, we have examined the effect of the extracellular domains of DC-SIGN and Langerin on the stability of the interaction of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with CD4 and also on replication in permissive cells. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that DC-SIGN increases the binding affinity of trimeric gp140 envelope glycoproteins to CD4. In contrast, Langerin had no effect on the stability of the gp140:CD4 complex. In vitro infection experiments to compare DC-SIGN enhancement of CD4-dependent and CD4-independent strains demonstrated significantly lower enhancement of the CD4-independent strain. In addition DC-SIGN increased the relative rate of infection of the CD4-dependent strain but had no effect on the CD4-independent strain. DC-SIGN binding to the HIV envelope protein effectively increases exposure of the CD4 binding site, which in turn contributes to enhancement of infection. PMID:22163292

  3. Murine Antibody Responses to Cleaved Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Are Highly Restricted in Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Joyce K.; Crampton, Jordan C.; Cupo, Albert; Ketas, Thomas; van Gils, Marit J.; Sliepen, Kwinten; de Taeye, Steven W.; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Deresa, Isaiah; Stanfield, Robyn; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of many current HIV-1 vaccine efforts. To be of practical value, these nAbs must be both potent and cross-reactive in order to be capable of preventing the transmission of the highly diverse and generally neutralization resistant (Tier-2) HIV-1 strains that are in circulation. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is the only target for nAbs. To explore whether Tier-2 nAbs can be induced by Env proteins, we immunized conventional mice with soluble BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers that mimic the native Env spike. Here, we report that it is extremely difficult for murine B cells to recognize the Env epitopes necessary for inducing Tier-2 nAbs. Thus, while trimer-immunized mice raised Env-binding IgG Abs and had high-quality T follicular helper (Tfh) cell and germinal center (GC) responses, they did not make BG505.T332N nAbs. Epitope mapping studies showed that Ab responses in mice were specific to areas near the base of the soluble trimer. These areas are not well shielded by glycans and likely are occluded on virions, which is consistent with the lack of BG505.T332N nAbs. These data inform immunogen design and suggest that it is useful to obscure nonneutralizing epitopes presented on the base of soluble Env trimers and that the glycan shield of well-formed HIV Env trimers is virtually impenetrable for murine B cell receptors (BCRs). IMPORTANCE Human HIV vaccine efficacy trials have not generated meaningful neutralizing antibodies to circulating HIV strains. One possible hindrance has been the lack of immunogens that properly mimic the native conformation of the HIV envelope trimer protein. Here, we tested the first generation of soluble, native-like envelope trimer immunogens in a conventional mouse model. We attempted to generate neutralizing antibodies to neutralization-resistant circulating HIV strains. Various vaccine strategies failed to induce neutralizing antibodies to a neutralization

  4. A broad HIV-1 inhibitor blocks envelope glycoprotein transitions critical for entry

    PubMed Central

    Herschhorn, Alon; Gu, Christopher; Espy, Nicole; Richard, Jonathan; Finzi, Andrés; Sodroski, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Binding to the primary receptor, CD4, triggers conformational changes in the metastable envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer (gp1203/gp413) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) that are important for virus entry into host cells. These changes include an “opening” of the trimer, creation of a binding site for the CCR5 coreceptor, and formation/exposure of a gp41 coiled coil. Here we identify a new compound, 18A (1), that specifically inhibits the entry of a wide range of HIV-1 isolates. 18A does not interfere with CD4 or CCR5 binding, but inhibits the CD4-induced disruption of quaternary structures at the trimer apex and the formation/exposure of the gp41 HR1 coiled coil. Analysis of HIV-1 variants exhibiting increased or reduced sensitivity to 18A suggests that the inhibitor can distinguish distinct conformational states of gp120 in the unliganded Env trimer. The broad-range activity and observed hypersensitivity of resistant mutants to antibody neutralization support further investigation of 18A. PMID:25174000

  5. Structural and Immunogenicity Studies of a Cleaved, Stabilized Envelope Trimer Derived from Subtype A HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun (Kenneth); Andjelic, Sofija; Binley, James M.; Crooks, Emma T.; Franti, Michael; Iyer, Sai Prasad N.; Donovan, Gerald P.; Dey, Antu K.; Zhu, Ping; Roux, Kenneth H.; Durso, Robert J.; Parsons, Thomas F.; Maddon, Paul J.; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.

    2015-01-01

    SOSIP gp140 trimers represent a soluble, stabilized, proteolytically cleaved form of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. SOSIP gp140 derived from a subtype A HIV-1 isolate, KNH1144, forms exceptionally stable trimers that resemble virion-associated Env in antigenicity and topology. Here, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers bound three soluble CD4 molecules in a symmetrical orientation similar to that seen for native Env. We compared the immunogenicities of KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers and gp120 monomers in rabbits and found that the trimers were superior at eliciting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to homologous virus as well as neutralization-sensitive subtype B and C viruses. The NAb specificities for SOSIP antisera mapped in part to the CD4 binding site on gp120. We also observed adjuvant-dependent induction of antibodies to the residual levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) contained in the purified Env preparations. When present, HCP antibodies enhanced pseudovirus infection. Our findings are relevant for the further development of Env-based vaccines for HIV-1. PMID:19567243

  6. Structural and immunogenicity studies of a cleaved, stabilized envelope trimer derived from subtype A HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun Kenneth; Andjelic, Sofija; Binley, James M; Crooks, Emma T; Franti, Michael; Iyer, Sai Prasad N; Donovan, Gerald P; Dey, Antu K; Zhu, Ping; Roux, Kenneth H; Durso, Robert J; Parsons, Thomas F; Maddon, Paul J; Moore, John P; Olson, William C

    2009-08-13

    SOSIP gp140 trimers represent a soluble, stabilized, proteolytically cleaved form of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. SOSIP gp140 derived from a subtype A HIV-1 isolate, KNH1144, forms exceptionally stable trimers that resemble virion-associated Env in antigenicity and topology. Here, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers bound three soluble CD4 molecules in a symmetrical orientation similar to that seen for native Env. We compared the immunogenicities of KNH1144 SOSIP gp140 trimers and gp120 monomers in rabbits and found that the trimers were superior at eliciting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to homologous virus as well as neutralization-sensitive subtype B and C viruses. The NAb specificities for SOSIP antisera mapped in part to the CD4 binding site on gp120. We also observed adjuvant-dependent induction of antibodies to the residual levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) contained in the purified Env preparations. When present, HCP antibodies enhanced pseudovirus infection. Our findings are relevant for the further development of Env-based vaccines for HIV-1.

  7. Variation of macrophage tropism among HIV-1 R5 envelopes in brain and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Peters, Paul J; Dueñas-Decamp, Maria J; Sullivan, W Matthew; Clapham, Paul R

    2007-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals frequently suffer from progressive encephelopathy, which is characterized by sensory neuropathy, sensory myelopathy, and dementia. Our group and others have reported the presence of highly macrophage-tropic R5 variants of HIV-1 in brain tissue of patients with neurological complications. These variants are able to exploit low amounts of CD4 and/or CCR5 for infection and potentially confer an expanded tropism for any cell types that express low CD4 and/or CCR5. In contrast to the brain-derived envelopes, we found that envelopes from lymph node tissue, blood, or semen were predominantly non-macrophage-tropic and required high amounts of CD4 for infection. Nevertheless, where tested, the non-macrophage-tropic envelopes conferred efficient replication in primary CD4(+) T-cell cultures. Determinants of R5 macrophage tropism appear to involve changes in the CD4 binding site, although further unknown determinants are also involved. The variation of R5 envelopes also affects their sensitivity to inhibition by ligands and entry inhibitors that target CD4 and CCR5. In summary, HIV-1 R5 viruses vary extensively in macrophage tropism. In the brain, highly macrophage-tropic variants may represent neurotropic or neurovirulent viruses. In addition, variation in R5 macrophage tropism may also have implications (1) for transmission, depending on what role macrophages or cells that express low CD4 and/or CCR5 play in the establishment of infection in a new host, and (2) for pathogenesis and depletion of CD4(+) T cells (i.e., do highly macrophage-tropic variants confer a broader tropism among CD4(+) T-cell populations late in disease and contribute to their depletion?).

  8. Genetic Signatures in the Envelope Glycoproteins of HIV-1 that Associate with Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gnanakaran, S.; Daniels, Marcus G.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Lapedes, Alan S.; Sethi, Anurag; Li, Ming; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Haynes, Barton F.; Cohen, Myron S.; Shaw, George M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Kumar, Amit; Gao, Feng; Montefiori, David C.; Korber, Bette

    2010-01-01

    A steady increase in knowledge of the molecular and antigenic structure of the gp120 and gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) is yielding important new insights for vaccine design, but it has been difficult to translate this information to an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies. To help bridge this gap, we used phylogenetically corrected statistical methods to identify amino acid signature patterns in Envs derived from people who have made potently neutralizing antibodies, with the hypothesis that these Envs may share common features that would be useful for incorporation in a vaccine immunogen. Before attempting this, essentially as a control, we explored the utility of our computational methods for defining signatures of complex neutralization phenotypes by analyzing Env sequences from 251 clonal viruses that were differentially sensitive to neutralization by the well-characterized gp120-specific monoclonal antibody, b12. We identified ten b12-neutralization signatures, including seven either in the b12-binding surface of gp120 or in the V2 region of gp120 that have been previously shown to impact b12 sensitivity. A simple algorithm based on the b12 signature pattern was predictive of b12 sensitivity/resistance in an additional blinded panel of 57 viruses. Upon obtaining these reassuring outcomes, we went on to apply these same computational methods to define signature patterns in Env from HIV-1 infected individuals who had potent, broadly neutralizing responses. We analyzed a checkerboard-style neutralization dataset with sera from 69 HIV-1-infected individuals tested against a panel of 25 different Envs. Distinct clusters of sera with high and low neutralization potencies were identified. Six signature positions in Env sequences obtained from the 69 samples were found to be strongly associated with either the high or low potency responses. Five sites were in the CD4-induced coreceptor binding site of gp120, suggesting an important role for

  9. A Mechanistic Understanding of Allosteric Immune Escape Pathways in the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anurag; Tian, Jianhui; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike, which consists of a compact, heterodimeric trimer of the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. However, the high mutation rate of HIV-1 and plasticity of Env facilitates viral evasion from neutralizing antibodies through various mechanisms. Mutations that are distant from the antibody binding site can lead to escape, probably by changing the conformation or dynamics of Env; however, these changes are difficult to identify and define mechanistically. Here we describe a network analysis-based approach to identify potential allosteric immune evasion mechanisms using three known HIV-1 Env gp120 protein structures from two different clades, B and C. First, correlation and principal component analyses of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified a high degree of long-distance coupled motions that exist between functionally distant regions within the intrinsic dynamics of the gp120 core, supporting the presence of long-distance communication in the protein. Then, by integrating MD simulations with network theory, we identified the optimal and suboptimal communication pathways and modules within the gp120 core. The results unveil both strain-dependent and -independent characteristics of the communication pathways in gp120. We show that within the context of three structurally homologous gp120 cores, the optimal pathway for communication is sequence sensitive, i.e. a suboptimal pathway in one strain becomes the optimal pathway in another strain. Yet the identification of conserved elements within these communication pathways, termed inter-modular hotspots, could present a new opportunity for immunogen design, as this could be an additional mechanism that HIV-1 uses to shield vulnerable antibody targets in Env that induce neutralizing antibody breadth. PMID:23696718

  10. Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Kristen C.; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Ding, Haitao; Espy, Nicole; Zhang, Shijian; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into host cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs), which are derived by the proteolytic cleavage of a trimeric gp160 Env precursor. The mature Env trimer is a major target for entry inhibitors and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Env interstrain variability, conformational flexibility and heavy glycosylation contribute to evasion of the host immune response, and create challenges for structural characterization and vaccine development. Here we investigate variables associated with reconstitution of the HIV-1 Env precursor into nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayer discs enclosed by membrane scaffolding proteins. We identified detergents, as well as lipids similar in composition to the viral lipidome, that allowed efficient formation of Env-nanodiscs (Env-NDs). Env-NDs were created with the full-length Env precursor and with an Env precursor with the majority of the cytoplasmic tail intact. The self-association of Env-NDs was decreased by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The Env-NDs exhibited an antigenic profile expected for the HIV-1 Env precursor. Env-NDs were recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of note, neutralizing antibody epitopes in the gp41 membrane-proximal external region and in the gp120:gp41 interface were well exposed on Env-NDs compared with Env expressed on cell surfaces. Most Env epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing antibodies were masked on the Env-NDs. This antigenic profile was stable for several days, exhibiting a considerably longer half-life than that of Env solubilized in detergents. Negative selection with weak neutralizing antibodies could be used to improve the antigenic profile of the Env-NDs. Finally, we show that lipid adjuvants can be incorporated into Env-NDs. These results indicate that Env-NDs represent a potentially useful platform for investigating the structural, functional and antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env trimer in a membrane context

  11. Glycosylation Benchmark Profile for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Production Based on Eleven Env Trimers.

    PubMed

    Go, Eden P; Ding, Haitao; Zhang, Shijian; Ringe, Rajesh P; Nicely, Nathan; Hua, David; Steinbock, Robert T; Golabek, Michael; Alin, James; Alam, S Munir; Cupo, Albert; Haynes, Barton F; Kappes, John C; Moore, John P; Sodroski, Joseph G; Desaire, Heather

    2017-05-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) glycosylation is important because individual glycans are components of multiple broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes, while shielding other sites that might otherwise be immunogenic. The glycosylation on Env is influenced by a variety of factors, including the genotype of the protein, the cell line used for its expression, and the details of the construct design. Here, we used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach to map the complete glycosylation profile at every site in multiple HIV-1 Env trimers, accomplishing two goals. (i) We determined which glycosylation sites contain conserved glycan profiles across many trimeric Envs. (ii) We identified the variables that impact Env's glycosylation profile at sites with divergent glycosylation. Over half of the gp120 glycosylation sites on 11 different trimeric Envs have a conserved glycan profile, indicating that a native consensus glycosylation profile does indeed exist among trimers. We showed that some soluble gp120s and gp140s exhibit highly divergent glycosylation profiles compared to trimeric Env. We also assessed the impact of several variables on Env glycosylation: truncating the full-length Env; producing Env, instead of the more virologically relevant T lymphocytes, in CHO cells; and purifying Env with different chromatographic platforms, including nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA), 2G12, and PGT151 affinity. This report provides the first consensus glycosylation profile of Env trimers, which should serve as a useful benchmark for HIV-1 vaccine developers. This report also defines the sites where glycosylation may be impacted when Env trimers are truncated or produced in CHO cells.IMPORTANCE A protective HIV-1 vaccine will likely include a recombinant version of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Env is highly glycosylated, and yet vaccine developers have lacked guidance on how to assess whether their immunogens have optimal glycosylation. The following important

  12. Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 envelope protect more effectively in vivo than those to the CD4 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pegu, Amarendra; Yang, Zhi-yong; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Wu, Lan; Ko, Sung-Youl; Schmidt, Stephen D.; McKee, Krisha; Kong, Wing-Pui; Shi, Wei; Chen, Xuejun; Todd, John-Paul; Huang, Jinghe; Nason, Martha C.; Hoxie, James A.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark; Rao, Srinivas S.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection depends on effective viral entry mediated by the interaction of its envelope (Env) glycoprotein with specific cell surface receptors. Protective antiviral antibodies generated by passive or active immunization must prevent these interactions. Because the HIV-1 Env is highly variable, attention has also focused on blocking the HIV-1 primary cell receptor CD4. We therefore analyzed the in vivo protective efficacy of three potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to HIV-1 Env compared to an antibody against the CD4 receptor. Protection was assessed after mucosal challenge of rhesus macaques with simian/HIV (SHIV). Despite its comparable or greater neutralization potency in vitro, the anti-CD4 antibody did not provide effective protection in vivo, whereas the HIV-1–specific mAbs VRC01, 10E8, and PG9, targeting the CD4 binding site, membrane-proximal, and V1V2 glycan Env regions, respectively, conferred complete protection, albeit at different relative potencies. These findings demonstrate the protective efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the HIV-1 Env and suggest that targeting the HIV-1 Env is preferable to the cell surface receptor CD4 for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:24990883

  13. The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope are a mutational cold spot

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Ron; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Cuevas, José M.; Rossolillo, Paola; Negroni, Matteo; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In RNA viruses, mutations occur fast and have large fitness effects. While this affords remarkable adaptability, it can also endanger viral survival due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. How RNA viruses reconcile these two opposed facets of mutation is still unknown. Here we show that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), spontaneous mutations are not randomly located along the viral genome. We find that the viral mutation rate experiences a threefold reduction in the region encoding the most external domains of the viral envelope, which are strongly targeted by neutralizing antibodies. This contrasts with the hypermutation mechanisms deployed by other, more slowly mutating pathogens such as DNA viruses and bacteria, in response to immune pressure. We show that downregulation of the mutation rate in HIV-1 is exerted by the template RNA through changes in sequence context and secondary structure, which control the activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3)-mediated cytidine deamination and the fidelity of the viral reverse transcriptase. PMID:26450412

  14. The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope are a mutational cold spot.

    PubMed

    Geller, Ron; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Cuevas, José M; Rossolillo, Paola; Negroni, Matteo; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2015-10-09

    In RNA viruses, mutations occur fast and have large fitness effects. While this affords remarkable adaptability, it can also endanger viral survival due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. How RNA viruses reconcile these two opposed facets of mutation is still unknown. Here we show that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), spontaneous mutations are not randomly located along the viral genome. We find that the viral mutation rate experiences a threefold reduction in the region encoding the most external domains of the viral envelope, which are strongly targeted by neutralizing antibodies. This contrasts with the hypermutation mechanisms deployed by other, more slowly mutating pathogens such as DNA viruses and bacteria, in response to immune pressure. We show that downregulation of the mutation rate in HIV-1 is exerted by the template RNA through changes in sequence context and secondary structure, which control the activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3)-mediated cytidine deamination and the fidelity of the viral reverse transcriptase.

  15. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette; Fischer, William; Wallstrom, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.

  16. Immunogenicity of stabilized HIV-1 envelope trimers with reduced exposure of non-neutralizing epitopes

    PubMed Central

    de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Guttman, Miklos; Julien, Jean-Philippe; van den Kerkhof, Tom L.G.M.; Burger, Judith A.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Pugach, Pavel; Yasmeen, Anila; Crampton, Jordan; Hu, Joyce; Bontjer, Ilja; Torres, Jonathan L.; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Koff, Wayne C.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Dean, Hansi; LaBranche, Celia; Crotty, Shane; Crispin, Max; Montefiori, David C.; Klasse, P. J.; Lee, Kelly K.; Moore, John P.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The envelope glycoprotein trimer mediates HIV-1 entry into cells. The trimer is flexible, fluctuating between closed and more open conformations and sometimes sampling the fully open, CD4-bound form. We hypothesized that conformational flexibility could hinder the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). We therefore modified soluble Env trimers to stabilize their closed, ground states. The trimer variants were indeed stabilized in the closed conformation, with a reduced ability to undergo receptor-induced conformational changes and a decreased exposure of non-neutralizing V3-directed antibody epitopes. In rabbits, the stabilized trimers induced similar autologous Tier-1B or Tier-2 NAb titers to those elicited by the corresponding wild-type trimers, but lower levels of V3-directed Tier-1A NAbs. Stabilized, closed trimers might therefore be useful components of vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26687358

  17. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of HIV-1 consensus subtype B envelope glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Denise L.; Decker, Julie M.; Li Yingying; Weng Zhiping; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Zammit, Kenneth P.; Salazar, Maria G.; Chen, Yalu; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Gao Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M. ||; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette T.M. |; Hahn, Beatrice H. |. E-mail: bhahn@uab.edu

    2007-03-30

    'Centralized' (ancestral and consensus) HIV-1 envelope immunogens induce broadly cross-reactive T cell responses in laboratory animals; however, their potential to elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies has not been fully explored. Here, we report the construction of a panel of consensus subtype B (ConB) envelopes and compare their biologic, antigenic, and immunogenic properties to those of two wild-type Env controls from individuals with early and acute HIV-1 infection. Glycoprotein expressed from full-length (gp160), uncleaved (gp160-UNC), truncated (gp145), and N-linked glycosylation site deleted (gp160-201N/S) versions of the ConB env gene were packaged into virions and, except for the fusion defective gp160-UNC, mediated infection via the CCR5 co-receptor. Pseudovirions containing ConB Envs were sensitive to neutralization by patient plasma and monoclonal antibodies, indicating the preservation of neutralizing epitopes found in contemporary subtype B viruses. When used as DNA vaccines in guinea pigs, ConB and wild-type env immunogens induced appreciable binding, but overall only low level neutralizing antibodies. However, all four ConB immunogens were significantly more potent than one wild-type vaccine at eliciting neutralizing antibodies against a panel of tier 1 and tier 2 viruses, and ConB gp145 and gp160 were significantly more potent than both wild-type vaccines at inducing neutralizing antibodies against tier 1 viruses. Thus, consensus subtype B env immunogens appear to be at least as good as, and in some instances better than, wild-type B env immunogens at inducing a neutralizing antibody response, and are amenable to further improvement by specific gene modifications.

  18. HIV-1 envelope, integrins and co-receptor use in mucosal transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; Fauci, Anthony S

    2011-01-27

    It is well established that HIV-1 infection typically involves an interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120/41 and the CD4 molecule followed by a second interaction with a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. In the early stages of an HIV-1 infection CCR5 using viruses (R5 viruses) predominate. In some viral subtypes there is a propensity to switch to CXCR4 usage (X4 viruses). The receptor switch occurs in ~ 40% of the infected individuals and is associated with faster disease progression. This holds for subtypes B and D, but occurs less frequently in subtypes A and C. There are several hypotheses to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms that lead to switching of co-receptor usage; however, there is no definitive explanation for either. One important consideration regarding transmission is that signaling by R5 gp120 may facilitate transmission of R5 viruses by inducing a permissive environment for HIV replication. In the case of sexual transmission, infection by HIV requires the virus to breach the mucosal barrier to gain access to the immune cell targets that it infects; however, the immediate events that follow HIV exposure at genital mucosal sites are not well understood. Upon transmission, the HIV quasispecies that is replicating in an infected donor contracts through a "genetic bottleneck", and often infection results from a single infectious event. Many details surrounding this initial infection remain unresolved. In mucosal tissues, CD4(+) T cells express high levels of CCR5, and a subset of these CD4(+)/CCR5(high) cells express the integrin α₄β₇, the gut homing receptor. CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells are highly susceptible to infection by HIV-1 and are ideal targets for an efficient productive infection at the point of transmission. In this context we have demonstrated that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 binds to α₄β₇ on CD4(+) T cells. On CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells,

  19. Evolution of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Genes and Neutralizing Antibody Response in an Individual with Broadly Cross Neutralizing Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    not indicate positive selection for L 1 a and L2, consistent with possible low levels of replication of these strains. The eventual displacement of...and replication ...... ..... ... .... .... .... ........ ..... .. ........... .......... ..... ...... .. 24 Antigenic determinants of the envelope...progression of disease [21-23]. The more restricted replication in humans may also account for the more restricted spread of HIV -2, compared to HIV -1

  20. Antigenic and immunosuppressive properties of a trimeric recombinant transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mühle, Michael; Lehmann, Melissa; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Stern, Daniel; Kroniger, Tobias; Luttmann, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus—1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain. Due to its propensity to aggregate and to be expressed at low levels, studies comprising authentic gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells are extremely rare. Here we describe the production of a secreted, soluble recombinant gp41 in 293 cells. The antigen was purified to homogeneity and characterised thoroughly by various biochemical and immunological methods. It was shown that the protein was glycosylated and assembled into trimers. Binding studies by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies implied a six-helix bundle conformation. The low binding of broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAb) directed against the membrane proximal external region (MPER) suggested that this gp41 is probably not suited as vaccine to induce such bnAb. Purified gp41 bound to monocytes and to a lesser extent to lymphocytes and triggered the production of specific cytokines when added to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, gp41 expressed on target cells inhibited the antigen-specific response of murine CD8+ T cells by drastically impairing their IFNγ production. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of a gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells including its immunosuppressive properties. Our data provide another line of evidence that gp41 might be directly involved in HIV-1

  1. Antigenicity-defined conformations of an extremely neutralization-resistant HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongfei; Karaca-Griffin, Selen; Chen, Jia; Tian, Sai; Fredette, Nicholas; Linton, Christine E; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Lu, Jianming; Wagh, Kshitij; Theiler, James; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S; Harrison, Stephen C; Carfi, Andrea; Chen, Bing

    2017-04-10

    The extraordinary genetic diversity of the HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)3, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] poses challenges for vaccine development. Envs of different clinical isolates exhibit different sensitivities to antibody-mediated neutralization. Envs of difficult-to-neutralize viruses are thought to be more stable and conformationally homogeneous trimers than those of easy-to-neutralize viruses, thereby providing more effective concealment of conserved, functionally critical sites. In this study we have characterized the antigenic properties of an Env derived from one of the most neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates, CH120.6. Sequence variation at neutralizing epitopes does not fully account for its exceptional resistance to antibodies. The full-length, membrane-bound CH120.6 Env is indeed stable and conformationally homogeneous. Its antigenicity correlates closely with its neutralization sensitivity, and major changes in antigenicity upon CD4 engagement appear to be restricted to the coreceptor site. The CH120.6 gp140 trimer, the soluble and uncleaved ectodomain of (gp160)3, retains many antigenic properties of the intact Env, consistent with a conformation close to that of Env spikes on a virion, whereas its monomeric gp120 exposes many nonneutralizing or strain-specific epitopes. Thus, trimer organization and stability are important determinants not only for occluding many epitopes but also for conferring resistance to neutralization by all but a small set of antibodies. Env preparations derived from neutralization-resistant viruses may induce irrelevant antibody responses less frequently than do other Envs and may be excellent templates for developing soluble immunogens.

  2. Antigenic and immunosuppressive properties of a trimeric recombinant transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mühle, Michael; Lehmann, Melissa; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Stern, Daniel; Kroniger, Tobias; Luttmann, Werner; Denner, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain. Due to its propensity to aggregate and to be expressed at low levels, studies comprising authentic gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells are extremely rare. Here we describe the production of a secreted, soluble recombinant gp41 in 293 cells. The antigen was purified to homogeneity and characterised thoroughly by various biochemical and immunological methods. It was shown that the protein was glycosylated and assembled into trimers. Binding studies by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies implied a six-helix bundle conformation. The low binding of broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAb) directed against the membrane proximal external region (MPER) suggested that this gp41 is probably not suited as vaccine to induce such bnAb. Purified gp41 bound to monocytes and to a lesser extent to lymphocytes and triggered the production of specific cytokines when added to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, gp41 expressed on target cells inhibited the antigen-specific response of murine CD8+ T cells by drastically impairing their IFNγ production. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of a gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells including its immunosuppressive properties. Our data provide another line of evidence that gp41 might be directly involved in HIV-1

  3. Mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn; Beatrice H.

    2011-05-31

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  4. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Taina T; Conway, Jessica M; Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Perelson, Alan S; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  5. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  6. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  7. Enhanced CD4+ cellular apoptosis by CCR5-restricted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein variants from patients with progressive HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, Jessica; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Gray, Lachlan; Roche, Michael; Chiavaroli, Lisa; Ellett, Anne; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Cowley, Daniel; Fonseca Pereira, Candida da; Saksena, Nitin; Wang, Bin; Purcell, Damian F.J.; Karlsson, Ingrid; Fenyoe, Eva-Maria; Churchill, Melissa; Gorry, Paul R.

    2010-01-20

    CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains cause CD4+ T-cell loss in most infected individuals, but mechanisms underlying cytopathicity of R5 viruses are poorly understood. We investigated mechanisms contributing to R5 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated cellular apoptosis by constructing a panel of retroviral vectors engineered to co-express GFP and R5 Envs derived from two HIV-1-infected subjects spanning asymptomatic (Early, E-R5 Envs) to late stages of infection (Late, L-R5 Envs). The L-R5 Envs induced significantly more cellular apoptosis than E-R5 Envs, but only in Env-expressing (GFP-positive) cells, and only in cells where CD4 and CCR5 levels were limiting. Studies with fusion-defective Env mutants showed induction of apoptosis required membrane-fusing events. Our results provide evidence for an intracellular mechanism of R5 Env-induced apoptosis of CD4+ cells that requires membrane fusion. Furthermore, they contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in CD4+ T-cell loss in subjects experiencing progressive R5 HIV-1 infection.

  8. Single genome amplification and standard bulk PCR yield HIV-1 envelope products with similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Behzad; Ghulam-Smith, Melissa; Gonzalez, Oscar; White, Laura F; Sagar, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that single genome amplification (SGA) as compared to standard bulk PCR and virus stocks from 293T transfection versus short term passage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yield a less biased representation of HIV-1 envelope characteristics. In 9 different subjects, genetic diversity, divergence, and population structure were not significantly different among SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelope V1-V3 segments. In these subjects, 293T transfection derived virus stocks with SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelopes have similar infectivity, replication kinetics, co-receptor usage, and neutralization susceptibility. While PBMC passage as compared to the 293T derived virus stocks had similar co-receptor usage, PBMC viruses were less neutralization susceptible to some specific antibodies. Our results suggest that the method of envelope sequence amplification, either SGA or bulk PCR, does not have a significant impact on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of the virus envelope quasispecies.

  9. HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein determinants for cytokine burst in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Mathieu; Prévost, Jérémie; Brassard, Nathalie; Peres, Adam; Stegen, Camille; Madrenas, Joaquín; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear. Enhanced chemokine receptor binding and subsequent clustering receptors may lead to cytokine production. By using a comprehensive panel of gp120 mutants, here we show that CD4 binding is mandatory for cytokine outburst in monocytes. Our data suggest that targeting monocytes in HIV-infected patients might decrease systemic inflammation and the potential tissue injury associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines. Understanding how gp120 mediates a cytokine burst in monocytes might help develop new approaches to improve the chronic inflammation that persists in these patients despite effective suppression of viremia by antiretroviral therapy. PMID:28346521

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Glycosylation Profiles of Membrane-Anchored HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers and Soluble gp140

    PubMed Central

    Go, Eden P.; Herschhorn, Alon; Gu, Christopher; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Zhang, Shijian; Mao, Youdong; Chen, Haiyan; Ding, Haitao; Wakefield, John K.; Hua, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer, which consists of the gp120 and gp41 subunits, is the focus of multiple strategies for vaccine development. Extensive Env glycosylation provides HIV-1 with protection from the immune system, yet the glycans are also essential components of binding epitopes for numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies have shown that when Env is isolated from virions, its glycosylation profile differs significantly from that of soluble forms of Env (gp120 or gp140) predominantly used in vaccine discovery research. Here we show that exogenous membrane-anchored Envs, which can be produced in large quantities in mammalian cells, also display a virion-like glycan profile, where the glycoprotein is extensively decorated with high-mannose glycans. Additionally, because we characterized the glycosylation with a high-fidelity profiling method, glycopeptide analysis, an unprecedented level of molecular detail regarding membrane Env glycosylation and its heterogeneity is presented. Each glycosylation site was characterized individually, with about 500 glycoforms characterized per Env protein. While many of the sites contain exclusively high-mannose glycans, others retain complex glycans, resulting in a glycan profile that cannot currently be mimicked on soluble gp120 or gp140 preparations. These site-level studies are important for understanding antibody-glycan interactions on native Env trimers. Additionally, we report a newly observed O-linked glycosylation site, T606, and we show that the full O-linked glycosylation profile of membrane-associated Env is similar to that of soluble gp140. These findings provide new insight into Env glycosylation and clarify key molecular-level differences between membrane-anchored Env and soluble gp140. IMPORTANCE A vaccine that protects against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection should elicit antibodies that bind to the surface

  11. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.

    PubMed

    Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2015-03-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination.

  12. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Efficiently Capture HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins via CD4 for Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Kerrie J; Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Forsell, Mattias N; Soldemo, Martina; Adams, William C; Liang, Frank; Perbeck, Leif; Koup, Richard A; Wyatt, Richard T; Hedestam, Gunilla B Karlsson; Loré, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Advances in HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials and preclinical research indicate that the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely to be an essential component of a prophylactic vaccine. Efficient antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) is important for strong CD4+ T helper cell responses and the development of effective humoral immune responses. Here, we examined the capacity of distinct primary human DC subsets to internalise and present recombinant Env to CD4+ T cells. Consistent with their specific receptor expression, skin DCs bound and internalised Env via C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) while blood DC subsets, including CD1c+ myeloid DCs (MDCs), CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) and CD141+ DCs exhibited a restricted repertoire of CLRs and relied on CD4 for uptake of Env. Despite a generally poor capacity for antigen uptake compared to MDCs, the high expression of CD4 on PDCs allowed them to bind and internalise Env very efficiently. CD4-mediated uptake delivered Env to EEA1+ endosomes that progressed to Lamp1+ and MHC class II+ lysosomes where internalised Env was degraded rapidly. Finally, all three blood DC subsets were able to internalise an Env-CMV pp65 fusion protein via CD4 and stimulate pp65-specific CD4+ T cells. Thus, in the in vitro systems described here, CD4-mediated uptake of Env is a functional pathway leading to antigen presentation and this may therefore be a mechanism utilised by blood DCs, including PDCs, for generating immune responses to Env-based vaccines. PMID:23729440

  13. EXPRESSION SYSTEM-DEPENDENT MODULATION OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Leopold; Sheppard, Neil C.; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.E.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Chen, Hongying; Xu, Xiaodong; Krashias, George; Bonomelli, Camille; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Kwong, Peter D.; Jeffs, Simon A.; Jones, Ian M.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly-related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: a) mammalian (293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine which impart only high mannose glycans; b) insect (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) cells, which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic™), which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; d) 293F cells, which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9- and wild-type mammalian cell-derived material that is predicted to impact upon ligand binding sites proximal to glycans. Modelling of solvent-exposed surface electrostatic potentials showed that sialic acid imparts a significant negative surface charge that may influence gp120 antigenicity and immunogenicity. Gp120 expressed in systems that do not incorporate sialic acid displayed increased ligand binding to the CD4-binding and CD4–induced sites compared to those expressed in the system that does, and imparted other more subtle differences in antigenicity in a gp120 subtype-specific manner. Non-sialic acid-containing gp120 was significantly more immunogenic than the sialyated version when administered in two different adjuvants, and induced higher titres of antibodies competing for CD4 binding site ligand-gp120 interaction. These findings suggest that non-sialic acid imparting systems yield gp120 immunogens with modified antigenic and immunogenic properties, considerations which should be considered when selecting expression systems for glycosylated antigens to be used

  14. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  15. CD4-Induced Antibodies Promote Association of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein with CD4-Binding Site Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fellinger, Christoph H.; Prasad, Neha R.; Zhou, Amber S.; Kondur, Hema R.; Joshi, Vinita R.; Quinlan, Brian D.; Farzan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is a trimer of gp120/gp41 heterodimers that mediates viral entry. Env binds cellular CD4, an association which stabilizes a conformation favorable to its subsequent association with a coreceptor, typically CCR5 or CXCR4. The CD4- and coreceptor-binding sites serve as epitopes for two classes of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies: CD4-binding site (CD4bs) and CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, respectively. Here we observed that, at a fixed total concentration, mixtures of the CD4i antibodies (E51 or 412d) and the CD4bs antibody VRC01 neutralized the HIV-1 isolates 89.6, ADA, SG3, and SA32 more efficiently than either antibody alone. We found that E51, and to a lesser extent 412d and 17b, promoted association of four CD4bs antibodies to the Env trimer but not to monomeric gp120. We further demonstrated that the binding of the sulfotyrosine-binding pocket by CCR5mim2-Ig was sufficient for promoting CD4bs antibody binding to Env. Interestingly, the relationship is not reciprocal: CD4bs antibodies were not as efficient as CD4-Ig at promoting E51 or 412d binding to Env trimer. Consistent with these observations, CD4-Ig, but none of the CD4bs antibodies tested, substantially increased HIV-1 infection of a CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cell line. We conclude that the ability of CD4i antibodies to promote VRC01 association with Env trimers accounts for the increase potency of VRC01 and CD4i antibody mixtures. Our data further suggest that potent CD4bs antibodies avoid inducing Env conformations that bind CD4i antibodies or CCR5. IMPORTANCE Potent HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies can prevent viral transmission and suppress an ongoing infection. Here we show that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which recognize the conserved coreceptor-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), can increase the association of Env with potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the CD4-binding site (CD4bs antibodies). We further show that

  16. Residues in the gp41 Ectodomain Regulate HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Conformational Transitions Induced by gp120-Directed Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Beatriz; Alsahafi, Nirmin; Debbeche, Olfa; Prévost, Jérémie; Ding, Shilei; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Herschhorn, Alon; Madani, Navid; Princiotto, Amy; Melillo, Bruno; Gu, Christopher; Zeng, Xin; Mao, Youdong; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-03-01

    Interactions between the gp120 and gp41 subunits of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer maintain the metastable unliganded form of the viral spike. Binding of gp120 to the receptor, CD4, changes the Env conformation to promote gp120 interaction with the second receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4. CD4 binding also induces the transformation of Env into the prehairpin intermediate, in which the gp41 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) coiled coil is assembled at the trimer axis. In nature, HIV-1 Envs must balance the requirements to maintain the noncovalent association of gp120 with gp41 and to evade the host antibody response with the need to respond to CD4 binding. Here we show that the gp41 HR1 region contributes to gp120 association with the unliganded Env trimer. Changes in particular amino acid residues in the gp41 HR1 region decreased the efficiency with which Env moved from the unliganded state. Thus, these gp41 changes decreased the sensitivity of HIV-1 to cold inactivation and ligands that require Env conformational changes to bind efficiently. Conversely, these gp41 changes increased HIV-1 sensitivity to small-molecule entry inhibitors that block Env conformational changes induced by CD4. Changes in particular gp41 HR1 amino acid residues can apparently affect the relative stability of the unliganded state and CD4-induced conformations. Thus, the gp41 HR1 region contributes to the association with gp120 and regulates Env transitions from the unliganded state to downstream conformations.IMPORTANCE The development of an efficient vaccine able to prevent HIV infection is a worldwide priority. Knowledge of the envelope glycoprotein structure and the conformational changes that occur after receptor engagement will help researchers to develop an immunogen able to elicit antibodies that block HIV-1 transmission. Here we identify residues in the HIV-1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein that stabilize the unliganded state by modulating the

  17. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    DOE PAGES

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; ...

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  18. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Le Grand, Roger; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques. PMID:26344115

  19. Molecular clock of HIV-1 envelope genes under early immune selection

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Sung Yong; Love, Tanzy M. T.; Perelson, Alan S.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Here, the molecular clock hypothesis that genes or proteins evolve at a constant rate is a key tool to reveal phylogenetic relationships among species. Using the molecular clock, we can trace an infection back to transmission using HIV-1 sequences from a single time point. Whether or not a strict molecular clock applies to HIV-1’s early evolution in the presence of immune selection has not yet been fully examined.

  20. Effect of trimerization motifs on quaternary structure, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of a noncleavable HIV-1 gp140 envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Sean X.; Idiart, Rebecca J.; Mariano, Ellaine B.; Chen, Helen; Jiang Peifeng; Xu Li; Ostrow, Kristin M.; Wrin, Terri; Phung, Pham; Binley, James M.; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Ballantyne, John A.; Whalen, Robert G.

    2009-12-05

    The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain, collectively known as gp140) contain all known viral neutralization epitopes. Various strategies have been used to create soluble trimers of the envelope to mimic the structure of the native viral protein, including mutation of the gp120-gp41 cleavage site, introduction of disulfide bonds, and fusion to heterologous trimerization motifs. We compared the effects on quaternary structure, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of three such motifs: T4 fibritin, a GCN4 variant, and the Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase catalytic subunit. Fusion of each motif to the C-terminus of a noncleavable JRCSF gp140(-) envelope protein led to enhanced trimerization but had limited effects on the antigenic profile and CD4-binding ability of the trimers. Immunization of rabbits provided no evidence that the trimerized gp140(-) constructs induced significantly improved neutralizing antibodies to several HIV-1 pseudoviruses, compared to gp140 lacking a trimerization motif. However, modest differences in both binding specificity and neutralizing antibody responses were observed among the various immunogens.

  1. Functional stability of unliganded envelope glycoprotein spikes among isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nitish; Leaman, Daniel P; Rowcliffe, Eric; Kinkead, Heather; Nohria, Raman; Akagi, Junya; Bauer, Katherine; Du, Sean X; Whalen, Robert G; Burton, Dennis R; Zwick, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is challenging to study at the molecular level, due in part to its genetic variability, structural heterogeneity and lability. However, the extent of lability in Env function, particularly for primary isolates across clades, has not been explored. Here, we probe stability of function for variant Envs of a range of isolates from chronic and acute infection, and from clades A, B and C, all on a constant virus backbone. Stability is elucidated in terms of the sensitivity of isolate infectivity to destabilizing conditions. A heat-gradient assay was used to determine T(90) values, the temperature at which HIV-1 infectivity is decreased by 90% in 1 h, which ranged between ∼40 to 49°C (n = 34). For select Envs (n = 10), the half-lives of infectivity decay at 37°C were also determined and these correlated significantly with the T(90) (p = 0.029), though two 'outliers' were identified. Specificity in functional Env stability was also evident. For example, Env variant HIV-1(ADA) was found to be labile to heat, 37°C decay, and guanidinium hydrochloride but not to urea or extremes of pH, when compared to its thermostable counterpart, HIV-1(JR-CSF). Blue native PAGE analyses revealed that Env-dependent viral inactivation preceded complete dissociation of Env trimers. The viral membrane and membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 were also shown to be important for maintaining trimer stability at physiological temperature. Overall, our results indicate that primary HIV-1 Envs can have diverse sensitivities to functional inactivation in vitro, including at physiological temperature, and suggest that parameters of functional Env stability may be helpful in the study and optimization of native Env mimetics and vaccines.

  2. Isolation and characterization of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein specific B cell from immortalized human naïve B cell library.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zehua; Lu, Shiqiang; Yang, Zheng; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Meiyun

    2017-01-10

    With the recent development of single B cell cloning techniques, an increasing number of HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been isolated since 2009. However, knowledge regarding HIV-1-specific B cells in vivo is limited. In this study, an HIV-1-specific B cell line has been established using healthy PBMC donors by the highly efficient EBV transformation method to generate immortalized human naïve B cell libraries. The enrichment of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells was observed after four rounds of cell panning with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. An HIV-1 envelope-specific stable B cell line (LCL-P4) was generated. Although this cell line acquired a lymphoblastic phenotype, no expression was observed for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme responsible for initiating somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B cells. This study describes a method that enables fast isolation of HIV-1-specific B cells, and this approach may extend to isolating other B cell-specific antigens for further experiments.

  3. The HIV-1 Envelope Transmembrane Domain Binds TLR2 through a Distinct Dimerization Motif and Inhibits TLR2-Mediated Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Etai; Schwarzter, Roland; Gramatica, Andrea; Futerman, Anthony H.; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA)/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation. PMID:25121610

  4. The HIV-1 envelope transmembrane domain binds TLR2 through a distinct dimerization motif and inhibits TLR2-mediated responses.

    PubMed

    Reuven, Eliran Moshe; Ali, Mohammad; Rotem, Etai; Schwarzer, Roland; Schwarzter, Roland; Gramatica, Andrea; Futerman, Anthony H; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-08-01

    HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA)/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation.

  5. Release of gp120 Restraints Leads to an Entry-Competent Intermediate State of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaochu; Gu, Christopher; Ventura, John D.; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Melillo, Bruno; Terry, Daniel S.; Smith, Amos B.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Munro, James B.; Mothes, Walther; Finzi, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers [(gp120/gp41)3] typically exist in a metastable closed conformation (state 1). Binding the CD4 receptor triggers Env to undergo extensive conformational changes to mediate virus entry. We identified specific gp120 residues that restrain Env in state 1. Alteration of these restraining residues destabilized state 1, allowing Env to populate a functional conformation (state 2) intermediate between state 1 and the full CD4-bound state (state 3). Increased state 2 occupancy was associated with lower energy barriers between the states. State 2 was an obligate intermediate for all transitions between state 1 and state 3. State 2-enriched Envs required lower CD4 concentrations to trigger virus entry and more efficiently infected cells expressing low levels of CD4. These Envs were resistant to several broadly neutralizing antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Thus, state 2 is an Env conformation on the virus entry pathway; sampling state 2 increases the adaptability of HIV-1 to different host cell receptor levels and immune environments. Our results provide new insights into the conformational regulation of HIV-1 entry. PMID:27795397

  6. A mammalian cell based FACS-panning platform for the selection of HIV-1 envelopes for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Tim-Henrik; Mühlbauer, Katharina; Benen, Thomas; Kliche, Alexander; Wagner, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAb) against the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein has been discovered recently. Despite this progress, vaccination efforts with the aim to re-elicit bnMAbs that provide protective immunity have failed so far. Herein, we describe the development of a mammalian cell based FACS-panning method in which bnMAbs are used as tools to select surface-exposed envelope variants according to their binding affinity. For that purpose, an HIV-1 derived lentiviral vector was developed to infect HEK293T cells at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) in order to link Env phenotype and genotype. For proof of principle, a gp145 Env model-library was established in which the complete V3 domain was substituted by five strain specific V3 loop sequences with known binding affinities to nMAb 447-52D, respectively. Env genes were recovered from selected cells by PCR, subcloned into a lentiviral vector (i) to determine and quantify the enrichment nMAb binders and (ii) to generate a new batch of transduction competent particles. After 2 selection cycles the Env variant with highest affinity was enriched 20-fold and represented 80% of the remaining Env population. Exploiting the recently described bnMAbs, this procedure might prove useful in selecting Env proteins from large Env libraries with the potential to elicit bnMAbs when used as vaccine candidates.

  7. Alteration of Methamphetamine-induced stereotypic behaviour in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope protein gp120.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amanda J; Maung, Ricky; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Ake, Christopher; Kaul, Marcus

    2010-02-15

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes, in particular Methamphetamine, is associated with an increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. HIV-1 infection in turn can lead to HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) that range from mild cognitive and motor impairment to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Interestingly, post mortem brain specimens from HAD patients and transgenic (tg) mice expressing the viral envelope protein gp120 in the central nervous system display similar neuropathological signs. In HIV patients, the use of Methamphetamine appears to aggravate neurocognitive alterations. In the present study, we injected HIV/gp120tg mice and non-transgenic littermate control animals with Methamphetamine dissolved in Saline or Saline vehicle and assessed locomotion and stereotyped behaviour. We found that HIVgp120-transgenic mice differ significantly from non-transgenic controls in certain domains of their behavioural response to Methamphetamine. Thus this experimental model system may be useful to further study the mechanistic interaction of both the viral envelope protein and the psychostimulant drug in behavioural alterations and neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers lacking the V1V2 domain, obtained by virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Bontjer, Ilja; Melchers, Mark; Eggink, Dirk; David, Kathryn; Moore, John P; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W

    2010-11-19

    The envelope glycoproteins (Env) are the focus of HIV-1 vaccine development strategies based on the induction of humoral immunity, but the mechanisms the virus has evolved to limit the induction and binding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) constitute substantial obstacles. Conserved neutralization epitopes are shielded by variable regions and carbohydrates, so one strategy to increase their exposure and, it is hoped, their immunogenicity is to delete the overlying variable loops. However, deleting the variable regions from Env trimers can be problematic, because hydrophobic patches that are normally solvent-inaccessible now become exposed, causing protein misfolding or aggregation, for example. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant gp140 trimers lacking variable domains 1 and 2 (ΔV1V2). The design of the trimers was guided by HIV-1 evolution studies that identified compensatory changes in V1V2-deleted but functional Env proteins (Bontjer, I., Land, A., Eggink, D., Verkade, E., Tuin, K., Baldwin, C., Pollakis, G., Paxton, W. A., Braakman, I., Berkhout, B., and Sanders, R. W. (2009) J. Virol. 83, 368-383). We now show that specific compensatory changes improved the function of ΔV1V2 Env proteins and hence HIV-1 replication. The changes acted by reducing the exposure of a hydrophobic surface either by replacing a hydrophobic residue with a hydrophilic one or by covering the surface with a glycan. The compensatory changes allowed the efficient expression of well folded, soluble gp140 trimers derived from various HIV-1 isolates. The evolved ΔV1V2 Env viruses were extremely sensitive to NAbs, indicating that neutralization epitopes are well exposed, which was confirmed by studies of NAb binding to the soluble ΔV1V2 gp140 trimers. These evolved ΔV1V2 trimers could be useful reagents for immunogenicity and structural studies.

  9. Stabilized HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Lacking the V1V2 Domain, Obtained by Virus Evolution*

    PubMed Central

    Bontjer, Ilja; Melchers, Mark; Eggink, Dirk; David, Kathryn; Moore, John P.; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2010-01-01

    The envelope glycoproteins (Env) are the focus of HIV-1 vaccine development strategies based on the induction of humoral immunity, but the mechanisms the virus has evolved to limit the induction and binding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) constitute substantial obstacles. Conserved neutralization epitopes are shielded by variable regions and carbohydrates, so one strategy to increase their exposure and, it is hoped, their immunogenicity is to delete the overlying variable loops. However, deleting the variable regions from Env trimers can be problematic, because hydrophobic patches that are normally solvent-inaccessible now become exposed, causing protein misfolding or aggregation, for example. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant gp140 trimers lacking variable domains 1 and 2 (ΔV1V2). The design of the trimers was guided by HIV-1 evolution studies that identified compensatory changes in V1V2-deleted but functional Env proteins (Bontjer, I., Land, A., Eggink, D., Verkade, E., Tuin, K., Baldwin, C., Pollakis, G., Paxton, W. A., Braakman, I., Berkhout, B., and Sanders, R. W. (2009) J. Virol. 83, 368–383). We now show that specific compensatory changes improved the function of ΔV1V2 Env proteins and hence HIV-1 replication. The changes acted by reducing the exposure of a hydrophobic surface either by replacing a hydrophobic residue with a hydrophilic one or by covering the surface with a glycan. The compensatory changes allowed the efficient expression of well folded, soluble gp140 trimers derived from various HIV-1 isolates. The evolved ΔV1V2 Env viruses were extremely sensitive to NAbs, indicating that neutralization epitopes are well exposed, which was confirmed by studies of NAb binding to the soluble ΔV1V2 gp140 trimers. These evolved ΔV1V2 trimers could be useful reagents for immunogenicity and structural studies. PMID:20826824

  10. Syncytial apoptosis signaling network induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nardacci, R; Perfettini, J-L; Grieco, L; Thieffry, D; Kroemer, G; Piacentini, M

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is associated with a progressive decrease in CD4 T-cell numbers and the consequent collapse of host immune defenses. The major pathogenic mechanism of AIDS is the massive apoptotic destruction of the immunocompetent cells, including uninfected cells. The latter process, also known as by-stander killing, operates by various mechanisms one of which involves the formation of syncytia which undergo cell death by following a complex pathway. We present here a detailed and curated map of the syncytial apoptosis signaling network, aimed at simplifying the whole mechanism that we have characterized at the molecular level in the last 15 years. The map was created using Systems Biology Graphical Notation language with the help of CellDesigner software and encompasses 36 components (proteins/genes) and 54 interactions. The simplification of this complex network paves the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. Agents that induce the selective death of HIV-1-elicited syncytia might lead to the elimination of viral reservoirs and hence constitute an important complement to current antiretroviral therapies. PMID:26247731

  11. Soluble Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers from a CD4-Independent HIV-1 Elicit Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Marta K.; Teran, Victor A.; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Wang, Baomin; Kim, Su Hyon; LaBranche, Celia C.; Richard, Jonathan; Montefiori, David C.

    2015-01-01

    CD4-independent HIV-1 variants can infect coreceptor-expressing cells lacking CD4. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins on these HIV-1 variants expose a coreceptor binding site that overlaps some CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes. Reports have demonstrated that CD4i antibodies mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we investigated the immunogenicity of soluble Env trimers (sgp140) from a CD4-independent HIV-1 in guinea pigs and found that the sgp140 elicited ADCC-mediating antibodies. Therefore, these sgp140 might be useful in vaccine regimens aimed at eliciting ADCC responses. PMID:26246571

  12. Infection of human and non-human cells by a highly fusogenic primary CD4-independent HIV-1 isolate with a truncated envelope cytoplasmic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Kunal . E-mail: sahak@pediatrics.ohio-state.edu; Yan Hui; Nelson, Julie A.E.; Zerhouni-Layachi, Bouchra

    2005-06-20

    Truncation of the envelope cytoplasmic tail has enabled FIV, SIV, and some laboratory HIV-1 strains to acquire broader cellular tropism and enhanced fusogenicity. Here we have characterized a primary CD4-independent HIV-1 isolate (92UG046-T8) with a truncated cytoplasmic tail that was able to infect and induce syncytia in primary lymphocytes from human, chimpanzee, and monkey, as well as CD4-negative cell lines from human and monkey. Increased syncytia were also noticeable with 293 cells expressing the cloned envelope from the 92UG046-T8 isolate suggesting envelope-mediated cellular fusion. Except pooled serum from HIV-1-infected individuals, monoclonal anti-envelope antibodies or antibodies/antagonists against CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 were not able to prevent infection by the 92UG046-T8 isolate. This is the first report showing a primary HIV-1 variant with truncated cytoplasmic tail which is highly fusogenic and can infect a broad range of cells from human and non-human origins. In vivo evolution of similar HIV-1 mutants may have important implications in AIDS pathogenesis.

  13. Impact of HIV-1 Backbone on Neutralization Sensitivity: Neutralization Profiles of Heterologous Envelope Glycoproteins Expressed in Native Subtype C and CRF01_AE Backbone

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Wesberry, Maggie; Towle, Teresa; Pillis, Devin M.; Molnar, Sebastian; McLinden, Robert; Edmonds, Tara; Hirsch, Ivan; O’Connell, Robert; McCutchan, Francine E.; Montefiori, David C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Kim, Jerome H.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2013-01-01

    Standardized assays to assess vaccine and antiviral drug efficacy are critical for the development of protective HIV-1 vaccines and drugs. These immune assays will be advanced by the development of standardized viral stocks, such as HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMC), that i) express a reporter gene, ii) are representative of globally diverse subtypes and iii) are engineered to easily exchange envelope (env) genes for expression of sequences of interest. Thus far, a subtype B IMC backbone expressing Renilla luciferase (LucR), and into which the ectodomain of heterologous env coding sequences can be expressed has been successfully developed but as execution of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials shifts increasingly to non-subtype B epidemics (Southern African and Southeast Asia), non-subtype B HIV-1 reagents are needed to support vaccine development. Here we describe two IMCs derived from subtypes C and CRF01_AE HIV-1 primary isolates expressing LucR (IMC.LucR) that were engineered to express heterologous gp160 Envs. 18 constructs expressing various subtypes C and CRF01_AE Envs, mostly acute, in subtype-matched and –unmatched HIV backbones were tested for functionality and neutralization sensitivity. Our results suggest a possible effect of non-env HIV-1 genes on the interaction of Env and neutralizing antibodies and highlight the need to generate a library of IMCs representative of the HIV-1 subtype spectrum to be used as standardized neutralization assay reagents for assessing HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. PMID:24312165

  14. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-07-20

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate.

  15. ASPP2 involvement in p53-mediated HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 neurotoxicity in mice cerebrocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiying; Zang, Yunjin; Qiao, Luxin; Liu, Kai; Ouyang, Yabo; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders are still unclear. Apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) is a damage-inducible p53-binding protein that stimulates p53-mediated apoptosis and transactivates proapoptotic and cell cycle regulatory genes. It has been reported that ASPP2 has a specific regulatory function in the death of retinal ganglion cells and the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we used p53 and ASPP2 knockout mice and primary cerebrocortical neuron culture to analyze the role of the interaction between ASPP2 with p53 in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that 10 ng/mL gp120 protein might stimulate p53 overexpression and translocation to the nucleus, and 30 ng/mL gp120 protein could stimulate both p53 and ASPP2 translocation to the nucleus, but only with p53 overexpression. The primary cultured neurons of p53−/−ASPP2+/− mice had a higher survival rate than p53−/− mice under gp120 protein stress. The interaction of ASPP2 with p53 induced by a high dose of gp120 stimulated Bax transcription and contributed to caspase-3 cleavage, and ASPP2-siRNA attenuated gp120 induced neuron death through inhibition of Bax expression. These results suggest that ASPP2 plays an important role in p53-mediated neuronal apoptosis under gp120 stress. PMID:27625111

  16. Membrane-Proximal External HIV-1 gp41 Motif Adapted for Destabilizing the Highly Rigid Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Apellániz, Beatriz; Ivankin, Andrey; Nir, Shlomo; Gidalevitz, David; Nieva, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy structural determinations suggest that the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of glycoprotein 41 (gp41) may associate with the HIV-1 membrane interface. It is further proposed that MPER-induced disruption and/or deformation of the lipid bilayer ensue during viral fusion. However, it is predicted that the cholesterol content of this membrane (∼45 mol %) will act against MPER binding and restructuring activity, in agreement with alternative structural models proposing that the MPER constitutes a gp41 ectodomain component that does not insert into the viral membrane. Here, using MPER-based peptides, we test the hypothesis that cholesterol impedes the membrane association and destabilizing activities of this gp41 domain. To that end, partitioning and leakage assays carried out in lipid vesicles were combined with x-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction studies of monolayers. CpreTM, a peptide combining the carboxyterminal MPER sequence with aminoterminal residues of the transmembrane domain, bound and destabilized effectively cholesterol-enriched membranes. Accordingly, virion incubation with this peptide inhibited cell infection potently but nonspecifically. Thus, CpreTM seems to mimic the envelope-perturbing function of the MPER domain and displays antiviral activity. As such, we infer that CpreTM bound to cholesterol-enriched membranes would represent a relevant target for anti-HIV-1 immunogen and inhibitor development. PMID:22098741

  17. Saturation Mutagenesis of the HIV-1 Envelope CD4 Binding Loop Reveals Residues Controlling Distinct Trimer Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Bolon, Daniel; Clapham, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The conformation of HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein trimers is key in ensuring protection against waves of neutralizing antibodies generated during infection, while maintaining sufficient exposure of the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) for viral entry. The CD4 binding loop on Env is an early contact site for CD4 while penetration of a proximal cavity by CD4 triggers Env conformational changes for entry. The role of residues in the CD4 binding loop in regulating the conformation of the trimer and trimer association domain (TAD) was investigated using a novel saturation mutagenesis approach. Single mutations identified, resulted in distinct trimer conformations affecting CD4bs exposure, the glycan shield and the TAD across diverse HIV-1 clades. Importantly, mutations that improve access to the CD4bs without exposing the immunodominant V3 loop were identified. The different trimer conformations identified will affect the specificity and breadth of nabs elicited in vivo and are important to consider in design of Env immunogens for vaccines. PMID:27820858

  18. Binding of inferred germline precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies to native-like envelope trimers.

    PubMed

    Sliepen, Kwinten; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Yasmeen, Anila; Moore, John P; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) and Env-based immunogens usually do not interact efficiently with the inferred germline precursors of known broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). This deficiency may be one reason why Env and Env-based immunogens are not efficient at inducing bNAbs. We evaluated the binding of 15 inferred germline precursors of bNAbs directed to different epitope clusters to three soluble native-like SOSIP.664 Env trimers. We found that native-like SOSIP.664 trimers bind to some inferred germline precursors of bNAbs, particularly ones involving the V1/V2 loops at the apex of the trimer. The data imply that native-like SOSIP.664 trimers will be an appropriate platform for structure-guided design improvements intended to create immunogens able to target the germline precursors of bNAbs.

  19. Sequences in gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope that confer sensitivity to HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu.

    PubMed

    Janaka, Sanath Kumar; Lucas, Tiffany M; Johnson, Marc C

    2011-11-01

    HIV-1 efficiently forms pseudotyped particles with many gammaretrovirus glycoproteins, such as Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) Env, but not with the related gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) Env or with a chimeric F-MLV Env with a GaLV cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). This incompatibility is modulated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Because the GaLV Env CTD does not resemble tetherin or CD4, the well-studied targets of Vpu, we sought to characterize the modular sequence in the GaLV Env CTD required for this restriction in the presence of Vpu. Using a systematic mutagenesis scan, we determined that the motif that makes GaLV Env sensitive to Vpu is INxxIxxVKxxVxRxK. This region in the CTD of GaLV Env is predicted to form a helix. Mutations in the CTD that would break this helix abolish sensitivity to Vpu. Although many of these positions can be replaced with amino acids with similar biophysical properties without disrupting the Vpu sensitivity, the final lysine residue is required. This Vpu sensitivity sequence appears to be modular, as the unrelated Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Env can be made Vpu sensitive by replacing its CTD with the GaLV Env CTD. In addition, F-MLV Env can be made Vpu sensitive by mutating two amino acids in its cytoplasmic tail to make it resemble more closely the Vpu sensitivity motif. Surprisingly, the core components of this Vpu sensitivity sequence are also present in the host surface protein CD4, which is also targeted by Vpu through its CTD.

  20. Incompatible Natures of the HIV-1 Envelope in Resistance to the CCR5 Antagonist Cenicriviroc and to Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Ikumi; Baba, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Cenicriviroc is a CCR5 antagonist which prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from cellular entry. The CCR5-binding regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are important targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and mutations conferring cenicriviroc resistance may therefore affect sensitivity to NAbs. Here, we used the in vitro induction of HIV-1 variants resistant to cenicriviroc or NAbs to examine the relationship between resistance to cenicriviroc and resistance to NAbs. The cenicriviroc-resistant variant KK652-67 (strain KK passaged 67 times in the presence of increasing concentrations of cenicriviroc) was sensitive to neutralization by NAbs against the V3 loop, the CD4-induced (CD4i) region, and the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), whereas the wild-type (WT) parental HIV-1 strain KKWT from which cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 was obtained was resistant to these NAbs. The V3 region of KK652-67 was important for cenicriviroc resistance and critical to the high sensitivity of the V3, CD4i, and CD4bs epitopes to NAbs. Moreover, induction of variants resistant to anti-V3 NAb 0.5γ and anti-CD4i NAb 4E9C from cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 resulted in reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype comparable to that of the parental strain, KKWT. Resistance to 0.5γ and 4E9C was caused by the novel substitutions R315K, G324R, and E381K in the V3 and C3 regions near the substitutions conferring cenicriviroc resistance. Importantly, these amino acid changes in the CCR5-binding region were also responsible for reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype. These results suggest the presence of key amino acid residues where resistance to cenicriviroc is incompatible with resistance to NAbs. This implies that cenicriviroc and neutralizing antibodies may restrict the emergence of variants resistant to each other. PMID:26525792

  1. Incompatible Natures of the HIV-1 Envelope in Resistance to the CCR5 Antagonist Cenicriviroc and to Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Takeo; Enomoto, Ikumi; Baba, Masanori; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2015-11-02

    Cenicriviroc is a CCR5 antagonist which prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from cellular entry. The CCR5-binding regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are important targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and mutations conferring cenicriviroc resistance may therefore affect sensitivity to NAbs. Here, we used the in vitro induction of HIV-1 variants resistant to cenicriviroc or NAbs to examine the relationship between resistance to cenicriviroc and resistance to NAbs. The cenicriviroc-resistant variant KK652-67 (strain KK passaged 67 times in the presence of increasing concentrations of cenicriviroc) was sensitive to neutralization by NAbs against the V3 loop, the CD4-induced (CD4i) region, and the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), whereas the wild-type (WT) parental HIV-1 strain KKWT from which cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 was obtained was resistant to these NAbs. The V3 region of KK652-67 was important for cenicriviroc resistance and critical to the high sensitivity of the V3, CD4i, and CD4bs epitopes to NAbs. Moreover, induction of variants resistant to anti-V3 NAb 0.5γ and anti-CD4i NAb 4E9C from cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 resulted in reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype comparable to that of the parental strain, KKWT. Resistance to 0.5γ and 4E9C was caused by the novel substitutions R315K, G324R, and E381K in the V3 and C3 regions near the substitutions conferring cenicriviroc resistance. Importantly, these amino acid changes in the CCR5-binding region were also responsible for reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype. These results suggest the presence of key amino acid residues where resistance to cenicriviroc is incompatible with resistance to NAbs. This implies that cenicriviroc and neutralizing antibodies may restrict the emergence of variants resistant to each other.

  2. Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Primates Neutralize Primary Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) Sensitized by CD4-Mimetic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Navid; Princiotto, Amy M.; Easterhoff, David; Bradley, Todd; Luo, Kan; Williams, Wilton B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony; Phad, Ganesh E.; Vázquez Bernat, Néstor; Melillo, Bruno; Santra, Sampa; Smith, Amos B.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Haynes, Barton

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry through a series of complex conformational changes triggered by binding to the receptors CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved Env epitopes are thought to be an important component of a protective immune response. However, to date, HIV-1 Env immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been identified, creating hurdles for vaccine development. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds engage the CD4-binding pocket on the gp120 exterior Env and induce Env conformations that are highly sensitive to neutralization by antibodies, including antibodies directed against the conserved Env region that interacts with CCR5/CXCR4. Here, we show that CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize primary HIV-1 to neutralization by antibodies that can be elicited in monkeys and humans within 6 months by several Env vaccine candidates, including gp120 monomers. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the gp120 V2 and V3 variable regions were isolated from the immunized monkeys and humans; these monoclonal antibodies neutralized a primary HIV-1 only when the virus was sensitized by a CD4-mimetic compound. Thus, in addition to their direct antiviral effect, CD4-mimetic compounds dramatically enhance the HIV-1-neutralizing activity of antibodies that can be elicited with currently available immunogens. Used as components of microbicides, the CD4-mimetic compounds might increase the protective efficacy of HIV-1 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Preventing HIV-1 transmission is a high priority for global health. Eliciting antibodies that can neutralize transmitted strains of HIV-1 is difficult, creating problems for the development of an effective vaccine. We found that small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize HIV-1 to antibodies that can be elicited in vaccinated humans and monkeys. These results suggest an approach to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission in

  3. Activity of the HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor BMS-626529, the Active Component of the Prodrug BMS-663068, against CD4-Independent Viruses and HIV-1 Envelopes Resistant to Other Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhufang; Zhou, Nannan; Sun, Yongnian; Ray, Neelanjana; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J.

    2013-01-01

    BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be associated with a CD4-independent phenotype. Finally, we evaluated whether cross-resistance exists between BMS-626529 and other HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Two laboratory-derived envelopes with a CD4-independent phenotype (one CXCR4 tropic and one CCR5 tropic), five envelopes from clinical isolates with preexisting BMS-626529 resistance, and several site-specific mutant BMS-626529-resistant envelopes were examined for their dependence on CD4 for infectivity or susceptibility to BMS-626529. Viruses resistant to other entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, maraviroc, and ibalizumab) were also examined for susceptibility to BMS-626529. Both CD4-independent laboratory isolates retained sensitivity to BMS-626529 in CD4− cells, while HIV-1 envelopes from viruses resistant to BMS-626529 exhibited no evidence of a CD4-independent phenotype. BMS-626529 also exhibited inhibitory activity against ibalizumab- and enfuvirtide-resistant envelopes. While there appeared to be some association between maraviroc resistance and reduced susceptibility to BMS-626529, an absolute correlation cannot be presumed, since some CCR5-tropic maraviroc-resistant envelopes remained sensitive to BMS-626529. Clinical use of the prodrug BMS-663068 is unlikely to promote resistance via generation of CD4-independent virus. No cross-resistance between BMS-626529 and other HIV entry inhibitors was observed, which could allow for sequential or concurrent use with different classes of entry inhibitors. PMID:23774428

  4. Activity of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-626529, the active component of the prodrug BMS-663068, against CD4-independent viruses and HIV-1 envelopes resistant to other entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhufang; Zhou, Nannan; Sun, Yongnian; Ray, Neelanjana; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Krystal, Mark

    2013-09-01

    BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be associated with a CD4-independent phenotype. Finally, we evaluated whether cross-resistance exists between BMS-626529 and other HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Two laboratory-derived envelopes with a CD4-independent phenotype (one CXCR4 tropic and one CCR5 tropic), five envelopes from clinical isolates with preexisting BMS-626529 resistance, and several site-specific mutant BMS-626529-resistant envelopes were examined for their dependence on CD4 for infectivity or susceptibility to BMS-626529. Viruses resistant to other entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, maraviroc, and ibalizumab) were also examined for susceptibility to BMS-626529. Both CD4-independent laboratory isolates retained sensitivity to BMS-626529 in CD4(-) cells, while HIV-1 envelopes from viruses resistant to BMS-626529 exhibited no evidence of a CD4-independent phenotype. BMS-626529 also exhibited inhibitory activity against ibalizumab- and enfuvirtide-resistant envelopes. While there appeared to be some association between maraviroc resistance and reduced susceptibility to BMS-626529, an absolute correlation cannot be presumed, since some CCR5-tropic maraviroc-resistant envelopes remained sensitive to BMS-626529. Clinical use of the prodrug BMS-663068 is unlikely to promote resistance via generation of CD4-independent virus. No cross-resistance between BMS-626529 and other HIV entry inhibitors was observed, which could allow for sequential or concurrent use with different classes of entry inhibitors.

  5. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Julio . E-mail: julio.martin-garcia@drexelmed.edu; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual.

  6. Diverse specificity and effector function among human antibodies to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed by CD4 binding

    DOE PAGES

    Guan, Yongjun; Pazgier, Marzena; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; ...

    2012-12-13

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational transitions consequent to CD4 binding and coreceptor engagement during viral entry. The physical steps in this process are becoming defined, but less is known about their significance as targets of antibodies potentially protective against HIV-1 infection. Here we probe the functional significance of transitional epitope exposure by characterizing 41 human mAbs specific for epitopes exposed on trimeric Env after CD4 engagement. These mAbs recognize three epitope clusters: cluster A, the gp120 face occluded by gp41 in trimeric Env; cluster B, a region proximal to the coreceptor-binding site (CoRBS) and involving the V1/V2 domain;more » and cluster C, the coreceptor-binding site. The mAbs were evaluated functionally by antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and for neutralization of Tiers 1 and 2 pseudoviruses. All three clusters included mAbs mediating ADCC. However, there was a strong potency bias for cluster A, which harbors at least three potent ADCC epitopes whose cognate mAbs have electropositive paratopes. Cluster A epitopes are functional ADCC targets during viral entry in an assay format using virion-sensitized target cells. In contrast, only cluster C contained epitopes that were recognized by neutralizing mAbs. There was significant diversity in breadth and potency that correlated with epitope fine specificity. In contrast, ADCC potency had no relationship with neutralization potency or breadth for any epitope cluster. In conclusion, Fc-mediated effector function and neutralization coselect with specificity in anti-Env antibody responses, but the nature of selection is distinct for these two antiviral activities.« less

  7. Stabilizing Exposure of Conserved Epitopes by Structure Guided Insertion of Disulfide Bond in HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Pampi; Labranche, Celia; Go, Eden P.; Clark, Daniel F.; Sun, Yide; Nandi, Avishek; Hartog, Karin; Desaire, Heather; Montefiori, David; Carfi, Andrea; Srivastava, Indresh K.; Barnett, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to cellular receptors and subsequent conformational changes that culminates in fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Recent structural information has revealed that these conformational transitions are regulated by three conserved but potentially flexible layers stacked between the receptor-binding domain (gp120) and the fusion arm (gp41) of Env. We hypothesized that artificial insertion of a covalent bond will ‘snap’ Env into a conformation that is less mobile and stably expose conserved sites. Therefore, we analyzed the interface between these gp120 layers (layers 1, 2 and 3) and identified residues that may form disulfide bonds when substituted with cysteines. We subsequently probed the structures of the resultant mutant gp120 proteins by assaying their binding to a variety of ligands using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) assay. We found that a single disulfide bond strategically inserted between the highly conserved layers 1 and 2 (C65-C115) is able to ‘lock’ gp120 in a CD4 receptor bound conformation (in the absence of CD4), as indicated by the lower dissociation constant (Kd) for the CD4-induced (CD4i) epitope binding 17b antibody. When disulfide-stabilized monomeric (gp120) and trimeric (gp140) Envs were used to immunize rabbits, they were found to elicit a higher proportion of antibodies directed against both CD4i and CD4 binding site epitopes than the wild-type proteins. These results demonstrate that structure-guided stabilization of inter-layer interactions within HIV-1 Env can be used to expose conserved epitopes and potentially overcome the sequence diversity of these molecules. PMID:24146829

  8. Diverse specificity and effector function among human antibodies to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed by CD4 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Yongjun; Pazgier, Marzena; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Kamin-Lewis, Roberta; Al-Darmarki, Salma; Flinko, Robin; Lovo, Elena; Wu, Xueji; Robinson, James E.; Seaman, Michael S.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Gallo, Robert C.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Lewis, George K.

    2012-12-13

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational transitions consequent to CD4 binding and coreceptor engagement during viral entry. The physical steps in this process are becoming defined, but less is known about their significance as targets of antibodies potentially protective against HIV-1 infection. Here we probe the functional significance of transitional epitope exposure by characterizing 41 human mAbs specific for epitopes exposed on trimeric Env after CD4 engagement. These mAbs recognize three epitope clusters: cluster A, the gp120 face occluded by gp41 in trimeric Env; cluster B, a region proximal to the coreceptor-binding site (CoRBS) and involving the V1/V2 domain; and cluster C, the coreceptor-binding site. The mAbs were evaluated functionally by antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and for neutralization of Tiers 1 and 2 pseudoviruses. All three clusters included mAbs mediating ADCC. However, there was a strong potency bias for cluster A, which harbors at least three potent ADCC epitopes whose cognate mAbs have electropositive paratopes. Cluster A epitopes are functional ADCC targets during viral entry in an assay format using virion-sensitized target cells. In contrast, only cluster C contained epitopes that were recognized by neutralizing mAbs. There was significant diversity in breadth and potency that correlated with epitope fine specificity. In contrast, ADCC potency had no relationship with neutralization potency or breadth for any epitope cluster. In conclusion, Fc-mediated effector function and neutralization coselect with specificity in anti-Env antibody responses, but the nature of selection is distinct for these two antiviral activities.

  9. Analyses of inter- and intra-patient variation in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, B.; Myers, G.; Wolinsky, S.

    1991-09-17

    The third hypervariable domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein (V3) has been the focus of intensive sequencing efforts. To date, nearly one thousand V3 loop sequences have been stored in the HIV sequence database. Studies have revealed that the V3 loop elicits potent type-specific immune responses, and that it plays a significant role in cell tropism and fusion . The immunogenic tip of the loop can serve as a type-specific neutralizing antibody epitope, as well as a cytotoxic T-cell epitope. A helper T-cell epitope that lies within the amino terminal half of the V3 loop has also been characterized. Despite the richness of the immunologic response to this region, its potential for variation makes it an elusive target for vaccine design. Analyses of sibling sequence sets (sets of viral sequences derived from one person) show that multiple forms of the immunogenic tip of the loop are found within most HIV-1 infected individuals. Viral V3 sequences obtained from epidemiologically unlinked individuals from North America and Europe show extensive variation. However, some amino acid positions distributed throughout the V3 loop are highly conserved, and there is also conservation of the charge class of amino acid able to occupy certain positions relative to the tip of the loop. By contrast, the sequences obtained from many countries throughout the African continent reveal that V3 is a remarkably fluid region with few absolute constraints on the nature of the amino acids that can occupy most positions in the loop. The high degree of heterogeneity in this region is particularly striking in view of its contribution to biologically important viral functions.

  10. Peptide ligands selected with CD4-induced epitopes on native dualtropic HIV-1 envelope proteins mimic extracellular coreceptor domains and bind to HIV-1 gp120 independently of coreceptor usage.

    PubMed

    Dervillez, Xavier; Klaukien, Volker; Dürr, Ralf; Koch, Joachim; Kreutz, Alexandra; Haarmann, Thomas; Stoll, Michaela; Lee, Donghan; Carlomagno, Teresa; Schnierle, Barbara; Möbius, Kalle; Königs, Christoph; Griesinger, Christian; Dietrich, Ursula

    2010-10-01

    During HIV-1 entry, binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor triggers conformational changes resulting in exposure of new epitopes, the highly conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes that are essential for subsequent binding to chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Due to their functional conservation, CD4i epitopes represent attractive viral targets for HIV-1 entry inhibition. The aim of the present study was to select peptide ligands for CD4i epitopes on native dualtropic (R5X4) HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins by phage display. Using CD4-activated retroviral particles carrying Env from the R5X4 HIV-1 89.6 strain as the target, we performed screenings of random peptide phage libraries under stringent selection conditions. Selected peptides showed partial identity with amino acids in the extracellular domains of CCR5/CXCR4, including motifs rich in tyrosines and aspartates at the N terminus known to be important for gp120 binding. A synthetic peptide derivative (XD3) corresponding to the most frequently selected phages was optimized for Env binding on peptide arrays. Interestingly, the optimized peptide could bind specifically to gp120 derived from HIV-1 strains with different coreceptor usage, competed with binding of CD4i-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) 17b, and interfered with entry of both a CCR5 (R5)-tropic and a CXCR4 (X4)-tropic Env pseudotyped virus. This peptide ligand therefore points at unique properties of CD4i epitopes shared by gp120 with different coreceptor usage and could thus serve to provide new insight into the conserved structural details essential for coreceptor binding for further drug development.

  11. HIV-1 Gag, Envelope, and Extracellular Determinants Cooperate To Regulate the Stability and Turnover of Virological Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jaye C.; Mauer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviruses spread more efficiently when infected and uninfected cells form tight, physical interfaces known as virological synapses (VSs). VS formation is initiated by adhesive interactions between viral Envelope (Env) glycoproteins on the infected cell and CD4 receptor molecules on the uninfected cell. How high-avidity Env-CD4 linkages are resolved over time is unknown. We describe here a tractable two-color, long-term (>24 h) live cell imaging strategy to study VS turnover in the context of a large cell population, quantitatively. We show that Env's conserved cytoplasmic tail (CT) can potently signal the recruitment of Gag capsid proteins to the VS, a process also dependent on residues within Gag's N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. Additionally, we demonstrate that Env's CT and Gag's MA domain both regulate the duration of interactions between viral donor and target cells, as well as the stability of this interaction over time (i.e., its capacity to resolve or form a syncytium). Finally, we report the unexpected finding that modulating extracellular fluid viscosity markedly impacts target T cell trafficking and thus affects the duration, stability, and turnover of virus-induced cell-cell contacts. Combined, these results suggest a stepwise model for viral cell-to-cell transmission wherein (i) Env-receptor interactions anchor target cells to infected cells, (ii) Env signals Gag's recruitment to the cell-cell contact dependent on an intact Env CT and Gag MA, and (iii) Env CT and Gag MA, in conjunction with extracellular forces, combine to regulate VS stability and infectious outcomes. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 spreads efficiently at physical, cell-cell interfaces known as virological synapses (VSs). The VS provides for spatiotemporal coupling of virus assembly and entry into new host cells and may transmit signals relevant to pathogenesis. Disrupting this mode of transmission may be critical to the goal of abolishing viral persistence in infected individuals. We

  12. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens.

    PubMed

    Hessell, Ann J; Malherbe, Delphine C; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S; Sacha, Jonah B; LaBranche, Celia C; Fuller, Deborah H; Montefiori, David C; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D Noah; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B-infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements.

  13. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Hessell, Ann J.; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J.; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S.; Sacha, Jonah B.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Montefiori, David C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D. Noah

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B–infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements. PMID:26944928

  14. Residues in the membrane-spanning domain core modulate conformation and fusogenicity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Liang; Hunter, Eric

    2010-09-01

    The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical for its biological activity. Initial studies have defined an almost invariant 'core' structure in the MSD and demonstrated that it is crucial for anchoring Env in the membrane and virus entry. We show here that amino acid substitutions in the MSD 'core' do not influence specific virus-cell attachment, nor CD4 receptor and CXCR4 coreceptor recognition by Env. However, substitutions within the MSD 'core' delayed the kinetics and reduced the efficiency of cell-cell fusion mediated by Env. Although we observed no evidence that membrane fusion mediated by the MSD core mutants was arrested at a hemifusion stage, impaired Env fusogenicity was correlated with minor conformational changes in the V2, C1, and C5 regions in gp120 and the immunodominant loop in gp41. These changes could delay initiation of the conformational changes required in the fusion process.

  15. CD4-binding site alterations in CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes influencing gp120-CD4 interactions and fusogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sterjovski, Jasminka; Churchill, Melissa J.; Roche, Michael; Ellett, Anne; Farrugia, William; Wesselingh, Steven L.; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Gorry, Paul R.

    2011-02-20

    CD4-binding site (CD4bs) alterations in gp120 contribute to different pathophysiological phenotypes of CCR5-using (R5) HIV-1 strains, but the potential structural basis is unknown. Here, we characterized functionally diverse R5 envelope (Env) clones (n = 16) to elucidate potential structural alterations within the gp120 CD4bs that influence Env function. Initially, we showed that the magnitude of gp120-CD4-binding correlates with increased fusogenicity and reduced CD4 dependence. Analysis of three-dimensional gp120 structural models revealed two CD4bs variants, D279 and N362, that were associated with reduced CD4 dependence. Further structural analysis showed that a wider aperture of the predicted CD4bs cavity, as constrained by the inner-most atoms at the gp120 V1V2 stem and the V5 loop, was associated with amino acid alterations within V5 and correlated with increased gp120-CD4 binding and increased fusogenicity. Our results provide evidence that the gp120 V5 loop may alter CD4bs conformation and contribute to increased gp120-CD4 interactions and Env fusogenicity.

  16. Lack of complex N-glycans on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins preserves protein conformation and entry function.

    PubMed

    Eggink, Dirk; Melchers, Mark; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Montfort, Thijs; Dey, Antu K; Naaijkens, Benno A; David, Kathryn B; Le Douce, Valentin; Deelder, André M; Kang, Kenneth; Olson, William C; Berkhout, Ben; Hokke, Cornelis H; Moore, John P; Sanders, Rogier W

    2010-06-05

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is the focus of vaccine development aimed at eliciting humoral immunity. Env's extensive and heterogeneous N-linked glycosylation affects folding, binding to lectin receptors, antigenicity and immunogenicity. We characterized recombinant Env proteins and virus particles produced in mammalian cells that lack N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI), an enzyme necessary for the conversion of oligomannose N-glycans to complex N-glycans. Carbohydrate analyses revealed that trimeric Env produced in GnTI(-/-) cells contained exclusively oligomannose N-glycans, with incompletely trimmed oligomannose glycans predominating. The folding and conformation of Env proteins was little affected by the manipulation of the glycosylation. Viruses produced in GnTI(-/-) cells were infectious, indicating that the conversion to complex glycans is not necessary for Env entry function, although virus binding to the C-type lectin DC-SIGN was enhanced. Manipulating Env's N-glycosylation may be useful for structural and functional studies and for vaccine design.

  17. Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody to a Novel Glycan-Dependent Epitope in the V1/V2 Domain of the HIV-1 Envelope Protein, gp120

    PubMed Central

    To, Briana; Morin, Trevor J.; Theolis, Richard; O’Rourke, Sara M.; Yu, Bin; Mesa, Kathryn A.; Berman, Phillip W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have described several broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bN-mAbs) that recognize glycan-dependent epitopes (GDEs) in the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. These were recovered from HIV-1 infected subjects, and several (e.g., PG9, PG16, CH01, CH03) target glycans in the first and second variable (V1/V2) domain of gp120. The V1/V2 domain is thought to play an important role in conformational masking, and antibodies to the V1/V2 domain were recently identified as the only immune response that correlated with protection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial. While the importance of antibodies to polymeric glycans is well established for vaccines targeting bacterial diseases, the importance of antibodies to glycans in vaccines targeting HIV has only recently been recognized. Antibodies to GDEs may be particularly significant in HIV vaccines based on gp120, where 50% of the molecular mass of the envelope protein is contributed by N-linked carbohydrate. However, few studies have reported antibodies to GDEs in humans or animals immunized with candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In this report, we describe the isolation of a mouse mAb, 4B6, after immunization with the extracellular domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp140. Epitope mapping using glycopeptide fragments and in vitro mutagenesis showed that binding of this antibody depends on N-linked glycosylation at asparagine N130 (HXB2 numbering) in the gp120 V1/V2 domain. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to natural HIV-1 infection, immunization with recombinant proteins can elicit antibodies to the GDEs in the V1/V2 domain of gp120. Although little is known regarding conditions that favor antibody responses to GDEs, our studies demonstrate that these antibodies can arise from a short-term immunization regimen. Our results suggest that antibodies to GDEs are more common than previously suspected, and that further analysis of antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope protein will lead to the discovery of

  18. Mutations in variable domains of the HIV-1 envelope gene can have a significant impact on maraviroc and vicriviroc resistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to CCR5 inhibitors, such as maraviroc and vicriviroc is characterized by reduction of maximal percent inhibition which indicates the use of an inhibitor-bound conformation of CCR5 for human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1) entry. It is accompanied by substitutions in gp120 and gp41. Variable domain 3 (V3) plays the most important role, but substitutions outside V3 could also be involved in phenotype resistance. In this work, we investigated how mutations in variable regions of the viral envelope protein gp120 can contribute to CCR5 inhibitor resistance. Methods Resistant isolates were selected by passaging CC1/85 and BaL viruses with sub-inhibitory MVC and VCV concentrations. Mutations in gp160 were identified and mutants containing V2 (V169M), V3 (L317W) and V4 (I408T) were constructed. Results MVC and VCV susceptibility and viral tropism were assessed by single cycle assay. Mutant I408T showed 4-fold change (FC) increase in the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to MVC, followed by L317W (1.52-FC), V169M (1.23-FC), V169M/I408T (4-FC) L317W/I408T (3-FC), V169M/L317W (1.30-FC), and V169M/L317W/I408T (3.31-FC). MPI reduction was observed for mutants I408T (85%), L317W (95%), V169M/I408T (84%), L317W/I408T (85%) and V169M/L317W/I408T (83%). For VCV, I408T increased the IC50 by 2-FC and few mutants showed MPI reduction less than 95%: I408T (94%), L317W/I408T (94%) and V169M/L317W/I408T (94%). All mutants remained R5-tropic and presented decreased infectivity. Conclusions These results suggest that mutations in the V4 loop of HIV-1 may contribute to MVC and VCV resistance alone or combined with mutations in V2 and V3 loops. PMID:23758814

  19. Genetic analysis of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 02_AG, B and C subtype-specific envelope sequences from Northern India and their predicted co-receptor usage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemic in India is largely driven by subtype C but other subtypes or recombinants have also been reported from several states of India. This is mainly due to the co-circulation of other genetic subtypes that potentially can recombine to generate recombinant/mosaic genomes. In this study, we report detail genetic characterization of HIV-1 envelope sequences from North India (Delhi and neighboring regions). Six of 13 were related to subtype C, one B and the rest six showed relatedness with CRF02_AG strain. The subtype C possessed the highly conserved GPGQ motif but subtype B possessed the GPGR motif in the V3 loop as observed earlier. While most of the sequences suggested CCR5 co-receptor usage, one subtype C sample clearly indicated CXCR4 usage. A successful mother to child transmission was established in two pairs. Thus, co-circulation of multiple subtypes (B and C) and the recombinant CRF02_AG strains in North India suggests a rapidly evolving scenario of HIV-1 epidemic in this region with impact on vaccine formulation. Since this is the first report of CRF02_AG envelope from India, it will be important to monitor the spread of this strain and its impact on HIV-1 transmission in India. PMID:19954551

  20. Influences on the Design and Purification of Soluble, Recombinant Native-Like HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Rajesh P.; Yasmeen, Anila; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Go, Eden P.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Guttman, Miklos; Ketas, Thomas A.; Cottrell, Christopher A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Cupo, Albert; Crispin, Max; Lee, Kelly K.; Desaire, Heather; Ward, Andrew B.; Klasse, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    . IMPORTANCE Soluble, recombinant multimeric proteins based on the HIV-1 env gene are current candidate immunogens for vaccine trials in humans. These proteins are generally designed to mimic the native trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) that is the target of virus-neutralizing antibodies on the surfaces of virions. The underlying hypothesis is that an Env-mimetic protein may be able to induce antibodies that can neutralize the virus broadly and potently enough for a vaccine to be protective. Multiple different designs for Env-mimetic trimers have been put forth. Here, we used the CZA97.012 and 92UG037.8 env genes to compare some of these designs and determine which ones best mimic virus-associated Env trimers. We conclude that the most widely used versions of CZA97.012 and 92UG037.8 oligomeric Env proteins do not resemble the trimeric Env glycoprotein on HIV-1 viruses, which has implications for the design and interpretation of ongoing or proposed clinical trials of these proteins. PMID:26311893

  1. Mutation of critical serine residues in HIV-1 matrix result in an envelope incorporation defect which can be rescued by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Ajay K.; Kaushik, Rajnish; Campbell, Nancy A.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Ratner, Lee

    2009-02-05

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in both early and late events of the viral life cycle. Simultaneous mutation of critical serine residues in MA has been shown previously to dramatically reduce phosphorylation of MA. However, the role of phosphorylation in viral replication remains unclear. Viruses harboring serine to alanine substitutions at positions 9, 67, 72, and 77 are severely impaired in their ability to infect target cells. In addition, the serine mutant viruses are defective in their ability to fuse with target cell membranes. Interestingly, both the fusion defect and the infectivity defect can be rescued by truncation of the long cytoplasmic tail of gp41 envelope protein (gp41CT). Sucrose density gradient analysis also reveals that these mutant viruses have reduced levels of gp120 envelope protein incorporated into the virions as compared to wild type virus. Truncation of the gp41CT rescues the envelope incorporation defect. Here we propose a model in which mutation of specific serine residues prevents MA interaction with lipid rafts during HIV-1 assembly and thereby impairs recruitment of envelope to the sites of viral budding.

  2. New connections: Cell to cell HIV-1 transmission, resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies, and an envelope sorting motif.

    PubMed

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 infection from cell to cell may provide an efficient mode of viral spread in vivo and could therefore present a significant challenge for preventative or therapeutic strategies based on broadly neutralizing antibodies. Indeed, Li et al show that the potency and magnitude of multiple HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody classes are decreased during cell to cell infection in a context dependent manner. A functional motif in gp41 appears to contribute to this differential susceptibility by modulating exposure of neutralization epitopes.

  3. Comparative evaluation of trimeric envelope glycoproteins derived from subtype C and B HIV-1 R5 isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Indresh K. Kan, Elaine; Sun Yide; Sharma, Victoria A.; Cisto, Jimna; Burke, Brian; Lian Ying; Hilt, Susan; Biron, Zohar; Hartog, Karin; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Cheng, R. Holland; Ulmer, Jeffrey B.; Barnett, Susan W.

    2008-03-15

    We previously reported that an envelope (Env) glycoprotein immunogen (o-gp140{delta}V2SF162) containing a partial deletion in the second variable loop (V2) derived from the R5-tropic HIV-1 isolate SF162 partially protected vaccinated rhesus macaques against pathogenic SHIV{sub SF162P4} virus. Extending our studies to subtype C isolate TV1, we have purified o-gp140{delta}V2TV1 (subtype C {delta}V2 trimer) to homogeneity, performed glycosylation analysis, and determined its ability to bind CD4, as well as a panel of well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In general, critical epitopes are preserved on the subtype C {delta}V2 trimer; however, we did not observe significant binding for the b12 mAb. The molecular mass of subtype C {delta}V2 trimer was found to be 450 kDa, and the hydrodynamic radius was found to be 10.87 nm. Our data suggest that subtype C {delta}V2 trimer binds to CD4 with an affinity comparable to o-gp140{delta}V2SF162 (subtype B {delta}V2 trimer). Using isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis, we demonstrated that all three CD4 binding sites (CD4-BS) in both subtype C and B trimers are exposed and accessible. However, compared to subtype B trimer, the three CD4-BS in subtype C trimer have different affinities for CD4, suggesting a cooperativity of CD4 binding in subtype C trimer but not in subtype B trimer. Negative staining electron microscopy of the subtype C {delta}V2 trimer has demonstrated that it is in fact a trimer. These results highlight the importance of studying subtype C Env, and also of developing appropriate subtype C-specific reagents that may be used for better immunological characterization of subtype C Env for developing an AIDS vaccine.

  4. Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Jérémie; Zoubchenok, Daria; Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Pacheco, Beatriz; Coutu, Mathieu; Brassard, Nathalie; Parsons, Matthew S; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Moody, M Anthony; Haynes, Barton F; Bonsignori, Mattia; Sodroski, Joseph; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Shaw, George M; Chenine, Agnès L; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid the exposure of Env ADCC epitopes by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env on the cell surface. In HIV-1, substitution of large residues such as histidine or tryptophan for serine 375 (S375H/W) in the gp120 Phe 43 cavity, where Phe 43 of CD4 contacts gp120, results in the spontaneous sampling of an Env conformation closer to the CD4-bound state. While residue S375 is well conserved in the majority of group M HIV-1 isolates, CRF01_AE strains have a naturally occurring histidine at this position (H375). Interestingly, CRF01_AE is the predominant circulating strain in Thailand, where the RV144 trial took place. In this trial, which resulted in a modest degree of protection, ADCC responses were identified as being part of the correlate of protection. Here we investigate the influence of the Phe 43 cavity on ADCC responses. Filling this cavity with a histidine or tryptophan residue in Env with a natural serine residue at this position (S375H/W) increased the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC. Conversely, the replacement of His 375 by a serine residue (H375S) within HIV-1 CRF01_AE decreased the efficiency of the ADCC response. Our results raise the intriguing possibility that the presence of His 375 in the circulating strain where the RV144 trial was held contributed to the observed vaccine efficacy.IMPORTANCE HIV-1-infected cells presenting Env in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by ADCC mediated by HIV-positive (HIV(+)) sera. Here we show that the gp120 Phe 43 cavity modulates the propensity of Env to sample this conformation and therefore affects the susceptibility of infected cells to ADCC. CRF01_AE HIV-1 strains have an unusual Phe 43 cavity

  5. Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes.

    PubMed

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L; Mach, Linh V; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N; Lewis, Mark G; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L; Burton, Dennis R; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Santra, Sampa

    2015-01-15

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed 10 clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques.

  6. Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such antibodies with reduced infant infection.

    PubMed

    Omenda, Maxwel M; Milligan, Caitlin; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Nduati, Ruth; Richardson, Barbra A; Lynch, John; John-Stewart, Grace; Overbaugh, Julie

    2013-10-01

    : Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, were compared. The envelope-binding titers were strongly correlated (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and similar (1.4-fold greater in maternal plasma) between a mother and her corresponding infant as were the neutralizing antibody (Nab) levels (r = 0.80, P < 0.0001; 1.3-fold higher), suggesting efficient transfer. There was no significant difference in Nab responses between transmitting and nontransmitting mothers, although there was a trend for transmitting mothers to have higher HIV-1-specific Nabs.

  7. Effect of glycosylation on an immunodominant region in the V1V2 variable domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jianhui; Lopez, Cesar Augusto; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Jones, Morris S.; Pinter, Abraham; Korber, Bette Tina Marie; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Rein, Alan

    2016-10-07

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. Furthermore, these studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to focus

  8. Boosting of HIV envelope CD4 binding site antibodies with long variable heavy third complementarity determining region in the randomized double blind RV305 HIV-1 vaccine trial

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Margaret; Saunders, Kevin O.; Pollara, Justin; Vandergrift, Nathan; Parks, Rob; Michael, Nelson L.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Vasan, Sandhya; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Sinangil, Faruk; Phogat, Sanjay; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Seaman, Michael S.; Montefiori, David C.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    The canary pox vector and gp120 vaccine (ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120) in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial conferred an estimated 31% vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. The RV305 (NCT01435135) HIV-1 clinical trial was a placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded study that assessed the safety and efficacy of vaccine boosting on B cell repertoires. HIV-1-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients were reimmunized 6–8 years later with AIDSVAX B/E gp120 alone, ALVAC-HIV alone, or a combination of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120 in the RV305 trial. Env-specific post-RV144 and RV305 boost memory B cell VH mutation frequencies increased from 2.9% post-RV144 to 6.7% post-RV305. The vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse events reports. While post-boost plasma did not have bnAb activity, the vaccine boosts expanded a pool of envelope CD4 binding site (bs)-reactive memory B cells with long third heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR3) whose germline precursors and affinity matured B cell clonal lineage members neutralized the HIV-1 CRF01 AE tier 2 (difficult to neutralize) primary isolate, CNE8. Electron microscopy of two of these antibodies bound with near-native gp140 trimers showed that they recognized an open conformation of the Env trimer. Although late boosting of RV144 vaccinees expanded a novel pool of neutralizing B cell clonal lineages, we hypothesize that boosts with stably closed trimers would be necessary to elicit antibodies with greater breadth of tier 2 HIV-1 strains. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01435135 PMID:28235027

  9. Effect of Glycosylation on an Immunodominant Region in the V1V2 Variable Domain of the HIV-1 Envelope gp120 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Jones, Morris S.; Pinter, Abraham; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. These studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to focus the immune

  10. Effect of glycosylation on an immunodominant region in the V1V2 variable domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 protein

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Jianhui; Lopez, Cesar Augusto; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchangemore » molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. Furthermore, these studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to

  11. Fusion proteins of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4-induced antibodies showed enhanced binding to CD4 and CD4 binding site antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weizao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some recombinant HIV-1 gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesize that CD4i antibodies could induce conformational changes in gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibodies enhance binding of CD4 and CD4bs antibodies to gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibody-gp120 fusion proteins could have potential as vaccine immunogens. -- Abstract: Development of successful AIDS vaccine immunogens continues to be a major challenge. One of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralizing responses is the remarkable conformational flexibility of its envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120. Some recombinant gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s and functional viral spikes, and exhibit decreased recognition by CD4 and neutralizing antibodies. CD4 binding induces conformational changes in gp120 leading to exposure of the coreceptor-binding site (CoRbs). In this study, we test our hypothesis that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which target the CoRbs, could also induce conformational changes in gp120 leading to better exposed conserved neutralizing antibody epitopes including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). We found that a mixture of CD4i antibodies with gp120 only weakly enhanced CD4 binding. However, such interactions in single-chain fusion proteins resulted in gp120 conformations which bound to CD4 and CD4bs antibodies better than the original or mutagenically stabilized gp120s. Moreover, the two molecules in the fusion proteins synergized with each other in neutralizing HIV-1. Therefore, fusion proteins of gp120 with CD4i antibodies could have potential as components of HIV-1 vaccines and inhibitors of HIV-1 entry, and could be used as reagents to explore the conformational flexibility of gp120 and mechanisms of entry and immune evasion.

  12. Boosting of HIV envelope CD4 binding site antibodies with long variable heavy third complementarity determining region in the randomized double blind RV305 HIV-1 vaccine trial.

    PubMed

    Easterhoff, David; Moody, M Anthony; Fera, Daniela; Cheng, Hao; Ackerman, Margaret; Wiehe, Kevin; Saunders, Kevin O; Pollara, Justin; Vandergrift, Nathan; Parks, Rob; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; O'Connell, Robert J; Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Vasan, Sandhya; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Sinangil, Faruk; Tartaglia, James; Phogat, Sanjay; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2017-02-01

    The canary pox vector and gp120 vaccine (ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120) in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial conferred an estimated 31% vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. The RV305 (NCT01435135) HIV-1 clinical trial was a placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded study that assessed the safety and efficacy of vaccine boosting on B cell repertoires. HIV-1-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients were reimmunized 6-8 years later with AIDSVAX B/E gp120 alone, ALVAC-HIV alone, or a combination of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120 in the RV305 trial. Env-specific post-RV144 and RV305 boost memory B cell VH mutation frequencies increased from 2.9% post-RV144 to 6.7% post-RV305. The vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse events reports. While post-boost plasma did not have bnAb activity, the vaccine boosts expanded a pool of envelope CD4 binding site (bs)-reactive memory B cells with long third heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR3) whose germline precursors and affinity matured B cell clonal lineage members neutralized the HIV-1 CRF01 AE tier 2 (difficult to neutralize) primary isolate, CNE8. Electron microscopy of two of these antibodies bound with near-native gp140 trimers showed that they recognized an open conformation of the Env trimer. Although late boosting of RV144 vaccinees expanded a novel pool of neutralizing B cell clonal lineages, we hypothesize that boosts with stably closed trimers would be necessary to elicit antibodies with greater breadth of tier 2 HIV-1 strains.

  13. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M. . E-mail: tmr15@pitt.edu

    2004-10-25

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d{sub 3}) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}. In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d{sub 3} or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}-DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d.

  14. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D.; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Ho, David D.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab’s potent anti–HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection. PMID:23878231

  15. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Pace, Craig S; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A; Seaman, Michael S; Ho, David D

    2013-08-13

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.

  16. Effects of the I559P gp41 change on the conformation and function of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) membrane envelope glycoprotein trimer.

    PubMed

    Alsahafi, Nirmin; Debbeche, Olfa; Sodroski, Joseph; Finzi, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer is produced by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor and consists of three gp120 exterior and three gp41 transmembrane subunits. The metastable Env complex is induced to undergo conformational changes required for virus entry by the binding of gp120 to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. An isoleucine-to-proline change (I559P) in the gp41 ectodomain has been used to stabilize soluble forms of HIV-1 Env trimers for structural characterization and for use as immunogens. In the native membrane-anchored HIV-1BG505 Env, the I559P change modestly decreased proteolytic maturation, increased the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer, and resulted in an Env conformation distinctly different from that of the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env. Compared with the wild-type Env, the I559P Env was recognized inefficiently by polyclonal sera from HIV-1-infected individuals, by several gp41-directed antibodies, by some antibodies against the CD4-binding site of gp120, and by antibodies that preferentially recognize the CD4-bound Env. Some of the gp120-associated antigenic differences between the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env and the I559P mutant were compensated by the SOS disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41, which has been used to stabilize cleaved soluble Env trimers. Nonetheless, regardless of the presence of the SOS changes, Envs with proline 559 were recognized less efficiently than Envs with isoleucine 559 by the VRC01 neutralizing antibody, which binds the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the PGT151 neutralizing antibody, which binds a hybrid gp120-gp41 epitope. The I559P change completely eliminated the ability of the HIV-1BG505 Env to mediate cell-cell fusion and virus entry, and abolished the capacity of the SOS Env to support virus infection in the presence of a reducing agent. These results suggest that differences exist between the quaternary structures of functional Env spikes and I559P

  17. A Single Residue within the V5 Region of HIV-1 Envelope Facilitates Viral Escape from the Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody VRC01*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C.; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-01-01

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization. PMID:23100255

  18. A single residue within the V5 region of HIV-1 envelope facilitates viral escape from the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody VRC01.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-12-14

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization.

  19. ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Frabutt, Dylan A; Moremen, Kelley W; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2015-09-04

    Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process.

  20. Effect of cytokines on Siglec-1 and HIV-1 entry in monocyte-derived macrophages: the importance of HIV-1 envelope V1V2 region.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Ousman; Trinh, Hung V; Kim, Jiae; Alsalmi, Wadad; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Peachman, Kristina K; Gao, Guofen; Thomas, Rasmi; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B; Rao, Mangala

    2016-06-01

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages express relatively low levels of CD4. Despite this, macrophages can be effectively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Macrophages have a critical role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission; however, the mechanism or mechanisms of virus infection are poorly understood. We report that growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor affect the phenotypic profile and permissiveness of macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages derived from granulocyte macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors was predominantly facilitated by the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-1. The number of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptors on macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly greater than on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages, and correspondingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was greater in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Single-genome analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the differences in infectivity was not due to differences in viral fitness or in viral variants with differential infectivity but was due to reduced viral entry into the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, trimeric glycoprotein 145, and scaffolded V1V2 proteins were bound to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin and significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and infection. Furthermore, sialic acid residues present in the V1V2 region of the envelope protein mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  1. Effect of cytokines on Siglec-1 and HIV-1 entry in monocyte–derived macrophages: the importance of HIV-1 envelope V1V2 region

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Ousman; Trinh, Hung V.; Kim, Jiae; Alsalmi, Wadad; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ehrenberg, Philip K.; Peachman, Kristina K.; Gao, Guofen; Thomas, Rasmi; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rao, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and monocyte–derived macrophages express relatively low levels of CD4. Despite this, macrophages can be effectively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Macrophages have a critical role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission; however, the mechanism or mechanisms of virus infection are poorly understood. We report that growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor affect the phenotypic profile and permissiveness of macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocyte–derived macrophages derived from granulocyte macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors was predominantly facilitated by the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-1. The number of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptors on macrophage colony-stimulating factor–derived monocyte–derived macrophages was significantly greater than on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor–derived monocyte–derived macrophages, and correspondingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was greater in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor–derived monocyte–derived macrophages. Single-genome analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the differences in infectivity was not due to differences in viral fitness or in viral variants with differential infectivity but was due to reduced viral entry into the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor–derived monocyte–derived macrophages. Anti-sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, trimeric glycoprotein 145, and scaffolded V1V2 proteins were bound to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin and significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and infection. Furthermore, sialic acid residues present in the V1V2 region of the envelope protein mediated human immunodeficiency

  2. HIV-1 envelope protein gp41: an NMR study of dodecyl phosphocholine embedded gp41 reveals a dynamic prefusion intermediate conformation.

    PubMed

    Lakomek, Nils-Alexander; Kaufman, Joshua D; Stahl, Stephen J; Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-09-02

    Human immunodeficiency viral (HIV-1) fusion is mediated by the viral envelope gp120/gp41 complex (ENVelope glycoprotein). After gp120 shedding, gp41 is exposed and elicits membrane fusion via a cascade of conformational changes. In contrast to prefusion and postfusion conformation, little is known about any intermediate conformation. We report on a solution NMR investigation of homotrimeric HIV-1 gp41(27-194), comprising the transmembrane region and reconstituted in dodecyl phosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The protein is mainly α-helical, but experiences internal dynamics on the nanosecond and micro to millisecond time scale and transient α-helical behavior for certain residues in the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR). Strong lipid interactions are observed, in particular for C-terminal residues of the NHR and imunodominant loop region connecting NHR and C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR). Our data indicate an extended conformation with features anticipated for a prefusion intermediate, presumably in exchange with a lowly populated postfusion six-helical bundle conformation.

  3. Restriction of V3 region sequence divergence in the HIV-1 envelope gene during antiretroviral treatment in a cohort of recent seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) sequence diversity and divergence are associated with immune control during primary infection and progression to AIDS. Consensus sequencing or single genome amplification sequencing of the HIV-1 envelope (env) gene, in particular the variable (V) regions, is used as a marker for HIV-1 genome diversity, but population diversity is only minimally, or semi-quantitatively sampled using these methods. Results Here we use second generation deep sequencing to determine inter-and intra-patient sequence heterogeneity and to quantify minor variants in a cohort of individuals either receiving or not receiving antiretroviral treatment following seroconversion; the SPARTAC trial. We show, through a cross-sectional study of sequence diversity of the env V3 in 30 antiretroviral-naive patients during primary infection that considerable population structure diversity exists, with some individuals exhibiting highly constrained plasma virus diversity. Diversity was independent of clinical markers (viral load, time from seroconversion, CD4 cell count) of infection. Serial sampling over 60 weeks of non-treated individuals that define three initially different diversity profiles showed that complex patterns of continuing HIV-1 sequence diversification and divergence could be readily detected. Evidence for minor sequence turnover, emergence of new variants and re-emergence of archived variants could be inferred from this analysis. Analysis of viral divergence over the same time period in patients who received short (12 weeks, ART12) or long course antiretroviral therapy (48 weeks, ART48) and a non-treated control group revealed that ART48 successfully suppressed viral divergence while ART12 did not have a significant effect. Conclusions Deep sequencing is a sensitive and reliable method for investigating the diversity of the env V3 as an important component of HIV-1 genome diversity. Detailed insights into the complex

  4. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for the establishment of infant infection. We examined the efficiency of virologic functions required for initiation of infection in the gastrointestinal tract and the neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 Env variants isolated from milk of three postnatally-transmitting mothers (n=13 viruses), five clinically-matched nontransmitting mothers (n=16 viruses), and seven postnatally-infected infants (n = 7 postnatally-transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses). Results There was no difference in the efficiency of epithelial cell interactions between Env virus variants from the breast milk of transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. Moreover, there was similar efficiency of DC-mediated trans-infection, CCR5-usage, target cell fusion, and infectivity between HIV-1 Env-pseudoviruses from nontransmitting mothers and postnatal T/F viruses. Milk Env-pseudoviruses were generally sensitive to neutralization by autologous maternal plasma and resistant to breast milk neutralization. Infant T/F Env-pseudoviruses were equally sensitive to neutralization by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as compared to nontransmitted breast milk Env variants. Conclusion Postnatally-T/F Env variants do not appear to possess a superior ability to interact with and cross a mucosal barrier or an exceptional resistance to neutralization that define their capability to initiate infection across the infant gastrointestinal tract in the setting of preexisting maternal antibodies. PMID:23305422

  5. Delineating CD4 dependency of HIV-1: Adaptation to infect low level CD4 expressing target cells widens cellular tropism but severely impacts on envelope functionality

    PubMed Central

    Beauparlant, David; Rusert, Peter; Magnus, Carsten; Weber, Jacqueline; Uhr, Therese; Clapham, Paul R.; Metzner, Karin J.

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus’ predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain. Adaptation to CD4low targets proved to severely alter envelope functions including trimer opening as indicated by a higher affinity to CD4 and loss in shielding against neutralizing antibodies. We observed a strikingly decreased infectivity on CD4high target cells, but sustained infectivity on CD4low targets, including macrophages. Intriguingly, the adaptation to CD4low targets altered the kinetic of the entry process, leading to rapid CD4 engagement and an extended transition time between CD4 and CCR5 binding during entry. This phenotype was also observed for certain central nervous system (CNS) derived macrophage-tropic viruses, highlighting that the functional perturbation we defined upon in vitro adaptation to CD4low targets occurs in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD4low adapted envelopes may exhibit severe deficiencies in entry fitness and shielding early in their evolution. Considering this, adaptation to CD4low targets may preferentially occur in a sheltered and immune-privileged environment such as the CNS to allow fitness restoring compensatory mutations to occur. PMID:28264054

  6. Intravaginal immunization using the recombinant HIV-1 clade-C trimeric envelope glycoprotein CN54gp140 formulated within lyophilized solid dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Louise; Curran, Rhonda M.; Tregoning, John S.; McKay, Paul F.; Cole, Tom; Morrow, Ryan J.; Kett, Vicky L.; Andrews, Gavin P.; Woolfson, A. David; Malcolm, R. Karl; Shattock, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine-mediated prevention of primary HIV-1 infection at the heterosexual mucosal portal of entry may be facilitated by highly optimised formulations or drug delivery devices for intravaginal (i.vag) immunization. Previously we described hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-based rheologically structured gel vehicles (RSVs) for vaginal immunization of an HIV-1 vaccine candidate, a soluble recombinant trimeric HIV-1 clade-C envelope glycoprotein designated CN54gp140. Here we investigated the efficacy of lyophilized solid dosage formulations (LSDFs) for prolonging antigen stability and as i.vag delivery modalities. LSDFs were designed and developed that upon i.vag administration they would reconstitute with the imbibing of vaginal fluid to mucoadhesive, site-retentive semi-solids. Mice were immunized with lyophilized equivalents of (i) RSVs, (ii) modified versions of the RSVs more suited to lyophilization (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC)-based gels) and (iii) Carbopol® gel, all containing CN54gp140. NaCMC-based LSDFs provided significantly enhanced antigen stability compared to aqueous-based RSVs. Rheological analysis indicated the NaCMC-based LSDFs would offer enhanced vaginal retention in woman compared to more conventional vaginal gel formulations. All LSDFs were well tolerated in the mouse model. Following i.vag administration, all LSDFs boosted systemic CN54gp140-specific antibody responses in sub-cutaneously primed mice. Induction of CN54gp140-specific antibody responses in the female genital tract was evident. Of all the LSDFs the fastest releasing which was lyophilized Carbopol® gel elicited immune responses comparable to buffer instillation of antigen suggesting that rather than slower sustained release, initial high burst release from the LSDFs may suffice. The boosting of specific immune responses upon i.vag administration indicates that LSDFs are viable mucosal vaccine delivery modalities promoting antigen stability and facilitating intimate exposure of

  7. Vaccinia and other viruses with available vaccines show marked homology with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein: the prospect of using existing vaccines to stem the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Carter, C J Chris

    2012-04-01

    Cross-reactive immunity occurs when infection with or vaccination against one virus protects against another related family member. A search for homologues of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein revealed that it is composed of thousands of intercalating and overlapping viral matches of pentapeptide or longer gapped consensi, belonging to over 70% of the currently sequenced virome, infecting all kingdoms from bacteria to man. It was also highly homologous to proteins from the Visna/Maedi and other ovine viruses, while other proteins (nef/tat/gag/pol) were homologous to proteins from the equine infectious anaemia virus and HTLV-2/HTLV-3 viruses. This phenomenon suggests that horizontal gene transfer from coinfecting RNA and DNA viruses to retroviruses is extensive, providing a route for the subsequent insertion of non-retroviral genes into human and other genomes via retroviral integration. This homology includes all viruses for which vaccines already exist. Cross-reactive immunity may be operative in AIDS, as Vaccinia vaccination decreases viral replication in HIV-1 infected patients' cells, for the CCR5 tropic form. Measles, Dengue virus, or GB virus C infections also decrease the HIV-1 viral load. A resumption of Vaccinia/smallpox vaccination might be expected to have a significant effect on the AIDS pandemic, and a careful study of the potential uses of other existing viral and bacterial vaccines merits close attention. This phenomenon may also be relevant to other recalcitrant viruses, bacteria, and parasites for which no vaccine exists and the armory of existing vaccines may have a role to play in diseases other than those for which they were designed.

  8. A Chimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer with an Embedded Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Domain Induces Enhanced Antibody and T Cell Responses*

    PubMed Central

    van Montfort, Thijs; Melchers, Mark; Isik, Gözde; Menis, Sergey; Huang, Po-Ssu; Matthews, Katie; Michael, Elizabeth; Berkhout, Ben; Schief, William R.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2011-01-01

    An effective HIV-1 vaccine should ideally induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses that provide sterilizing immunity over a prolonged period. Current HIV-1 vaccines have failed in inducing such immunity. The viral envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) can be targeted by neutralizing antibodies to block infection, but several Env properties limit the ability to induce an antibody response of sufficient quantity and quality. We hypothesized that Env immunogenicity could be improved by embedding an immunostimulatory protein domain within its sequence. A stabilized Env trimer was therefore engineered with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inserted into the V1V2 domain of gp120. Probing with neutralizing antibodies showed that both the Env and GM-CSF components of the chimeric protein were folded correctly. Furthermore, the embedded GM-CSF domain was functional as a cytokine in vitro. Mouse immunization studies demonstrated that chimeric EnvGM-CSF enhanced Env-specific antibody and T cell responses compared with wild-type Env. Collectively, these results show that targeting and activation of immune cells using engineered cytokine domains within the protein can improve the immunogenicity of Env subunit vaccines. PMID:21515681

  9. Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope

    PubMed Central

    Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Han, Dong P.; Kim, Soon J.; Park, Hanna; Ansari, Rais; Montefiori, David C.; Cho, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins encompassing C-terminal 30, 64, 100, 142, or 172 (full-length) amino acids of gp41 ectodomain from M group consensus envelope sequence. Antibody responses in HIV-1-infected patients were evaluated using these proteins and overlapping peptides. We found (i) antibody responses against different regions of gp41 varied tremendously among individual patients, (ii) patients with stronger antibody responses against membrane-proximal external region exhibit broader and more potent neutralizing activity, and (iii) several patients mounted antibodies against epitopes that are near, or overlap with, those targeted by 2F5 or 4E10. These soluble gp41 fusion proteins could be an important source of antigens for future vaccine development efforts. PMID:18068750

  10. Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Han, Dong P.; Kim, Soon J.; Park, Hanna; Ansari, Rais; Montefiori, David C.; Cho, Michael W.

    2008-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins encompassing C-terminal 30, 64, 100, 142, or 172 (full-length) amino acids of gp41 ectodomain from M group consensus envelope sequence. Antibody responses in HIV-1-infected patients were evaluated using these proteins and overlapping peptides. We found (i) antibody responses against different regions of gp41 varied tremendously among individual patients, (ii) patients with stronger antibody responses against membrane-proximal external region exhibit broader and more potent neutralizing activity, and (iii) several patients mounted antibodies against epitopes that are near, or overlap with, those targeted by 2F5 or 4E10. These soluble gp41 fusion proteins could be an important source of antigens for future vaccine development efforts.

  11. Vaginal delivery of the recombinant HIV-1 clade-C trimeric gp140 envelope protein CN54gp140 within novel rheologically structured vehicles elicits specific immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Rhonda M.; Donnelly, Louise; Morrow, Ryan J.; Fraser, Carol; Andrews, Gavin; Cranage, Martin; Malcolm, R. Karl; Shattock, Robin J.; Woolfson, A. David

    2009-01-01

    Rheologically structured vehicle (RSV) gels were developed as delivery systems for vaginal mucosal vaccination with an HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140). RSVs comprised a mucoadhesive matrix-forming and vaginal fluid absorbing polymer. The mucoadhesive and rheological properties of the RSVs were evaluated in vitro, and the distribution, antigenicity and release of CN54gp140 were analysed by ELISA. CN54gp140 was uniformly distributed within the RSVs and continuously released in vitro in an antigenically intact form over 24 h. Vaginal administration to rabbits induced specific serum IgG, and IgG and IgA in genital tract secretions. The RSVs are a viable delivery modality for vaginal immunization. PMID:19747994

  12. The Mitochondrial Translocator Protein, TSPO, Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Biosynthesis via the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Dang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is necessary for viral entry and replication. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. The glycoprotein folding in the ER is controlled by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which specifically targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Previously, we reported that HIV-1 replication is restricted in the human CD4+ T cell line CEM.NKR (NKR). To understand this mechanism, we first analyzed cellular protein expression in NKR cells and discovered that levels of the mitochondrial translocator protein TSPO were upregulated by ∼64-fold. Notably, when NKR cells were treated with TSPO antagonist PK-11195, Ro5-4864, or diazepam, HIV restriction was completely disrupted, and TSPO knockdown by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) achieved a similar effect. We next analyzed viral protein expression, and, interestingly, we discovered that Env expression was specifically inhibited. Both TSPO knockdown and treatment with TSPO antagonist could restore Env expression in NKR cells. We further discovered that Env proteins were rapidly degraded and that kifunensine, an ERAD pathway inhibitor, could restore Env expression and viral replication, indicating that Env proteins were misfolded and degraded through the ERAD pathway in NKR cells. We also knocked out the TSPO gene in 293T cells using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]/CRISPR-associated-9) technology and found that TSPO could similarly inhibit Env expression in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TSPO inhibits Env protein expression through the ERAD pathway and suggest that mitochondria play an important role in regulating the Env folding process. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is absolutely required for viral infection, and an understanding of its expression pathway in infected cells will identify new targets for antiretroviral

  13. Pre-Clinical Development of a Recombinant, Replication-Competent Adenovirus Serotype 4 Vector Vaccine Expressing HIV-1 Envelope 1086 Clade C

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeff; Mendy, Jason; Vang, Lo; Avanzini, Jenny B.; Garduno, Fermin; Manayani, Darly J.; Ishioka, Glenn; Farness, Peggy; Ping, Li-Hua; Swanstrom, Ronald; Parks, Robert; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia; Smith, Jonathan; Gurwith, Marc; Mayall, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a well-acknowledged need for an effective AIDS vaccine that protects against HIV-1 infection or limits in vivo viral replication. The objective of these studies is to develop a replication-competent, vaccine vector based on the adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) virus expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env) 1086 clade C glycoprotein. Ad4 recombinant vectors expressing Env gp160 (Ad4Env160), Env gp140 (Ad4Env140), and Env gp120 (Ad4Env120) were evaluated. Methods The recombinant Ad4 vectors were generated with a full deletion of the E3 region of Ad4 to accommodate the env gene sequences. The vaccine candidates were assessed in vitro following infection of A549 cells for Env-specific protein expression and for posttranslational transport to the cell surface as monitored by the binding of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The capacity of the Ad4Env vaccines to induce humoral immunity was evaluated in rabbits for Env gp140 and V1V2-specific binding antibodies, and HIV-1 pseudovirus neutralization. Mice immunized with the Ad4Env160 vaccine were assessed for IFNγ T cell responses specific for overlapping Env peptide sets. Results Robust Env protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis and recognition of cell surface Env gp160 by multiple bNAbs. Ad4Env vaccines induced humoral immune responses in rabbits that recognized Env 1086 gp140 and V1V2 polypeptide sequences derived from 1086 clade C, A244 clade AE, and gp70 V1V2 CASE A2 clade B fusion protein. The immune sera efficiently neutralized tier 1 clade C pseudovirus MW965.26 and neutralized the homologous and heterologous tier 2 pseudoviruses to a lesser extent. Env-specific T cell responses were also induced in mice following Ad4Env160 vector immunization. Conclusions The Ad4Env vaccine vectors express high levels of Env glycoprotein and induce both Env-specific humoral and cellular immunity thus supporting further development of this new Ad4 HIV-1 Env vaccine platform in Phase 1 clinical

  14. Vaccination With Heterologous HIV-1 Envelope Sequences and Heterologous Adenovirus Vectors Increases T-Cell Responses to Conserved Regions: HVTN 083

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen R.; Moodie, Zoe; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J.; Morgan, Cecilia; Wilck, Marissa B.; Hammer, Scott M.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Swann, Edith M.; Grant, Shannon; Ahmed, Hasan; Li, Fusheng; Hertz, Tomer; Self, Steven G.; Friedrich, David; Frahm, Nicole; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hural, John; Graham, Barney S.; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasing the breadth of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine-elicited immune responses or targeting conserved regions may improve coverage of circulating strains. HIV Vaccine Trials Network 083 tested whether cellular immune responses with these features are induced by prime-boost strategies, using heterologous vectors, heterologous inserts, or a combination of both. Methods. A total of 180 participants were randomly assigned to receive combinations of adenovirus vectors (Ad5 or Ad35) and HIV-1 envelope (Env) gene inserts (clade A or B) in a prime-boost regimen. Results. T-cell responses to heterologous and homologous insert regimens targeted a similar number of epitopes (ratio of means, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6–1.6; P = .91), but heterologous insert regimens induced significantly more epitopes that were shared between EnvA and EnvB than homologous insert regimens (ratio of means, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7; P = .01). Participants in the heterologous versus homologous insert groups had T-cell responses that targeted epitopes with greater evolutionary conservation (mean entropy [±SD], 0.32 ± 0.1 bits; P = .003), and epitopes recognized by responders provided higher coverage (49%; P = .035). Heterologous vector regimens had higher numbers of total, EnvA, and EnvB epitopes than homologous vector regimens (P = .02, .044, and .045, respectively). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that vaccination with heterologous insert prime boosting increased T-cell responses to shared epitopes, while heterologous vector prime boosting increased the number of T-cell epitopes recognized. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01095224. PMID:26475930

  15. The V4 and V5 Variable Loops of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Are Tolerant to Insertion of Green Fluorescent Protein and Are Useful Targets for Labeling.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Shuhei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Matsuda, Zene

    2015-06-12

    The mature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) comprises the non-covalently associated gp120 and gp41 subunits generated from the gp160 precursor. Recent structural analyses have provided quaternary structural models for gp120/gp41 trimers, including the variable loops (V1-V5) of gp120. In these models, the V3 loop is located under V1/V2 at the apical center of the Env trimer, and the V4 and V5 loops project outward from the trimeric protomers. In addition, the V4 and V5 loops are predicted to have less movement upon receptor binding during membrane fusion events. We performed insertional mutagenesis using a GFP variant, GFPOPT, placed into the variable loops of HXB2 gp120. This allowed us to evaluate the current structural models and to simultaneously generate a GFP-tagged HIV-1 Env, which was useful for image analyses. All GFP-inserted mutants showed similar levels of whole-cell expression, although certain mutants, particularly V3 mutants, showed lower levels of cell surface expression. Functional evaluation of their fusogenicities in cell-cell and virus-like particle-cell fusion assays revealed that V3 was the most sensitive to the insertion and that the V1/V2 loops were less sensitive than V3. The V4 and V5 loops were the most tolerant to insertion, and certain tag proteins other than GFPOPT could also be inserted without functional consequences. Our results support the current structural models and provide a GFPOPT-tagged Env construct for imaging studies.

  16. N-terminal substitutions in HIV-1 gp41 reduce the expression of non-trimeric envelope glycoproteins on the virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Antu K.; David, Kathryn B.; Ray, Neelanjana; Ketas, Thomas J.; Klasse, Per J.; Doms, Robert W.; Moore, John P.

    2008-03-01

    The native, functional HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex is a trimer of two non-covalently associated subunits: the gp120 surface glycoprotein and the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein. However, various non-functional forms of Env are present on virus particles and HIV-1-infected cells, some of which probably arise as the native complex decays. The aberrant forms include gp120-gp41 monomers and oligomers, as well as gp41 subunits from which gp120 has dissociated. The presence of non-functional Env creates binding sites for antibodies that do not recognize native Env complexes and that are, therefore, non-neutralizing. Non-native Env forms (monomers, dimers, tetramers and aggregates) can also arise when soluble gp140 proteins, lacking the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of gp41, are expressed for vaccine studies. We recently identified five amino acids in the gp41 N-terminal region (I535, Q543, S553, K567 and R588) that promote gp140 trimerization. We have now studied their influence on the function and antigenic properties of JR-FL Env expressed on the surfaces of pseudoviruses and Env-transfected cells. The 5 substitutions in gp41 reduce the expression of non-trimeric gp160s, without affecting trimer levels. Pseudovirions bearing the mutant Env are fully infectious with similar kinetics of Env-mediated fusion. Various non-neutralizing antibodies bind less strongly to the Env mutant, but neutralizing antibody binding is unaffected. Hence the gp41 substitutions do not adversely affect Env structure, supporting their use for making new Env-based vaccines. The mutant Env might also help in studies intended to correlate antibody binding to virus neutralization. Of note is that the 5 residues are much more frequent, individually or collectively, in viruses from subtypes other than B.

  17. Unique C2V3 Sequence in HIV-1 Envelope Obtained from Broadly Neutralizing Plasma of a Slow Progressing Patient Conferred Enhanced Virus Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Rajesh; Das, Lipsa; Choudhary, Ipsita; Sharma, Deepak; Paranjape, Ramesh; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2012-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 usually develops in chronic infections. Here, we examined the basis of enhanced sensitivity of an env clone amplified from cross neutralizing plasma of an antiretroviral naïve chronically infected Indian patient (ID50 >600-fold higher compared to other autologous env clones). The enhanced autologous neutralization of pseudotyped viruses expressing the sensitive envelope (Env) was associated with increased sensitivity to reagents and monoclonal antibodies targeting distinct sites in Env. Chimeric viruses constructed by swapping fragments of sensitive Env into resistant Env backbone revealed that the presence of unique residues within C2V3 region of gp120 governed increased neutralization. The enhanced virus neutralization was also associated with low CD4 dependence as well as increased binding of Env trimers to IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 and was independent of gp120 shedding. Our data highlighted vulnerabilities in the Env obtained from cross neutralizing plasma associated with the exposure of discontinuous neutralizing epitopes and enhanced autologous neutralization. Such information may aid in Env-based vaccine immunogen design. PMID:23056416

  18. Optimized and enhanced DNA plasmid vector based in vivo construction of a neutralizing anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein Fab.

    PubMed

    Muthumani, Kar; Flingai, Seleeke; Wise, Megan; Tingey, Colleen; Ugen, Kenneth E; Weiner, David B

    2013-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody preparations have demonstrated considerable clinical utility in the treatment of specific malignancies, as well as inflammatory and infectious diseases. Antibodies are conventionally delivered by passive administration, typically requiring costly large-scale laboratory development and production. Additional limitations include the necessity for repeat administrations, and the length of in vivo potency. Therefore, the development of methods to generate therapeutic antibodies and antibody like molecules in vivo, distinct from an active antigen-based immunization strategy, would have considerable clinical utility. In fact, adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector mediated delivery of immunoglobulin genes with subsequent generation of functional antibodies has recently been developed. As well, anon-viral vector mediated nucleic acid based delivery technology could permit the generation of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies in vivo, obviating potential safety issues associated with viral vector based gene delivery. This delivery strategy has limitations as well, mainly due to very low in vivo production and expression of protein from the delivered gene. In the study reported here we have constructed an "enhanced and optimized" DNA plasmid technology to generate immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (i.e., Fab fragments) from an established neutralizing anti-HIV envelope glycoprotein monoclonal antibody (VRC01). This "enhanced" DNA (E-DNA) plasmid technology includes codon/RNA optimization, leader sequence utilization, as well as targeted potentiation of delivery and expression of the Fab immunoglobulin genes through use of "adaptive" in vivo electroporation. The results demonstrate that delivery by this method of a single administration of the optimized Fab expressing constructs resulted in generation of Fab molecules in mouse sera possessing high antigen specific binding and HIV neutralization activity for at least 7 d after injection, against diverse

  19. Modulation of the effector function of human macrophages for Histoplasma capsulatum by HIV-1. Role of the envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, S; Newman, S L

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated that monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi) from HIV+ individuals are deficient in their capacity to phagocytose Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) yeasts, and are more permissive for the intracellular growth of Hc. To determine whether these defects in Mphi function were caused by HIV infection of the Mphi and/or by pathological events associated with HIV infection, cultured normal human Mphi were infected with the HIV-1BaL strain. Virus production, quantified by reverse transcriptase activity and p24 antigen, was evident on day 8 after infection and peaked on day 16. On days 12, 16, and 20 after infection, HIV-1-infected Mphi were deficient in their capacity to recognize and bind Hc yeasts compared with control Mphi, and also were more permissive for the intracellular growth of Hc. Culture of normal Mphi with the envelope glycoprotein gp120 inhibited phagocytosis of Hc yeasts by Mphi in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not cause more rapid intracellular growth of Hc. Normal Mphi cultured in the serum of HIV+ individuals with impaired Mphi function subsequently were deficient in their capacity to phagocytose Hc yeasts, and were more permissive for the intracellular growth of yeasts compared with Mphi cultured in normal serum. Conversely, culture of normal Mphi in the serum of HIV+ patients with normal Mphi function did not affect the interaction of Hc yeasts with Mphi. Moreover, when Mphi from HIV+ individuals that were initially defective in host defense against Hc were cultured in normal HIV- serum, normal Mphi function was demonstrated. Adsorption of gp120 from the serum of two HIV+ patients removed the capacity of the serum to cause a Mphi defect in phagocytosis of Hc, but had no effect on the capacity of the serum to cause accelerated intracellular growth. These data demonstrate that observed defects in Mphi interaction with Hc yeasts may be caused by gp120 and other, as yet unknown serum component(s) probably released into serum by HIV

  20. The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Morgane; Masquelier, Cécile; Beraud, Cyprien; Rybicki, Arkadiusz; Servais, Jean-Yves; Iserentant, Gilles; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines. PMID:27598717

  1. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Resistance to Monoclonal Antibody 2G12 Is Subject-Specific and Context-Dependent in Macaques and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Delphine C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS). Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIVSF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways. PMID:24040404

  2. Antibodies against Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man oligosaccharide structures recognize envelope glycoproteins from HIV-1 and SIV strains

    PubMed Central

    Luallen, Robert J; Agrawal-Gamse, Caroline; Fu, Hu; Smith, David F; Doms, Robert W; Geng, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Design of an envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is complicated by the large number of N-linked glycans that coat the protein and serve as a barrier to antibody-mediated neutralization. Compared to normal mammalian glycoproteins, high-mannose-type glycans are disproportionately represented on the gp120 subunit of Env. These N-glycans serve as a target for a number of anti-HIV molecules that bind terminal α1,2-linked mannose residues, including lectins and the monoclonal antibody 2G12. We created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation mutant, Δmnn1Δmnn4, to expose numerous terminal Manα1,2-Man residues on endogenous hypermannosylated glycoproteins in the yeast cell wall. Immunization of rabbits with whole cells from this mutant induced antibodies that bound to a broad range of Env proteins, including clade A, B, and C of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The gp120 binding activity of these immune sera was due to mannose-specific immunoglobulin, as removal of high-mannose glycans and α1,2-linked mannoses from gp120 abrogated serum binding. Glycan array analysis with purified IgG demonstrated binding mainly to glycans with Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man trisaccharides. Altogether, these data demonstrate the immunogenicity of exposed polyvalent Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man structures on the yeast cell wall mannan and their ability to induce antibodies that bind to the HIV Env protein. The yeast strain and sera from this study will be useful tools for determining the type of mannose-specific response that is needed to develop neutralizing antibodies to the glycan shield of HIV. PMID:19920089

  3. The chemokine CXCL12 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 regulate spontaneous activity of Cajal-Retzius cells in opposite directions.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, Ivan; Beaumont, Michael; Maccaferri, Gianmaria

    2012-07-01

    Activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in Cajal–Retzius cells by CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) is important for controlling their excitability. CXCR4 is also a co-receptor for the glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of the envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and binding of gp120 to CXCR4 may produce pathological effects. In order to study CXCR4-dependent modulation of membrane excitability, we recorded in cell-attached configuration spontaneous action currents from hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare Cajal–Retzius cells of the CXCR4-EGFP mouse. CXCL12 (50 nM) powerfully inhibited firing independently of synaptic transmission, suggesting that CXCR4 regulates an intrinsic conductance. This effect was prevented by conditioning slices with BAPTA-AM (200 μM), and by blockers of the BK calcium-dependent potassium channels (TEA (1 mM), paxilline (10 μM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM)). In contrast, exposure to gp120 (pico- to nanomolar range, alone or in combination with soluble cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)), enhanced spontaneous firing frequency. This effect was prevented by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (1 μM) and was absent in EGFP-negative stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons. Increased excitability was prevented by treating slices with BAPTA-AM or bumetanide, suggesting that gp120 activates a mechanism that is both calcium- and chloride-dependent. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCL12 and gp120 modulate the excitability of Cajal–Retzius cells in opposite directions. We propose that CXCL12 and gp120 either generate calcium responses of different strength or activate distinct pools of intracellular calcium, leading to agonist-specific responses, mediated by BK channels in the case of CXCL12, and by a chloride-dependent mechanism in the case of gp120.

  4. The chemokine CXCL12 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 regulate spontaneous activity of Cajal–Retzius cells in opposite directions

    PubMed Central

    Marchionni, Ivan; Beaumont, Michael; Maccaferri, Gianmaria

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in Cajal–Retzius cells by CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) is important for controlling their excitability. CXCR4 is also a co-receptor for the glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of the envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and binding of gp120 to CXCR4 may produce pathological effects. In order to study CXCR4-dependent modulation of membrane excitability, we recorded in cell-attached configuration spontaneous action currents from hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare Cajal–Retzius cells of the CXCR4-EGFP mouse. CXCL12 (50 nm) powerfully inhibited firing independently of synaptic transmission, suggesting that CXCR4 regulates an intrinsic conductance. This effect was prevented by conditioning slices with BAPTA-AM (200 μm), and by blockers of the BK calcium-dependent potassium channels (TEA (1 mm), paxilline (10 μm) and iberiotoxin (100 nm)). In contrast, exposure to gp120 (pico- to nanomolar range, alone or in combination with soluble cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)), enhanced spontaneous firing frequency. This effect was prevented by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (1 μm) and was absent in EGFP-negative stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons. Increased excitability was prevented by treating slices with BAPTA-AM or bumetanide, suggesting that gp120 activates a mechanism that is both calcium- and chloride-dependent. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCL12 and gp120 modulate the excitability of Cajal–Retzius cells in opposite directions. We propose that CXCL12 and gp120 either generate calcium responses of different strength or activate distinct pools of intracellular calcium, leading to agonist-specific responses, mediated by BK channels in the case of CXCL12, and by a chloride-dependent mechanism in the case of gp120. PMID:22473778

  5. HIV-1 envelope-dependent restriction of CXCR4-using viruses in child but not adult untransformed CD4+ T-lymphocyte lines.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Samanta A; Brigida, Immacolata; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Ghezzi, Silvia; Rocchi, Alessia; Plebani, Anna; Vicenzi, Elisa; Aiuti, Alessandro; Poli, Guido

    2012-03-01

    Phytohemagglutin-stimulated child and adult leukocytes equally supported CCR5-dependent (R5) and CXCR4-dependent (X4) HIV-1 replication. In contrast, when phytohemagglutin-stimulated leukocytes from either healthy or congenitally immunodeficient children were cultured on feeder cells, they well supported R5, but not X4 HIV-1 replication, whereas both viruses equally spread in adult cells maintained in similar conditions. Both child and adult cells showed similar levels of proliferation and surface expression of CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD25, CD69, and HLA-DR. Lack of X4 HIV-1 replication in child versus adult cells was not caused by a differential expression of several known HIV-1 restriction factors. Similar levels of HIV DNA synthesis occurred in child cells infected with R5 and X4 viruses up to 48 hours after infection when R5 HIV-1 showed a significantly superior capacity to spread in culture than X4 virus. Cultured child cells well supported single round vescicular stomatitis virus-G pseudotyped virus replication, whereas superinfection of R5-infected cells with X4 HIV-1 (or vice versa) rescued the replication of this latter virus. Thus, child cells exposed to feeder cell culture represent a novel model system in which the superior capacity of R5 versus X4 viruses to spread can be investigated in primary, untransformed CD4(+) cells.

  6. HIV-1 envelope gp41 antibodies can originate from terminal ileum B cells that share cross-reactivity with commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Trama, Ashley M; Moody, M Anthony; Alam, S Munir; Jaeger, Frederick H; Lockwood, Bradley; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Stolarchuk, Christina; Scearce, Richard; Foulger, Andrew; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Jeffries, Thomas L; Wiehe, Kevin; Morris, Lynn; Lambson, Bronwen; Soderberg, Kelly; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Tomaras, Georgia D; Vandergrift, Nathan; Jackson, Katherine J L; Roskin, Krishna M; Boyd, Scott D; Kepler, Thomas B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F

    2014-08-13

    Monoclonal antibodies derived from blood plasma cells of acute HIV-1-infected individuals are predominantly targeted to the HIV Env gp41 and cross-reactive with commensal bacteria. To understand this phenomenon, we examined anti-HIV responses in ileum B cells using recombinant antibody technology and probed their relationship to commensal bacteria. The dominant ileum B cell response was to Env gp41. Remarkably, a majority (82%) of the ileum anti-gp41 antibodies cross-reacted with commensal bacteria, and of those, 43% showed non-HIV-1 antigen polyreactivity. Pyrosequencing revealed shared HIV-1 antibody clonal lineages between ileum and blood. Mutated immunoglobulin G antibodies cross-reactive with both Env gp41 and microbiota could also be isolated from the ileum of HIV-1 uninfected individuals. Thus, the gp41 commensal bacterial antigen cross-reactive antibodies originate in the intestine, and the gp41 Env response in HIV-1 infection can be derived from a preinfection memory B cell pool triggered by commensal bacteria that cross-react with Env.

  7. Specific interaction of CXCR4 with CD4 and CD8{alpha}: Functional analysis of the CD4/CXCR4 interaction in the context of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Basmaciogullari, Stephane . E-mail: basmaciogullari@cochin.inserm.fr; Pacheco, Beatriz; Bour, Stephan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-09-15

    We investigated possible interactions between HIV-1 receptor (CD4) and the main coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. We found that CD4 and CXCR4 coexpressed in 293T cells form a complex that can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of either protein. Mutagenesis revealed that the CD4/CXCR4 interaction maps to two previously uncharacterized basic motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion was found to be independent of the ability of CD4 and CXCR4 to interact, whether fusion was studied in a virus-cell or a cell-cell model. However, this interaction might explain the adaptation of HIV-1 to CXCR4 as an alternative to CCR5. We found that CXCR4 also interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of CD8{alpha} in a way that is similar to the CD4/CXCR4 interaction. The CD4/CXCR4 and CD8{alpha}/CXCR4 interactions may thus be involved in cellular signaling pathways shared by the CD4 and CD8{alpha} molecules.

  8. Thymic pathogenicity of an HIV-1 envelope is associated with increased CXCR4 binding efficiency and V5-gp41-dependent activity, but not V1/V2-associated CD4 binding efficiency and viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, Eric G.; Coffield, Vernon M.; Su Lishan . E-mail: lsu@med.unc.edu

    2005-06-05

    We previously described a thymus-tropic HIV-1 envelope (R3A Env) from a rapid progressor obtained at the time of transmission. An HIV-1 molecular recombinant with the R3A Env supported extensive replication and pathogenesis in the thymus and did not require Nef. Another Env from the same patient did not display the same thymus-tropic pathogenesis (R3B Env). Here, we show that relative to R3B Env, R3A Env enhances viral entry of T cells, increases fusion-induced cytopathicity, and shows elevated binding efficiency for both CD4 and CXCR4, but not CCR5, in vitro. We created chimeric envelopes to determine the region(s) responsible for each in vitro phenotype and for thymic pathogenesis. Surprisingly, while V1/V2 contributed to enhanced viral entry, CD4 binding efficiency, and cytopathicity in vitro, it made no contribution to thymic pathogenesis. Rather, CXCR4 binding efficiency and V5-gp41-associated activity appear to independently contribute to thymic pathogenesis of the R3A Env. These data highlight the contribution of unique HIV pathogenic factors in the thymic microenvironment and suggest that novel mechanisms may be involved in Env pathogenic activity in vivo.

  9. Thymic pathogenicity of an HIV-1 envelope is associated with increased CXCR4 binding efficiency and V5-gp41-dependent activity, but not V1/V2-associated CD4 binding efficiency and viral entry.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Eric G; Coffield, Vernon M; Su, Lishan

    2005-06-05

    We previously described a thymus-tropic HIV-1 envelope (R3A Env) from a rapid progressor obtained at the time of transmission. An HIV-1 molecular recombinant with the R3A Env supported extensive replication and pathogenesis in the thymus and did not require Nef. Another Env from the same patient did not display the same thymus-tropic pathogenesis (R3B Env). Here, we show that relative to R3B Env, R3A Env enhances viral entry of T cells, increases fusion-induced cytopathicity, and shows elevated binding efficiency for both CD4 and CXCR4, but not CCR5, in vitro. We created chimeric envelopes to determine the region(s) responsible for each in vitro phenotype and for thymic pathogenesis. Surprisingly, while V1/V2 contributed to enhanced viral entry, CD4 binding efficiency, and cytopathicity in vitro, it made no contribution to thymic pathogenesis. Rather, CXCR4 binding efficiency and V5-gp41-associated activity appear to independently contribute to thymic pathogenesis of the R3A Env. These data highlight the contribution of unique HIV pathogenic factors in the thymic microenvironment and suggest that novel mechanisms may be involved in Env pathogenic activity in vivo.

  10. Diversification in the HIV-1 Envelope Hyper-variable Domains V2, V4, and V5 and Higher Probability of Transmitted/Founder Envelope Glycosylation Favor the Development of Heterologous Neutralization Breadth.

    PubMed

    Smith, S Abigail; Burton, Samantha L; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Price, Matt; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2016-11-01

    A recent study of plasma neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected individuals at nine International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) sites reported that viral load, HLA-A*03 genotype, and subtype C infection were strongly associated with the development of neutralization breadth. Here, we refine the findings of that study by analyzing the impact of the transmitted/founder (T/F) envelope (Env), early Env diversification, and autologous neutralization on the development of plasma neutralization breadth in 21 participants identified during recent infection at two of those sites: Kigali, Rwanda (n = 9) and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 12). Single-genome analysis of full-length T/F Env sequences revealed that all 21 individuals were infected with a highly homogeneous population of viral variants, which were categorized as subtype C (n = 12), A1 (n = 7), or recombinant AC (n = 2). An extensive amino acid sequence-based analysis of variable loop lengths and glycosylation patterns in the T/F Envs revealed that a lower ratio of NXS to NXT-encoded glycan motifs correlated with neutralization breadth. Further analysis comparing amino acid sequence changes, insertions/deletions, and glycan motif alterations between the T/F Env and autologous early Env variants revealed that extensive diversification focused in the V2, V4, and V5 regions of gp120, accompanied by contemporaneous viral escape, significantly favored the development of breadth. These results suggest that more efficient glycosylation of subtype A and C T/F Envs through fewer NXS-encoded glycan sites is more likely to elicit antibodies that can transition from autologous to heterologous neutralizing activity following exposure to gp120 diversification. This initiates an Env-antibody co-evolution cycle that increases neutralization breadth, and is further augmented over time by additional viral and host factors. These findings suggest that understanding how variation in the efficiency of site-specific glycosylation influences

  11. Diversification in the HIV-1 Envelope Hyper-variable Domains V2, V4, and V5 and Higher Probability of Transmitted/Founder Envelope Glycosylation Favor the Development of Heterologous Neutralization Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S. Abigail; Burton, Samantha L.; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent study of plasma neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected individuals at nine International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) sites reported that viral load, HLA-A*03 genotype, and subtype C infection were strongly associated with the development of neutralization breadth. Here, we refine the findings of that study by analyzing the impact of the transmitted/founder (T/F) envelope (Env), early Env diversification, and autologous neutralization on the development of plasma neutralization breadth in 21 participants identified during recent infection at two of those sites: Kigali, Rwanda (n = 9) and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 12). Single-genome analysis of full-length T/F Env sequences revealed that all 21 individuals were infected with a highly homogeneous population of viral variants, which were categorized as subtype C (n = 12), A1 (n = 7), or recombinant AC (n = 2). An extensive amino acid sequence-based analysis of variable loop lengths and glycosylation patterns in the T/F Envs revealed that a lower ratio of NXS to NXT-encoded glycan motifs correlated with neutralization breadth. Further analysis comparing amino acid sequence changes, insertions/deletions, and glycan motif alterations between the T/F Env and autologous early Env variants revealed that extensive diversification focused in the V2, V4, and V5 regions of gp120, accompanied by contemporaneous viral escape, significantly favored the development of breadth. These results suggest that more efficient glycosylation of subtype A and C T/F Envs through fewer NXS-encoded glycan sites is more likely to elicit antibodies that can transition from autologous to heterologous neutralizing activity following exposure to gp120 diversification. This initiates an Env-antibody co-evolution cycle that increases neutralization breadth, and is further augmented over time by additional viral and host factors. These findings suggest that understanding how variation in the efficiency of site-specific glycosylation influences

  12. Phase II clinical trial of peptide cocktail therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: VENUS-PC study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hazama, Shoichi; Iguchi, Haruo; Uesugi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Kosei; Aruga, Atsushi; Hatori, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Umeda, Yuzo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroto; Sakata, Koichiro; Takenouchi, Hiroko; Matsui, Hiroto; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Iida, Michihisa; Koki, Yasunobu; Arima, Hideki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Tomio; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oka, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We previously conducted a phase I clinical trial combining the HLA-A*2402-restricted KIF20A-derived peptide vaccine with gemcitabine for advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) and confirmed its safety and immunogenicity in cancer patients. In this study, we conducted a multicenter, single-armed, phase II trial using two antiangiogenic cancer vaccines targeting VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in addition to the KIF20A peptide. We attempted to evaluate the clinical benefit of the cancer vaccination in combination with gemcitabine. Chemotherapy naïve PC patients were enrolled to evaluate primarily the 1-year survival rate, and secondarily overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR) and the peptide-specific immune responses. All enrolled patients received therapy without the HLA-A information, and the HLA genotypes were used for classification of the patients. Between June 2012 and May 2013, a total of 68 patients were enrolled. No severe systemic adverse effects of Grade 3 or higher related to these three peptides were observed. The 1-year survival rates between the HLA-A*2402-matched and -unmatched groups were not significantly different. In the HLA-A*2402 matched group, patients showing peptide-specific CTL induction for KIF20A or VEGFR1 showed a better prognosis compared to those without such induction (P = 0.023, P = 0.009, respectively). In the HLA-A*2402-matched group, the patients who showed a strong injection site reaction had a better survival rate (P = 0.017) compared to those with a weak or no injection site reaction. This phase II study demonstrated that this therapeutic peptide cocktail might be effective in patients who demonstrate peptide-specific immune reactions although predictive biomarkers are needed for patient selection in its further clinical application.

  13. The Thai phase III trial (RV144) vaccine regimen induces T cell responses that preferentially target epitopes within the V2 region of HIV-1 envelope.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mark S; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Chuenarom, Weerawan; Schuetz, Alexandra; Chantakulkij, Somsak; Nuntapinit, Bessara; Valencia-Micolta, Anais; Thelian, Doris; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Paris, Robert M; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Michael, Nelson L; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Mathieson, Bonnie; Marovich, Mary; Currier, Jeffrey R; Kim, Jerome H

    2012-05-15

    The Thai HIV phase III prime/boost vaccine trial (RV144) using ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E was, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate acquisition efficacy. Vaccine-induced, cell-mediated immune responses were assessed. T cell epitope mapping studies using IFN-γ ELISPOT was performed on PBMCs from HIV-1-uninfected vaccine (n = 61) and placebo (n = 10) recipients using HIV-1 Env peptides. Positive responses were measured in 25 (41%) vaccinees and were predominantly CD4(+) T cell-mediated. Responses were targeted within the HIV Env region, with 15 of 25 (60%) of vaccinees recognizing peptides derived from the V2 region of HIV-1 Env, which includes the α(4)β(7) integrin binding site. Intracellular cytokine staining confirmed that Env responses predominated (19 of 30; 63% of vaccine recipients) and were mediated by polyfunctional effector memory CD4(+) T cells, with the majority of responders producing both IL-2 and IFN-γ (12 of 19; 63%). HIV Env Ab titers were higher in subjects with IL-2 compared with those without IL-2-secreting HIV Env-specific effector memory T cells. Proliferation assays revealed that HIV Ag-specific T cells were CD4(+), with the majority (80%) expressing CD107a. HIV-specific T cell lines obtained from vaccine recipients confirmed V2 specificity, polyfunctionality, and functional cytolytic capacity. Although the RV144 T cell responses were modest in frequency compared with humoral immune responses, the CD4(+) T cell response was directed to HIV-1 Env and more particularly the V2 region.

  14. Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Santra, Sampa; Tomaras, Georgia D; Warrier, Ranjit; Nicely, Nathan I; Liao, Hua-Xin; Pollara, Justin; Liu, Pinghuang; Alam, S Munir; Zhang, Ruijun; Cocklin, Sarah L; Shen, Xiaoying; Duffy, Ryan; Xia, Shi-Mao; Schutte, Robert J; Pemble Iv, Charles W; Dennison, S Moses; Li, Hui; Chao, Andrew; Vidnovic, Kora; Evans, Abbey; Klein, Katja; Kumar, Amit; Robinson, James; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Montefiori, David C; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Soderberg, Kelly A; Giorgi, Elena E; Blair, Lily; Korber, Bette T; Moog, Christiane; Shattock, Robin J; Letvin, Norman L; Schmitz, Joern E; Moody, M A; Gao, Feng; Ferrari, Guido; Shaw, George M; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4+ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies that are most likely protective, they are not induced with current vaccine candidates. In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant region of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing mutations to enhance Fc function, was administered passively to rhesus macaques but afforded no protection against productive clinical infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. Enumeration of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed that passive infusion of each of the three antibodies significantly reduced the number of T/F genomes. Thus, some antibodies that bind HIV-1 Env but fail to neutralize virus in traditional neutralization assays may limit the number of T/F viruses involved in transmission without leading to enhancement of viral infection. For one of these mAbs, gp41 mAb 7B2, we provide the first co-crystal structure in complex with a common cyclical loop motif demonstrated to be critical for infection by other retroviruses.

  15. Human non-neutralizing HIV-1 envelope monoclonal antibodies limit the number of founder viruses during SHIV mucosal infection in rhesus macaques

    DOE PAGES

    Santra, Sampa; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Warrier, Ranjit; ...

    2015-08-03

    HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4⁺ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies that are most likely protective, they are not induced with current vaccine candidates. In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant regionmore » of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing mutations to enhance Fc function, was administered passively to rhesus macaques but afforded no protection against productive clinical infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. Enumeration of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed that passive infusion of each of the three antibodies significantly reduced the number of T/F genomes. Some antibodies that bind HIV-1 Env but fail to neutralize virus in traditional neutralization assays may limit the number of T/F viruses involved in transmission without leading to enhancement of viral infection. For one of these mAbs, gp41 mAb 7B2, we provide the first co-crystal structure in complex with a common cyclical loop motif demonstrated to be critical for infection by other retroviruses.« less

  16. Human non-neutralizing HIV-1 envelope monoclonal antibodies limit the number of founder viruses during SHIV mucosal infection in rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Sampa; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Warrier, Ranjit; Nicely, Nathan I.; Liao, Hua -Xin; Pollara, Justin; Liu, Pinghuang; Alam, S. Munir; Zhang, Ruijun; Cocklin, Sarah L.; Shen, Xiaoying; Duffy, Ryan; Xia, Shi -Mao; Schutte, Robert J.; Pemble IV, Charles W.; Dennison, S. Moses; Li, Hui; Chao, Andrew; Vidnovic, Kora; Evans, Abbey; Klein, Katja; Kumar, Amit; Robinson, James; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.; Montefiori, David C.; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Giorgi, Elena E.; Blair, Lily; Korber, Bette T.; Moog, Christiane; Shattock, Robin J.; Letvin, Norman L.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Moody, M. A.; Gao, Feng; Ferrari, Guido; Shaw, George M.; Haynes, Barton F.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2015-08-03

    HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4⁺ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies that are most likely protective, they are not induced with current vaccine candidates. In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant region of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing mutations to enhance Fc function, was administered passively to rhesus macaques but afforded no protection against productive clinical infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. Enumeration of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed that passive infusion of each of the three antibodies significantly reduced the number of T/F genomes. Some antibodies that bind HIV-1 Env but fail to neutralize virus in traditional neutralization assays may limit the number of T/F viruses involved in transmission without leading to enhancement of viral infection. For one of these mAbs, gp41 mAb 7B2, we provide the first co-crystal structure in complex with a common cyclical loop motif demonstrated to be critical for infection by other retroviruses.

  17. Insertion of primary syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI envelope V3 loops in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) LAI reduces neutralization sensitivity to autologous, but not heterologous, HIV-1 antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, E; de Jong, J; van Wijk, A; Bakker, M; Valk, M; Nara, P; Goudsmit, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of V3 loops from naturally occurring viruses on the neutralization sensitivity of a molecularly cloned virus. A selection of well-defined syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI V3 loops of a single human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individual (H594) and the V3 regions of two SI laboratory strains were inserted in an infectious molecular clone of human immunodeficiency type 1 LAI. Neutralization was performed with a heterologous serum pool and autologous patient serum, using the virus reduction neutralization assay and peripheral blood lymphocytes as target cells. High sensitivity of the chimeric viruses containing the laboratory strain V3 regions to neutralization by H594 sequential sera as well as the heterologous serum pool was found. A statistically significant correlation between the sensitivities of these viruses was seen. In contrast, insertion of the primary isolate NSI and SI envelope V3 loops significantly reduced the neutralization by autologous serum but not by the heterologous serum pool. No correlation was found between the neutralization of the viruses with laboratory strain-derived V3 regions and the viruses with primary isolate V3 domains. We conclude that heterologous antibodies are able to neutralize infectious molecular clones with V3 loops of both SI and NSI viruses, regardless of whether they originated from laboratory strains or primary isolates. However, serum of patient H594 discriminated between the two types of viruses and showed reduced neutralization of the viruses with the autologous NSI and SI primary isolate V3 loops. These results indicated that the neutralization sensitivity of the viruses depended on the capacity of the V3 region to influence the conformation of the virus envelope. These V3-dependent conformational changes partially explain the neutralization sensitivity of laboratory strains and the relative neutralization resistance of primary isolates. PMID:7666535

  18. The C-terminal tail of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D may exist in two conformations: an analysis of sequence, structure, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hollier, Mark J.; Dimmock, Nigel J. . E-mail: n.j.dimmock@warwick.ac.uk

    2005-07-05

    In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far been biologically based, and derived solely from T cell line-adapted (TCLA), B clade viruses. Here we have carried out sequence and theoretically based structural analyses of 357 gp41 C-terminal sequences of mainly primary isolates of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D. Data show that all these viruses have the potential to form a tail loop structure (the minor ectodomain) supported by three, {beta}-sheet, membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). This means that the first (N-terminal) tyrosine-based sorting signal of the gp41 tail is situated outside the cell membrane and is non-functional, and that gp41 that reaches the cell surface may be recycled back into the cytoplasm through the activity of the second tyrosine-sorting signal. However, we suggest that only a minority of cell-associated gp41 molecules - those destined for incorporation into virions - has 3 MSDs and the minor ectodomain. Most intracellular gp41 has the conventional single MSD, no minor ectodomain, a functional first tyrosine-based sorting signal, and in line with current thinking is degraded intracellularly. The gp41 structural diversity suggested here can be viewed as an evolutionary strategy to minimize HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein expression on the cell surface, and hence possible cytotoxicity and immune attack on the infected cell.

  19. A rev1-vpu polymorphism unique to HIV-1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev-vpu-env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Decker, Julie M.; Keele, Brandon F.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Grayson, Truman; McPherson, David T.; Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Williamson, Carolyn; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-02-20

    Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev-vpu-env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and vpu were in the same reading frame without an intervening stop codon. Disruption of the rev1-vpu fusion gene by frameshift mutation, stop codon, or abrogation of the rev initiation codon restored pseudovirion infectivity. Introduction of the fusion gene into wildtype Env cassettes severely compromised their function. The defect was not due to altered env and rev transcription or a dominant negative effect of the expressed fusion protein, but seemed to be caused by inefficient translation at the env initiation codon. Although the rev1-vpu polymorphism affects Env expression only in vitro, it can cause problems in studies requiring Env complementation, such as analyses of co-receptor usage and neutralization properties, since 3% of subtype A, 20% of subtype C and 5% of CRF01{sub A}/E viruses encode the fusion gene. A solution is to eliminate the rev initiation codon when amplifying rev-vpu-env cassettes since this increases Env expression irrespective of the presence of the polymorphism.

  20. Development of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41.

    PubMed

    Lu, K; Asyifah, M R; Shao, F; Zhang, D

    2014-06-01

    The HIV-1 envelope protein glycoprotein 41 (gp41) is crucial in the HIV-1 infection process, therefore gp41 has emerged as an attractive target for drug design against AIDS. During the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been made on developing inhibitors that can prevent the HIV-1 entry process via suppressing functional gp41. In this review, the development of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41 including peptide inhibitors, small molecule inhibitors, vaccines and neutralized antibodies will be discussed.

  1. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana B; Varano, Giuseppe P; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Hoefer, Melanie M; Kaul, Marcus

    2015-10-19

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine.

  2. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana B.; Varano, Giuseppe P.; de Rozieres, Cyrus M.; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C.; Dowling, Cari C.; Sejbuk, Natalia E.; Hoefer, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine. PMID:26482305

  3. Comparison of Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques of Transmitted-Founder, HIV-1 Group M Consensus, and Trivalent Mosaic Envelope Vaccines Formulated as a DNA Prime, NYVAC, and Envelope Protein Boost

    PubMed Central

    Hulot, Sandrine L.; Korber, Bette; Giorgi, Elena E.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Saunders, Kevin O.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh V.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Jim; Phogat, Sanjay; Jacobs, Bertram; Kibler, Karen; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gomez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano; Rosati, Margherita; Felber, Barbara K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey; Sutherland, Laura; Scearce, Richard; Letvin, Norman L.; Seaman, Michael S.; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine must induce protective antibody responses, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, that can be effective despite extraordinary diversity of HIV-1. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive breadth, to attempt to overcome the challenge of global HIV diversity. In this study, we have compared the immunogenicity of a transmitted-founder (T/F) B clade Env (B.1059), a global group M consensus Env (Con-S), and a global trivalent mosaic Env protein in rhesus macaques. These antigens were delivered using a DNA prime-recombinant NYVAC (rNYVAC) vector and Env protein boost vaccination strategy. While Con-S Env was a single sequence, mosaic immunogens were a set of three Envs optimized to include the most common forms of potential T cell epitopes. Both Con-S and mosaic sequences retained common amino acids encompassed by both antibody and T cell epitopes and were central to globally circulating strains. Mosaics and Con-S Envs expressed as full-length proteins bound well to a number of neutralizing antibodies with discontinuous epitopes. Also, both consensus and mosaic immunogens induced significantly higher gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses than B.1059 immunogen. Immunization with these proteins, particularly Con-S, also induced significantly higher neutralizing antibodies to viruses than B.1059 Env, primarily to tier 1 viruses. Both Con-S and mosaics stimulated more potent CD8-T cell responses against heterologous Envs than did B.1059. Both antibody and cellular data from this study strengthen the concept of using in silico-designed centralized immunogens for global HIV-1 vaccine development strategies. IMPORTANCE There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of vaccine-induced anti-Env antibody responses for preventing HIV-1

  4. HIV-1 adaptation to low levels of CCR5 results in V3 and V2 loop changes that increase envelope pathogenicity, CCR5 affinity and decrease susceptibility to Maraviroc.

    PubMed

    Garg, Himanshu; Lee, Raphael T C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Joshi, Anjali

    2016-06-01

    Variability in CCR5 levels in the human population is suggested to affect virus evolution, fitness and the course of HIV disease. We previously demonstrated that cell surface CCR5 levels directly affect HIV Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to understand HIV evolution in the presence of low levels of CCR5, mimicking the limiting CCR5 levels inherent to the host. HIV-1 adaptation in a T cell line expressing low levels of CCR5 resulted in two specific mutations; N302Y and E172K. The N302Y mutation led to accelerated virus replication, increase in Maraviroc IC50 and an increase in Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis in low CCR5 expressing cells. Analysis of subtype B sequences showed that N302Y is over-represented in CXCR4 tropic viruses in comparison to CCR5 tropic isolates. Considering the variability in CCR5 levels between individuals, our findings have implications for virus evolution, MVC susceptibility as well as HIV pathogenesis.

  5. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    In general terms, the replication cycle of lentiviruses, including HIV-1, closely resembles that of other retroviruses. There are, however, a number of unique aspects of HIV replication; for example, the HIVs and SIVs target receptors and coreceptors distinct from those used by other retroviruses. Lentiviruses encode a number of regulatory and accessory proteins not encoded by the genomes of the prototypical "simple" retroviruses. Of particular interest from the gene therapy perspective, lentiviruses possess the ability to productively infect some types of non-dividing cells. This chapter, while reiterating certain points discussed in Chapter 1, will attempt to focus on issues unique to HIV-1 replication. The HIV-1 genome encodes the major structural and non-structural proteins common to all replication-competent retroviruses (Fig. 1, and Chapter 1). From the 5'- to 3'-ends of the genome are found the gag (for group-specific antigen), pol (for polymerase), and env (for envelope glycoprotein) genes. The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor whose name, Pr55Gag, is based on its molecular weight. Pr55Gag is cleaved by the viral protease (PR) to the mature Gag proteins matrix (also known as MA or p17), capsid (CA or p24), nucleocapsid (NC or p7), and p6. Two spacer peptides, p2 and p1, are also generated upon Pr55Gag processing. The pol-encoded enzymes are initially synthesized as part of a large polyprotein precursor, Pr160GagPol, whose synthesis results from a rare frameshifting event during Pr55Gag translation. The individual pol-encoded enzymes, PR, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), are cleaved from Pr160GagPol by the viral PR. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins are also synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (Fig. 1). Unlike the Gag and Pol precursors, which are cleaved by the viral PR, the Env precursor, known as gp160, is processed by a cellular protease during Env trafficking to the cell surface, gp160 processing results in the generation of the

  6. Studies in a Murine Model Confirm the Safety of Griffithsin and Advocate Its Further Development as a Microbicide Targeting HIV-1 and Other Enveloped Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kouokam, Joseph Calvin; Lasnik, Amanda B.; Palmer, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT), a lectin from Griffithsia species, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication at sub-nanomolar concentrations, with limited cellular toxicity. However, in vivo safety of GRFT is not fully understood, especially following parenteral administration. We first assessed GRFT’s effects in vitro, on mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell (mPBMC) viability, mitogenicity, and activation using flow-cytometry, as well as cytokine secretion through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Toxicological properties of GRFT were determined after a single subcutaneous administration of 50 mg/kg or 14 daily doses of 10 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. In the context of microbicide development, toxicity of GRFT at 2 mg/kg was determined after subcutaneous, intravaginal, and intraperitoneal administrations, respectively. Interestingly, GRFT caused no significant cell death, mitogenicity, activation, or cytokine release in mPBMCs, validating the usefulness of a mouse model. An excellent safety profile for GRFT was obtained in vivo: no overt changes were observed in animal fitness, blood chemistry or CBC parameters. Following GRFT treatment, reversible splenomegaly was observed with activation of certain spleen B and T cells. However, spleen tissues were not pathologically altered by GRFT (either with a single high dose or chronic doses). Finally, no detectable toxicity was found after mucosal or systemic treatment with 2 mg/kg GRFT, which should be further developed as a microbicide for HIV prevention. PMID:27869695

  7. The HIV-1 Entry Process: A Stoichiometric View.

    PubMed

    Brandenberg, Oliver F; Magnus, Carsten; Regoes, Roland R; Trkola, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 infection starts with fusion of the viral and the host cell membranes, a process mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. The number of trimers required to complete membrane fusion, referred to as HIV-1 entry stoichiometry, remains under debate. A precise definition of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry is important as it reflects the efficacy of the viral entry process and steers the infectivity of HIV-1 virion populations. Initial estimates suggested a unanimous entry stoichiometry across HIV-1 strains while recent findings showed that HIV-1 strains can differ in entry stoichiometry. Here, we review current analyses of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry and point out future research directions to further define the interplay between entry stoichiometry, virus entry fitness, transmission, and susceptibility to antibody neutralization.

  8. Combined HIV-1 Envelope Systemic and Mucosal Immunization of Lactating Rhesus Monkeys Induces a Robust Immunoglobulin A Isotype B Cell Response in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Cody S.; Pollara, Justin; Kunz, Erika L.; Jeffries, Thomas L.; Duffy, Ryan; Beck, Charles; Stamper, Lisa; Wang, Minyue; Shen, Xiaoying; Pickup, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Montefiori, David C.; Moody, M. Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Ferrari, Guido; Fouda, Genevieve G. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal vaccination to induce anti-HIV immune factors in breast milk is a potential intervention to prevent postnatal HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). We previously demonstrated that immunization of lactating rhesus monkeys with a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) prime/intramuscular (i.m.) protein boost regimen induced functional IgG responses in milk, while MVA prime/intranasal (i.n.) boost induced robust milk Env-specific IgA responses. Yet, recent studies have suggested that prevention of postnatal MTCT may require both Env-specific IgA and functional IgG responses in milk. Thus, to investigate whether both responses could be elicited by a combined systemic/mucosal immunization strategy, animals previously immunized with the MVA prime/i.n. boost regimen received an i.n./i.m. combined C.1086 gp120 boost. Remarkably, high-magnitude Env-specific IgA responses were observed in milk, surpassing those in plasma. Furthermore, 29% of vaccine-elicited Env-specific B cells isolated from breast milk were IgA isotype, in stark contrast to the overwhelming predominance of IgG isotype Env-specific B cells in breast milk of chronically HIV-infected women. A clonal relationship was identified between Env-specific blood and breast milk B cells, suggesting trafficking of that cell population between the two compartments. Furthermore, IgA and IgG monoclonal antibodies isolated from Env-specific breast milk B cells demonstrated diverse Env epitope specificities and multiple effector functions, including tier 1 neutralization, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), infected cell binding, and inhibition of viral attachment to epithelial cells. Thus, maternal i.n./i.m. combined immunization is a novel strategy to enhance protective Env-specific IgA in milk, which is subsequently transferred to the infant via breastfeeding. IMPORTANCE Efforts to increase the availability of antiretroviral therapy to pregnant and breastfeeding women in resource-limited areas

  9. Short Communication: A Recombinant Variant with Increased Envelope Entry Efficiency Emerged During Early Infection of an HIV-1 Subtype C Dual Infected Rapid Progressor

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Kerry; Omar, Shatha; Nofemela, Andile; Bandawe, Gama; Williamson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in functionally constrained sites of the HIV envelope (Env) can affect entry efficiency and are potential targets for vaccine and drug design. We investigated Du151, a dual-infected individual with rapid disease progression. At her death 19 months postinfection (mpi), she was infected with a recombinant variant, which outgrew both parental viruses. We aimed to determine whether the recombinant virus had enhanced Env entry efficiency compared to the parental viruses and to identify the functional determinant. We generated 15 env clones at 1, 2, 8, and 19 mpi. Pseudovirus carrying a recombinant Env clone (PSV clone), C18 (19 mpi), had significantly higher entry efficiency compared to the parents, suggesting that the recombinant virus had enhanced fitness. To identify the functional determinant, we compared two recombinant PSV clones (C18 and C63)—differing in entry efficiency (2-fold) and by four and three amino acids in gp120 and gp41, respectively. The increased entry efficiency of a C18-gp41 PSV chimera indicated that the three amino acids in the C18 gp41 region were involved (K658, G671, and F717). Site-directed mutagenesis of the three amino acids of C63 showed that a single amino acid mutation, R658K, increased pseudovirion entry efficiency. The introduction of R658 into two PSV clones (C1 and C18) decreased their entry efficiency, suggesting that R658 carries a fitness cost. Thus, our data suggest that a recombinant virus emerged at 19 mpi with enhanced Env entry efficiency. Therefore, K658 in gp41 could in part be a contributing factor to the increased viral load and rapid disease progression of Du151. PMID:25905681

  10. Adenoviral gene delivery for HIV-1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vanniasinkam, T; Ertl, H C J

    2005-04-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues to spread throughout nations of Africa and Asia and is by now threatening to undermine the already frail infrastructure of developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that are hit the hardest. The only option to stem this epidemic is through inexpensive and efficacious vaccines that prevent or at least blunt HIV-1 infections. Despite decades of pre-clinical and clinical research such vaccines remain elusive. Most anti-viral vaccines act by inducing protective levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The envelope protein of HIV-1, the sole target of neutralizing antibodies, is constantly changing due to mutations, B cell epitopes are masked by heavy glycosylation and the protein's structural unfolding upon binding to its CD4 receptor and chemokine co-receptors. Efforts to induce broadly cross-reactive virus-neutralizing antibodies able to induce sterilizing or near sterilizing immunity to HIV-1 have thus failed. Studies have indicated that cell-mediated immune responses and in particular CD8+ T cell responses to internal viral proteins may control HIV-1 infections without necessarily preventing them. Adenoviral vectors expressing antigens of HIV-1 are eminently suited to stimulate potent CD8+ T cell responses against transgene products, such as antigens of HIV-1. They performed well in pre-clinical studies in rodents and nonhuman primates and are currently in human clinical trials. This review summarizes the published literature on adenoviral vectors as vaccine carriers for HIV-1 and discusses advantages and disadvantages of this vaccine modality.

  11. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  12. HSV-2- and HIV-1- permissive cell lines co-infected by HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-replicate HSV-2 and HIV-1 without production of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotype particles

    PubMed Central

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Bouhlal, Hicham; Lecerf, Maxime; Klein, Christophe; Hocini, Hakim; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Muggeridge, Martin; Bélec, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may interact at the cellular level by forming HIV-1 hybrid virions pseudotyped with HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins, as was previously reported for HSV type 1. Methods We evaluated in vitro the production of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotypes in mononuclear CEM cells and epithelial HT29 and P4P cells. We analyzed the incorporation into the HIV-1 membrane of HSV-2 gB and gD, two major HSV-2 glycoproteins required for HSV-2 fusion with the cell membrane, in co-infected cells and in HIV-1-infected P4P cells transfected by plasmids coding for gB or gD. Results We show that HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-replicated in dually infected cells, and gB and gD were co-localized with gp160. However, HIV-1 particles, produced in HIV-1-infected cells expressing gB or gD after transfection or HSV-2 superinfection, did not incorporate either gB or gD in the viral membrane, and did not have the capacity to infect cells normally non-permissive for HIV-1, such as epithelial cells. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotype formation and involvement in the synergistic genital interactions between HIV-1 and HSV-2. PMID:17207276

  13. HIV-1 vaccines: challenges and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure.

  14. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bouvin-Pley, M; Morgand, M; Meyer, L; Goujard, C; Moreau, A; Mouquet, H; Nussenzweig, M; Pace, C; Ho, D; Bjorkman, P J; Baty, D; Chames, P; Pancera, M; Kwong, P D; Poignard, P; Barin, F; Braibant, M

    2014-12-01

    Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants.

  15. Drift of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 toward Increased Neutralization Resistance over the Course of the Epidemic: a Comprehensive Study Using the Most Potent and Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bouvin-Pley, M.; Morgand, M.; Meyer, L.; Goujard, C.; Moreau, A.; Mouquet, H.; Nussenzweig, M.; Pace, C.; Ho, D.; Bjorkman, P. J.; Baty, D.; Chames, P.; Pancera, M.; Kwong, P. D.; Poignard, P.; Barin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants. PMID:25231299

  16. A Conserved Glycan in the C2 Domain of HIV-1 Envelope Acts as a Molecular Switch to Control X4 Utilization by Clonal Variants with Identical V3 Loops

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Thomas; Sobrera, Edwin R.; Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all persons newly infected with HIV-1 harbor exclusively CCR5-using virus. CXCR4-using variants eventually arise in up to 50% of patients infected with subtypes B or D. This transition to efficient CXCR4 utilization is often co-incident with progression to AIDS. The basis for HIV-1’s initial dependence on CCR5, the selective force(s) that drive CXCR4-utilization, and the evolutionary pathways by which it occurs are incompletely understood. Greater knowledge of these processes will inform interventions at all stages, from vaccination to cure. The determinants of co-receptor use map primarily, though not exclusively, to the V3 loop of gp120. In this study, we describe five clonal variants with identical V3 loops but divergent CXCR4 use. Mutagenesis revealed two residues controlling this phenotypic switch: a rare polymorphism in C1 and a highly conserved N-glycan in C2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of co-receptor usage regulated by the N-glycan at position 262. PMID:26083631

  17. Candidate antibody-based therapeutics against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rui; Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-06-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics have been successfully used for the treatment of various diseases and as research tools. Several well characterized, broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) targeting HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins or related host cell surface proteins show sterilizing protection of animals, but they are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection in humans. Recently, a number of novel bnmAbs, engineered antibody domains (eAds), and multifunctional fusion proteins have been reported which exhibit exceptionally potent and broad neutralizing activity against a wide range of HIV-1 isolates from diverse genetic subtypes. eAds could be more effective in vivo than conventional full-size antibodies generated by the human immune system. Because of their small size (12∼15 kD), they can better access sterically restricted epitopes and penetrate densely packed tissue where HIV-1 replicates than the larger full-size antibodies. HIV-1 possesses a number of mechanisms to escape neutralization by full-size antibodies but could be less likely to develop resistance to eAds. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacies of existing HIV-1 bnmAbs, summarize the development of eAds and multispecific fusion proteins as novel types of HIV-1 inhibitors, and discuss possible strategies to generate more potent antibody-based candidate therapeutics against HIV-1, including some that could be used to eradicate the virus.

  18. Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ∼25 Env residues, can be segregated

  19. HIV-1 Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Primary Drug Resistance in the Tyumen Oblast, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Ekaterina M.; Gashnikova, Mariya P.; Bocharov, Evgeniy F.; Petrova, Svetlana V.; Pun'ko, Olga A.; Popkov, Alexander V.; Totmenin, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Specific molecular epidemic features of HIV infection in Tyumen Oblast (TO), Russia, were studied. Methods. The genome sequences encoding HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase, integrase, and major envelope protein were examined for 72 HIV-1 specimens isolated from the TO resident infected in 2000–2015. Results. The recorded prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A (A1) is 93.1%; HIV-1 subtype B continues to circulate in MSM risk group (1.4%). Solitary instances of HIV-1 recombinant forms, CRF63_02A1 (1.4%) and CRF03_AB (1.4%), were detected as well as two cases of HIV-1 URF63_A1 (2.8%). Phylogenetic analysis showed no HIV-1 clustering according to the duration of infection and risk groups but revealed different epidemic networks confirming that HIV infection spread within local epidemic foci. A high incidence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants and a higher rate of secondary mutations influencing the virus fitness (K20R, L10V, and I) are observed among the virus specimens isolated from newly infected individuals. Conclusions. The current HIV-1 epidemic in TO develops within the local epidemic networks. Similar to the previous period, HIV-1 subtype A is predominant in TO with sporadic cases of importation of HIV-1 recombinant forms circulating in adjacent areas. PMID:27957489

  20. HIV-1 Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Primary Drug Resistance in the Tyumen Oblast, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gashnikova, Natalya M; Astakhova, Ekaterina M; Gashnikova, Mariya P; Bocharov, Evgeniy F; Petrova, Svetlana V; Pun'ko, Olga A; Popkov, Alexander V; Totmenin, Aleksey V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Specific molecular epidemic features of HIV infection in Tyumen Oblast (TO), Russia, were studied. Methods. The genome sequences encoding HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase, integrase, and major envelope protein were examined for 72 HIV-1 specimens isolated from the TO resident infected in 2000-2015. Results. The recorded prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A (A1) is 93.1%; HIV-1 subtype B continues to circulate in MSM risk group (1.4%). Solitary instances of HIV-1 recombinant forms, CRF63_02A1 (1.4%) and CRF03_AB (1.4%), were detected as well as two cases of HIV-1 URF63_A1 (2.8%). Phylogenetic analysis showed no HIV-1 clustering according to the duration of infection and risk groups but revealed different epidemic networks confirming that HIV infection spread within local epidemic foci. A high incidence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants and a higher rate of secondary mutations influencing the virus fitness (K20R, L10V, and I) are observed among the virus specimens isolated from newly infected individuals. Conclusions. The current HIV-1 epidemic in TO develops within the local epidemic networks. Similar to the previous period, HIV-1 subtype A is predominant in TO with sporadic cases of importation of HIV-1 recombinant forms circulating in adjacent areas.

  1. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Morris, Howard R; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein.

  2. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 entry into target lymphocytes requires the activity of actin adaptors that stabilize and reorganize cortical F-actin, like moesin and filamin-A. These alterations are necessary for the redistribution of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor interactions and that generates the tension at the plasma membrane necessary to potentiate fusion pore formation, thereby favouring early HIV-1 infection. However, it remains unclear whether the dynamic processing of F-actin and the amount of cortical actin available during the initial virus-cell contact are required to such events. Results Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. Remarkably, efficient HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and infection of permissive lymphocytes were impaired when gelsolin was either overexpressed or silenced, which led to a loss or gain of cortical actin, respectively. Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. These perturbed-actin events are responsible for the inhibition of early HIV-1 infection. Conclusions For the first time we provide evidence that through its severing of cortical actin, and by controlling the amount of actin available for reorganization during HIV-1 Env-mediated viral fusion, entry and infection, gelsolin can constitute a barrier that restricts HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes in a pre-fusion step. These findings provide important insights into the complex molecular and actin-associated dynamics events that underlie early viral infection. Thus, we propose that gelsolin is a new factor that can limit HIV-1 infection acting at a pre-fusion step

  3. HIV-1 VACCINES. Diversion of HIV-1 vaccine-induced immunity by gp41-microbiota cross-reactive antibodies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wilton B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Gao, Feng; Wiehe, Kevin; Trama, Ashley M; Jones, Kathryn; Zhang, Ruijun; Song, Hongshuo; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Sawatzki, Kaitlin; Hua, Axin; Liu, Pinghuang; Tay, Matthew Z; Seaton, Kelly E; Shen, Xiaoying; Foulger, Andrew; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Pollara, Justin; Ferrari, Guido; Yu, Jae-Sung; Vandergrift, Nathan; Montefiori, David C; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott; Karuna, Shelly; Gilbert, Peter; Grove, Doug; Grunenberg, Nicole; McElrath, M Juliana; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Corey, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J; Morgan, Cecilia; Churchyard, Gavin; Maenza, Janine; Keefer, Michael; Graham, Barney S; Baden, Lindsey R; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-08-14

    An HIV-1 DNA prime vaccine, with a recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) boost, failed to protect from HIV-1 acquisition. We studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1-reactive plasma Ab titers were higher to Env gp41 than to gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1-reactive Abs from memory B cells responded to Env gp41. Vaccine-induced gp41-reactive monoclonal antibodies were non-neutralizing and frequently polyreactive with host and environmental antigens, including intestinal microbiota (IM). Next-generation sequencing of an immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region repertoire before vaccination revealed an Env-IM cross-reactive Ab that was clonally related to a subsequent vaccine-induced gp41-reactive Ab. Thus, HIV-1 Env DNA-rAd5 vaccine induced a dominant IM-polyreactive, non-neutralizing gp41-reactive Ab repertoire response that was associated with no vaccine efficacy.

  4. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  5. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  6. Identifying the Important HIV-1 Recombination Breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo; Robertson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant HIV-1 genomes contribute significantly to the diversity of variants within the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is assumed that some of these mosaic genomes may have novel properties that have led to their prevalence, particularly in the case of the circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus, we predict that the distribution of breakpoints—the identifiable boundaries that delimit the mosaic structure—will deviate from the underlying null distribution. To test this hypothesis, we generate a probabilistic model of HIV-1 copy-choice recombination and compare the predicted breakpoint distribution to the distribution from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Across much of the HIV-1 genome, we find that the observed frequencies of inter-subtype recombination are predicted accurately by our model. This observation strongly indicates that in these regions a probabilistic model, dependent on local sequence identity, is sufficient to explain breakpoint locations. In regions where there is a significant over- (either side of the env gene) or under- (short regions within gag, pol, and most of env) representation of breakpoints, we infer natural selection to be influencing the recombination pattern. The paucity of recombination breakpoints within most of the envelope gene indicates that recombinants generated in this region are less likely to be successful. The breakpoints at a higher frequency than predicted by our model are approximately at either side of env, indicating increased selection for these recombinants as a consequence of this region, or at least part of it, having a tendency to be recombined as an entire unit. Our findings thus provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination. This suggests that, despite the wide diversity of recombinant forms seen in the viral

  7. The role of Siglec-1 in HIV-1/macrophage interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Ousman; Kim, Jiae; Rao, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Although CD4 T-cells are a major target for HIV, recent work has demonstrated the ability of macrophages despite expressing relatively low levels of CD4, to be a target of the virus. Our recent study has found that the presence of growth factors not only play a role in the phenotype of these monocyte-derived-macrophages, but also are an important aspect of the permissiveness of these cells to infection. The work utilized cellular and biophysical methods to examine Siglec-1 on macrophages as a primary receptor in HIV-1 infection. These findings support the notion that Siglec-1 and macrophages and their interactions with the HIV-1 envelope should be considered in HIV-1 vaccine development.

  8. Molecular Recognition of CXCR4 by a Dual Tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop

    PubMed Central

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 cell entry is initiated by the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4, and chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. The molecular recognition of CXCR4 or CCR5 by the HIV-1 gp120 is mediated through the V3 loop, a fragment of gp120. The binding of the V3 loop to CXCR4 or CCR5 determines the cell tropism of HIV-1 and constitutes a key step before HIV-1 cell entry. Thus, elucidating the molecular recognition of CXCR4 by the V3 loop is important for understanding HIV-1 viral infectivity and tropism, and for the design of HIV-1 inhibitors. We employed a comprehensive set of computational tools, predominantly based on free energy calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations, to investigate the molecular recognition of CXCR4 by a dual tropic V3 loop. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop:CXCR4 complex structure. The computationally derived structure reveals an abundance of polar and nonpolar intermolecular interactions contributing to the HIV-1 gp120:CXCR4 binding. Our results are in remarkable agreement with previous experimental findings. Therefore, this work sheds light on the functional role of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and CXCR4 residues associated with HIV-1 coreceptor activity. PMID:24048002

  9. High levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in patients with neurological opportunistic infections in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Wei, Feili; Liang, Qi; Ding, Wei; Qiao, Luxin; Song, Fengli; Liu, Lifeng; Yang, Sufang; Jin, Ronghua; Gu, Jianhua; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-08-01

    Despite the fact that the survival of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved worldwide because of the increasingly powerful and highly active antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a serious burden. HIV-1 is capable of entering the CNS through infected peripheral monocytes, but its effect on OIs of CNS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of HIV-1 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with CNS OIs. A total of 24 patients with CNS OIs and 16 non-CNS OIs (control) cases were selected. These AIDS patients were infected with HIV-1 by paid blood donors in China. HIV-1 loads in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected using RT-PCR, and the C2-V5 region of HIV-1 envelope gene was amplified from viral quasispecies isolated from CSF using nested PCR. The CSF HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was higher than that of non-CNS OIs, but plasma HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was not higher than that of non-CNS OIs. The nucleotide sequence of C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs had a high diversity, and the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs revealed R5 tropism as 11/25 charge rule. These results suggest that high levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in the CNS probably contribute to opportunistic infections.

  10. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  11. Fucoidans as potential inhibitors of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Prokofjeva, Maria M; Imbs, Tatyana I; Shevchenko, Natalya M; Spirin, Pavel V; Horn, Stefan; Fehse, Boris; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N; Prassolov, Vladimir S

    2013-08-19

    The antiviral activity of different structure fucoidans (α-l-fucans and galactofucans) was studied using two model viral systems based on a lentiviral vectors and a replication competent Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). It was found that investigated fucoidans have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat and SC-1cell at the concentration range of 0.001-100 µg/mL. Fucoidans with different efficiency suppressed transduction of Jurkat cell line by pseudo-HIV-1 particles carrying the envelope protein of HIV-1 and infection of SC-1 cells by Mo-MuLV. According to our data, all natural fucoidans can be considered as potential anti-HIV agents regardless of their carbohydrate backbone and degree of sulfating, since their activity is shown at low concentrations (0.001-0.05 µg/mL). High molecular weight fucoidans isolated from Saccharina cichorioides (1.3-α-l-fucan), and S. japonica (galactofucan) were the most effective inhibitors.

  12. HIV-1 neutralization: mechanisms and relevance to vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Michael B; Burton, Dennis R

    2007-11-01

    Antibody (Ab) mediated neutralization is a crucial means of host resistance to many pathogens and will most likely be required in the development of a vaccine to protect against HIV-1. Here we examine mechanistic aspects of HIV-1 neutralization with attention to recent studies on the stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters involved. Neutralization of HIV-1, as with any microbe, minimally requires an initial molecular encounter with Ab. Ab occupancy of functional heterotrimers of the envelope glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41 (Env), indeed appears to be the dominant mechanism of neutralization for HIV-1. However, the Ab-binding site, the parameters mentioned above, as well as the stages and duration of vulnerability to Ab recognition, prior to and leading up to viral entry, each have a distinct impact on the mechanism of neutralization for any given Ab specificity. With HIV-1, the problems of mutational variation and neutralization resistance, coupled with the lability and conformational heterogeneity in Env, have stimulated the search for rational approaches to Env immunogen design that are unprecedented in vaccinology.

  13. HIV-1: the confounding variables of virus neutralization.

    PubMed

    Nara, Peter L; Lin, George

    2005-06-01

    The development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 would be greatly facilitated by the ability to elicit potent, high affinity antibodies that are capable of broad neutralization, viral inactivation and protection against infection and/or disease. New insights into the structure and function of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) that mediates viral fusion and entry may ultimately lead to strategies successful in eliciting these protective antibody responses. Insights have been gained regarding HIV-1 Env attachment and receptor engagement, the fusion process and kinetics, and the structural/functional attributes of Env that allow humoral immune evasion. In addition, studies of a limited number of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies have shed some light as to how antibodies may penetrate the immune evading armor that HIV-1 has evolved. As the elusive goal of generating these types of antibodies emerge and are developed in the context of generating new candidate HIV-1 vaccines, a relevant in vitro measurement of neutralization by these types of antibodies becomes a complex task. This is in part due to a list of confounding variables which include: the physical and genomic nature (amino acid variation) of the infecting virion, the type of target cells, the concentration and clonality of the reactants, assay format and design, the affinity and kinetics of the reaction, receptors/coreceptors and attachment factors, and soluble host factors. This review will focus on the past, current, and future knowledge required to advance the field of HIV-1 humoral immunity as it impacts future HIV-1 vaccine development.

  14. Maternal HIV-1 envelope–specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Permar, Sallie R.; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E.; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L.; Overman, R. Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R.; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David C.; Denny, Thomas N.; Moody, M. Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1–transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score–matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1–infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3–specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:26053661

  15. Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David N.; Li, Yonghua; Kumar, Rajnish; Burke, Sean A.; Dawson, Rodney; Hioe, Catarina E.; Borkowsky, William; Rom, William N.; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages. PMID:25272020

  16. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  17. Escherichia coli surface display of single-chain antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Xu; Mellon, Michael; Bowder, Dane; Quinn, Meghan; Shea, Danielle; Wood, Charles; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2015-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and infection occur mainly via the mucosal surfaces. The commensal bacteria residing in these surfaces can potentially be employed as a vehicle for delivering inhibitors to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have employed a bacteria-based strategy to display a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, which could potentially be used to prevent HIV-1 infection. The VRC01 antibody mimics CD4-binding to gp120 and has broadly neutralization activities against HIV-1. We have designed a construct that can express the fusion peptide of the scFv-VRC01 antibody together with the autotransporter β-barrel domain of IgAP gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which enabled surface display of the antibody molecule. Our results indicate that the scFv-VRC01 antibody molecule was displayed on the surface of the bacteria as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered bacteria can capture HIV-1 particles via surface-binding and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell culture. - Highlights: • Designed single-chain VRC01 antibody was demonstrated to bind HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Single-chain VRC01 antibody was successfully displayed on the surface of E. coli. • Engineered bacteria can absorb HIV-1 particles and prevent HIV-1 infection in cell culture.

  18. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  19. B-cell-lineage immunogen design in vaccine development with HIV-1 as a case study.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Barton F; Kelsoe, Garnett; Harrison, Stephen C; Kepler, Thomas B

    2012-05-07

    Failure of immunization with the HIV-1 envelope to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes is a major barrier to producing a preventive HIV-1 vaccine. Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (BnAbs) from those subjects who do produce them after years of chronic HIV-1 infection have one or more unusual characteristics, including polyreactivity for host antigens, extensive somatic hypermutation and long, variable heavy-chain third complementarity-determining regions, factors that may limit their expression by host immunoregulatory mechanisms. The isolation of BnAbs from HIV-1-infected subjects and the use of computationally derived clonal lineages as templates provide a new path for HIV-1 vaccine immunogen design. This approach, which should be applicable to many infectious agents, holds promise for the construction of vaccines that can drive B cells along rare but desirable maturation pathways.

  20. Tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 modulate HIV-1-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Yañez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Alvarez, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2006-10-15

    Protein organization on the membrane of target cells may modulate HIV-1 transmission. Since the tetraspanin CD81 is associated to CD4, the receptor of HIV-1 envelope protein (Env; gp120/gp41), we have explored the possibility that this molecule may modulate the initial steps of HIV-1 infection. On the other hand, CD81 belongs to the tetraspanin family, which has been described as organizers of protein microdomains on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the role of CD81 and other related tetraspanin, CD9, on the cell-to-cell fusion process mediated by HIV-1 was studied. We found that anti-tetraspanin Abs enhanced the syncytia formation induced by HIV-1 envelope proteins and viral entry in human T lymphoblasts. In addition, anti-CD81 Abs triggered its clustering in patches, where CD4 and CXCR4 were included. Moreover, the knocking down of CD81 and CD9 expression resulted in an increase in syncytia formation and viral entry. Accordingly, overexpression of CD81 and CD9 rendered cells less susceptible to Env-mediated syncytia formation. These data indicate that CD9 and CD81 have an important role in membrane fusion induced by HIV-1 envelope.

  1. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies to Fight HIV-1: On the Threshold of Success

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Juan Pablo; Vendrell, Alejandrina; Chiavenna, Sebastián Matias

    2017-01-01

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (anti-HIV-1) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are broadening the spectrum of pre- and post-exposure treatment against HIV-1. A better understanding of how these antibodies develop and interact with particular regions of the viral envelope protein is guiding a more rational structure-based immunogen design. The aim of this article is to review the most recent advances in the field, from the development of these particular antibodies during natural HIV-1 infection, to their role preventing infection, boosting endogenous immune responses and clearing both free viral particles and persistently infected cells. PMID:28123384

  2. Identification of dual-tropic HIV-1 using evolved neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Gary B; Lamers, Susanna L; Liu, Enoch S; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Blocking the binding of the envelope HIV-1 protein to immune cells is a popular concept for development of anti-HIV therapeutics. R5 HIV-1 binds CCR5, X4 HIV-1 binds CXCR4, and dual-tropic HIV-1 can bind either coreceptor for cellular entry. R5 viruses are associated with early infection and over time can evolve to X4 viruses that are associated with immune failure. Dual-tropic HIV-1 is less studied; however, it represents functional antigenic intermediates during the transition of R5 to X4 viruses. Viral tropism is linked partly to the HIV-1 envelope V3 domain, where the amino acid sequence helps dictate the receptor a particular virus will target; however, using V3 sequence information to identify dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates has remained difficult. Our goal in this study was to elucidate features of dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates that assist in the biological understanding of dual-tropism and develop an approach for their detection. Over 1559 HIV-1 subtype B sequences with known tropisms were analyzed. Each sequence was represented by 73 structural, biochemical and regional features. These features were provided to an evolved neural network classifier and evaluated using balanced and unbalanced data sets. The study resolved R5X4 viruses from R5 with an accuracy of 81.8% and from X4 with an accuracy of 78.8%. The approach also identified a set of V3 features (hydrophobicity, structural and polarity) that are associated with tropism transitions. The ability to distinguish R5X4 isolates will improve computational tropism decisions for R5 vs. X4 and assist in HIV-1 research and drug development efforts.

  3. Design and characterization of a peptide mimotope of the HIV-1 gp120 bridging sheet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Marco; Fiume, Giuseppe; Caivano, Antonella; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Pisano, Antonio; Pontoriero, Marilena; Rossi, Annalisa; Scialdone, Annarita; Vecchio, Eleonora; Andreozzi, Concetta; Trovato, Maria; Rafay, Jan; Ferko, Boris; Montefiori, David; Lombardi, Angela; Morsica, Giulia; Poli, Guido; Quinto, Ileana; Pavone, Vincenzo; de Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Scala, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV(+) broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold from the Geobacillus Stearothermophylus PDH complex. The E2-BS1 fusion peptide showed good antigenic results, however only one immunized rabbit elicited good antibody titers towards both the monomeric and oligomeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). In addition, moderate neutralizing antibodies response was elicited against two HIV-1 clade B and one clade C primary isolates. These preliminary data validate the peptide mimotope approach as a promising tool to obtain an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  4. Tenascin-C is an innate broad-spectrum, HIV-1-neutralizing protein in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Genevieve G; Jaeger, Frederick H; Amos, Joshua D; Ho, Carrie; Kunz, Erika L; Anasti, Kara; Stamper, Lisa W; Liebl, Brooke E; Barbas, Kimberly H; Ohashi, Tomoo; Moseley, Martin Arthur; Liao, Hua-Xin; Erickson, Harold P; Alam, S Munir; Permar, Sallie R

    2013-11-05

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require elimination of postnatal transmission of HIV-1 while maintaining the nutritional and immunologic benefits of breastfeeding for infants in developing regions. Maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce postnatal HIV-1 transmission, yet toxicities and the development of drug-resistant viral strains may limit the effectiveness of this strategy. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, greater than 90% of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding remain uninfected, despite daily mucosal exposure to the virus for up to 2 y. Moreover, milk of uninfected women inherently neutralizes HIV-1 and prevents virus transmission in animal models, yet the factor(s) responsible for this anti-HIV activity is not well-defined. In this report, we identify a primary HIV-1-neutralizing protein in breast milk, Tenascin-C (TNC). TNC is an extracellular matrix protein important in fetal development and wound healing, yet its antimicrobial properties have not previously been established. Purified TNC captured and neutralized multiclade chronic and transmitted/founder HIV-1 variants, and depletion of TNC abolished the HIV-1-neutralizing activity of milk. TNC bound the HIV-1 Envelope protein at a site that is induced upon engagement of its primary receptor, CD4, and is blocked by V3 loop- (19B and F39F) and chemokine coreceptor binding site-directed (17B) monoclonal antibodies. Our results demonstrate the ability of an innate mucosal host protein found in milk to neutralize HIV-1 via binding to the chemokine coreceptor site, potentially explaining why the majority of HIV-1-exposed breastfed infants are protected against mucosal HIV-1 transmission.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by antibodies: potential viral and cellular targets

    PubMed Central

    Phogat, S.; Wyatt, R. T.; Hedestam, G. B. Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Phogat S, Wyatt RT, Karlsson Hedestam GB (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; and the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden). Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by antibodies: potential viral and cellular targets (Review). Vaccine-induced antibodies that interfere with viral entry are the protective correlate of most existing prophylactic vaccines. However, for highly variable viruses such as HIV-1, the ability to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses through vaccination has proven to be extremely difficult. The major targets for HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies are the viral envelope glycoprotein trimers on the surface of the virus that mediate receptor binding and entry. HIV-1 has evolved many mechanisms on the surface of envelope glyco-proteins to evade antibody-mediated neutralization, including the masking of conserved regions by glycan, quaternary protein interactions and the presence of immunodominant variable elements. The primary challenge in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies therefore lies in the design of suitable envelope glycoprotein immunogens that circumvent these barriers. Here, we describe neutralizing determinants on the viral envelope glyco-proteins that are defined by their function in receptor binding or by rare neutralizing antibodies isolated from HIV-infected individuals. We also describe the nonvariable cellular receptors involved in the HIV-1 entry process, or other cellular proteins, and ongoing studies to determine if antibodies against these proteins have efficacy as therapeutic reagents or, in some cases, as vaccine targets to interfere with HIV-1 entry. PMID:17598813

  6. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 gp41 expression with hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Szymański, Maciej; Głodowicz, Paweł; Gabryelska, Marta; Wyszko, Eliza; Estrin, William J; Barciszewski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, HIV-1 remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In the present paper, we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. On the basis of the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment cannot be inferred solely from the results of in vitro experiments.

  8. Detection of HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in feces and urine from chronic HIV-1 infected subjects with and without anti-retroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Caruso, Lori; Ding, Ming; Shen, Chengli; Buchanan, William; Gupta, Phalguni; Rinaldo, Charles R; Chen, Yue

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infects gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) very early after transmission by multiple routes. The infected GALT consequently serves as the major reservoir for HIV-1 infection and could constantly shed HIV-1 and CD4+ T cells into the intestinal lumen. To examine this hypothesis, we monitored HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in fecal samples of chronically infected subjects with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared this to levels of HIV-1 RNA/DNA in urine and blood from the same subjects. Our results show that HIV-1 DNA, RNA and CD4 mRNA were detected in 8%, 19% and 31% respectively, of feces samples from infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load, and were not detected in any of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. In urine samples, HIV-1 DNA was detected in 24% of infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load and 23% of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope sequences of HIV-1 revealed distinct virus populations in concurrently collected serum, feces and urine samples from one subject. In addition, our study demonstrated for the first time the presence of CD4 mRNA in fecal specimens of HIV-1 infected subjects, which could be used to assess GALT pathogenesis in HIV-1 infection. PMID:19799780

  9. C-type lectin Mermaid inhibits dendritic cell mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Nabatov, Alexey A; de Jong, Marein A W P; de Witte, Lot; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2008-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in HIV-1 transmission; DCs capture invading HIV-1 through the interaction of the gp120 oligosaccharides with the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and migrate to the lymphoid tissues where HIV-1 is transmitted to T cells. Thus, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 is an attractive target to prevent interactions with DCs and subsequent viral transmission. Here, we have investigated whether the structural homologue of DC-SIGN, the nematode C-type lectin Mermaid can be used to prevent HIV-1 transmission by DCs. Our data demonstrate that Mermaid interacts with high mannose structures present on HIV-1 gp120 and thereby inhibits HIV-1 binding to DC-SIGN on DCs. Moreover, Mermaid inhibits DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission from DC to T cells. We have identified Mermaid as a non-cytotoxic agent that shares the glycan specificity with DC-SIGN and inhibits DC-SIGN-gp120 interaction. The results are important for the anti-HIV-1 microbicide development directed at preventing DC-HIV-1 interactions.

  10. HIV-1 VACCINES. Priming a broadly neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 using a germline-targeting immunogen.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Joseph G; Ota, Takayuki; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Kulp, Daniel W; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Skog, Patrick D; Thinnes, Theresa C; Bhullar, Deepika; Briney, Bryan; Menis, Sergey; Jones, Meaghan; Kubitz, Mike; Spencer, Skye; Adachi, Yumiko; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nemazee, David

    2015-07-10

    A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01 class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to VRC01-class bnAb precursors and immunized knock-in mice expressing germline-reverted VRC01 heavy chains. Induced antibodies showed characteristics of VRC01-class bnAbs, including a short CDRL3 (light-chain complementarity-determining region 3) and mutations that favored binding to near-native HIV-1 gp120 constructs. In contrast, native-like immunogens failed to activate VRC01-class precursors. The results suggest that rational epitope design can prime rare B cell precursors for affinity maturation to desired targets.

  11. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Lynch, Rebecca; Zhou, Tongqing; Gao, Feng; Alam, S Munir; Boyd, Scott D; Fire, Andrew Z; Roskin, Krishna M; Schramm, Chaim A; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Jiang; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mullikin, James C; Gnanakaran, S; Hraber, Peter; Wiehe, Kevin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Guang; Xia, Shi-Mao; Montefiori, David C; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Scearce, Richard M; Soderberg, Kelly A; Cohen, Myron; Kamanga, Gift; Louder, Mark K; Tran, Lillian M; Chen, Yue; Cai, Fangping; Chen, Sheri; Moquin, Stephanie; Du, Xiulian; Joyce, M Gordon; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kepler, Thomas B; Korber, Bette T M; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Haynes, Barton F

    2013-04-25

    Current human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in approximately 20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a blueprint for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from the time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized approximately 55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 revealed a new loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding-site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the unmutated common ancestor of the CH103 lineage avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data determine the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies, and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination.

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 by fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W

    2010-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is responsible for entry of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells by mediating attachment to target cells and subsequent membrane fusion. Env consists of three gp120 subunits that mediate receptor and co-receptor attachment and three gp41 subunits responsible for membrane fusion. Several steps of the entry process can serve as drug targets. Receptor antagonists prevent attachment of gp120 to the receptor or co-receptor and conformational changes within gp41 required for membrane fusion can be inhibited by fusion inhibitors. Enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) is a peptide based on the gp41 sequence and is the only approved fusion inhibitor. It prevents membrane fusion by competitively binding to gp41 and blocking the formation of the post-fusion structure. New generations of T20-like peptides have been developed with improved potency and stability. Besides T20 and derivatives, other fusion inhibitors have been developed that target different domains of gp41. Here we discuss the development of fusion inhibitors, their mode of action and their potential for incorporation in future drug regimens.

  13. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a tripodal receptor that recognizes mannose oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Carrero, Paula; Casanova, Elena; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Madrona, Andrés; Quesada, Ernesto; Peréz-Pérez, María Jesús; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Mathys, Leen; Noppen, Sam; Kiselev, Evgeny; Marchand, Christophe; Pommier, Yves; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María José; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The glycoprotein gp120 of the HIV-1 viral envelope has a high content in mannose residues, particularly α-1,2-mannose oligomers. Compounds that interact with these high-mannose type glycans may disturb the interaction between gp120 and its (co)receptors and are considered potential anti-HIV agents. Previously, we demonstrated that a tripodal receptor (1), with a central scaffold of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene substituted with three 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl groups, selectively recognizes α-1,2-mannose polysaccharides. Here we present additional studies to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity and the mechanism of antiviral activity of this compound. Our studies indicate that 1 shows anti-HIV-1 activity in the low micromolar range and has pronounced gp120 binding and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory capacity. However, gp120 binding rather than integrase inhibition seems to be the primary mechanism of antiviral activity of 1.

  14. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  15. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    PubMed

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-01-26

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides.

  16. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Kroemer, Guido; Perfettini, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-29

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M.; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21859844

  18. Tsg101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are essential for HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Garrus, J E; von Schwedler, U K; Pornillos, O W; Morham, S G; Zavitz, K H; Wang, H E; Wettstein, D A; Stray, K M; Côté, M; Rich, R L; Myszka, D G; Sundquist, W I

    2001-10-05

    Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. We now show that Tsg101 protein, which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps), is required for HIV-1 budding. The UEV domain of Tsg101 binds to an essential tetrapeptide (PTAP) motif within the p6 domain of the structural Gag protein and also to ubiquitin. Depletion of cellular Tsg101 by small interfering RNA arrests HIV-1 budding at a late stage, and budding is rescued by reintroduction of Tsg101. Dominant negative mutant Vps4 proteins that inhibit vacuolar protein sorting also arrest HIV-1 and MLV budding. These observations suggest that retroviruses bud by appropriating cellular machinery normally used in the Vps pathway to form multivesicular bodies.

  19. Macrophage infection via selective capture of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amy E; Russell, Rebecca A; Duncan, Christopher J A; Moore, Michael D; Willberg, Christian B; Pablos, Jose L; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2014-12-10

    Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo.

  20. HIV-1-infected Blood Mononuclear Cells Form an Integrin- and Agrin-dependent Viral Synapse to Induce Efficient HIV-1 Transcytosis across Epithelial Cell Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Alfsen, Annette; Yu, Huifeng; Magérus-Chatinet, Aude; Schmitt, Alain; Bomsel, Morgane

    2005-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin and adhesion molecules are key players in the formation of neuronal and immune synapses that evolved for efficient communication at the sites of cell-cell contact. Transcytosis of infectious virus across epithelial cells upon contact between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal pole of the epithelial cells is one mechanism for HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites. In contrast, transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 is not efficient. A synapse between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal epithelial surface that resembles neuronal and immune synapses is visualized by electron microscopy. We have termed this the “viral synapse.” Similarities of the viral synapse also extend to the functional level. HIV-1-infected cell-induced transcytosis depends on RGD-dependent integrins and efficient cell-free virus transcytosis is inducible upon RGD-dependent integrin cross-linking. Agrin appears differentially expressed at the apical epithelial surface and acts as an HIV-1 attachment receptor. Envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 binds specifically to agrin, reinforcing the interaction of gp41 to its epithelial receptor galactosyl ceramide. PMID:15975901

  1. HIV-1-infected blood mononuclear cells form an integrin- and agrin-dependent viral synapse to induce efficient HIV-1 transcytosis across epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Alfsen, Annette; Yu, Huifeng; Magérus-Chatinet, Aude; Schmitt, Alain; Bomsel, Morgane

    2005-09-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin and adhesion molecules are key players in the formation of neuronal and immune synapses that evolved for efficient communication at the sites of cell-cell contact. Transcytosis of infectious virus across epithelial cells upon contact between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal pole of the epithelial cells is one mechanism for HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites. In contrast, transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 is not efficient. A synapse between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal epithelial surface that resembles neuronal and immune synapses is visualized by electron microscopy. We have termed this the "viral synapse." Similarities of the viral synapse also extend to the functional level. HIV-1-infected cell-induced transcytosis depends on RGD-dependent integrins and efficient cell-free virus transcytosis is inducible upon RGD-dependent integrin cross-linking. Agrin appears differentially expressed at the apical epithelial surface and acts as an HIV-1 attachment receptor. Envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 binds specifically to agrin, reinforcing the interaction of gp41 to its epithelial receptor galactosyl ceramide.

  2. Mechanism of multivalent nanoparticle encounter with HIV-1 for potency enhancement of peptide triazole virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rosemary Bastian, Arangassery; Nangarlia, Aakansha; Bailey, Lauren D; Holmes, Andrew; Kalyana Sundaram, R Venkat; Ang, Charles; Moreira, Diogo R M; Freedman, Kevin; Duffy, Caitlin; Contarino, Mark; Abrams, Cameron; Root, Michael; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-02

    Entry of HIV-1 into host cells remains a compelling yet elusive target for developing agents to prevent infection. A peptide triazole (PT) class of entry inhibitor has previously been shown to bind to HIV-1 gp120, suppress interactions of the Env protein at host cell receptor binding sites, inhibit cell infection, and cause envelope spike protein breakdown, including gp120 shedding and, for some variants, virus membrane lysis. We found that gold nanoparticle-conjugated forms of peptide triazoles (AuNP-PT) exhibit substantially more potent antiviral effects against HIV-1 than corresponding peptide triazoles alone. Here, we sought to reveal the mechanism of potency enhancement underlying nanoparticle conjugate function. We found that altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle conjugate, by increasing the AuNP diameter and/or the density of PT conjugated on the AuNP surface, enhanced potency of infection inhibition to impressive picomolar levels. Further, compared with unconjugated PT, AuNP-PT was less susceptible to reduction of antiviral potency when the density of PT-competent Env spikes on the virus was reduced by incorporating a peptide-resistant mutant gp120. We conclude that potency enhancement of virolytic activity and corresponding irreversible HIV-1 inactivation of PTs upon AuNP conjugation derives from multivalent contact between the nanoconjugates and metastable Env spikes on the HIV-1 virus. The findings reveal that multispike engagement can exploit the metastability built into virus the envelope to irreversibly inactivate HIV-1 and provide a conceptual platform to design nanoparticle-based antiviral agents for HIV-1 specifically and putatively for metastable enveloped viruses generally.

  3. Driving HIV-1 into a Vulnerable Corner by Taking Advantage of Viral Adaptation and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shigeyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system. Hence, rapid viral evolution leading to drug resistance and/or immune evasion is a significant barrier to the development of effective HIV-1 treatments and vaccines. Here, we describe our recent investigations into evolutionary pressure exerted by anti-retroviral drugs and monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) on HIV-1 envelope sequences. We also discuss sensitivities of HIV-1 escape mutants to maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, and HIV-1 sensitized to NAbs by small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds. These studies help to develop an understanding of viral evolution and escape from both anti-retroviral drugs and the immune system, and also provide fundamental insights into the combined use of NAbs and entry inhibitors. These findings of the adaptation and evolution of HIV in response to drug and immune pressure will inform the development of more effective antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:28360890

  4. Delivery of DNA HIV-1 Vaccine to the Liver Induces High and Long-lasting Humoral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Raska, Milan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Novak, Jan; Hel, Zdenek; Bozja, Jadranka; Compans, Richard W.; Yang, Chinglai; Mestecky, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    The quality of immune responses induced by DNA vaccination depends on the site of DNA administration, the expression, and the properties of the encoded antigen. In the present study we demonstrate that intravenous hydrodynamic HIV-1 envelope DNA injection resulted in high levels of expression of HIV-1 envelope antigen in the liver. When compared to the administration of DNA by i.n., i.d., i.m., and i.splenic routes, hydrodynamic vaccination induced, upon DNA boosting, 40 times increase of HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies over the preimmune levels. Hydrodynamic vaccination with 1 μg DNA induced higher humoral responses than 100 μg DNA given intramuscularly in the prime – boost regimen. High levels of envelope-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were induced in genital tract secretions after two doses of DNA followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein. Furthermore, two doses of 100 μg DNA generated interferon-gamma production in ~ 4.3 ± 1.7 % of CD8+ splenocytes after in vitro stimulation with HIV-1 envelope peptides. These results demonstrate that DNA vaccines targeted to tissues with high proteosynthetic activity, such as the liver, results in enhanced immune responses. PMID:18304708

  5. Aptamer-targeted RNAi for HIV-1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J

    2011-01-01

    The highly specific mechanism of RNA (RNAi) that inhibits the expression of disease genes is increasingly being harnessed to develop a new class of therapeutics for a wide variety of human maladies. The successful use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for therapeutic purposes requires safe and efficient delivery to specific cells and tissues. Herein, we demonstrate novel cell type-specific dual inhibitory function anti-gp120 aptamer-siRNA delivery systems for HIV-1 therapy, in which both the aptamer and the siRNA portions have potent anti-HIV activities. The envelope glycoprotein is expressed on the surface of HIV-1 infected cells, allowing binding and internalization of the aptamer-siRNA chimeric molecules. The Dicer substrate siRNA delivered by the aptamers is functionally processed by Dicer, resulting in specific inhibition of HIV-1 replication and infectivity in cultured CEM T-cells and primary blood mononuclear cells. Our results provide a set of novel aptamer-targeted RNAi therapeutics to combat HIV and further validate the use of anti-gp120 aptamers for delivery of Dicer substrate siRNAs.

  6. Structural basis for germline antibody recognition of HIV-1 immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Louise; West, Anthony P; Sievers, Stuart A; Chen, Courtney; Jiang, Siduo; Gao, Han; Gray, Matthew D; McGuire, Andrew T; Scheid, Johannes F; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 require understanding germline bNAb recognition of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). The VRC01-class bNAb family derived from the VH1-2*02 germline allele arose in multiple HIV-1–infected donors, yet targets the CD4-binding site on Env with common interactions. Modified forms of the 426c Env that activate germline-reverted B cell receptors are candidate immunogens for eliciting VRC01-class bNAbs. We present structures of germline-reverted VRC01-class bNAbs alone and complexed with 426c-based gp120 immunogens. Germline bNAb–426c gp120 complexes showed preservation of VRC01-class signature residues and gp120 contacts, but detectably different binding modes compared to mature bNAb-gp120 complexes. Unlike typical antibody-antigen interactions, VRC01–class germline antibodies exhibited preformed antigen-binding conformations for recognizing immunogens. Affinity maturation introduced substitutions increasing induced-fit recognition and electropositivity, potentially to accommodate negatively-charged complex-type N-glycans on gp120. These results provide general principles relevant to the unusual evolution of VRC01–class bNAbs and guidelines for structure-based immunogen design. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13783.001 PMID:26997349

  7. PI4P5-kinase Ialpha is required for efficient HIV-1 entry and infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Villar, Marta; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Cabrero, J R; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Alvarez-Losada, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, M A; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2008-11-15

    HIV-1 envelope (Env) triggers membrane fusion between the virus and the target cell. The cellular mechanism underlying this process is not well known. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is known to be important for the late steps of the HIV-1 infection cycle by promoting Gag localization to the plasma membrane during viral assembly, but it has not been implicated in early stages of HIV-1 membrane-related events. In this study, we show that binding of the initial HIV-1 Env-gp120 protein induces PIP(2) production in permissive lymphocytes through the activation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5-K) Ialpha. Overexpression of wild-type PI4P5-K Ialpha increased HIV-1 Env-mediated PIP(2) production and enhanced viral replication in primary lymphocytes and CEM T cells, whereas PIP(2) production and HIV-1 infection were both severely reduced in cells overexpressing the kinase-dead mutant D227A (D/A)-PI4P5-K Ialpha. Similar results were obtained with replicative and single-cycle HIV-1 particles. HIV-1 infection was also inhibited by knockdown of endogenous expression of PI4P5-K Ialpha. These data indicate that PI4P5-K Ialpha-mediated PIP(2) production is crucial for HIV-1 entry and the early steps of infection in permissive lymphocytes.

  8. Bone marrow plasma cells are a primary source of serum HIV-1-specific antibodies in chronically infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M; Moir, Susan; Kardava, Lela; Buckner, Clarisa M; Louie, Aaron; Kim, Leo J Y; Santich, Brian H; Wang, Wei; Fankuchen, Olivia R; Diaz, Gabriella; Daub, Janine R; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Chun, Tae-Wook; Li, Yuxing; Braylan, Raul C; Calvo, Katherine R; Fauci, Anthony S

    2015-03-15

    Several potent and broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 have been isolated recently from peripheral blood B cells of infected individuals, based on prescreening of Ab activity in the serum. However, little is known regarding the cells that make the Abs that circulate in the blood. Accordingly, we investigated the most likely source, the bone marrow, of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Increased frequencies of plasma cells, as well as B cell precursors, namely preB-I and preB-II, and decreased frequencies of mature B cells were observed in bone marrow aspirates of these individuals compared with HIV-negative counterparts. Increased frequencies of bone marrow plasma cells are consistent with known hallmarks of HIV-1 infection, namely hypergammaglobulinemia and increased frequencies of peripheral blood plasmablasts. Levels of HIV-1 envelope (Env)-binding and HIV-1-neutralizing Abs were measured in serum, and corresponding frequencies of Ab-secreting or Env-binding cells were measured in the blood (plasmablasts and memory B cells) and in the bone marrow (plasma cells). A strong correlation was observed between serum HIV-1-specific Abs and Env-specific bone marrow-derived plasma cells, but not circulating plasmablasts or memory B cells. These findings demonstrate that, despite HIV-1-induced phenotypic and functional B cell dysregulation in the peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid tissues, bone marrow plasma cells remain a primary source for circulating HIV-1-specific Abs in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  9. Macrophages and HIV-1: An Unhealthy Constellation.

    PubMed

    Sattentau, Quentin J; Stevenson, Mario

    2016-03-09

    Lentiviruses have a long-documented association with macrophages. Abundant evidence exists for in vitro and, in a tissue-specific manner, in vivo infection of macrophages by the primate lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV. However, macrophage contribution to aspects of HIV-1 and SIV pathogenesis, and their role in viral persistence in individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, remains unclear. Here we discuss recent evidence implicating macrophages in HIV-1-mediated disease and highlight directions for further investigation.

  10. The HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puren, A J

    2002-01-01

    The first reported cases of HIV-1 infection in South Africa occurred in 1982. Two distinct HIV-1 epidemic patterns were recognized. Initially the infection was prevalent in white males who had sex with males. The HIV-1 clade B was associated with this group. By 1989, the second epidemic was recognized primarily in the black population. Infections in this case were mainly heterosexual in origin. The HIV-1 clade involved was mainly C. The national HIV-1 sero-prevalence in antenatal attendees was less than 1% in 1990 and by 1994 this figure had risen to 7.5%. The most recent antenatal surveillance for HIV-1 sero-prevalence in 1999 revealed the following. The national prevalence rate for 1999 was 22.4% compared with the 1998 rate of 22.8%. The data highlighted the profound effect the epidemic had and will have on the disease burden in South Africa and by extension on the social and economic fronts. This view was emphasised by the impact HIV-1 infection had on tuberculosis. For example, sentinel surveys have attributed 44% of tuberculosis cases to HIV-1 infection. Moreover, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections will certainly exacerbate the HIV-1 epidemic.

  11. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a Phase-III AIDS Vaccine Trial in North America

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Jobes, David V.; Sinangil, Faruk; Crandall, Keith A.; Posada, David; Berman, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX004) of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine (AIDSVAX B/B) was completed in 5,403 volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection from North America and the Netherlands. A total of 368 individuals became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. The envelope glycoprotein gene (gp120) from the HIV-1 subtype B viruses infecting 349 patients was sequenced from clinical samples taken as close as possible to the time of diagnosis, rendering a final data set of 1,047 sequences (1,032 from North America and 15 from the Netherlands). Here, we used these data in combination with other sequences available in public databases to assess HIV-1 variation as a function of vaccination treatment, geographic region, race, risk behavior, and viral load. Viral samples did not show any phylogenetic structure for any of these factors, but individuals with different viral loads showed significant differences (P = 0.009) in genetic diversity. The estimated time of emergence of HIV-1 subtype B was 1966–1970. Despite the fact that the number of AIDS cases has decreased in North America since the early 90s, HIV-1 genetic diversity seems to have remained almost constant over time. This study represents one of the largest molecular epidemiologic surveys of viruses responsible for new HIV-1 infections in North America and could help the selection of epidemiologically representative vaccine antigens to include in the next generation of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:19864468

  12. Sialoadhesin Expressed on IFN-Induced Monocytes Binds HIV-1 and Enhances Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Hans; Calosing, Cyrus; Sun, Bing; Pulliam, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1), a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-α and interferon-γ but not tumor necrosis factor-α. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. Conclusions/Significance Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells. PMID:18414664

  13. The current status and challenges in the development of fusion inhibitors as therapeutics for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian Jun; Ma, Xue Ting; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiao Yi; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 membrane fusion as a part of the process of viral entry in the target cells is facilitated by gp41 and gp120, which are encoded by Env gene of HIV-1. Based on the structure and the mechanism researches, new treatment options targeting HIV-1 entry process have been proposed. Enfuvirtide, which mimics amino acid sequences of viral envelope glycoprotein gp41, is the first HIV-1 fusion inhibitor approved by FDA. Although it fulfills vital functions by binding to gp41 and abolishing the membrane fusion reaction when used in combination, it could induce drug resistant virus variants. Currently, a number of design and modification schemes have been presented, a large number of prospective fusion peptides have emerged. For these fusion inhibitors, multiple mutations in gp41 have been associated with the loss of susceptibility to agents. This review reported the current developments and innovative designs of HIV-1 membrane fusion inhibitors.

  14. Recombinant multi-epitope vaccine induce predefined epitope-specific antibodies against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Zu-Qiang; Ding, Jian; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2002-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody 2F5 recognizing ELDKWA-epitope on HIV-1 gp41 has significant neutralization potency against 90% of the investigated viruses of African, Asia, American and European strains, but antibodies responses to ELDKWA-epitope in HIV-1 infected individuals were very low. Based on the epitope-vaccine strategy suggested by us, a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (GST-MELDKWAGELDKWAGELDKWAVDIGPGRAFYGPGRAFYGPGRAFY) as vaccine antigen containing three repeats of neutralizing epitope ELDKWA on gp41 and GPGRAFY on gp120 was designed and expressed in Escherichia coli. After vaccination course, the recombinant multi-epitope vaccine could induce high levels of predefined multi-epitope-specific antibodies in mice. These antibodies in sera could bind to both neutralizing epitopes on gp41 peptide, V3 loop peptide and recombinant soluble gp41 (aa539-684) in ELISA assay (antisera dilution: 1:1,600-25,600), while normal sera did not. Moreover, these antibodies in sera could recognize the CHO-WT cells which expressed HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surfaces, indicating that the predefined epitope-specific antibodies could recognize natural envelope protein of HIV-1 though these antibodies were induced by recombinant multi-epitope-vaccine. These experimental results suggested a possible way to develop recombinant multi-epitope vaccine inducing multi-antiviral activities against HIV-1.

  15. HIV-1 gp120 as a therapeutic target: Navigating a moving labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Priyamvada; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The HIV-1 gp120 envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates attachment of virus to human target cells that display requisite receptors, CD4 and co-receptor, generally CCR5. Despite high affinity interactions with host receptors and proof-of-principle by the drug maraviroc that interference with CCR5 provides therapeutic benefit, no licensed drug currently targets gp120. Areas covered An overview of the role of gp120 in HIV-1 entry and of sites of potential gp120 vulnerability to therapeutic inhibition is presented. Viral defenses that protect these sites and turn gp120 into a moving labyrinth are discussed together with strategies for circumventing these defenses to allow therapeutic targeting of gp120 sites of vulnerability. Expert opinion The gp120 envelope glycoprotein interacts with host proteins through multiple interfaces and has conserved structural features at these interaction sites. In spite of this, targeting gp120 for therapeutic purposes is challenging. Env mechanisms evolved to evade the humoral immune response also shield it from potential therapeutics. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in understanding HIV-1 gp120 structure and its interactions with host receptors, and in developing therapeutic leads that potently neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Synergies between advances in understanding, needs for therapeutics against novel viral targets, and characteristics of breadth and potency for a number of gp120-targetting lead molecules bodes well for gp120 as a HIV-1 therapeutic target. PMID:25724219

  16. HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

  17. CCR5/CD4/CXCR4 oligomerization prevents HIV-1 gp120IIIB binding to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Barroso, Rubén; Dyrhaug, Sunniva Y.; Navarro, Gemma; Lucas, Pilar; Soriano, Silvia F.; Vega, Beatriz; Costas, Coloma; Muñoz-Fernández, M. Ángeles; Santiago, César; Frade, José Miguel Rodríguez; Franco, Rafael; Mellado, Mario

    2014-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR4, the respective cell surface coreceptors of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, both form heterodimers with CD4, the principal HIV-1 receptor. Using several resonance energy transfer techniques, we determined that CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 formed heterotrimers, and that CCR5 coexpression altered the conformation of both CXCR4/CXCR4 homodimers and CD4/CXCR4 heterodimers. As a result, binding of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120IIIB to the CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 heterooligomer was negligible, and the gp120-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for HIV-1 entry were prevented. CCR5 reduced HIV-1 envelope-induced CD4/CXCR4-mediated cell-cell fusion. In nucleofected Jurkat CD4 cells and primary human CD4+ T cells, CCR5 expression led to a reduction in X4 HIV-1 infectivity. These findings can help to understand why X4 HIV-1 strains infection affect T-cell types differently during AIDS development and indicate that receptor oligomerization might be a target for previously unidentified therapeutic approaches for AIDS intervention. PMID:24778234

  18. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD4 receptor and its central role in promotion of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Bour, S; Geleziunas, R; Wainberg, M A

    1995-01-01

    Interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 and the cell surface receptor CD4 are responsible for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into host cells in the vast majority of cases. HIV-1 replication is commonly followed by the disappearance or receptor downmodulation of cell surface CD4. This potentially renders cells nonsusceptible to subsequent infection by HIV-1, as well as by other viruses that use CD4 as a portal of entry. Disappearance of CD4 from the cell surface is mediated by several different viral proteins that act at various stages through the course of the viral life cycle, and it occurs in T-cell lines, peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes, and monocytes of both primary and cell line origin. At the cell surface, gp120 itself and in the form of antigen-antibody complexes can trigger cellular pathways leading to CD4 internalization. Intracellularly, the mechanisms leading to CD4 downmodulation by HIV-1 are multiple and complex; these include degradation of CD4 by Vpu, formation of intracellular complexes between CD4 and the envelope precursor gp160, and internalization by the Nef protein. Each of the above doubtless contributes to the ultimate depletion of cell surface CD4, although the relative contribution of each mechanism and the manner in which they interact remain to be definitively established. PMID:7708013

  19. Signature Biochemical Properties of Broadly Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Lewis, George K.; Seaman, Michael S.; Guan, Yongjun; Redfield, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The common properties of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralization antibodies found in certain HIV-1-infected individuals holds significant value for understanding natural and vaccine-mediated anti-HIV immunity. Recent efforts have addressed this question by deriving neutralizing monoclonal anti-envelope antibodies from memory B cell pools of selected subjects. However, it has been more difficult to identify whether broadly neutralizing antibodies circulating in plasma possess shared characteristics among individuals. To address this question, we used affinity chromatography and isoelectric focusing to fractionate plasma immunoglobulin from 10 HIV-1-infected subjects (5 subjects with broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity and 5 controls). We find that plasma neutralizing activity typically partitions into at least two subsets of antibodies. Antibodies with restricted neutralization breadth have relatively neutral isoelectric points and preferentially bind to envelope monomers and trimers versus core antigens from which variable loops and other domains have been deleted. In comparison, broadly neutralizing antibodies account for a minor fraction of the total anti-envelope response. They are consistently distinguished by more basic isoelectric points and specificity for epitopes shared by monomeric gp120, gp120 core, or CD4-induced structures. Such biochemical properties might be exploited to reliably predict or produce broad anti-HIV immunity. PMID:22379105

  20. Signature biochemical properties of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Mohammad M; Lewis, George K; Seaman, Michael S; Guan, Yongjun; Redfield, Robert R; DeVico, Anthony L

    2012-05-01

    The common properties of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralization antibodies found in certain HIV-1-infected individuals holds significant value for understanding natural and vaccine-mediated anti-HIV immunity. Recent efforts have addressed this question by deriving neutralizing monoclonal anti-envelope antibodies from memory B cell pools of selected subjects. However, it has been more difficult to identify whether broadly neutralizing antibodies circulating in plasma possess shared characteristics among individuals. To address this question, we used affinity chromatography and isoelectric focusing to fractionate plasma immunoglobulin from 10 HIV-1-infected subjects (5 subjects with broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity and 5 controls). We find that plasma neutralizing activity typically partitions into at least two subsets of antibodies. Antibodies with restricted neutralization breadth have relatively neutral isoelectric points and preferentially bind to envelope monomers and trimers versus core antigens from which variable loops and other domains have been deleted. In comparison, broadly neutralizing antibodies account for a minor fraction of the total anti-envelope response. They are consistently distinguished by more basic isoelectric points and specificity for epitopes shared by monomeric gp120, gp120 core, or CD4-induced structures. Such biochemical properties might be exploited to reliably predict or produce broad anti-HIV immunity.

  1. Readily Accessible Multiplane Microscopy: 3D Tracking the HIV-1 Genome in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Itano, Michelle S; Bleck, Marina; Johnson, Daniel S; Simon, Sanford M

    2016-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and the associated disease AIDS are a major cause of human death worldwide with no vaccine or cure available. The trafficking of HIV-1 RNAs from sites of synthesis in the nucleus, through the cytoplasm, to sites of assembly at the plasma membrane are critical steps in HIV-1 viral replication, but are not well characterized. Here we present a broadly accessible microscopy method that captures multiple focal planes simultaneously, which allows us to image the trafficking of HIV-1 genomic RNAs with high precision. This method utilizes a customization of a commercial multichannel emission splitter that enables high-resolution 3D imaging with single-macromolecule sensitivity. We show with high temporal and spatial resolution that HIV-1 genomic RNAs are most mobile in the cytosol, and undergo confined mobility at sites along the nuclear envelope and in the nucleus and nucleolus. These provide important insights regarding the mechanism by which the HIV-1 RNA genome is transported to the sites of assembly of nascent virions.

  2. HIV-1-induced AIDS in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Del Prete, Gregory Q; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; McNatt, Matthew W; Bitzegeio, Julia; Raymond, Alice; Rodriguez, Anthony; Schmidt, Fabian; Mac Trubey, C; Smedley, Jeremy; Piatak, Michael; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2014-06-20

    Primate lentiviruses exhibit narrow host tropism, reducing the occurrence of zoonoses but also impairing the development of optimal animal models of AIDS. To delineate the factors limiting cross-species HIV-1 transmission, we passaged a modified HIV-1 in pigtailed macaques that were transiently depleted of CD8(+) cells during acute infection. During adaptation over four passages in macaques, HIV-1 acquired the ability to antagonize the macaque restriction factor tetherin, replicated at progressively higher levels, and ultimately caused marked CD4(+) T cell depletion and AIDS-defining conditions. Transient treatment with an antibody to CD8 during acute HIV-1 infection caused rapid progression to AIDS, whereas untreated animals exhibited an elite controller phenotype. Thus, an adapted HIV-1 can cause AIDS in macaques, and stark differences in outcome can be determined by immunological perturbations during early infection.

  3. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  4. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency.

  5. Initial antibodies binding to HIV-1 gp41 in acutely infected subjects are polyreactive and highly mutated

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Munshaw, Supriya; Zhang, Ruijun; Marshall, Dawn J.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Whitesides, John F.; Lu, Xiaozhi; Yu, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Gao, Feng; Markowitz, Martin; Heath, Sonya L.; Bar, Katharine J.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Montefiori, David C.; Shaw, George C.; Alam, S. Munir; Margolis, David M.; Denny, Thomas N.; Boyd, Scott D.; Marshal, Eleanor; Egholm, Michael; Simen, Birgitte B.; Hanczaruk, Bozena; Fire, Andrew Z.; Voss, Gerald; Kelsoe, Garnett; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. To understand the origins and characteristics of gp41-binding antibodies produced shortly after HIV-1 transmission, we isolated and studied gp41-reactive plasma cells from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1. The frequencies of somatic mutations were relatively high in these gp41-reactive antibodies. Reverted unmutated ancestors of gp41-reactive antibodies derived from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 frequently did not react with autologous HIV-1 Env; however, these antibodies were polyreactive and frequently bound to host or bacterial antigens. In one large clonal lineage of gp41-reactive antibodies, reactivity to HIV-1 Env was acquired only after somatic mutations. Polyreactive gp41-binding antibodies were also isolated from uninfected individuals. These data suggest that the majority of gp41-binding antibodies produced after acute HIV-1 infection are cross-reactive responses generated by stimulating memory B cells that have previously been activated by non–HIV-1 antigens. PMID:21987658

  6. Immunophilins and HIV-1 V3 loop for structure-based anti-AIDS drug design.

    PubMed

    Andrianov, Alexander M

    2009-02-01

    The model of the structural complex of cyclophilin A (CycA) belonging to the immunophilins family with the HIV-MN gp120 V3 loop was generated, and the computer-aided design of the immunophilin-derived peptide able to mask the biologically crucial V3 segments was implemented. To this end, the following problems were solved: (i) the NMR-based conformational analysis of the HIV-MN V3 loop was put into effect, and its low energy structure fitting the input experimental observations was determined; (ii) molecular docking of this V3 structure with the X-ray conformation of CycA was carried out, and the energy refining the simulated structural complex was performed; (iii) the matrix of inter-atomic distances for the amino acids of the molecules forming part of the built over-molecular ensemble was computed, the types of interactions responsible for its stabilization were analyzed, and the CycA stretch, which accounts for the binding to V3, was identified; (iv) the most probable 3D structure for this stretch in the unbound state was predicted, and its collation with the X-ray structure for the corresponding site of CycA was performed; (v) the potential energy function and its constituents were studied for the structural complex generated by molecular docking of the V3 loop with the CycA peptide offering the virtual molecule that imitates the CycA segment, making a key contribution to the interactions of the native protein with the HIV-1 principal neutralizing determinant; (vi) as a result of the studies above, the designed molecule was shown to be capable of the efficacious blockading the functionally crucial V3 sites; and (vii) based on the joint analysis of the evidence obtained previously and in the present study, the composition of the peptide cocktail presenting the promising anti-AIDS pharmacological substance was developed. The molecules simulated here by molecular modeling methods may become the first representatives of a new class of the chemical compounds

  7. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of a New Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative Kn2-7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoqing; Cao, Luyang; Zhong, Maohua; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chen; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Jingyi; Zhou, Dihan; Shi, Wei; He, Benxia; Liu, Fang; Yu, Jie; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yaoming; Li, Wenxin; Guo, Deying; Cao, Zhijian; Yan, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1). In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM) and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI) of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV) with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1. PMID:22536342

  8. The V3 Loop of HIV-1 Env Determines Viral Susceptibility to IFITM3 Impairment of Viral Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Pan, Qinghua; Ding, Shilei; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jingyou; Finzi, Andrés; Liu, Shan-Lu; Liang, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit a broad spectrum of viruses, including HIV-1. IFITM proteins deter HIV-1 entry when expressed in target cells and also impair HIV-1 infectivity when expressed in virus producer cells. However, little is known about how viruses resist IFITM inhibition. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibilities of different primary isolates of HIV-1 to the inhibition of viral infectivity by IFITMs. Our results demonstrate that the infectivity of different HIV-1 primary isolates, including transmitted founder viruses, is diminished by IFITM3 to various levels, with strain AD8-1 exhibiting strong resistance. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that HIV-1 Env, and the V3 loop sequence in particular, determines the extent of inhibition of viral infectivity by IFITM3. IFITM3-sensitive Env proteins are also more susceptible to neutralization by soluble CD4 or the 17b antibody than are IFITM3-resistant Env proteins. Together, data from our study suggest that the propensity of HIV-1 Env to sample CD4-bound-like conformations modulates viral sensitivity to IFITM3 inhibition.IMPORTANCE Results of our study have revealed the key features of the HIV-1 envelope protein that are associated with viral resistance to the IFITM3 protein. IFITM proteins are important effectors in interferon-mediated antiviral defense. A variety of viruses are inhibited by IFITMs at the virus entry step. Although it is known that envelope proteins of several different viruses resist IFITM inhibition, the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Taking advantage of the fact that envelope proteins of different HIV-1 strains exhibit different degrees of resistance to IFITM3 and that these HIV-1 envelope proteins share the same domain structure and similar sequences, we performed mutagenesis studies and determined the key role of the V3 loop in this viral resistance phenotype. We were also able to associate viral resistance to IFITM3

  9. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    PubMed

    Chao, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Yang, Hengwen; Zhu, Yun; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qian; Yu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Shibo; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521) of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1), designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB) formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  10. Antiretroviral (HIV-1) activity of azulene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peet, Julia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Bredihhin, Aleksei

    2016-04-15

    The antiretroviral activity of azulene derivatives was detected for the first time. A series of eighteen diversely substituted azulenes was synthesized and tested in vitro using HIV-1 based virus-like particles (VLPs) and infectious HIV-1 virus in U2OS and TZM-bl cell lines. Among the compounds tested, the 2-hydroxyazulenes demonstrated the most significant activity by inhibiting HIV-1 replication with IC50 of 2-10 and 8-20 μM for the VLPs and the infectious virus, respectively. These results indicate that azulene derivatives may be potentially useful candidates for the development of antiretroviral agents.

  11. A mucosally targeted subunit vaccine candidate eliciting HIV-1 transcytosis-blocking Abs

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Nobuyuki; Magérus, Aude; Geyer, Brian C.; Zhang, Yunfang; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Alfsen, Annette; Arntzen, Charles J.; Bomsel, Morgane; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2004-01-01

    A vaccine that would engage the mucosal immune system against a broad range of HIV-1 subtypes and prevent epithelial transmission is highly desirable. Here we report fusing the mucosal targeting B subunit of cholera toxin to the conserved galactosylceramide-binding domain (including the ELDKWA-neutralizing epitope) of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope protein, which mediates the transcytosis of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia. Chimeric protein expressed in bacteria or plants assembled into oligomers that were capable of binding galactosyl-ceramide and GM1 gangliosides. Mucosal (intranasal) administration in mice of the purified chimeric protein followed by an i.p. boost resulted in transcytosis-neutralizing serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses and induced immunological memory. Plant production of mucosally targeted immunogens could be particularly useful for immunization programs in developing countries, where desirable product traits include low cost of manufacture, heat stability, and needle-free delivery. PMID:15347807

  12. Development of prophylactic vaccines against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Torben; Sattentau, Quentin J; Dorrell, Lucy

    2013-07-17

    The focus of most current HIV-1 vaccine development is on antibody-based approaches. This is because certain antibody responses correlated with protection from HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 phase III trial, and because a series of potent and broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies have been isolated from infected individuals. Taken together, these two findings suggest ways forward to develop a neutralizing antibody-based vaccine. However, understanding of the correlates of protection from disease in HIV-1 and other infections strongly suggests that we should not ignore CTL-based research. Here we review recent progress in the field and highlight the challenges implicit in HIV-1 vaccine design and some potential solutions.

  13. HIV-1 Eradication: Early Trials (and Tribulations).

    PubMed

    Spivak, Adam M; Planelles, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has rendered HIV-1 infection a manageable illness for those with access to treatment. However, ART does not lead to viral eradication owing to the persistence of replication-competent, unexpressed proviruses in long-lived cellular reservoirs. The potential for long-term drug toxicities and the lack of access to ART for most people living with HIV-1 infection have fueled scientific interest in understanding the nature of this latent reservoir. Exploration of HIV-1 persistence at the cellular and molecular level in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, the predominant viral reservoir in patients on ART, has uncovered potential strategies to reverse latency. We review recent advances in pharmacologically based 'shock and kill' HIV-1 eradication strategies, including comparative analysis of early clinical trials.

  14. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2012-10-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.

  15. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Thomas; Campbell, Mary S; Mullins, James I; Hughes, James P; Wong, Kim G; Raugi, Dana N; Scrensen, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  16. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Madison, Marisa N; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2015-07-20

    Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission.

  17. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Marisa N.; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26205405

  18. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nina; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Registre, Ludy; Becerril, Carlos; Etemad, Behzad; Lu, Hong; Wu, Xueling; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Myron; Moyo, Sikhulile; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Sagar, Manish

    2016-06-01

    Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4+ T cells. It remains uncertain if CXCR4-using viruses hasten disease or if these variants only emerge after profound immunological damage. We show that exclusively CXCR4- as compared to cocirculating CCR5-utilizing variants are less sensitive to neutralization by both contemporaneous autologous plasma and plasma pools from individuals that harbor only CCR5-using HIV-1. The CXCR4-utilizing variants, however, do not have a global antigenic change because they remain equivalently susceptible to antibodies that do not target coreceptor binding domains. Studies with envelope V3 loop directed antibodies and chimeric envelopes suggest that the neutralization susceptibility differences are potentially influenced by the V3 loop. In vitro passage of a neutralization sensitive CCR5-using virus in the presence of autologous plasma and activated CD4+ T cells led to the emergence of a CXCR4-utilizing virus in 1 of 3 cases. These results suggest that in some but not necessarily all HIV-1 infected individuals humoral immune pressure against the autologous virus selects for CXCR4-using variants, which potentially accelerates disease progression. Our observations have implications for using antibodies for HIV-1 immune therapy.

  19. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of full-length HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ndung'u, T; Renjifo, B; Novitsky, V A; McLane, M F; Gaolekwe, S; Essex, M

    2000-12-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is now responsible for more than half of all HIV-1 infections in the global epidemic and for the high levels of HIV-1 prevalence in southern Africa. To facilitate studies of the biological nature and the underlying molecular determinants of this virus, we constructed eight full-length proviral clones from two asymptomatic and three AIDS patients infected with HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana. Analysis of viral lysates showed that Gag, Pol, and Env structural proteins were present in the virions. In four clones, the analysis suggested inefficient envelope glycoprotein processing. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the eight clones did not reveal frameshifts, deletions, premature truncations, or translational stop codons in any structural, regulatory, or accessory genes. None of the subtype C clones were replication competent in donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), macrophages, Jurkat(tat) cells, or U87. CD4.CCR5 cells. However, infection by two clones could be rescued by complementation with a functional subtype C envelope clone, resulting in a productive infection of PBMCs, macrophages, and U87. CD4.CCR5 cells.

  20. Comparison of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Virus Neutralization by HIV-1 Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    von Bredow, Benjamin; Arias, Juan F.; Heyer, Lisa N.; Moldt, Brian; Le, Khoa; Robinson, James E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein have been studied extensively for their ability to block viral infectivity, little data are currently available on nonneutralizing functions of these antibodies, such as their ability to eliminate virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 Env-specific antibodies of diverse specificities, including potent broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies, were therefore tested for ADCC against cells infected with a lab-adapted HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1NL4-3), a primary HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1JR-FL), and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) adapted for pathogenic infection of rhesus macaques (SHIVAD8-EO). In accordance with the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization, HIV-1NL4-3-infected cells were considerably more sensitive to ADCC, both in terms of the number of antibodies and magnitude of responses, than cells infected with HIV-1JR-FL or SHIVAD8-EO. ADCC activity generally correlated with antibody binding to Env on the surfaces of virus-infected cells and with viral neutralization; however, neutralization was not always predictive of ADCC, as instances of ADCC in the absence of detectable neutralization, and vice versa, were observed. These results reveal incomplete overlap in the specificities of antibodies that mediate these antiviral activities and provide insights into the relationship between ADCC and neutralization important for the development of antibody-based vaccines and therapies for combating HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE This study provides fundamental insights into the relationship between antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and virus neutralization that may help to guide the development of antibody-based vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27122574

  1. Sequence determinants of breakpoint location during HIV-1 intersubtype recombination.

    PubMed

    Baird, Heather A; Galetto, Román; Gao, Yong; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Abreha, Measho; Archer, John; Fan, Jun; Robertson, David L; Arts, Eric J; Negroni, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    Retroviral recombination results from strand switching, during reverse transcription, between the two copies of genomic RNA present in the virus. We analysed recombination in part of the envelope gene, between HIV-1 subtype A and D strains. After a single infection cycle, breakpoints clustered in regions corresponding to the constant portions of Env. With some exceptions, a similar distribution was observed after multiple infection cycles, and among recombinant sequences in the HIV Sequence Database. We compared the experimental data with computer simulations made using a program that only allows recombination to occur whenever an identical base is present in the aligned parental RNAs. Experimental recombination was more frequent than expected on the basis of simulated recombination when, in a region spanning 40 nt from the 5' border of a breakpoint, no more than two discordant bases between the parental RNAs were present. When these requirements were not fulfilled, breakpoints were distributed randomly along the RNA, closer to the distribution predicted by computer simulation. A significant preference for recombination was also observed for regions containing homopolymeric stretches. These results define, for the first time, local sequence determinants for recombination between divergent HIV-1 isolates.

  2. Sequence determinants of breakpoint location during HIV-1 intersubtype recombination

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Heather A.; Galetto, Román; Gao, Yong; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Abreha, Measho; Archer, John; Fan, Jun; Robertson, David L.; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    Retroviral recombination results from strand switching, during reverse transcription, between the two copies of genomic RNA present in the virus. We analysed recombination in part of the envelope gene, between HIV-1 subtype A and D strains. After a single infection cycle, breakpoints clustered in regions corresponding to the constant portions of Env. With some exceptions, a similar distribution was observed after multiple infection cycles, and among recombinant sequences in the HIV Sequence Database. We compared the experimental data with computer simulations made using a program that only allows recombination to occur whenever an identical base is present in the aligned parental RNAs. Experimental recombination was more frequent than expected on the basis of simulated recombination when, in a region spanning 40 nt from the 5′ border of a breakpoint, no more than two discordant bases between the parental RNAs were present. When these requirements were not fulfilled, breakpoints were distributed randomly along the RNA, closer to the distribution predicted by computer simulation. A significant preference for recombination was also observed for regions containing homopolymeric stretches. These results define, for the first time, local sequence determinants for recombination between divergent HIV-1 isolates. PMID:17003055

  3. Altered immunological reactivity in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates.

    PubMed

    Hygino, Joana; Lima, Patrícia G; Filho, Renato G S; Silva, Agostinho A L; Saramago, Carmen S M; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Daniel M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2008-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate immune events in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates born from mothers who control (G1) or not (G2) the plasma viral load, using unexposed neonates as controls. Cord blood from each neonate was collected, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and the lymphoproliferation and cytokine pattern were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the in vitro lymphoproliferation induced by polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 neonates. Nevertheless, no cell culture responded to poll synthetic HIV-1 envelope peptides. The cytokine dosage in the plasma and supernatants of polyclonally-activated cultures demonstrated that, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the dominant cytokines produced in G1 and control groups, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in G2 neonates. Systemic levels of IL-10 observed among the G1 neonates were higher in those born from anti-retroviral treated mothers. In summary, our results indicate an altered immune responsiveness in neonates exposed in utero to HIV and support the role of maternal anti-retroviral treatment to attenuate it.

  4. Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanakaran, S; Shen, Tongye; Lynch, Rebecca M; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

  5. Persistence of dual-tropic HIV-1 in an individual homozygous for the CCR5 Delta 32 allele.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Paul R; Zhang, Chengsheng; Wu, Sam; Kunstman, Kevin; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Phair, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Gabuzda, Dana

    2002-05-25

    Entry of HIV-1 into a cell happens only after viral envelope glycoproteins have bound to CD4 and a chemokine receptor. Generally, macrophage-tropic strains use CCR5, and T cell-line-tropic strains use CXCR4 as coreceptors for virus entry. Dual-tropic viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4. About 1% of white people are homozygous for a non-functional CCR5 allele, containing a 32 base pair deletion (CCR5 Delta 32). We studied the persistence of dual-tropic HIV-1 in an individual homozygous for this deletion. Our results suggest that structural features of the HIV-1 envelope linked to CCR5 tropism could confer a selective advantage in vivo.

  6. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains.

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  8. Actin-binding Protein Drebrin Regulates HIV-1-triggered Actin Polymerization and Viral Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Álvarez, Susana; Ursa, Ángeles; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, María A.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 contact with target cells triggers F-actin rearrangements that are essential for several steps of the viral cycle. Successful HIV entry into CD4+ T cells requires actin reorganization induced by the interaction of the cellular receptor/co-receptor complex CD4/CXCR4 with the viral envelope complex gp120/gp41 (Env). In this report, we analyze the role of the actin modulator drebrin in HIV-1 viral infection and cell to cell fusion. We show that drebrin associates with CXCR4 before and during HIV infection. Drebrin is actively recruited toward cell-virus and Env-driven cell to cell contacts. After viral internalization, drebrin clustering is retained in a fraction of the internalized particles. Through a combination of RNAi-based inhibition of endogenous drebrin and GFP-tagged expression of wild-type and mutant forms, we establish drebrin as a negative regulator of HIV entry and HIV-mediated cell fusion. Down-regulation of drebrin expression promotes HIV-1 entry, decreases F-actin polymerization, and enhances profilin local accumulation in response to HIV-1. These data underscore the negative role of drebrin in HIV infection by modulating viral entry, mainly through the control of actin cytoskeleton polymerization in response to HIV-1. PMID:23926103

  9. Psoralen/UV inactivation of HIV-1-infected cells for use in cytologic and immunologic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.J.; Klaniecki, J.; Hanson, C.V. )

    1990-04-01

    A rapid procedure for the inactivation of HIV-1-infected cells using psoralen and ultraviolet (UV) light is described. Exposure of HIV-1-infected cells to 5 micrograms/ml psoralen followed by UV irradiation (320-380 nm) for 5 minutes yields cells that are noninfectious as assessed by extended infectivity assays. The psoralen/UV inactivation procedure described is effective with cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 and is unaffected by cell densities up to 12 x 10(6)/ml. At 5 micrograms/ml psoralen does little damage to cellular permeability as shown by the ability of treated cells to exclude trypan blue and propidium iodide. Psoralen/UV treatment of HIV-1-infected cells does not cause a significant decrease in the reactivity of HIV-1 core and envelope antigens or cellular antigens to monoclonal antibodies. Experiments are presented demonstrating the use of these cells for flow cytometry studies and for cell surface labeling using the lactoperoxidase {sup 125}I iodination procedure.

  10. Antibody 10-1074 suppresses viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Caskey, Marina; Schoofs, Till; Gruell, Henning; Settler, Allison; Karagounis, Theodora; Kreider, Edward F; Murrell, Ben; Pfeifer, Nico; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Learn, Gerald H; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Lehmann, Clara; Gillor, Daniel; Shimeliovich, Irina; Unson-O'Brien, Cecilia; Weiland, Daniela; Robles, Alexander; Kümmerle, Tim; Wyen, Christoph; Levin, Rebeka; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; Eren, Kemal; Ignacio, Caroline; Kiss, Szilard; West, Anthony P; Mouquet, Hugo; Zingman, Barry S; Gulick, Roy M; Keler, Tibor; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Seaman, Michael S; Hahn, Beatrice H; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Klein, Florian

    2017-02-01

    Monoclonal antibody 10-1074 targets the V3 glycan supersite on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein. It is among the most potent anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies isolated so far. Here we report on its safety and activity in 33 individuals who received a single intravenous infusion of the antibody. 10-1074 was well tolerated and had a half-life of 24.0 d in participants without HIV-1 infection and 12.8 d in individuals with HIV-1 infection. Thirteen individuals with viremia received the highest dose of 30 mg/kg 10-1074. Eleven of these participants were 10-1074-sensitive and showed a rapid decline in viremia by a mean of 1.52 log10 copies/ml. Virologic analysis revealed the emergence of multiple independent 10-1074-resistant viruses in the first weeks after infusion. Emerging escape variants were generally resistant to the related V3-specific antibody PGT121, but remained sensitive to antibodies targeting nonoverlapping epitopes, such as the anti-CD4-binding-site antibodies 3BNC117 and VRC01. The results demonstrate the safety and activity of 10-1074 in humans and support the idea that antibodies targeting the V3 glycan supersite might be useful for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

  11. Tailored HIV-1 Vectors for Genetic Modification of Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Turpin, Jocelyn; Cordeil, Stephanie; Nazaret, Nicolas; Croze, Séverine; Mahieux, Renaud; Lachuer, Joël; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) play a key role in the regulation of the immune system and are the target of numerous gene therapy applications. The genetic modification of MDDCs is possible with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) but requires high viral doses to bypass their natural resistance to viral infection, and this in turn affects their physiological properties. To date, a single viral protein is able to counter this restrictive phenotype, Vpx, a protein derived from members of the HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus SM lineage that counters at least two restriction factors present in myeloid cells. By tagging Vpx with a short heterologous membrane-targeting domain, we have obtained HIV-1 LVs incorporating high levels of this protein (HIV-1-Src-Vpx). These vectors efficiently transduce differentiated MDDCs and monocytes either as previously purified populations or as populations within unsorted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, these vectors can be efficiently pseudotyped with receptor-specific envelopes, further restricting their cellular tropism almost uniquely to MDDCs. Compared to conventional HIV-1 LVs, these novel vectors allow for an efficient genetic modification of MDDCs and, more importantly, do not cause their maturation or affect their survival, which are unwanted side effects of the transduction process. This study describes HIV-1-Src-Vpx LVs as a novel potent tool for the genetic modification of differentiated MDDCs and of circulating monocyte precursors with strong potential for a wide range of gene therapy applications. PMID:23077304

  12. Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Morgane; Edlefsen, Paul T; Larsen, Brendan B; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Hertz, Tomer; deCamp, Allan C; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Juraska, Michal; Chen, Lennie; Konopa, Philip; Nariya, Snehal; Stoddard, Julia N; Wong, Kim; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Maust, Brandon S; Bose, Meera; Howell, Shana; Bates, Adam; Lazzaro, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Annemarie; Lei, Esther; Bradfield, Andrea; Ibitamuno, Grace; Assawadarachai, Vatcharain; O'Connell, Robert J; deSouza, Mark S; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; McLellan, Jason S; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwong, Peter D; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Gilbert, Peter B; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H

    2012-10-18

    The RV144 trial demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Antibodies against the HIV-1 envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (Env V1 and V2) correlated inversely with infection risk. We proposed that vaccine-induced immune responses against V1/V2 would have a selective effect against, or sieve, HIV-1 breakthrough viruses. A total of 936 HIV-1 genome sequences from 44 vaccine and 66 placebo recipients were examined. We show that vaccine-induced immune responses were associated with two signatures in V2 at amino acid positions 169 and 181. Vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine at position 169 was 48% (confidence interval 18% to 66%; P = 0.0036), whereas vaccine efficacy against viruses mismatching the vaccine at position 181 was 78% (confidence interval 35% to 93%; P = 0.0028). Residue 169 is in a cationic glycosylated region recognized by broadly neutralizing and RV144-derived antibodies. The predicted distance between the two signature sites (21 ± 7 Å) and their match/mismatch dichotomy indicate that multiple factors may be involved in the protection observed in RV144. Genetic signatures of RV144 vaccination in V2 complement the finding of an association between high V1/V2-binding antibodies and reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and provide evidence that vaccine-induced V2 responses plausibly had a role in the partial protection conferred by the RV144 regimen.

  13. Galectin-1 promotes HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages through stabilization of viral adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, Simon; St-Pierre, Christian; Pelletier, Isabelle; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J. Sato, Sachiko

    2008-02-05

    Following primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), macrophages are thought to play an important role, as they are one of the first target cells the virus encounters and can also sustain a significant production of viruses over extended periods of time. While the interaction between the primary cellular receptor CD4 and the virus-encoded external envelope glycoprotein gp120 initiates the infection process, it has been suggested that various host factors are exploited by HIV-1 to facilitate adsorption onto the cell surface. Macrophages and other cells found at the infection site can secrete a soluble mammalian lectin, galectin-1, which binds to {beta}-galactoside residues through its carbohydrate recognition domain. Being a dimer, galectin-1 can cross-link ligands expressed on different constituents to mediate adhesion between cells or between cells and pathogens. We report here that galectin-1, but not galectin-3, increased HIV-1 infectivity in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This phenomenon was likely due to an enhancement of virus adsorption kinetics, which facilitates HIV-1 entry. The fusion inhibitors T-20 and TAK779 remained effective at reducing infection even in the presence of galectin-1, indicating that the galectin-1-mediated effect is occurring at a step prior to fusion. Together, our data suggest that galectin-1 can facilitate HIV-1 infection in MDMs by promoting early events of the virus replicative cycle (i.e. adsorption)

  14. Tailored HIV-1 vectors for genetic modification of primary human dendritic cells and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Durand, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Turpin, Jocelyn; Cordeil, Stephanie; Nazaret, Nicolas; Croze, Séverine; Mahieux, Renaud; Lachuer, Joël; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; Cimarelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) play a key role in the regulation of the immune system and are the target of numerous gene therapy applications. The genetic modification of MDDCs is possible with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) but requires high viral doses to bypass their natural resistance to viral infection, and this in turn affects their physiological properties. To date, a single viral protein is able to counter this restrictive phenotype, Vpx, a protein derived from members of the HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus SM lineage that counters at least two restriction factors present in myeloid cells. By tagging Vpx with a short heterologous membrane-targeting domain, we have obtained HIV-1 LVs incorporating high levels of this protein (HIV-1-Src-Vpx). These vectors efficiently transduce differentiated MDDCs and monocytes either as previously purified populations or as populations within unsorted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, these vectors can be efficiently pseudotyped with receptor-specific envelopes, further restricting their cellular tropism almost uniquely to MDDCs. Compared to conventional HIV-1 LVs, these novel vectors allow for an efficient genetic modification of MDDCs and, more importantly, do not cause their maturation or affect their survival, which are unwanted side effects of the transduction process. This study describes HIV-1-Src-Vpx LVs as a novel potent tool for the genetic modification of differentiated MDDCs and of circulating monocyte precursors with strong potential for a wide range of gene therapy applications.

  15. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    SciTech Connect

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-15

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.

  16. Collection of phage-peptide probes for HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Gazarian, Tatiana; Rowley, Merrill; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Gazarian, Karlen

    2007-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, which remains a serious public health threat, is inhibited by the lack of reagents that elicit antiviral responses in the immune system. To create mimotopes (peptide models of epitopes) of the most immunodominant epitope, CSGKLIC, that occurs as a loop on the envelope gp41 glycoprotein and is a key participant in infection, we used phage-display technology involving biopanning of large random libraries with IgG of HIV-1-infected patients. Under the conditions used, library screening with IgG from patient serum was directed to the CSGKLIC epitope. Three rounds of selection converted a 12 mer library of 10(9) sequences into a population in which up to 79% of phage bore a family of CxxKxxC sequences ("x" designates a non-epitope amino acid). Twenty-one phage clones displaying the most frequently selected peptides were obtained and were shown to display the principal structural (sequence and conformational), antigenic and immunogenic features of the HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope. Notably, when the mixture of the phage mimotopes was injected into mice, it induced 2- to 3-fold higher titers of antibody to the HIV-1 epitope than could be induced from individual mimotopes. The described approach could be applicable for accurately reproducing HIV-1 epitope structural and immunological patterns by generation of specialized viral epitope libraries for use in diagnosis and therapy.

  17. The function and affinity maturation of HIV-1 gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from colostral B cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas L; Sacha, CR; Pollara, Justin; Himes, Jon; Jaeger, Frederick H; Dennison, S Moses; McGuire, Erin; Kunz, Erika; Eudailey, Joshua A; Trama, Ashley M; LaBranche, Celia; Fouda, Genevieve G; Wiehe, Kevin; Montefiori, David C; Haynes, Barton F; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Permar, Sallie R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the risk of transmitting HIV-1, mothers in resource-poor areas are encouraged to breastfeed their infants due to beneficial immunologic and nutritional factors in milk. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, the overwhelming majority of HIV-1-exposed, breastfeeding infants are naturally protected from infection. To understand the role of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies in breast milk in natural protection against infant virus transmission, we produced 19 HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from colostrum B cells of HIV-1-infected mothers and investigated their specificity, evolution and anti-HIV-1 functions. Despite the previously reported genetic compartmentalization and gp120-specific bias of colostrum HIV Env-specific B cells, the colostrum Env-specific mAbs described here demonstrated a broad range of gp120 epitope specificities and functions, including inhibition of epithelial cell binding and dendritic cell mediated virus transfer, neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Interestingly, we also identified divergent patterns of colostrum Env-specific B cell lineage evolution with respect to cross-reactivity to gastrointestinal commensal bacteria, indicating that commensal bacterial antigens play a role in shaping the local breast milk IgG repertoire. Maternal vaccine strategies to specifically target this breast milk B cell population may be necessary to achieve safe breastfeeding for all HIV-1-exposed infants. PMID:26242599

  18. The function and affinity maturation of HIV-1 gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from colostral B cells.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, T L; Sacha, C R; Pollara, J; Himes, J; Jaeger, F H; Dennison, S M; McGuire, E; Kunz, E; Eudailey, J A; Trama, A M; LaBranche, C; Fouda, G G; Wiehe, K; Montefiori, D C; Haynes, B F; Liao, H-X; Ferrari, G; Alam, S M; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2016-03-01

    Despite the risk of transmitting HIV-1, mothers in resource-poor areas are encouraged to breastfeed their infants because of beneficial immunologic and nutritional factors in milk. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, the overwhelming majority of HIV-1-exposed, breastfeeding infants are naturally protected from infection. To understand the role of HIV-1 envelope (Env)-specific antibodies in breast milk in natural protection against infant virus transmission, we produced 19 HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from colostrum B cells of HIV-1-infected mothers and investigated their specificity, evolution, and anti-HIV-1 functions. Despite the previously reported genetic compartmentalization and gp120-specific bias of colostrum HIV Env-specific B cells, the colostrum Env-specific mAbs described here demonstrated a broad range of gp120 epitope specificities and functions, including inhibition of epithelial cell binding and dendritic cell-mediated virus transfer, neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. We also identified divergent patterns of colostrum Env-specific B-cell lineage evolution with respect to crossreactivity to gastrointestinal commensal bacteria, indicating that commensal bacterial antigens play a role in shaping the local breast milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) repertoire. Maternal vaccine strategies to specifically target this breast milk B-cell population may be necessary to achieve safe breastfeeding for all HIV-1-exposed infants.

  19. Cell-type specific requirements for thiol/disulfide exchange during HIV-1 entry and infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of disulfide bond remodeling in HIV-1 infection is well described, but the process still remains incompletely characterized. At present, the data have been predominantly obtained using established cell lines and/or CXCR4-tropic laboratory-adapted virus strains. There is also ambiguity about which disulfide isomerases/ reductases play a major role in HIV-1 entry, as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and/or thioredoxin (Trx) have emerged as the two enzymes most often implicated in this process. Results We have extended our previous findings and those of others by focusing on CCR5-using HIV-1 strains and their natural targets - primary human macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We found that the nonspecific thiol/disulfide exchange inhibitor, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), significantly reduced HIV-1 entry and infection in cell lines, human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and also phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Subsequent studies were performed using specific anti-PDI or Trx monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in HIV-1 envelope pseudotyped and wild type (wt) virus infection systems. Although human donor-to-donor variability was observed as expected, Trx appeared to play a greater role than PDI in HIV-1 infection of MDM. In contrast, PDI, but not Trx, was predominantly involved in HIV-1 entry and infection of the CD4+/CCR5+ T cell line, PM-1, and PHA-stimulated primary human T lymphocytes. Intriguingly, both PDI and Trx were present on the surface of MDM, PM-1 and PHA-stimulated CD4+ T cells. However, considerably lower levels of Trx were detected on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes, compared to PHA-stimulated cells. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate the role of thiol/disulfide exchange in HIV-1 entry in primary T lymphocytes and MDM. They also establish a cell-type specificity regarding the involvement of particular disulfide isomerases/reductases in this process and may provide an

  20. HIV-1 Vpr potently induces programmed cell death in the CNS in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaodong; Cheng, Xiandong; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Acheampong, Edward A; Srinivasan, Algarsamy; Rafi, Mohammad; Pomerantz, Roger J; Parveen, Zahida

    2007-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpr has been associated with the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell-cycle arrest. Studies have shown the apoptotic effect of Vpr on primary and established cell lines and on diverse tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) in vitro. However, the relevance of the effect of Vpr observed in vitro to HIV-1 neuropathogenesis in vivo, remains unknown. Due to the narrow host range of HIV-1 infection, no animal model is currently available. This has prompted us to consider a small animal model to evaluate the effects of Vpr on CNS in vivo through surrogate viruses expressing HIV-1Vpr. A single round of replication competent viral vectors, expressing Vpr, were used to investigate the apoptosis-inducing capabilities of HIV-1Vpr in vivo. Viral particles pseudotyped with VSV-G or N2c envelopes were generated from spleen necrosis virus (SNV) and HIV-1-based vectors to transduce CNS cells. The in vitro studies have demonstrated that Vpr generated by SNV vectors had less apoptotic effects on CNS cells compared with Vpr expressed by HIV-1 vectors. The in vivo study has suggested that viral particles, expressing Vpr generated by HIV-1-based vectors, when delivered through the ventricle, caused loss of neurons and dendritic processes in the cortical region. The apoptotic effect was extended beyond the cortical region and affected the hippocampus neurons, the lining of the choroids plexus, and the cerebellum. However, the effect of Vpr, when delivered through the cortex, showed neuronal damage only around the site of injection. Interestingly, the number of apoptotic neurons were significantly higher with HIV-1 vectors expressing Vpr than by the SNV vectors. This may be due to the differences in the proteins expressed by these viral vectors. These results suggest that Vpr induces apoptosis in CNS cells in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the

  1. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  2. Neutralization of multiple laboratory and clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by antisera raised against gp120 from the MN isolate of HIV-1.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, P W; Matthews, T J; Riddle, L; Champe, M; Hobbs, M R; Nakamura, G R; Mercer, J; Eastman, D J; Lucas, C; Langlois, A J

    1992-01-01

    Vaccines prepared from the envelope glycoprotein, gp120, of the common laboratory isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (IIIB/LAV-1) elicit antibodies that neutralize the homologous virus but show little if any cross-neutralizing activity. This may be because the principal neutralizing determinant (PND) of gp120 is highly unusual in the IIIB/LAV-1 strain and is not representative of those found in the majority of field isolates. We have now examined the immunogenicity of recombinant gp120 prepared from the MN strain of HIV-1 (MN-rgp120), whose PND is thought to be representative of approximately 60% of the isolates in North America. Our results show that MN-rgp120 is a potent immunogen and elicits anti-gp120 titers comparable to those found in HIV-1-infected individuals. While both MN-rgp120 and IIIB-rgp120 induced antibodies able to block gp120 binding to CD4, strain-specific and type-common blocking antibodies were detected. Finally, antibodies to MN-rgp120 but not to IIIB-rgp120 were effective in neutralizing a broad range of laboratory and clinical isolates of HIV-1. These studies demonstrate that susceptibility or resistance to neutralization by antibodies to gp120 correlates with the PND sequence and suggest that the problem of antigenic variation may not be insurmountable in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. PMID:1602554

  3. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  4. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  5. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  6. Macrophage polarization and HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Edana; Cassetta, Luca; Alfano, Massimo; Poli, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute phase of infection. In addition to promoting the development of Th1 responses and IFN production, M1 macrophages often produce cytokines that drive viral replication and tissue damage. As shown for HIV-1, polarization can also alter macrophage susceptibility to infection. In vitro polarization into M1 cells prevents HIV-1 infection, and M2a polarization inhibits viral replication at a post-integration level. M2a cells also express high levels of C-type lectins that can facilitate macrophage-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells. Macrophages are particularly abundant in mucosal membranes and unlike DCs, do not usually migrate to distal tissues. As a result, macrophages are likely to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis in mucosal rather than lymphatic tissues. In vivo polarization of MP is likely to span a spectrum of activation phenotypes that may change the permissivity to and alter the outcome of HIV-1 and other viral infections.

  7. HIV-1 Entry Inhbitors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on chemokine receptor antagonists. Recent findings Entry of HIV-1 into target cells is an ordered multi-step process involving attachment, co-receptor binding and fusion. Inhibitors of each step have been identified and shown to have antiviral activity in clinical trials. Phase 1-2 trials of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule attachment inhibitors have demonstrated activity in HIV-1-infected subjects, but none has progressed to later phase clinical trials. The post-attachment inhibitor ibalizumab has shown activity in phase 1 and 2 trials; further studies are anticipated. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc (now been approved for clinical use) and vicriviroc (in phase 3 trials) have shown significant benefit in controlled trials in treatment-experienced subjects; additional CCR5 antagonists are in various stages of clinical development. Targeting CXCR4 has proven to be more challenging. Although proof of concept has been demonstrated in phase 1-2 trials of two compounds, neither proved suitable for chronic administration. Little progress has been reported in developing longer acting or orally bioavailable fusion inhibitors. Summary ACCR5 antagonist and a fusion inhibitor are approved for use as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Development of drugs targeting other steps in HIV-1 entry is ongoing. PMID:19339945

  8. Modulation of HIV-1 immunity by adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Moody, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the role of adjuvants in eliciting desirable antibody responses against HIV-1 with particular emphasis on both historical context and recent developments. Recent findings Increased understanding of the role of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors in recruiting and directing the immune system has increased the variety of adjuvant formulations being tested in animal models and humans. Across all vaccine platforms, adjuvant formulations have been shown to enhance desirable immune responses such as higher antibody titers and increased functional activity. Although no vaccine formulation has yet succeeded in eliciting broad neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, the ability of adjuvants to direct the immune response to immunogens suggests they will be critically important in any successful HIV-1 vaccine. Summary The parallel development of adjuvants along with better HIV-1 immunogens will be needed for a successful AIDS vaccine. Additional comparative testing will be required to determine the optimal adjuvant and immunogen regimen that can elicit antibody responses capable of blocking HIV-1 transmission. PMID:24670321

  9. HIV-1 associated dementia: symptoms and causes

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Mohammad; Amini, Shohreh; Khalili, Kamel; Sawaya, Bassel E

    2006-01-01

    Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment appears to be rising among AIDS patients. Further, HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD) is still prevalent in treated patients as well as attenuated forms of HAD and CNS opportunistic disorders. HIV-associated cognitive impairment correlates with the increased presence in the CNS of activated, though not necessarily HIV-1-infected, microglia and CNS macrophages. This suggests that indirect mechanisms of neuronal injury and loss/death occur in HIV/AIDS as a basis for dementia since neurons are not themselves productively infected by HIV-1. In this review, we discussed the symptoms and causes leading to HAD. Outcome from this review will provide new information regarding mechanisms of neuronal loss in AIDS patients. PMID:16712719

  10. Viremic Control and Viral Coreceptor Usage in Two HIV-1-Infected Persons Homozygous for CCR5 Δ32

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Timothy J.; Hanhauser, Emily; Hu, Zixin; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Noah, Christian; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Pereyra, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine viral and immune factors involved in transmission and control of HIV-1 infection in persons without functional CCR5 Design Understanding transmission and control of HIV-1 in persons homozygous for CCR5Δ32 is important given efforts to develop HIV-1 curative therapies aimed at modifying or disrupting CCR5 expression. Methods We identified two HIV-infected CCR5Δ32/Δ32 individuals among a cohort of patients with spontaneous control of HIV-1 infection without antiretroviral therapy and determined co-receptor usage of the infecting viruses. We assessed genetic evolution of full-length HIV-1 envelope sequences by single-genome analysis from one participant and his sexual partner, and explored HIV-1 immune responses and HIV-1 mutations following virologic escape and disease progression. Results Both participants experienced viremia of less than 4,000 RNA copies/ml with preserved CD4+ T cell counts off ART for at least 3.3 and 4.6 years after diagnosis, respectively. One participant had phenotypic evidence of X4 virus, had no known favorable HLA alleles, and appeared to be infected by minority X4 virus from a pool that predominately used CCR5 for entry. The second participant had virus that was unable to use CXCR4 for entry in phenotypic assay but was able to engage alternative viral coreceptors (e.g. CXCR6) in vitro. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individuals may be infected by minority X4 viruses from a population that predominately uses CCR5 for entry, and that viruses may bypass traditional HIV-1 coreceptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) completely by engaging alternative coreceptors to establish and propagate HIV-1 infection. PMID:25730507

  11. Unusual Fusion Proteins of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon; Sauter, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. Expression of the structural genes gag, pol, and env, the regulatory genes rev and tat and the accessory genes vpu, nef, vpr, and vif enables assembly of the viral particle, regulates viral gene transcription, and equips the virus to evade or counteract host immune responses. In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. Most of them are encoded by the tat-env-rev locus. While the majority of these fusion proteins (e.g., TNV/p28tev, p186Drev, Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17tev, or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. PMID:28119676

  12. A Highly Conserved Residue of the HIV-1 gp120 Inner Domain Is Important for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Responses Mediated by Anti-cluster A Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shilei; Veillette, Maxime; Coutu, Mathieu; Prévost, Jérémie; Scharf, Louise; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ferrari, Guido; Robinson, James E.; Stürzel, Christina; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Lewis, George K.; Pazgier, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sera from HIV-1-infected individuals contain antibodies able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These antibodies preferentially recognize envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitopes induced upon CD4 binding. Here, we show that a highly conserved tryptophan at position 69 of the gp120 inner domain is important for ADCC mediated by anti-cluster A antibodies and sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:26637462

  13. Immunological Characterization of Plant-Based HIV-1 Gag/Dgp41 Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Kessans, Sarah A.; Linhart, Mark D.; Meador, Lydia R.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Hogue, Brenda G.; Fromme, Petra; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that a prophylactic vaccine may be needed to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide. Despite over two decades of research, a vaccine against HIV-1 remains elusive, although a recent clinical trial has shown promising results. Recent studies have focused on highly conserved domains within HIV-1 such as the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the envelope glycoprotein, gp41. MPER has been shown to play critical roles in mucosal transmission of HIV-1, though this peptide is poorly immunogenic on its own. Here we provide evidence that plant-produced HIV-1 enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of Gag and a deconstructed form of gp41 comprising the MPER, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains (Dgp41) provides an effective platform to display MPER for use as an HIV vaccine candidate. Prime-boost strategies combining systemic and mucosal priming with systemic boosting using two different vaccine candidates (VLPs and CTB-MPR—a fusion of MPER and the B-subunit of cholera toxin) were investigated in BALB/c mice. Serum antibody responses against both the Gag and gp41 antigens were elicited when systemically primed with VLPs. These responses could be recalled following systemic boosting with VLPs. In addition, mucosal priming with VLPs allowed for a boosting response against Gag and gp41 when boosted with either candidate. Importantly, the VLPs also induced Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. This report on the immunogenicity of plant-based Gag/Dgp41 VLPs may represent an important milestone on the road towards a broadly efficacious and inexpensive subunit vaccine against HIV-1. PMID:26986483

  14. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  15. Mechanism of HIV-1 neutralization by antibodies targeting a membrane-proximal region of gp41.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Frey, Gary; Peng, Hanqin; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Garrity, Jetta; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is an important goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. Two autoreactive bNAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, recognize a conserved region on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41 adjacent to the viral membrane known as the membrane-proximal external region (MPER). They block viral infection by targeting a fusion-intermediate conformation of gp41, assisted by an additional interaction with the viral membrane. Another MPER-specific antibody, 10E8, has recently been reported to neutralize HIV-1 with potency and breadth much greater than those of 2F5 or 4E10, but it appeared not to bind phospholipids and might target the untriggered envelope spikes, raising the hope that the MPER could be harnessed for vaccine design without major immunological concerns. Here, we show by three independent approaches that 10E8 indeed binds lipid bilayers through two hydrophobic residues in its CDR H3 (third heavy-chain complementarity-determining region). Its weak affinity for membranes in general and preference for cholesterol-rich membranes may account for its great neutralization potency, as it is less likely than other MPER-specific antibodies to bind cellular membranes nonspecifically. 10E8 binds with high affinity to a construct mimicking the fusion intermediate of gp41 but fails to recognize the envelope trimers representing the untriggered conformation. Moreover, we can improve the potency of 4E10 without affecting its binding to gp41 by a modification of its lipid-interacting CDR H3. These results reveal a general mechanism of HIV-1 neutralization by MPER-specific antibodies that involves interactions with viral lipids.

  16. Nonneutralizing Antibodies Induced by the HIV-1 gp41 NHR Domain Gain Neutralizing Activity in the Presence of the HIV Fusion Inhibitor Enfuvirtide: a Potential Therapeutic Vaccine Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Bi, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiaojie; Li, Haoyang; Qi, Qianqian; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-07-01

    A key barrier against developing preventive and therapeutic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines is the inability of viral envelope glycoproteins to elicit broad and potent neutralizing antibodies. However, in the presence of fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide, we show that the nonneutralizing antibodies induced by the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) domain (N63) exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity against laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains, including the drug-resistant variants, and primary HIV-1 isolates with different subtypes, suggesting the potential of developing gp41-targeted HIV therapeutic vaccines.

  17. Moesin is required for HIV-1-induced CD4-CXCR4 interaction, F-actin redistribution, membrane fusion and viral infection in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Villar, Marta; Cabrero, José Román; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Alvarez-Losada, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope regulates the initial attachment of viral particles to target cells through its association with CD4 and either CXCR4 or CCR5. Although F-actin is required for CD4 and CXCR4 redistribution, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this fundamental process in HIV infection. Using CD4(+) CXCR4(+) permissive human leukemic CEM T cells and primary lymphocytes, we have investigated whether HIV-1 Env might promote viral entry and infection by activating ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) proteins to regulate F-actin reorganization and CD4/CXCR4 co-clustering. The interaction of the X4-tropic protein HIV-1 gp120 with CD4 augments ezrin and moesin phosphorylation in human permissive T cells, thereby regulating ezrin-moesin activation. Moreover, the association and clustering of CD4-CXCR4 induced by HIV-1 gp120 requires moesin-mediated anchoring of actin in the plasma membrane. Suppression of moesin expression with dominant-negative N-moesin or specific moesin silencing impedes reorganization of F-actin and HIV-1 entry and infection mediated by the HIV-1 envelope protein complex. Therefore, we propose that activated moesin promotes F-actin redistribution and CD4-CXCR4 clustering and is also required for efficient X4-tropic HIV-1 infection in permissive lymphocytes.

  18. Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Katharine J.; Tsao, Chun-yen; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Decker, Julie M.; Yang, Yongping; Bonsignori, Mattia; Chen, Xi; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Hraber, Peter; Fischer, William; Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Sterrett, Sarah; Keele, Brandon F.; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Perelson, Alan S.; Korber, Bette T.; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Pavlicek, Jeffrey W.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kwong, Peter D.; Shaw, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab) responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC50) selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1–V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical infection is typically

  19. The NRTIs Lamivudine, Stavudine and Zidovudine Have Reduced HIV-1 Inhibitory Activity in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Lachlan R.; Tachedjian, Gilda; Ellett, Anne M.; Roche, Michael J.; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Turville, Stuart G.; Wesselingh, Steve L.; Gorry, Paul R.; Churchill, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 establishes infection in astrocytes and macroage-lineage cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Certain antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can penetrate the CNS, and are therefore often used in neurologically active combined antiretroviral therapy (Neuro-cART) regimens, but their relative activity in the different susceptible CNS cell populations is unknown. Here, we determined the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of CNS-penetrating ARVs in astrocytes and macrophage-lineage cells. Primary human fetal astrocytes (PFA) and the SVG human astrocyte cell line were used as in vitro models for astrocyte infection, and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were used as an in vitro model for infection of macrophage-lineage cells. The CNS-penetrating ARVs tested were the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) abacavir (ABC), lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (ZDV), the non-NRTIs efavirenz (EFV), etravirine (ETR) and nevirapine (NVP), and the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL). Drug inhibition assays were performed using single-round HIV-1 entry assays with luciferase viruses pseudotyped with HIV-1 YU-2 envelope or vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). All the ARVs tested could effectively inhibit HIV-1 infection in macrophages, with EC90s below concentrations known to be achievable in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Most of the ARVs had similar potency in astrocytes, however the NRTIs 3TC, d4T and ZDV had insufficient HIV-1 inhibitory activity in astrocytes, with EC90s 12-, 187- and 110-fold greater than achievable CSF concentrations, respectively. Our data suggest that 3TC, d4T and ZDV may not adequately target astrocyte infection in vivo, which has potential implications for their inclusion in Neuro-cART regimens. PMID:23614033

  20. Phosphorylation of HIV-1 Tat by CDK2 in HIV-1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ammosova, Tatyana; Berro, Reem; Jerebtsova, Marina; Jackson, Angela; Charles, Sharroya; Klase, Zachary; Southerland, William; Gordeuk, Victor R; Kashanchi, Fatah; Nekhai, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Background Transcription of HIV-1 genes is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which induces phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) by CDK9/cyclin T1. Earlier we showed that CDK2/cyclin E phosphorylates HIV-1 Tat in vitro. We also showed that CDK2 induces HIV-1 transcription in vitro and that inhibition of CDK2 expression by RNA interference inhibits HIV-1 transcription and viral replication in cultured cells. In the present study, we analyzed whether Tat is phosphorylated in cultured cells by CDK2 and whether Tat phosphorylation has a regulatory effect on HIV-1 transcription. Results We analyzed HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2 in vitro and identified Ser16 and Ser46 residues of Tat as potential phosphorylation sites. Tat was phosphorylated in HeLa cells infected with Tat-expressing adenovirus and metabolically labeled with 32P. CDK2-specific siRNA reduced the amount and the activity of cellular CDK2 and significantly decreased phosphorylation of Tat. Tat co-migrated with CDK2 on glycerol gradient and co-immunoprecipitated with CDK2 from the cellular extracts. Tat was phosphorylated on serine residues in vivo, and mutations of Ser16 and Ser46 residues of Tat reduced Tat phosphorylation in vivo. Mutation of Ser16 and Ser46 residues of Tat reduced HIV-1 transcription in transiently transfected cells. The mutations of Tat also inhibited HIV-1 viral replication and Tat phosphorylation in the context of the integrated HIV-1 provirus. Analysis of physiological importance of the S16QP(K/R)19 and S46YGR49 sequences of Tat showed that Ser16 and Ser46 and R49 residues are highly conserved whereas mutation of the (K/R)19 residue correlated with non-progression of HIV-1 disease. Conclusion Our results indicate for the first time that Tat is phosphorylated in vivo; Tat phosphorylation is likely to be mediated by CDK2; and phosphorylation of Tat is important for HIV-1 transcription. PMID:17083724

  1. HIV-1 Capsid: The Multifaceted Key Player in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Edward M.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In a mature, infectious HIV-1 virion, the viral genome is housed within a conical capsid core comprised of the viral capsid (CA) protein. The CA protein, and the structure into which it assembles, facilitate virtually every step of infection through a series of interactions with multiple host cell factors. This review describes our understanding of the interactions between the viral capsid core and several cellular factors that enable efficient HIV-1 genome replication, timely core disassembly, nuclear import and the integration of the viral genome into the genome of the target cell. We then discuss how elucidating these interactions can reveal new targets for therapeutic interactions against HIV-1. PMID:26179359

  2. HIV-1 transcription and latency: an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy, despite being potent and life-prolonging, is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 infection since interruption of treatment inevitably results in a rapid rebound of viremia. Reactivation of latently infected cells harboring transcriptionally silent but replication-competent proviruses is a potential source of persistent residual viremia in cART-treated patients. Although multiple reservoirs may exist, the persistence of resting CD4+ T cells carrying a latent infection represents a major barrier to eradication. In this review, we will discuss the latest reports on the molecular mechanisms that may regulate HIV-1 latency at the transcriptional level, including transcriptional interference, the role of cellular factors, chromatin organization and epigenetic modifications, the viral Tat trans-activator and its cellular cofactors. Since latency mechanisms may also operate at the post-transcriptional level, we will consider inhibition of nuclear RNA export and inhibition of translation by microRNAs as potential barriers to HIV-1 gene expression. Finally, we will review the therapeutic approaches and clinical studies aimed at achieving either a sterilizing cure or a functional cure of HIV-1 infection, with a special emphasis on the most recent pharmacological strategies to reactivate the latent viruses and decrease the pool of viral reservoirs. PMID:23803414

  3. Functional organization of the HIV lipid envelope

    PubMed Central

    Huarte, Nerea; Carravilla, Pablo; Cruz, Antonio; Lorizate, Maier; Nieto-Garai, Jon A.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Requejo-Isidro, Jose; Nieva, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection. HIV-1 acquires its envelope from the host cell plasma membrane at sites enriched in raft-type lipids. Furthermore, infectious particles display aminophospholipids on their surface, indicative of dissipation of the inter-leaflet lipid asymmetry metabolically generated at cellular membranes. By combining two-photon excited Laurdan fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy, we have obtained unprecedented insights into the phase state of membranes reconstituted from viral lipids (i.e., extracted from infectious HIV-1 particles), established the role played by the different specimens in the mixtures, and characterized the effects of membrane-active virucidal agents on membrane organization. In determining the molecular basis underlying lipid packing and lateral heterogeneity of the HIV-1 membrane, our results may help develop compounds with antiviral activity acting by perturbing the functional organization of the lipid envelope. PMID:27678107

  4. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sarah B; Arrildt, Kathryn T; Sturdevant, Christa B; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the "immune privileged" CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir.

  5. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sarah B.; Arrildt, Kathryn T.; Sturdevant, Christa B.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the “immune privileged” CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir. PMID:25236812

  6. CD4-gp120 interaction interface - a gateway for HIV-1 infection in human: molecular network, modeling and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deeksha; Podder, Avijit; Pandit, Mansi; Latha, Narayanan

    2016-09-29

    The major causative agent for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 is a predominant subtype of HIV which counts on human cellular mechanism virtually in every aspect of its life cycle. Binding of viral envelope glycoprotein-gp120 with human cell surface CD4 receptor triggers the early infection stage of HIV-1. This study focuses on the interaction interface between these two proteins that play a crucial role for viral infectivity. The CD4-gp120 interaction interface has been studied through a comprehensive protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis and highlighted as a useful step towards identifying potential therapeutic drug targets against HIV-1 infection. We prioritized gp41, Nef and Tat proteins of HIV-1 as valuable drug targets at early stage of viral infection. Lack of crystal structure has made it difficult to understand the biological implication of these proteins during disease progression. Here, computational protein modeling techniques and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to generate three-dimensional models of these targets. Besides, molecular docking was initiated to determine the desirability of these target proteins for already available HIV-1 specific drugs which indicates the usefulness of these protein structures to identify an effective drug combination therapy against AIDS.

  7. Multivalent dendrimeric compounds containing carbohydrates expressed on immune cells inhibit infection by primary isolates of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa Borges, Andrew; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Johnson, Benitra; Benesi, Alan J.; Brown, Bruce K.; Kensinger, Richard D.; Krebs, Fred C.; Wigdahl, Brian; Blumenthal, Robert; Puri, Anu; McCutchan, Francine E.; Birx, Deborah L.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne

    2010-12-05

    Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3'-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core to produce two types of unique multivalent carbohydrates (MVC). These MVC inhibited HIV-1 infection of T cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by T cell line-adapted viruses or primary isolates, with IC{sub 50}s ranging from 0.1 to 7.4 {mu}g/ml. Inhibition of Env-mediated membrane fusion by MVC was also observed using a dye-transfer assay. These carbohydrate compounds warrant further investigation as a potential new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The data presented also shed light on the role of carbohydrate moieties in HIV-1 virus-host cell interactions. -- Research Highlights: {yields}Multivalent carbohydrates (MVCs) inhibited infection of PBMCs by HIV-1. {yields}MVCs inhibited infection by T cell line-adapted viruses. {yields}MVCs inhibited infection by primary isolates of HIV-1. {yields}MVCs inhibited Env-mediated membrane fusion.

  8. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells.

  9. Picomolar dichotomous activity of gnidimacrin against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Ho, Phong; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Lei; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has offered a promising approach for controlling HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. However, with HARRT, HIV-1 is suppressed rather than eradicated due to persistence of HIV-1 in latent viral reservoirs. Thus, purging the virus from latent reservoirs is an important strategy toward eradicating HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that the daphnane diterpene gnidimacrin, which was previously reported to have potent anti-cancer cell activity, activated HIV-1 replication and killed persistently-infected cells at picomolar concentrations. In addition to its potential to purge HIV-1 from latently infected cells, gnidimacrin potently inhibited a panel of HIV-1 R5 virus infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at an average concentration lower than 10 pM. In contrast, gnidimacrin only partially inhibited HIV-1 ×4 virus infection of PBMCs. The strong anti-HIV-1 R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was correlated with its effect on down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. The anti-R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was completely abrogated by a selective protein kinase C beta inhibitor enzastaurin, which suggests that protein kinase C beta plays a key role in the potent anti-HIV-1 activity of gnidimacrin in PBMCs. In summary, these results suggest that gnidimacrin could activate latent HIV-1, specifically kill HIV-1 persistently infected cells, and inhibit R5 viruses at picomolar concentrations.

  10. Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinwei; Feizpour, Amin; Ramirez, Nora-Guadalupe P.; Wu, Linxi; Akiyama, Hisashi; Xu, Fangda; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-06-01

    Ganglioside GM3, a host-derived glycosphingolipid incorporated in the membrane of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) viral particles, mediates interactions between HIV-1 and Siglec1/CD169, a protein expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Such interactions, which seem to be independent of viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, are poorly understood. Here we develop a model system consisting of self-assembled artificial virus nanoparticles (AVNs) that are free of viral glycoproteins or other host-derived glycolipids and glycoproteins. These plasmonic AVNs contain a membrane of defined composition wrapped around a solid metal core. GM3-containing AVNs are captured by CD169-expressing HeLa cells or mature DCs, and are sequestered within non-lysosomal tetraspanin-positive compartments. This distribution is reminiscent of CD169-dependent HIV-1 sequestration in mature DCs. Our results highlight GM3-CD169 binding as a gp120-independent signal for sequestration and preservation of HIV-1 infectivity. They also indicate that plasmonic AVNs offer improved features over liposome-based systems and represent a versatile tool for probing specific virus-cell interactions.

  11. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-01-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells. PMID:9564051

  12. CIB1 and CIB2 are HIV-1 helper factors involved in viral entry

    PubMed Central

    Godinho-Santos, Ana; Hance, Allan J.; Gonçalves, João; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 relies on the host-cell machinery to accomplish its replication cycle, and characterization of these helper factors contributes to a better understanding of HIV-host interactions and can identify potential novel antiviral targets. Here we explored the contribution of CIB2, previously identified by RNAi screening as a potential helper factor, and its homolog, CIB1. Knockdown of either CIB1 or CIB2 strongly impaired viral replication in Jurkat cells and in primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes, identifying these proteins as non-redundant helper factors. Knockdown of CIB1 and CIB2 impaired envelope-mediated viral entry for both for X4- and R5-tropic HIV-1, and both cell-free and cell-associated entry pathways were affected. In contrast, the level of CIB1 and CIB2 expression did not influence cell viability, cell proliferation, receptor-independent viral binding to the cell surface, or later steps in the viral replication cycle. CIB1 and CIB2 knockdown was found to reduce the expression of surface molecules implicated in HIV-1 infection, including CXCR4, CCR5 and integrin α4β7, suggesting at least one mechanism through which these proteins promote viral infection. Thus, this study identifies CIB1 and CIB2 as host helper factors for HIV-1 replication that are required for optimal receptor-mediated viral entry. PMID:27489023

  13. CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Dreja, Hanna; Pade, Corinna; Chen, Lei; McKnight, Áine

    2015-07-01

    All human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) viruses use CD4 to enter cells. Consequently, the viral envelope CD4-binding site (CD4bs) is relatively conserved, making it a logical neutralizing antibody target. It is important to understand how CD4-binding site variation allows for escape from neutralizing antibodies. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identifies residues in antigenic sites, whereas escape mutant selection identifies viable mutants. We selected HIV-1 to escape CD4bs neutralizing mAbs b12, A12 and HJ16. Viruses that escape from A12 and b12 remained susceptible to HJ16, VRC01 and J3, whilst six different viruses that escape HJ16 remained sensitive to A12, b12 and J3. In contrast, their sensitivity to VRC01 was variable. Triple HJ16/A12/b12-resistant virus proved that HIV-1 could escape multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, but still retain sensitivity to VRC01 and the llama-derived J3 nanobody. This antigenic variability may reflect that occurring in circulating viruses, so studies like this can predict immunologically relevant antigenic forms of the CD4bs for inclusion in HIV-1 vaccines.

  14. HIV-1, sexual practices, and contact with foreigners in homosexual men in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Merino, N; Sanchez, R L; Muñoz, A; Prada, G; Garcia, C F; Polk, B F

    1990-01-01

    From October 1985 to November 1987, a sample of 294 Colombian homosexual men volunteered to answer a questionnaire on sexual practices and consented to HIV-1 testing. Testing for HIV-1 was performed using an ELISA and those positive were confirmed with envelope- and core-specific ELISAs. Statistical methods for data analysis included Mantel-Haenszel methods on contingency tables. The overall seropositivity rate was 21.1%. Subjects who reported a receptive role (either as predominantly receptive or as mixed receptive-insertive intercourse) had a seropositivity rate of 23.7%, which was significantly higher than the 10.3% found in those reporting predominantly insertive intercourse (RR = 2.30, 95% C.I. = 1.16-4.57). For subjects reporting receptive intercourse, sexual contact with foreign visitors was a significant risk factor for HIV-1 infection (RR = 1.84, 95% C.I. = 1.13-3.00). Factors of borderline significance included having had more than ten homosexual partners in the preceding year (RR = 1.53) and a history of international travel (RR = 1.43). These associations did not hold for those reporting predominantly insertive intercourse. The data indicate the need to monitor the spread of HIV-1 at the international level and provide information on subgroups of high transmission rates.

  15. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2012-05-09

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of {approx}7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

  16. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-05-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells.

  17. Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael; Borm, Katharina; Flynn, Jacqueline K; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 therapy regimens. HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs either through outgrowth of pre-existing CXCR4-using viruses, or through acquisition of the ability of CCR5-using HIV-1 to use the antagonist bound form of CCR5. In the latter scenario, the mechanism underlying resistance is through complex alterations in the way that resistant Envs engage CCR5. These significant changes are unlikely to occur without consequence to the viral entry phenotype and may also open up new avenues to target CCR5 antagonist resistant viruses. This review discusses the mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists, how HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs, and the subsequent effects on Env function.

  18. Design, synthesis and activity evaluation of novel peptide fusion inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianjun; Su, Min; Zeng, Yi; Wang, Cunxin

    2016-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the pathogen of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes about 2 million people to death every year. Fusion inhibitors targeted the envelope protein (gp41) represent a novel and alternative approach for anti-AIDS therapy, which terminates the HIV-1 life cycle at an early stage. Using CP621-652 as a template, a series of peptides were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro assays. An interesting phenomenon was found that the substitution of hydrophobic residues at solvent accessible sites could increase the anti-HIV activity when the C-terminal sequence was extended with an enough numbers of amino acids. After the active peptides was synthesized and evaluated, peptide 8 showed the best anti-HIV-1 IIIB whole cell activity (MAGI IC50=53.02 nM). Further study indicated that peptide 8 bound with the gp41 NHR helix, and then blocked the conformation of 6-helix, thus inhibited virus-cell membrane fusion. The results would be helpful for the design of peptide fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 infection.

  19. Immunogenicity and specificity of the candidate multi-epitope-vaccines against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ding, J; Chen, Y H

    2001-11-01

    The failure of some candidate HIV-1 vaccines may result from inducing very weak neutralization activity against representative primary viral isolates. Based on our hypothesis that epitope-vaccine may be a new strategy to induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, we designed two candidate multi-epitope-vaccines, EP1 [C-G-(ELDKWA-GPGRAFY)2-K] and EP2 (CG-GPGRAFY-G-ELDKWA-G-RILAVERYLKD), containing three neutralizing epitopes (GPGRAFY, ELDKWA and RILAVERYLKD) on HIV-1 envelope protein, and expected them to induce epitope-specific antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity. The two peptides were conjugated to carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. Proteins were purified from the rabbit sera induced by both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines (EP1-BSA and EP2-BSA) through affinity chromatography with epitope-peptide-conjugated sepharose-column, and identified as antibodies in silver-staining and immunoblotting. These antibodies were demonstrated to recognize three neutralizing epitopes on peptides and the recombinant gp41 in ELISA-assay and immunoblotting. These results indicated that both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines could induce high levels of antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity which recognized a few of neutralizing epitopes on peptides and protein, providing experimental evidence for the new strategy to develop an effective neutralizing-antibody-based multi-epitope-vaccine against HIV-1.

  20. Somatic Hypermutation-Induced Changes in the Structure and Dynamics of HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thaddeus M; Gorman, Jason; Joyce, M Gordon; Zhou, Tongqing; Soto, Cinque; Guttman, Miklos; Moquin, Stephanie; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Lee, Kelly K

    2016-07-20

    Antibody somatic hypermutation (SHM) and affinity maturation enhance antigen recognition by modifying antibody paratope structure to improve its complementarity with the target epitope. SHM-induced changes in paratope dynamics may also contribute to antibody maturation, but direct evidence of this is limited. Here, we examine two classes of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for SHM-induced changes in structure and dynamics, and delineate the effects of these changes on interactions with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In combination with new and existing structures of unmutated and affinity matured antibody Fab fragments, we used hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry to directly measure Fab structural dynamics. Changes in antibody structure and dynamics were positioned to improve complementarity with Env, with changes in dynamics primarily observed at the paratope peripheries. We conclude that SHM optimizes paratope complementarity to conserved HIV-1 epitopes and restricts the mobility of paratope-peripheral residues to minimize clashes with variable features on HIV-1 Env.

  1. HIV-1 gp120: A Target for Therapeutics and Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Claudia; Nawaz, Fatima; Jelicic, Katija; Arthos, James; Fauci, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Although extraordinary progress has been made in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection, the AIDS pandemic continues to rage globally with 2.1 million infections and 1.6 million AIDS-related deaths reported in 2013. Until an effective vaccine is developed, new strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Regarding the prevention of HIV infection, a major focus of prevention research in general and vaccine research in particular involves the interaction of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 with cell-surface receptors, with the hope that a greater understanding of these interactions will lead to the development of novel strategies aimed at preventing and even treating HIV-1 infection. Particular attention has been directed toward gaining a more precise understanding of the early events in transmission focusing on that critical window of time when HIV first establishes infection in the host. Here we describe some of the recent findings involving HIV-1 envelope interactions with cell surface receptors that are relevant to transmission and which may represent new opportunities to develop strategies to prevent HIV infection.

  2. HIV-1 gp41 fusion intermediate: a target for HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chungen; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4) and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5), followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR) peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR) trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  3. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Bonsignori, Mattia; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Cai, Fangping; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Song, Hongshuo; Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Ferrari, Guido; Berrong, Mark; Kelsoe, Garnett; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Montefiori, David C; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S; Hraber, Peter; Kwong, Peter D; Korber, Bette T; Mascola, John R; Kepler, Thomas B; Haynes, Barton F

    2014-07-31

    Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both helper and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  4. Identification of a Cluster of HIV-1 Controllers Infected with Low Replicating Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Concepción; Pernas, Maria; Sandonis, Virginia; Alvaro-Cifuentes, Tamara; Olivares, Isabel; Fuentes, Rosa; Martínez-Prats, Lorena; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Long term non-progressor patients (LTNPs) are characterized by the natural control of HIV-1 infection. This control is related to host genetic, immunological and virological factors. In this work, phylogenetic analysis of the proviral nucleotide sequences in env gene from a Spanish HIV-1 LTNPs cohort identified a cluster of 6 HIV-1 controllers infected with closely-related viruses. The patients of the cluster showed common clinical and epidemiological features: drug user practices, infection in the same city (Madrid, Spain) and at the same time (late 70’s-early 80’s). All cluster patients displayed distinct host alleles associated with HIV control. Analysis of the virus envelope nucleotide sequences showed ancestral characteristic, lack of evolution and presence of rare amino-acids. Biological characterization of recombinant viruses with the envelope proteins from the cluster viruses showed very low replicative capacity in TZMbl and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells. The lack of clinical progression in the viral cluster patients with distinct combinations of protective host genotypes, but infected by low replicating viruses, indicate the important role of the virus in the non-progressor phenotype in these patients. PMID:24204910

  5. Identification of a cluster of HIV-1 controllers infected with low replicating viruses.

    PubMed

    Casado, Concepción; Pernas, Maria; Sandonis, Virginia; Alvaro-Cifuentes, Tamara; Olivares, Isabel; Fuentes, Rosa; Martínez-Prats, Lorena; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Long term non-progressor patients (LTNPs) are characterized by the natural control of HIV-1 infection. This control is related to host genetic, immunological and virological factors. In this work, phylogenetic analysis of the proviral nucleotide sequences in env gene from a Spanish HIV-1 LTNPs cohort identified a cluster of 6 HIV-1 controllers infected with closely-related viruses. The patients of the cluster showed common clinical and epidemiological features: drug user practices, infection in the same city (Madrid, Spain) and at the same time (late 70's-early 80's). All cluster patients displayed distinct host alleles associated with HIV control. Analysis of the virus envelope nucleotide sequences showed ancestral characteristic, lack of evolution and presence of rare amino-acids. Biological characterization of recombinant viruses with the envelope proteins from the cluster viruses showed very low replicative capacity in TZMbl and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells. The lack of clinical progression in the viral cluster patients with distinct combinations of protective host genotypes, but infected by low replicating viruses, indicate the important role of the virus in the non-progressor phenotype in these patients.

  6. Targeting HIV-1 gp41 in close proximity to the membrane using antibody and other molecules.

    PubMed

    Gach, Johannes S; Leaman, Daniel P; Zwick, Michael B

    2011-12-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes are supported at the viral membrane interface by a highly conserved and hydrophobic region of gp41, designated the membrane-proximal external region (MPER). The MPER is mandatory for infection of host cells by HIV-1, and is the target of some of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies described to date. As such, the MPER is also of considerable interest for HIV vaccine design. However, structural models indicate that the MPER assumes distinct conformations prior to and leading up to Env-mediated fusion. Thus, the more of these distinct conformations that antibodies and inhibitors can recognize will likely be the better for antiviral potency. In addition to its flexibility, the MPER is lipophilic and its accessibility to bulky macromolecules is limited by steric and kinetic blocks that present particular challenges for eliciting HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the ability of the MPER and viral membrane to combine as a complex has critical mechanistic implications for molecules that target lipid-bound and/or unbound states. Interestingly, membrane affinity frequently appears to enhance the potency of both fusion inhibitors and antibodies to different sites on gp41. We therefore highlight mechanisms to be harnessed in targeting membraneproximal sites on HIV gp41 for both vaccine and fusion inhibitor design. Such design efforts will likely need to draw upon knowledge of MPER structure and function, and may in turn inform analogous approaches to MPERs of other enveloped viruses and systems.

  7. Enhanced Potency of a Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody In Vitro Improves Protection against Lentiviral Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Kwon, Young Do; Ko, Sung-Youl; Pegu, Amarendra; Louder, Mark K.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Xuejun; Shi, Wei; Yang, Zhi-yong; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Todd, John-Paul; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Eudailey, Joshua; Roberts, Kyle E.; Donald, Bruce R.; Bailer, Robert T.; Ledgerwood, Julie; Mullikin, James C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Koup, Richard A.; Graham, Barney S.; Nason, Martha C.; Connors, Mark; Haynes, Barton F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Roederer, Mario; Kwong, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past 5 years, a new generation of highly potent and broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies has been identified. These antibodies can protect against lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs), suggesting that passive antibody transfer would prevent HIV-1 transmission in humans. To increase the protective efficacy of such monoclonal antibodies, we employed next-generation sequencing, computational bioinformatics, and structure-guided design to enhance the neutralization potency and breadth of VRC01, an antibody that targets the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope. One variant, VRC07-523, was 5- to 8-fold more potent than VRC01, neutralized 96% of viruses tested, and displayed minimal autoreactivity. To compare its protective efficacy to that of VRC01 in vivo, we performed a series of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge experiments in nonhuman primates and calculated the doses of VRC07-523 and VRC01 that provide 50% protection (EC50). VRC07-523 prevented infection in NHPs at a 5-fold lower concentration than VRC01. These results suggest that increased neutralization potency in vitro correlates with improved protection against infection in vivo, documenting the improved functional efficacy of VRC07-523 and its potential clinical relevance for protecting against HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, alternative strategies are needed to block HIV-1 transmission. Direct administration of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies may be able to prevent HIV-1 infections in humans. This approach could be especially useful in individuals at high risk for contracting HIV-1 and could be used together with antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection. To optimize the chance of success, such antibodies can be modified to improve their potency, breadth, and in vivo half-life. Here, knowledge of the structure of a potent neutralizing antibody, VRC01, that targets the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope

  8. Significant contribution of subtype G to HIV-1 genetic complexity in Nigeria identified by a newly developed subtyping assay specific for subtype G and CRF02_AG

    PubMed Central

    Heipertz, Richard A.; Ayemoba, Ojor; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Poltavee, Kultida; Pham, Phuc; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Lei, Esther; Bose, Meera; Howell, Shana; O'Sullivan, Anne Marie; Bates, Adam; Cervenka, Taylor; Kuroiwa, Janelle; Akintunde, Akindiran; Ibezim, Onyekachukwu; Alabi, Abraham; Okoye, Obumneke; Manak, Mark; Malia, Jennifer; Peel, Sheila; Maisaka, Mohammed; Singer, Darrell; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While abundant sequence information is available from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, B, C and CRF01_AE for HIV-1 vaccine design, sequences from West Africa are less represented. We sought to augment our understanding of HIV-1 variants circulating in 6 Nigerian cities as a step to subsequent HIV-1 vaccine development. The G/CRF02_AG multi-region hybridization assay (MHA) was developed to differentiate subtype G, CRF02_AG and their recombinants from other subtypes based on 7 HIV-1 segments. Plasma from 224 HIV-1 infected volunteers enrolled in a cohort examining HIV-1 prevalence, risk factor, and subtype from Makurdi (30), Abuja (18), Enugu (11), Kaduna (12), Tafa (95), and Ojo/Lagos (58) was analyzed using MHA. HIV-1 genomes from 42 samples were sequenced to validate the MHA and fully explore the recombinant structure of G and CRF02_AG variants. The sensitivity and specificity of MHA varied between 73–100% and 90–100%, respectively. The subtype distribution as identified by MHA among 224 samples revealed 38% CRF02_AG, 28% G, and 26% G/CRF02_AG recombinants while 8% remained nontypeable strains. In envelope (env) gp120, 38.84% of the samples reacted to a G probe while 31.25% reacted to a CRF02 (subtype A) probe. Full genome characterization of 42 sequences revealed the complexity of Nigerian HIV-1 variants. CRF02_AG, subtype G, and their recombinants were the major circulating HIV-1 variants in 6 Nigerian cities. High proportions of samples reacted to a G probe in env gp120 confirms that subtype G infections are abundant and should be considered in strategies for global HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:27512845

  9. Antibodies elicited by yeast glycoproteins recognize HIV-1 virions and potently neutralize virions with high mannose N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Fu, Hu; Luallen, Robert J.; Liu, Bingfen; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W.; Geng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125–130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:26277072

  10. A species-specific amino acid difference in the macaque CD4 receptor restricts replication by global circulating HIV-1 variants representing viruses from recent infection.

    PubMed

    Humes, Daryl; Emery, Sandra; Laws, Elizabeth; Overbaugh, Julie

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 replicates poorly in macaque cells, and this had hindered the advancement of relevant nonhuman primate model systems for HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis. Several host restriction factors have been identified that contribute to this species-specific restriction to HIV-1 replication, but these do not fully explain the poor replication of most strains of HIV-1 in macaque cells. Only select HIV-1 envelope variants, typically those derived from viruses that have been adapted in cell culture, result in infectious chimeric SIVs encoding HIV-1 envelope (SHIVs). Here we demonstrate that most circulating HIV-1 variants obtained directly from infected individuals soon after virus acquisition do not efficiently mediate entry using the macaque CD4 receptor. The infectivity of these viruses is ca. 20- to 50-fold lower with the rhesus and pig-tailed macaque versus the human CD4 receptor. In contrast, culture-derived HIV-1 envelope variants that facilitate efficient replication in macaques showed similar infectivity with macaque and human CD4 receptors (within ∼2-fold). The ability of an envelope to mediate entry using macaque CD4 correlated with its ability to mediate entry of cells expressing low levels of the human CD4 receptor and with soluble CD4 sensitivity. Species-specific differences in the functional capacity of the CD4 receptor to mediate entry mapped to a single amino acid difference at position 39 that is under strong positive selection, suggesting that the evolution of CD4 may have been influenced by its function as a viral receptor. These results also suggest that N39 in human CD4 may be a critical residue for interaction of transmitted HIV-1 variants. These studies provide important insights into virus-host cell interactions that have hindered the development of relevant nonhuman primate models for HIV-1 infection and provide possible markers, such as sCD4 sensitivity, to identify potential HIV-1 variants that could be exploited for development of better

  11. Therapeutics for HIV-1 reactivation from latency.

    PubMed

    Sgarbanti, Marco; Battistini, Angela

    2013-08-01

    Intensive combined antiretroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 replication and AIDS disease progression making infection manageable, but it is unable to eradicate the virus that persists in long-lived, drug-insensitive and immune system-insensitive reservoirs thus asking for life-long treatments with problems of compliance, resistance, toxicity and cost. These limitations and recent insights into latency mechanisms have fueled a renewed effort in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of the latent reservoir upon induction of viral transcription followed by the elimination of reactivated virus-producing cells by viral cytopathic effect or host immune response. Several molecules identified by mechanism-directed approaches or in large-scale screenings have been proposed as latency reversing agents. Some of them have already entered clinical testing in humans but with mixed or unsatisfactory results.

  12. Conserved Structural Elements in the V3 Crown of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Burke, V; Totrov, M; Williams, C; Cardozo, T; Gorny, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X

    2010-01-01

    Binding of the third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cell-surface coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 during viral entry suggests that there are conserved structural elements in this sequence-variable region. These conserved elements could serve as epitopes to be targeted by a vaccine against HIV-1. Here we perform a systematic structural analysis of representative human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies in complex with V3 peptides, revealing that the crown of V3 has four conserved structural elements: an arch, a band, a hydrophobic core and the peptide backbone. These are either unaffected by or are subject to minimal sequence variation. As these regions are targeted by cross-clade neutralizing human antibodies, they provide a blueprint for the design of vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly cross-reactive protective antibodies.

  13. Nanochemistry-based immunotherapy for HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lori, F; Calarota, S A; Lisziewicz, J

    2007-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), i.e. the combination of three or more drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has greatly improved the clinical outcome of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, HAART is unable to reconstitute HIV-specific immunity and eradicate the virus. Several observations in primate models and in humans support the notion that cell-mediated immunity can control viral replication and slow disease progression. Thus, besides drugs, an immunotherapy that induces long-lasting HIV-specific T-cell responses could play a role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. To induce such immune responses, DermaVir Patch has been developed. DermaVir consists of an HIV-1 antigen-encoding plasmid DNA that is chemically formulated in a nanoparticle. DermaVir is administered under a patch after a skin preparation that supports the delivery of the nanoparticle to Langerhans cells (LC). Epidermal LC trap and transport the nanomedicine to draining lymph nodes. While in transit, LC mature into dendritic cells (DC), which can efficiently present the DNA-encoded antigens to naïve T-cells for the induction of cellular immunity. Pre-clinical studies and Phase I clinical testing of DermaVir in HIV-1-infected individuals have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of DermaVir Patch. To further modulate cellular immunity, molecular adjuvants might be added into the nanoparticle. DermaVir Patch represents a new nanomedicine platform for immunotherapy of HIV/AIDS. In this review, the antiviral activity of DermaVir-induced cellular immunity is discussed. Furthermore, the action of some cytokines currently being tested as adjuvants are highlighted and the adjuvant effect of cytokine plasmid DNA included in the DermaVir nanoparticle is reviewed.

  14. Population genomics of intrapatient HIV-1 evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, Fabio; Brodin, Johanna; Thebo, Lina; Lanz, Christa; Bratt, Göran; Albert, Jan; Neher, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Many microbial populations rapidly adapt to changing environments with multiple variants competing for survival. To quantify such complex evolutionary dynamics in vivo, time resolved and genome wide data including rare variants are essential. We performed whole-genome deep sequencing of HIV-1 populations in 9 untreated patients, with 6-12 longitudinal samples per patient spanning 5-8 years of infection. The data can be accessed and explored via an interactive web application. We show that patterns of minor diversity are reproducible between patients and mirror global HIV-1 diversity, suggesting a universal landscape of fitness costs that control diversity. Reversions towards the ancestral HIV-1 sequence are observed throughout infection and account for almost one third of all sequence changes. Reversion rates depend strongly on conservation. Frequent recombination limits linkage disequilibrium to about 100bp in most of the genome, but strong hitch-hiking due to short range linkage limits diversity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11282.001 PMID:26652000

  15. HIV-1 Transmission Networks Across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Wertheim, Joel O; Kim, Woo Joo; Kim, Shin-Woo; Lee, Jin Soo; Ann, Hea Won; Jeon, Yongduk; Ahn, Jin Young; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Jung, In Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, June Myung; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2017-03-27

    Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering. We collected demographic, risk, and clinical data and analyzed these data in relation to clustering. Among 143 participants, we identified nine putative transmission clusters of different sizes (range 2-4 participants). The reported risk factor of participants were concordant in only one network involving two participants, that is, both individuals reported homosexual sex as their risk factor. The participants in the other eight networks did not report concordant risk factors, although they were phylogenetically linked. About half of the participants refused to report their risk factor. Overall, molecular epidemiology provides more information to understand local transmission networks and the risks associated with these networks.

  16. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nunzio, Francesca; Fricke, Thomas; Miccio, Annarita; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio; Souque, Philippe; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Charneau, Pierre; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2013-05-25

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration. To explore the biochemical viral determinants for the requirement of Nup153 and Nup98 during HIV-1 infection, we tested the ability of these nucleoporins to interact with HIV-1 cores. Our findings showed that both nucleoporins bind HIV-1 cores suggesting that this interaction is important for HIV-1 nuclear import and/or integration. Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nup153-depleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nup153-depleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. - Highlights: ► We studied the role of Nup98 and Nup153 in HIV-1 infection. ► Nup98 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 integration. ► Nup153 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 nuclear import. ► Depletion of Nup153 decreased the integration of HIV-1 in transcriptionally active sites.

  17. Genome editing of CXCR4 by CRISPR/cas9 confers cells resistant to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Panpan; Chen, Shuliang; Wang, Shilei; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Meng; Zhuang, Ke; Ho, Wenzhe; Hou, Wei; Huang, Jian; Guo, Deyin

    2015-10-20

    Genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 has become an efficient and reliable way to make precise, targeted changes to the genome of living cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for AIDS. CXCR4 mediates viral entry into human CD4(+) cells by binding to envelope protein, gp120. Here, we show that human CXCR4 gene is efficiently disrupted by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, leading to HIV-1 resistance of human primary CD4(+) T cells. We also show that the Cas9-mediated ablation of CXCR4 demonstrated high specificity and negligible off-target effects without affecting cell division and propagation. The precise and efficient genome editing of CXCR4 will provide a new strategy for therapeutic application against HIV-1 infection.

  18. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo.

  19. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE PAGES

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; ...

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  20. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.

  1. The gp120 Protein Is a Second Determinant of Decreased Neurovirulence of Indian HIV-1C Isolates Compared to Southern African HIV-1C Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vasudev R.; Neogi, Ujjwal; Eugenin, Eliseo; Prasad, Vinayaka R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional differences in neurovirulence have been documented among subtype/clade-C HIV-1 isolates in India and Southern Africa. We previously demonstrated that a C31S substitution in Clade-C Tat dicysteine motif reduces monocyte recruitment, cytokine induction and direct neurotoxicity. Therefore, this polymorphism is considered to be a causative factor for these differences in neurovirulence. We previously reported on the genotypic differences in Tat protein between clade-C and rest of the clades showing that approximately 90% of clade-C HIV-1 Tat sequences worldwide contained this C31S polymorphism, while 99% of non-clade C isolates lacked this Tat polymorphism at C31 residue (Ranga et al. (2004) J Virol 78∶2586–2590). Subsequently, we documented intra-clade-C differences in the frequency of Tat dicysteine variants between India and Southern Africa, as the basis for differential disease severity and showed the importance of the Tat dicysteine motif for neuropathogenesis using small animal models. We have now examined if determinants of neurovirulence besides Tat are different between the clade-C HIV-1 isolates from Southern Africa and India. Envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a well-documented contributor to neurotoxicity. We found that gp120 sequences of HIV-1 isolates from these two regions are genetically distinct. In order to delineate the contribution of gp120 to neurovirulence, we compared direct in vitro neurotoxicity of HIV-infected supernatants of a representative neurovirulent US clade-B isolate with two isolates each from Southern Africa and India using primary human neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Immunodepletion of gp120 of both US clade B and the Southern African clade C isolates revealed robust decreases in neurotoxicity, while that of the Indian isolates showed minimal effect on neurotoxicity. The gp120 as a cause of differential neurotoxicity was further confirmed using purified recombinant gp120 from HIV isolates from these regions. We

  2. Optimal combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention and treatments of HIV-1 clade C infection

    DOE PAGES

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; ...

    2016-03-30

    In this study, the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and themore » gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.« less

  3. Imperatorin inhibits HIV-1 replication through an Sp1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rocío; Márquez, Nieves; Gómez-Gonzalo, Marta; Calzado, Marco A; Bettoni, Giorgio; Coiras, Maria Teresa; Alcamí, José; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2004-09-03

    Coumarins and structurally related compounds have been recently shown to present anti-human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) activity. Among them, the dietary furanocoumarin imperatorin is present in citrus fruits, in culinary herbs, and in some medicinal plants. In this study we report that imperatorin inhibits either vesicular stomatitis virus-pseudotyped or gp160-enveloped recombinant HIV-1 infection in several T cell lines and in HeLa cells. These recombinant viruses express luciferase as a marker of viral replication. Imperatorin did not inhibit the reverse transcription nor the integration steps in the viral cell cycle. Using several 5' long terminal repeat-HIV-1 constructs where critical response elements were either deleted or mutated, we found that the transcription factor Sp1 is critical for the inhibitory activity of imperatorin induced by both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and HIV-1 Tat. Moreover in transient transfections imperatorin specifically inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced transcriptional activity of the Gal4-Sp1 fusion protein. Since Sp1 is also implicated in cell cycle progression we further studied the effect of imperatorin on cyclin D1 gene transcription and protein expression and in HeLa cell cycle progression. We found that imperatorin strongly inhibited cyclin D1 expression and arrested the cells at the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. These results highlight the potential of Sp1 transcription factor as a target for natural anti-HIV-1 compounds such as furanocoumarins that might have a potential therapeutic role in the management of AIDS.

  4. Optimal Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Clade C Infection.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R; Barouch, Dan H; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Mascola, John R; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  5. Optimal combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention and treatments of HIV-1 clade C infection

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan Scott; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K.; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R.; Barouch, Dan H.; Nussenzweig, Michael C.; Mascola, John R.; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; Korber, Bette Tina; Seamon, Michael S.

    2016-03-30

    In this study, the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  6. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dharan, Adarsh; Talley, Sarah; Tripathi, Abhishek; Mamede, João I.; Majetschak, Matthias; Campbell, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D) or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A) is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6), but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection. PMID:27327622

  7. Germlining of the HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody domain m36

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weizao; Li, Wei; Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered antibody domains (eAds) have emerged as a novel class of HIV-1 inhibitors and are currently under preclinical testing as promising drug candidates for prevention and therapy of HIV-1 infection. Reverse mutation of antibodies to germline sequences (germlining) could not only identify less mutated variants with lower probability of immunogenicity and other improved properties but also help elucidate their mechanisms of action. In this study, we sequentially reverted the framework (FRs) and complementary determining regions (CDRs) of m36, a human antibody heavy chain variable domain-based eAd targeting the coreceptor binding site of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, back to germline sequences. Two types of amino acid mutations and one region in the antibody V segment were identified that are critical for HIV-1 neutralization. These include four mutations to acidic acid residues distributed in the CDR1 and CDR2, two mutations to hydrophobic residues in the FR3 and CDR3, and partial FR2 and FR3 sequences flanking the CDR2 that are derived from a different gene family. An m36 variant with all five mutations in the FRs reverted back to germline showed slightly increased neutralizing activity against two HIV-1 isolates tested. Another variant with seven of twelve mutations in the V segment reverted retained potency within three-fold of that of the mature antibody. These results, together with an analysis of m36-gp120-CD4 docking structures, could have implications for the further development of m36 as candidate therapeutics and elucidation of its mechanism of potent and broad HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25676867

  8. FCGR2C polymorphisms associate with HIV-1 vaccine protection in RV144 trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuying S; Gilbert, Peter B; Tomaras, Georgia D; Kijak, Gustavo; Ferrari, Guido; Thomas, Rasmi; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Montefiori, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Nabel, Gary; Pinter, Abraham; Evans, David T; Gottardo, Raphael; Dai, James Y; Janes, Holly; Morris, Daryl; Fong, Youyi; Edlefsen, Paul T; Li, Fusheng; Frahm, Nicole; Alpert, Michael D; Prentice, Heather; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Robb, Merlin L; O'Connell, Robert J; Haynes, Barton F; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; McElrath, M Juliana; Geraghty, Daniel E

    2014-09-01

    The phase III RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) to be 31.2%. This trial demonstrated that the presence of HIV-1-specific IgG-binding Abs to envelope (Env) V1V2 inversely correlated with infection risk, while the presence of Env-specific plasma IgA Abs directly correlated with risk of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses inversely correlated with risk of infection in vaccine recipients with low IgA; therefore, we hypothesized that vaccine-induced Fc receptor-mediated (FcR-mediated) Ab function is indicative of vaccine protection. We sequenced exons and surrounding areas of FcR-encoding genes and found one FCGR2C tag SNP (rs114945036) that associated with VE against HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE, with lysine at position 169 (169K) in the V2 loop (CRF01_AE 169K). Individuals carrying CC in this SNP had an estimated VE of 15%, while individuals carrying CT or TT exhibited a VE of 91%. Furthermore, the rs114945036 SNP was highly associated with 3 other FCGR2C SNPs (rs138747765, rs78603008, and rs373013207). Env-specific IgG and IgG3 Abs, IgG avidity, and neutralizing Abs inversely correlated with CRF01_AE 169K HIV-1 infection risk in the CT- or TT-carrying vaccine recipients only. These data suggest a potent role of Fc-γ receptors and Fc-mediated Ab function in conferring protection from transmission risk in the RV144 VE trial.

  9. HIV-1 Phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Gray, Rebecca R.; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C.; McGrath, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that 1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, 2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and 3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21055482

  10. Phenotypic Correlates of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Arrildt, Kathryn T.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Joseph, Sarah B.; Dukhovlinova, Elena N.; Graham, William D.; Ping, Li-Hua; Schnell, Gretja; Sturdevant, Christa B.; Kincer, Laura P.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Heyderman, Robert S.; Van Rie, Annelies; Cohen, Myron S.; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W.; Montefiori, David C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 is typically CCR5 using (R5) and T cell tropic (T-tropic), targeting memory CD4+ T cells throughout acute and chronic infections. However, viruses can expand into alternative cells types. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 variants have evolved to infect macrophages, which have only low levels of surface CD4. Most M-tropic variants have been isolated from the central nervous system during late-stage chronic infection. We used the HIV-1 env genes of well-defined, subject-matched M-tropic and T-tropic viruses to characterize the phenotypic features of the M-tropic Env protein. We found that, compared to T-tropic viruses, M-tropic viruses infect monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) on average 28-fold more efficiently, use low-density CD4 more efficiently, have increased sensitivity to soluble CD4 (sCD4), and show trends toward sensitivity to some CD4 binding site antibodies but no difference in sensitivity to antibodies targeting the CD4-bound conformation. M-tropic viruses also displayed a trend toward resistance to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies targeting the V1/V2 region of Env, suggesting subtle changes in Env protein conformation. The paired M- and T-tropic viruses did not differ in autologous serum neutralization, temperature sensitivity, entry kinetics, intrinsic infectivity, or Env protein incorporation. We also examined viruses with modestly increased CD4 usage. These variants have significant sensitivity to sCD4 and may represent evolutionary intermediates. CD4 usage is strongly correlated with infectivity of MDMs over a wide range of CD4 entry phenotypes. These data suggest that emergence of M-tropic HIV-1 includes multiple steps in which a phenotype of increased sensitivity to sCD4 and enhanced CD4 usage accompany subtle changes in Env conformation. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 typically replicates in CD4+ T cells. However, HIV-1 can evolve to infect macrophages, especially within the brain. Understanding how CCR5-using macrophage-tropic viruses

  11. Host Immune Responses in HIV-1 Infection: The Emerging Pathogenic Role of Siglecs and Their Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Mikulak, Joanna; Di Vito, Clara; Zaghi, Elisa; Mavilio, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms employed by HIV-1 to escape immune responses still represents one of the major tasks required for the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting a disease still lacking a definitive cure. Host innate immune responses against HIV-1 are key in the early phases of the infection as they could prevent the development and the establishment of two hallmarks of the infection: chronic inflammation and viral reservoirs. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) belong to a family of transmembrane proteins able to dampen host immune responses and set appropriate immune activation thresholds upon ligation with their natural ligands, the sialylated carbohydrates. This immune-modulatory function is also targeted by many pathogens that have evolved to express sialic acids on their surface in order to escape host immune responses. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) is extensively covered by carbohydrates playing active roles in life cycle of the virus. Indeed, besides forming a protecting shield from antibody recognition, this coat of N-linked glycans interferes with the folding of viral glycoproteins and enhances virus infectivity. In particular, the sialic acid residues present on gp120 can bind Siglec-7 on natural killer and monocytes/macrophages and Siglec-1 on monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between these two members of the Siglec family and the sialylated glycans present on HIV-1 envelope either induce or increase HIV-1 entry in conventional and unconventional target cells, thus contributing to viral dissemination and disease progression. In this review, we address the impact of Siglecs in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and discuss how they could be employed as clinic and therapeutic targets. PMID:28386256

  12. High-multiplicity HIV-1 infection and neutralizing antibody evasion mediated by the macrophage-T cell virological synapse.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christopher J A; Williams, James P; Schiffner, Torben; Gärtner, Kathleen; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Russell, Rebecca A; Frater, John; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2014-02-01

    Macrophage infection is considered to play an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis and persistence. Using a primary cell-based coculture model, we show that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) efficiently transmit a high-multiplicity HIV-1 infection to autologous CD4(+) T cells through a viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) receptor- and actin-dependent virological synapse (VS), facilitated by interactions between ICAM-1 and LFA-1. Virological synapse (VS)-mediated transmission by MDM results in high levels of T cell HIV-1 integration and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more efficient than cell-free infection. This mode of cell-to-cell transmission is broadly susceptible to the activity of CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and glycan or glycopeptide epitope-specific broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNMAbs) but shows resistance to bNMAbs targeting the Env gp41 subunit membrane-proximal external region (MPER). These data define for the first time the structure and function of the macrophage-to-T cell VS and have important implications for bNMAb activity in HIV-1 prophylaxis and therapy. IMPORTANCE The ability of HIV-1 to move directly between contacting immune cells allows efficient viral dissemination with the potential to evade antibody attack. Here, we show that HIV-1 spreads from infected macrophages to T cells via a structure called a virological synapse that maintains extended contact between the two cell types, allowing transfer of multiple infectious events to the T cell. This process allows the virus to avoid neutralization by a class of antibody targeting the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoproteins. These results have implications for viral spread in vivo and the specificities of neutralizing antibody elicited by antibody-based vaccines.

  13. Outer domain of HIV-1 gp120: antigenic optimization, structural malleability, and crystal structure with antibody VRC-PG04.

    PubMed

    Joyce, M Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Xu, Ling; Biertümpfel, Christian; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Moquin, Stephanie; Shi, Wei; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Nabel, Gary J

    2013-02-01

    The outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein contains the epitope for broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the CD4-binding site, many of which are able to neutralize over 90% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. While the outer domain is conformationally more stable than other portions of the HIV-1 envelope, efforts to express the outer domain as an immunogen for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been successful, potentially because natural outer domain variants do not bind strongly to antibodies such as VRC01. In this study, we optimized the antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env outer domain to generate OD4.2.2, from the KER2018 strain of clade A HIV-1, enabling it to bind antibodies such as VRC01 with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 in complex with VRC-PG04 was solved at 3.0-Å resolution and compared to known crystal structures including (i) the structure of core gp120 bound by VRC-PG04 and (ii) a circularly permutated version of the outer domain in complex with antibody PGT128. Much of the VRC-PG04 epitope was preserved in the OD4.2.2 structure, though with altered N and C termini conformations. Overall, roughly one-third of the outer domain structure appeared to be fixed in conformation, independent of alterations in termini, clade, or ligand, while other portions of the outer domain displayed substantial structural malleability. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 with VRC-PG04 provides atomic-level details for an HIV-1 domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and insights relevant to the rational design of an immunogen that could elicit such antibodies by vaccination.

  14. A novel bispecific peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the N-terminal heptad repeat and fusion peptide domains in gp41.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xifeng; Jia, Qiyan; Lu, Lu; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Jishen; Shi, Weiguo; Cai, Lifeng; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 fusion with the target cell is initiated by the insertion of the gp41 fusion peptide (FP) into the target cell membrane and the interaction between the gp41 N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR), followed by the formation of the six-helix bundle (6-HB) fusion core. Therefore, both FP and NHR are important targets for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Here, we designed and synthesized a dual-target peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, 4HR-LBD-VIRIP, in which 4HR-LBD is able to bind to the gp41 NHR domain, while VIRIP is able to interact with gp41 FP. We found that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP is about tenfold more potent than 4HR-LBD and VIRIP in inhibiting HIV-1IIIB infection and HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting that this dual-target HIV-1 fusion inhibitor possesses a strong synergistic antiviral effect. A biophysical analysis indicates that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP can interact with N70 peptide that contains the gp41 NHR and FP domains and binds with lipid membrane. This study provides a new approach for designing novel viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses with class I membrane fusion proteins.

  15. Antiviral mechanism of polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Maly, Marek; De la Mata, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-derived platforms, such as dendrimers, are very attractive in several biological applications. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown great potential as antiviral agents in the development of novel microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. In this work, we studied the mechanism of two sulfated and naphthylsulfonated functionalized carbosilane dendrimers, G3-S16 and G2-NF16. They are able to inhibit viral infection at fusion and thus at the entry step. Both compounds impede the binding of viral particles to target cell surface and membrane fusion through the blockage of gp120–CD4 interaction. In addition, and for the first time, we demonstrate that dendrimers can inhibit cell-to-cell HIV transmission and difficult infectious synapse formation. Thus, carbosilane dendrimers’ mode of action is a multifactorial process targeting several proteins from viral envelope and from host cells that could block HIV infection at different stages during the first step of infection. PMID:27103798

  16. HIV-1 subtype distribution in the Gambia and the significant presence of CRF49_cpx, a novel circulating recombinant form

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Detailed local HIV-1 sequence data are essential for monitoring the HIV epidemic, for maintaining sensitive sequence-based diagnostics, and to aid in designing vaccines. Results Reported here are full envelope sequences derived from 38 randomly selected HIV-1 infections identified at a Gambian clinic between 1991 and 2009. Special care was taken to generate sequences from circulating viral RNA as uncloned products, either by limiting dilution or single genome amplification polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Within these 38 isolates, eight were subtyped as A and 18 as CRF02_AG. A small number of subtype B, C, D viruses were identified. Surprising, however, was the identification of six isolates with subtype J-like envelopes, a subtype found normally in Central Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), with gag p24 regions that clustered with subtype A sequences. Near full-length sequence from three of these isolates confirmed that these represent a novel circulating recombinant form of HIV-1, now named CRF49_cpx. Conclusions This study expands the HIV-1 sequence database from the Gambia and will provide important data for HIV diagnostics, patient care, and vaccine development. PMID:20932333

  17. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Moody, M Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Amos, Joshua D; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Alam, S Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S; Sam, Noel E; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S; Tumba, Nancy L; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Mascola, John R; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Sodroski, Joseph G; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Hraber, Peter T; Korber, Bette T; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3 and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.

  18. Productive replication and evolution of HIV-1 in ferret cells.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hind J; Saenz, Dyana T; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  19. Influence of sequence identity and unique breakpoints on the frequency of intersubtype HIV-1 recombination

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Heather A; Gao, Yong; Galetto, Román; Lalonde, Matthew; Anthony, Reshma M; Giacomoni, Véronique; Abreha, Measho; Destefano, Jeffrey J; Negroni, Matteo; Arts, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    Background HIV-1 recombination between different subtypes has a major impact on the global epidemic. The generation of these intersubtype recombinants follows a defined set of events starting with dual infection of a host cell, heterodiploid virus production, strand transfers during reverse transcription, and then selection. In this study, recombination frequencies were measured in the C1-C4 regions of the envelope gene in the presence (using a multiple cycle infection system) and absence (in vitro reverse transcription and single cycle infection systems) of selection for replication-competent virus. Ugandan subtypes A and D HIV-1 env sequences (115-A, 120-A, 89-D, 122-D, 126-D) were employed in all three assay systems. These subtypes co-circulate in East Africa and frequently recombine in this human population. Results Increased sequence identity between viruses or RNA templates resulted in increased recombination frequencies, with the exception of the 115-A virus or RNA template. Analyses of the recombination breakpoints and mechanistic studies revealed that the presence of a recombination hotspot in the C3/V4 env region, unique to 115-A as donor RNA, could account for the higher recombination frequencies with the 115-A virus/template. Single-cycle infections supported proportionally less recombination than the in vitro reverse transcription assay but both systems still had significantly higher recombination frequencies than observed in the multiple-cycle virus replication system. In the multiple cycle assay, increased replicative fitness of one HIV-1 over the other in a dual infection dramatically decreased recombination frequencies. Conclusion Sequence variation at specific sites between HIV-1 isolates can introduce unique recombination hotspots, which increase recombination frequencies and skew the general observation that decreased HIV-1 sequence identity reduces recombination rates. These findings also suggest that the majority of intra- or intersubtype A

  20. LFA-1 Engagement Triggers T Cell Polarization at the HIV-1 Virological Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Shimona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 efficiently disseminates by cell-cell spread at intercellular contacts called virological synapses (VS), where the virus preferentially assembles and buds. Cell-cell contact triggers active polarization of organelles and viral proteins within infected cells to the contact site to support efficient VS formation and HIV-1 spread; critically, however, which cell surface protein triggers contact-induced polarization at the VS remains unclear. Additionally, the mechanism by which the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is recruited to the VS remains ill defined. Here, we use a reductionist bead-coupled antibody assay as a model of the VS and show that cross-linking the integrin LFA-1 alone is sufficient to induce active T cell polarization and recruitment of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in HIV-1-infected cells. Mutant cell lines coupled with inhibitors demonstrated that LFA-1-induced polarization was dependent on the T cell kinase ZAP70. Notably, immunofluorescent staining of viral proteins revealed an accumulation of surface Env at sites of LFA-1 engagement, with intracellular Env localized to a Golgi compartment proximal to the polarized MTOC. Furthermore, blocking LFA-1-induced MTOC polarization through ZAP70 inhibition prevented intracellular Env polarization. Taken together, these data reveal that LFA-1 is a key determinant in inducing dynamic T cell remodeling to the VS and suggest a model in which LFA-1 engagement triggers active polarization of the MTOC and the associated Env-containing secretory apparatus to sites of cell-cell contact to support polarized viral assembly and egress for efficient cell-cell spread. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 causes AIDS by spreading within immune cells and depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes. Rapid spread between these cells occurs by highly efficient cell-cell transmission that takes place at virological synapses (VS). VS are characterized by striking T cell remodeling that is spatially associated with polarized virus

  1. Chemical synthesis of highly congested gp120 V1V2 N-glycopeptide antigens for potential HIV-1-directed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aussedat, Baptiste; Vohra, Yusuf; Park, Peter K; Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Alam, S Munir; Dennison, S Moses; Jaeger, Frederick H; Anasti, Kara; Stewart, Shelley; Blinn, Julie H; Liao, Hua-Xin; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2013-09-04

    Critical to the search for an effective HIV-1 vaccine is the development of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs). A key first step in this process is to design immunogens that can be recognized by known BnAbs. The monoclonal antibody PG9 is a BnAb that neutralizes diverse strains of HIV-1 by targeting a conserved carbohydrate-protein epitope in the variable 1 and 2 (V1V2) region of the viral envelope. Important for recognition are two closely spaced N-glycans at Asn(160) and Asn(156). Glycopeptides containing this synthetically challenging bis-N-glycosylated motif were prepared by convergent assembly, and were shown to be antigenic for PG9. Synthetic glycopeptides such as these may be useful for the development of HIV-1 vaccines based on the envelope V1V2 BnAb epitope.

  2. HIV-1 Env associates with HLA-C free-chains at the cell membrane modulating viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Serena, Michela; Parolini, Francesca; Biswas, Priscilla; Sironi, Francesca; Blanco Miranda, Almudena; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Ziglio, Serena; Valenzuela-Fernandez, Agustin; Gibellini, Davide; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Siccardi, Antonio; Malnati, Mauro; Beretta, Alberto; Zipeto, Donato

    2017-01-04

    HLA-C has been demonstrated to associate with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Virions lacking HLA-C have reduced infectivity and increased susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. Like all others MHC-I molecules, HLA-C requires β2-microglobulin (β2m) for appropriate folding and expression on the cell membrane but this association is weaker, thus generating HLA-C free-chains on the cell surface. In this study, we deepen the understanding of HLA-C and Env association by showing that HIV-1 specifically increases the amount of HLA-C free chains, not bound to β2m, on the membrane of infected cells. The association between Env and HLA-C takes place at the cell membrane requiring β2m to occur. We report that the enhanced infectivity conferred to HIV-1 by HLA-C specifically involves HLA-C free chain molecules that have been correctly assembled with β2m. HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in the absence of β2m are less infectious than those produced in the presence of β2m. We hypothesize that the conformation and surface expression of HLA-C molecules could be a discriminant for the association with Env. Binding stability to β2m may confer to HLA-C the ability to preferentially act either as a conventional immune-competent molecule or as an accessory molecule involved in HIV-1 infectivity.

  3. HIV-1 Env associates with HLA-C free-chains at the cell membrane modulating viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Serena, Michela; Parolini, Francesca; Biswas, Priscilla; Sironi, Francesca; Blanco Miranda, Almudena; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Ziglio, Serena; Valenzuela-Fernandez, Agustin; Gibellini, Davide; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Siccardi, Antonio; Malnati, Mauro; Beretta, Alberto; Zipeto, Donato

    2017-01-01

    HLA-C has been demonstrated to associate with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Virions lacking HLA-C have reduced infectivity and increased susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. Like all others MHC-I molecules, HLA-C requires β2-microglobulin (β2m) for appropriate folding and expression on the cell membrane but this association is weaker, thus generating HLA-C free-chains on the cell surface. In this study, we deepen the understanding of HLA-C and Env association by showing that HIV-1 specifically increases the amount of HLA-C free chains, not bound to β2m, on the membrane of infected cells. The association between Env and HLA-C takes place at the cell membrane requiring β2m to occur. We report that the enhanced infectivity conferred to HIV-1 by HLA-C specifically involves HLA-C free chain molecules that have been correctly assembled with β2m. HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in the absence of β2m are less infectious than those produced in the presence of β2m. We hypothesize that the conformation and surface expression of HLA-C molecules could be a discriminant for the association with Env. Binding stability to β2m may confer to HLA-C the ability to preferentially act either as a conventional immune-competent molecule or as an accessory molecule involved in HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:28051183

  4. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Results KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. Conclusions The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion. PMID:24330857

  5. Structural basis for HIV-1 gp120 recognition by a germ-line version of a broadly neutralizing antibody

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Louise; West, Anthony P.; Gao, Han; Lee, Terri; Scheid, Johannes F.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Diskin, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to design an effective antibody-based vaccine against HIV-1 would benefit from understanding how germ-line B-cell receptors (BCRs) recognize the HIV-1 gp120/gp41 envelope spike. Potent VRC01-like (PVL) HIV-1 antibodies derived from the VH1-2*02 germ-line allele target the conserved CD4 binding site on gp120. A bottleneck for design of immunogens capable of eliciting PVL antibodies is that VH1-2*02 germ-line BCR interactions with gp120 are uncharacterized. Here, we report the structure of a VH1-2*02 germ-line antibody alone and a germ-line heavy-chain/mature light-chain chimeric antibody complexed with HIV-1 gp120. VH1-2*02 residues make extensive contacts with the gp120 outer domain, including all PVL signature and CD4 mimicry interactions, but not critical CDRH3 contacts with the gp120 inner domain and bridging sheet that are responsible for the improved potency of NIH45-46 over closely related clonal variants, such as VRC01. Our results provide insight into initial recognition of HIV-1 by VH1-2*02 germ-line BCRs and may facilitate the design of immunogens tailored to engage and stimulate broad and potent CD4 binding site antibodies. PMID:23524883

  6. Transmembrane TNF-α Facilitates HIV-1 Infection of Podocytes Cultured from Children with HIV-Associated Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinliang; Das, Jharna R; Tang, Pingtao; Han, Zhe; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Ray, Patricio E

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) express HIV-1 transcripts, suggesting that productive infection of renal epithelial cells precipitates development of HIVAN. However, podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells do not express CD4 receptors, and it is unclear how these cells become productively infected in vivo We investigated the mechanisms underlying the infection by HIV-1 of podocytes cultured from the urine of children with HIVAN. We observed low-level productive infection on exposure of these cells to primary cell-free HIV-1 supernatants. However, envelope-defective recombinant HIV-1 did not infect the renal epithelial cell lines. Moreover, treatment of podocytes to inhibit endocytic transport or dynamin activity or remove cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans reduced infection efficiency. Transfection of CD4- 293T cells with a cDNA expression library developed from a podocyte cell line derived from a child with HIVAN led to the identification of TNF-α as a possible mediator of HIV-1 infection. Overexpression of transmembrane TNF-α in cultured CD4- renal tubular epithelial cells, 293T cells, and HeLa cells enabled the infection of these cells; exposure to soluble TNF-α did not. Immunohistochemistry showed TNF-α expression in podocytes of renal sections from children with HIVAN. Furthermore, we found that TNF-α enhanced NF-κB activation and integration of HIV-1 into the podocyte DNA. Finally, inhibition of dynamin activity blocked TNF-α-mediated infection. These data establish a role for transmembrane TNF-α in facilitating the viral entry and integration of HIV-1 into the DNA of renal epithelial cells.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin LukED and HIV-1 gp120 Target Different Sequence Determinants on CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Kayan; Schultz, Megan; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Horton, Joshua; Alonzo, Francis; Wu, Beili

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leukocidin ED (LukED) is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that lyses host cells by targeting the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), CXCR1, CXCR2, and DARC. In addition to its role as a receptor for LukED, CCR5 is the major coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and has been extensively studied. To compare how LukED and HIV-1 target CCR5, we analyzed their respective abilities to use CCR5/CCR2b chimeras to mediate cytotoxicity and virus entry. These analyses showed that the second and third extracellular loops (ECL) of CCR5 are necessary and sufficient for LukED to target the receptor and promote cell lysis. In contrast, the second ECL of CCR5 is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 infectivity. The analysis of CCR5 point mutations showed that glycine-163 is critical for HIV-1 infectivity, while arginine-274 and aspartic acid-276 are critical for LukED cytotoxicity. Point mutations in ECL2 diminished both HIV-1 infectivity and LukED cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with LukED did not interfere with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infectivity, demonstrating that LukED and the viral envelope glycoprotein use nonoverlapping sites on CCR5. Analysis of point mutations in LukE showed that amino acids 64 to 69 in the rim domain are required for CCR5 targeting and cytotoxicity. Taking the results together, this study identified the molecular basis by which LukED targets CCR5, highlighting the divergent molecular interactions evolved by HIV-1 and LukED to interact with CCR5. PMID:27965453

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin LukED and HIV-1 gp120 Target Different Sequence Determinants on CCR5.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kayan; Schultz, Megan; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Horton, Joshua; Alonzo, Francis; Wu, Beili; Landau, Nathaniel R; Torres, Victor J

    2016-12-13

    Leukocidin ED (LukED) is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that lyses host cells by targeting the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), CXCR1, CXCR2, and DARC. In addition to its role as a receptor for LukED, CCR5 is the major coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and has been extensively studied. To compare how LukED and HIV-1 target CCR5, we analyzed their respective abilities to use CCR5/CCR2b chimeras to mediate cytotoxicity and virus entry. These analyses showed that the second and third extracellular loops (ECL) of CCR5 are necessary and sufficient for LukED to target the receptor and promote cell lysis. In contrast, the second ECL of CCR5 is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 infectivity. The analysis of CCR5 point mutations showed that glycine-163 is critical for HIV-1 infectivity, while arginine-274 and aspartic acid-276 are critical for LukED cytotoxicity. Point mutations in ECL2 diminished both HIV-1 infectivity and LukED cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with LukED did not interfere with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infectivity, demonstrating that LukED and the viral envelope glycoprotein use nonoverlapping sites on CCR5. Analysis of point mutations in LukE showed that amino acids 64 to 69 in the rim domain are required for CCR5 targeting and cytotoxicity. Taking the results together, this study identified the molecular basis by which LukED targets CCR5, highlighting the divergent molecular interactions evolved by HIV-1 and LukED to interact with CCR5.

  9. Nef Neutralizes the Ability of Exosomes from CD4+ T Cells to Act as Decoys during HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Z. M.; Silveira, Paola P.; da Silva-Januário, Mara E.; Arruda, Eurico; Jamur, Maria C.; Oliver, Constance; Aguiar, Renato S.; daSilva, Luis L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Nef is an HIV-1 accessory protein that promotes viral replication and pathogenesis. A key function of Nef is to ensure sustained depletion of CD4 and MHC-I molecules in infected cells by inducing targeting of these proteins to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and ultimately to lysosomes for degradation. Nef also affects cellular secretory routes promoting its own secretion via exosomes. To better understand the effects of Nef on the exocytic pathway, we investigated whether this viral factor modifies the composition of exosomes released by T lymphocytes. We showed that both CD4 and MHC-I molecules are secreted in exosomes from T cells and that the expression of Nef reduces the amount of these proteins in exosomes. To investigate the functional role for this novel activity of Nef, we performed in vitro HIV-1 infection assays in the presence of distinct populations of exosomes. We demonstrated that exosomes released by CD4+ T cells, but not CD4− T cells, efficiently inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. Because CD4 is the main receptor for HIV-1 infection, these results suggest that CD4 molecules displayed on the surface of exosomes can bind to envelope proteins of HIV-1 hindering virus interaction with target cells and infection. Importantly, CD4-depleted exosomes released by CD4+ T cells expressing Nef have a reduced capacity to inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. These results provide evidence that Nef promotes HIV-1 infection by reducing the expression of CD4 in exosomes from infected cells, besides the original role of Nef in reducing the CD4 levels at the cell surface. PMID:25423108

  10. Identification of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein variant resistant to cold inactivation.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Aemro; Finzi, Andrés; Pancera, Marie; Courter, Joel R; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer consists of gp120 and gp41 subunits and undergoes a series of conformational changes upon binding to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, that promote virus entry. Surprisingly, we found that the envelope glycoproteins of some HIV-1 strains are functionally inactivated by prolonged incubation on ice. Serial exposure of HIV-1 to extremes of temperature, followed by expansion of replication-competent viruses, allowed selection of a temperature-resistant virus. The envelope glycoproteins of this virus resisted cold inactivation due to a single passage-associated change, H66N, in the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. Histidine 66 is located within the gp41-interactive inner domain of gp120 and, in other studies, has been shown to decrease the sampling of the CD4-bound conformation by unliganded gp120. Substituting asparagine or other amino acid residues for histidine 66 in cold-sensitive HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins resulted in cold-stable phenotypes. Cold inactivation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occurred even at high pH, indicating that protonation of histidine 66 is not necessary for this process. Increased exposure of epitopes in the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein accompanied cold inactivation, but shedding of gp120 did not. An amino acid change in gp120 (S375W) that promotes the CD4-bound state or treatment with soluble CD4 or a small-molecule CD4 mimic resulted in increased cold sensitivity. These results indicate that the CD4-bound intermediate of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins is cold labile; avoiding the CD4-bound state increases temperature stability.

  11. HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

  12. Methamphetamine inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells by modulating anti-HIV-1 miRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Mantri, Chinmay K; Mantri, Jyoti V; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, higher viral loads, and enhanced HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although a direct link between methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be established in patients, methamphetamine has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication in macrophages, dendritic cells, and cells of HIV transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication in human CD4(+) T cells that serve as the primary targets of infection in vivo are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined HIV-1 replication in primary CD4(+) T cells in the presence of methamphetamine in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that methamphetamine had a minimal effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations of 1 to 50 μmol/L. However, at concentrations >100 μmol/L, it inhibited HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that methamphetamine up-regulated the cellular anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-150, and miR-28-5p) in CD4(+) T cells. Knockdown experiments illustrated that up-regulation of the anti-HIV miRNAs inhibited HIV-1 replication. These results are contrary to the paradigm that methamphetamine accentuates HIV-1 pathogenesis by increasing HIV-1 replication. Therefore, our findings underline the complex interaction between drug use and HIV-1 and necessitate comprehensive understanding of the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  13. Methamphetamine Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T Cells by Modulating Anti–HIV-1 miRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Chinmay K.; Mantri, Jyoti V.; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, higher viral loads, and enhanced HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although a direct link between methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be established in patients, methamphetamine has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication in macrophages, dendritic cells, and cells of HIV transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication in human CD4+ T cells that serve as the primary targets of infection in vivo are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells in the presence of methamphetamine in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that methamphetamine had a minimal effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations of 1 to 50 μmol/L. However, at concentrations >100 μmol/L, it inhibited HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that methamphetamine up-regulated the cellular anti–HIV-1 microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-150, and miR-28-5p) in CD4+ T cells. Knockdown experiments illustrated that up-regulation of the anti-HIV miRNAs inhibited HIV-1 replication. These results are contrary to the paradigm that methamphetamine accentuates HIV-1 pathogenesis by increasing HIV-1 replication. Therefore, our findings underline the complex interaction between drug use and HIV-1 and necessitate comprehensive understanding of the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:24434277

  14. Zinc coupling potentiates anti-HIV-1 activity of baicalin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Yu-Tian; Pu, Shao-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2004-11-12

    Baicalin (BA) has been shown with anti-HIV-1 activity. Zinc is a nutrient element. The anti-HIV-1 activity of zinc complex of baicalin (BA-Zn) in vitro was studied and compared with the anti-HIV-1 activities between BA and BA-Zn in the present study. Our results suggested that BA-Zn has lower cytotoxicity and higher anti-HIV-1 activity compared with those of BA in vitro. The CC50s of BA-Zn and BA were 221.52 and 101.73 microM, respectively. The cytotoxicity of BA-Zn was about 1.2-fold lower than that of BA. The BA and BA-Zn inhibited HIV-1 induced syncytium formation, HIV-1 p24 antigen and HIV-1 RT production. The EC50s of BA-Zn on inhibiting HIV-1 induced syncytium formation (29.08 microM) and RT production (31.17 microM) were lower than those of BA (43.27 and 47.34 microM, respectively). BA-Zn was more effective than BA in inhibiting the activities of recombinant RT and HIV-1 entry into host cells. Zinc coupling enhanced the anti-HIV-1 activity of baicalin.

  15. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution.

    PubMed

    Tongo, Marcel; Dorfman, Jeffrey R; Martin, Darren P

    2015-12-09

    The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56-61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the nine

  16. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56–61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the

  17. Nucleoprotein complex intermediates in HIV-1 integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Craigie, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Integration of retroviral DNA into the host genome is an essential step in the viral replication cycle. The viral DNA, made by reverse transcription in the cytoplasm, forms part of a large nucleoprotein complex called the preintegration complex (PIC). The viral integrase protein is the enzyme within the PIC that is responsible for integrating the viral DNA into the host genome. Integrase is tightly associated with the viral DNA within the PIC as demonstrated by functional assays. Integrase protein catalyzes the key DNA cutting and joining steps of integration in vitro with DNA substrates that mimic the ends of the viral DNA. Under most in vitro assay conditions the stringency of the reaction is relaxed; most products result from “half-site” integration in which only one viral DNA end is integrated into one strand of target DNA rather than concerted integration of pairs of DNA as occurs with PICs and in vivo. Under these relaxed conditions catalysis appears to occur without formation of the highly stable nucleoprotein complexes that is characteristic of the association of integrase with viral DNA in the PIC. Here we describe methods for the assembly of nucleoprotein complex intermediates in HIV-1 DNA integration from purified HIV-1 integrase and substrates that mimic the viral DNA ends. PMID:19232539

  18. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  19. Immune Correlates of Vaccine Protection Against HIV-1 Acquisition: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Lawrence; Gilbert, Peter B.; Tomaras, Georgia; Haynes, Barton F.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, the HIV vaccine field has worked to define correlates of risk associated with HIV-1 acquisition based upon the partial efficacy found in the RV144 trial. Both immunological and genetic pressure on the virus has been demonstrated by Fc antiviral antibodies largely directed at conserved regions of the V1V2 loop including antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to HIV envelope in the absence of inhibiting serum IgA antibodies. CD4+ T-cell responses to HIV envelope also correlate with reduced acquisition. Recently, NHP studies using vaccine regimens that differ from that used in RV144 also indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies are associated with protection from experimental lentivirus challenge. These immunological correlates have provided the basis for the design of a next generation of vaccine regimens to improve upon the qualitative and quantitative degree of magnitude of these immune responses on HIV acquisition. PMID:26491081

  20. Global Panel of HIV-1 Env Reference Strains for Standardized Assessments of Vaccine-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    deCamp, Allan; Hraber, Peter; Bailer, Robert T.; Seaman, Michael S.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Gottardo, Raphael; Edlefsen, Paul; Self, Steve; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Daniell, Xiaoju; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; LaBranche, Celia C.; Mascola, John R.; Korber, Bette T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Standardized assessments of HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses are complicated by the genetic and antigenic variability of the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs). To address these issues, suitable reference strains are needed that are representative of the global epidemic. Several panels have been recommended previously, but no clear answers have been available on how many and which strains are best suited for this purpose. We used a statistical model selection method to identify a global panel of reference Env clones from among 219 Env-pseudotyped viruses assayed in TZM-bl cells with sera from 205 HIV-1-infected individuals. The Envs and sera were sampled globally from diverse geographic locations and represented all major genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of the virus. Assays with a panel size of only nine viruses adequately represented the spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the larger panel of 219 viruses. An optimal panel of nine viruses was selected and augmented with three additional viruses for greater genetic and antigenic coverage. The spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the final 12-virus panel closely approximated the activity seen with subtype-matched viruses. Moreover, the final panel was highly sensitive for detection of many of the known broadly neutralizing antibodies. For broader assay applications, all 12 Env clones were converted to infectious molecular clones using a proviral backbone carrying a Renilla luciferase reporter gene (Env.IMC.LucR viruses). This global panel should facilitate highly standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies across multiple HIV-1 vaccine platforms in different parts of the world. IMPORTANCE An effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to overcome the extraordinary genetic variability of the virus, where most variation occurs in the viral envelope glycoproteins that are the sole targets for neutralizing antibodies

  1. Broadly neutralizing antibodies: An approach to control HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mahmoud Mohammad; Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud; Alqudah, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-02

    Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research. In addition, we addressed the obstacles that may impede the success of such immunotherapeutic approach, suggested strategic solutions, and briefly compared this approach with the currently used ART to open new insights for potential future passive immunotherapy for HIV-1 infection.

  2. Effect of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1 genetic evolution during acute infection.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, A; Sylla, M; Boulassel, M R; Baril, J-G; Côté, P; Thomas, R; Trottier, B; Rouleau, D; Routy, J-P; Tremblay, C

    2011-03-01

    The rapid evolution of HIV-1 is a major obstacle to viral eradication. Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) during primary HIV-1 infection could limit viral diversity. Eighteen patients recently infected with HIV-1 were selected. Nine initiated ART soon after enrolment and nine remained untreated. Replication-competent (RC) viruses were quantified at baseline and after one year of follow-up. Viral diversity in the C2V5 envelope region was evaluated from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and cell culture at both time points. The amount of RC virus in the treated group declined (median -5.42 infectious units per million [IUPM]) while it remained stable or increased in the untreated group (median +0.87 IUPM). At one year post infection, we observed a significant increase in diversity for the C2V5 (+0.150%) region, specifically in the hypervariable loops V4 (+0.73%) and V5 (+0.77%), in the untreated group. More importantly, viral diversity did not significantly increase in treated individuals during the first year post infection. Genetic diversity during primary infection remains low through the first year of infection. Early treatment could contribute to a decrease in RC viruses from PBMCs and to limitation of viral diversification in the viral reservoir. These findings may have relevance for the rational design of specific immunotherapeutic strategies.

  3. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Heather A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Geraghty, Daniel E; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H; Krebs, Shelly J; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; McElrath, M Juliana; Montefiori, David C; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H; Thomas, Rasmi

    2015-07-15

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1-specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120-204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial.

  4. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K.; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; Juliana McElrath, M.; Montefiori, David C.; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Kim, Jerome H.; Thomas, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II–restricted CD4+ T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1–specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)–specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120–204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  5. Diverse antibody genetic and recognition properties revealed following HIV-1 Env immunization

    PubMed Central

    Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Feng, Yu; Ingale, Jidnyasa; Murillo, Paola Andrea Martinez; O’Dell, Sijy; Li, Yuxing; Mascola, John R.; Sundling, Christopher; Wyatt, Richard T.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited by vaccination provides opportunities to define the development of effective immunity. Ab responses elicited by current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens display narrow neutralizing activity with limited capacity to block infection by tier 2 viruses. Intense work in the field suggests that improved Env immunogens are forthcoming and it is therefore important to concurrently develop approaches to investigate the quality of vaccine-elicited responses at a higher level of resolution. Here, we cloned a representative set of MAbs elicited by a model Env immunogen in rhesus macaques and comprehensively characterized their genetic and functional properties. The MAbs were genetically diverse, even within groups of Abs targeting the same sub-region of Env, consistent with a highly polyclonal response. MAbs directed against two sub-determinants of Env, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and the V3 region, could in part account for the neutralizing activity observed in the plasma of the animal from which they were cloned, demonstrating the power of MAb isolation for a detailed understanding of the elicited response. Finally, through comparative analyses of MAb binding and neutralizing capacity of HIV-1 using matched Envs, we demonstrate complex relationships between epitope recognition and accessibility, highlighting the protective quaternary packing of the HIV-1 spike relative to vaccine-induced MAbs. PMID:25964491

  6. Design, Synthesis, Biological and Structural Evaluations of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Parai, Maloy Kumar; Huggins, David J.; Cao, Hong; Nalam, Madhavi N. L.; Ali, Akbar; Schiffer, Celia A.; Tidor, Bruce; Rana, Tariq M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) were designed using a general strategy that combines computational structure-based design with substrate-envelope constraints. The PIs incorporate various alcohol-derived P2 carbamates with acyclic and cyclic heteroatomic functionalities into the (R)-hydroxyethylamine isostere. Most of the new PIs show potent binding affinities against wild-type HIV-1 protease and three multidrug resistant (MDR) variants, in particular inhibitors containing 2,2-dichloroacetamide, pyrrolidinone, imidazolidinone, and oxazolidinone moieties at P2 are the most potent with Ki values in the picomolar range. Several new PIs exhibit nanomolar antiviral potencies against patient-derived wild-type viruses from HIV-1 clades A, B, and C and two MDR variants. Crystal structure analyses of four potent inhibitors revealed that carbonyl groups of the new P2 moieties promote extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the invariant Asp-29 residue of the protease. These structure-activity relationship findings can be utilized to design new PIs with enhanced enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potencies. PMID:22708897

  7. Immunogenic Display of Purified Chemically Cross-Linked HIV-1 Spikes

    PubMed Central

    Leaman, Daniel P.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes are prime vaccine candidates, at least in principle, but suffer from instability, molecular heterogeneity and a low copy number on virions. We anticipated that chemical cross-linking of HIV-1 would allow purification and molecular characterization of trimeric Env spikes, as well as high copy number immunization. Broadly neutralizing antibodies bound tightly to all major quaternary epitopes on cross-linked spikes. Covalent cross-linking of the trimer also stabilized broadly neutralizing epitopes, although surprisingly some individual epitopes were still somewhat sensitive to heat or reducing agent. Immunodepletion using non-neutralizing antibodies to gp120 and gp41 was an effective method for removing non-native-like Env. Cross-linked spikes, purified via an engineered C-terminal tag, were shown by negative stain EM to have well-ordered, trilobed structure. An immunization was performed comparing a boost with Env spikes on virions to spikes cross-linked and captured onto nanoparticles, each following a gp160 DNA prime. Although differences in neutralization did not reach statistical significance, cross-linked Env spikes elicited a more diverse and sporadically neutralizing antibody response against Tier 1b and 2 isolates when displayed on nanoparticles, despite attenuated binding titers to gp120 and V3 crown peptides. Our study demonstrates display of cross-linked trimeric Env spikes on nanoparticles, while showing a level of control over antigenicity, purity and density of virion-associated Env, which may have relevance for Env based vaccine strategies for HIV-1. IMPORTANCE The envelope spike (Env) is the target of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies, which a successful vaccine will need to elicit. However, native Env on virions is innately labile, as well as heterogeneously and sparsely displayed. We therefore stabilized Env spikes using a chemical cross-linker and removed non-native Env by immunodepletion with non

  8. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  9. Broad activation of latent HIV-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kirston; Hiener, Bonnie; Winckelmann, Anni; Rasmussen, Thomas Aagaard; Shao, Wei; Byth, Karen; Lanfear, Robert; Solomon, Ajantha; McMahon, James; Harrington, Sean; Buzon, Maria; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Denton, Paul W.; Olesen, Rikke; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Lewin, Sharon R.; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Palmer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The ‘shock and kill' approach to cure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) includes transcriptional induction of latent HIV-1 proviruses using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) with targeted immunotherapy to purge infected cells. The administration of LRAs (panobinostat or vorinostat) to HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy induces a significant increase in cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV-1 RNA from CD4+ T cells. However, it is important to discern whether the increases in CA-US HIV-1 RNA are due to limited or broad activation of HIV-1 proviruses. Here we use single-genome sequencing to find that the RNA transcripts observed following LRA administration are genetically diverse, indicating activation of transcription from an extensive range of proviruses. Defective sequences are more frequently found in CA HIV-1 RNA than in HIV-1 DNA, which has implications for developing an accurate measure of HIV-1 reservoir size. Our findings provide insights into the effects of panobinostat and vorinostat as LRAs for latent HIV-1. PMID:27605062

  10. Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Kamel; Gordon, Jennifer; Cosentino, Laura; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for controlling HIV-1 infection and preventing AIDS progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or “sterile” cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including ZFNs, TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which can excise any genome, provide a great opportunity to eradicate the HIV-1 genome by targeting highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeats or essential viral genes. Given the time consuming and costly engineering of target-specific ZFNs and TALENs, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 technology has emerged as a simpler and more versatile technology to allow permanent removal of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in eukaryotic cells, and hopefully animal models or human patients. The major unmet challenges of this approach at present include inefficient nuclease gene delivery, potential off-target cleavage, and cell-specific genome targeting. Nanoparticle or lentivirus-mediated delivery of next generation Cas9 technologies including nickase or RNA-guided FokI nuclease (RFN) will further improve the potential for genome editing to become a promising approach for curing HIV-1/AIDS. PMID:25716921

  11. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1–infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1–infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-11-01

    A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1-infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART.

  13. Transcriptional Bursting from the HIV-1 Promoter is a Significant Source of Stochastic Noise in HIV-1 Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A; Razooky, B; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of noise in gene expression has proven a powerful approach for analyzing gene regulatory architecture. To probe the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of HIV-1, we analyze noise in gene-expression from HIV-1 s long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter at different HIV-1 integration sites across the human genome. Flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression from the HIV-1 LTR shows high variability (noise) at each integration site. Notably, the measured noise levels are inconsistent with constitutive gene expression models. Instead, quantification of expression noise indicates that HIV-1 gene expression occurs through randomly timed bursts of activity from the LTR and that each burst generates an average of 2 10 mRNA transcripts before the promoter returns to an inactive state. These data indicate that transcriptional bursting can generate high variability in HIV-1 early gene products, which may critically influence the viral fate-decision between active replication and proviral latency.

  14. [Sensitivity of the COBAS AmpliScreen™ HIV-1 test v1.5 for HIV-1 detection].

    PubMed

    Gomez, Lucía P; Balangero, Marcos C; Castro, Gonzalo; Kademian, Silvia; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Barbas, María G; Cudolá, Analía; de León, Juan F; Carrizo, Horacio; Gallego, Sandra V

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood banks was intended to reduce the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Co-circulation of a great diversity of HIV-1 variants in Argentina portrays the need to assess the sensitivity of serological and molecular assays available for their detection. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of the COBAS AmpliScreen™ HIV-1 Test, version 1.5 (Roche) for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples of infected individuals from Argentina. The results of this study reveal that this technique has high sensitivity for the detection of HIV-1 RNA under assay conditions: using mini-pool testing, pools ≥ 50 RNA copies per ml achieved ≥ 92 % sensitivity, whereas in the standard procedure, samples ≥ 207 RNA copies/ml achieved 100 % sensitivity. Moreover, the COBAS AmpliScreen™ HIV-1 Test, version 1.5 (Roche) is suitable for detecting prevailing HIV-1 variants.

  15. Membrane structure correlates to function of LLP2 on the cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 gp41 protein.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Alexander L; Akabori, Kiyotaka; Benamram, Zachary; Michel, Jonathan A; Jablin, Michael S; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Montelaro, Ronald C; Nagle, John F; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2013-08-06

    Mutation studies previously showed that the lentivirus lytic peptide (LLP2) sequence of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope protein inhibited viral-initiated T-cell death and T-cell syncytium formation, at which time in the HIV life cycle the gp41 protein is embedded in the T-cell membrane. In striking contrast, the mutants did not affect virion infectivity, during which time the gp41 protein is embedded in the HIV envelope membrane. To examine the role of LLP2/membrane interactions, we applied synchrotron x-radiation to determine structure of hydrated membranes. We focused on WT LLP2 peptide (+3 charge) and MX2 mutant (-1 charge) with membrane mimics for the T-cell and the HIV-1 membranes. To investigate the influence of electrostatics, cholesterol content, and peptide palmitoylation, we also studied three other LLP2 variants and HIV-1 mimics without negatively charged lipids or cholesterol as well as extracted HIV-1 lipids. All LLP2 peptides bound strongly to T-cell membrane mimics, as indicated by changes in membrane structure and bending. In contrast, none of the weakly bound LLP2 variants changed the HIV-1 membrane mimic structure or properties. This correlates well with, and provides a biophysical basis for, previously published results that reported lack of a mutant effect in HIV virion infectivity in contrast to an inhibitory effect in T-cell syncytium formation. It shows that interaction of LLP2 with the T-cell membrane modulates biological function.

  16. Trimer Enhancement Mutation Effects on HIV-1 Matrix Protein Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; Mack, Andrew; Ritchie, Christopher; Cylinder, Isabel; Harper, Logan; Tedbury, Philip R.; Freed, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is the amino-terminal domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) protein. MA binds to membranes and RNAs, helps transport Pr55Gag proteins to virus assembly sites at the plasma membranes of infected cells, and facilitates the incorporation of HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins into virions by virtue of an interaction with the Env protein cytoplasmic tails (CTs). MA has been shown to crystallize as a trimer and to organize on membranes in hexamer lattices. MA mutations that localize to residues near the ends of trimer spokes have been observed to impair Env protein assembly into virus particles, and several of these are suppressed by the 62QR mutation at the hubs of trimer interfaces. We have examined the binding activities of wild-type (WT) MA and 62QR MA variants and found that the 62QR mutation stabilized MA trimers but did not alter the way MA proteins organized on membranes. Relative to WT MA, the 62QR protein showed small effects on membrane and RNA binding. However, 62QR proteins bound significantly better to Env CTs than their WT counterparts, and CT binding efficiencies correlated with trimerization efficiencies. Our data suggest a model in which multivalent binding of trimeric HIV-1 Env proteins to MA trimers contributes to the process of Env virion incorporation. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env proteins assemble as trimers, and incorporation of the proteins into virus particles requires an interaction of Env CT domains with the MA domains of the viral precursor Gag proteins. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the mechanisms by which MA facilitates the virion incorporation of Env proteins. To help elucidate this process, we examined the binding activities of an MA mutant that stabilizes MA trimers. We found that the mutant proteins organized similarly to WT proteins on membranes, and that mutant and WT proteins revealed only slight differences in their binding to RNAs or lipids. However, the mutant proteins showed

  17. Novel pseudosymmetric inhibitors of HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, A.; Roesel, J.; Gruetter, M.; Tintelnot-Blomley, M.; Alteri, E.; Bold, G.; Lang, M.

    1993-12-31

    Taking into account the unique C-2 symmetric nature of the HIV-1 protease homodimer, the authors have designed and synthesized novel inhibitors featuring an almost symmetric structure. Compounds containing the easily accessible Phe[CH(OH)CH{sub 2}N(NH)]Cha dipeptide isostere as a nonhydrolyzable replacement of the scissile amide bond of the natural substrate are potent inhibitors in vitro with IC{sub 50} values of 9 to 50 nM. The antiviral activity depends mainly on the nature of the anylated valine residues linked to the dipeptide mimic. In this series, CGP 53820 combines both high potency and excellent specificity. Its predicted symmetric binding pattern is illustrated by the X-ray structure analysis performed with the corresponding enzyme-inhibitor complex.

  18. Allosteric inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Kessl, Jacques J.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1