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Sample records for hiv-1 protease inhibitor

  1. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  2. Antimalarial activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitor in chromone series.

    PubMed

    Lerdsirisuk, Pradith; Maicheen, Chirattikan; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Increasing parasite resistance to nearly all available antimalarial drugs becomes a serious problem to human health and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective drugs. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a series of chromone derivatives possessing HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity has been tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum (K1 multi-drug resistant strain). Chromone 15, the potent HIV-1 PR inhibitor (IC50=0.65μM), was found to be the most potent antimalarial compound with IC50=0.95μM while primaquine and tafenoquine showed IC50=2.41 and 1.95μM, respectively. Molecular docking study of chromone compounds against plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease enzyme important in hemoglobin degradation, revealed that chromone 15 exhibited the higher binding affinity (binding energy=-13.24kcal/mol) than the known PM II inhibitors. Thus, HIV-1 PR inhibitor in chromone series has the potential to be a new class of antimalarial agent. PMID:25462990

  3. The triple threat of HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Marc; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Wolfenden, Richard; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Newly released human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles obligatorily undergo a maturation process to become infectious. The HIV-1 protease (PR) initiates this step, catalyzing the cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol structural polyproteins. Proper organization of the mature virus core requires that cleavage of these polyprotein substrates proceeds in a highly regulated, specific series of events. The vital role the HIV-1 PR plays in the viral life cycle has made it an extremely attractive target for inhibition and has accordingly fostered the development of a number of highly potent substrate-analog inhibitors. Though the PR inhibitors (PIs) inhibit only the HIV-1 PR, their effects manifest at multiple different stages in the life cycle due to the critical importance of the PR in preparing the virus for these subsequent events. Effectively, PIs masquerade as entry inhibitors, reverse transcription inhibitors, and potentially even inhibitors of post-reverse transcription steps. In this chapter, we review the triple threat of PIs: the intermolecular cooperativity in the form of a cooperative dose-response for inhibition in which the apparent potency increases with increasing inhibition; the pleiotropic effects of HIV-1 PR inhibition on entry, reverse transcription, and post-reverse transcription steps; and their potency as transition state analogs that have the potential for further improvement that could lead to an inability of the virus to evolve resistance in the context of single drug therapy. PMID:25778681

  4. Fullerene-based inhibitors of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Strom, T Amanda; Durdagi, Serdar; Ersoz, Suha Salih; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Supuran, Claudiu T; Barron, Andrew R

    2015-12-01

    A series of Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-OH of fullerene amino acid derived peptides have been prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis, in which the terminal amino acid, Phe(4-aza-C60)-OH, is derived from the dipolar addition to C60 of the Fmoc-Nα-protected azido amino acids derived from phenylalanine: Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Lys3-OH (1), Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Pro-Hyp-Lys-OH (2), and Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Hyp-Hyp-Lys-OH (3). The inhibition constant of our fullerene aspartic protease PRIs utilized FRET-based assay to evaluate the enzyme kinetics of HIV-1 PR at various concentrations of inhibitors. Simulation of the docking of the peptide Fmoc-Phe-Pro-Hyp-Lys-OH overestimated the inhibition, while the amino acid PRIs were well estimated. The experimental results show that C60-based amino acids are a good base structure in the design of protease inhibitors and that their inhibition can be improved upon by the addition of designer peptide sequences.

  5. Docking analysis of gallic acid derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Protease (HIV-1 PR) enzymes are essential for accurate assembly and maturation of infectious HIV retroviruses. The significant role of HIV-1 protease in viral replication has made it a potential drug target. In the recent past, phytochemical Gallic Acid (GA) derivatives have been screened for protease inhibitor activity. The present work aims to design and evaluate potential GA-based HIV-1 PR phytoinhibitors by docking approach. The ligands were prepared by ChemDraw and docking was performed in HEX software. In this present study, one of the GA analogues (GA4) emerged as a potent drug candidate for HIV-1 PR inhibition, and docking results showed it to be comparable with anti-HIV drugs, darunavir and amprenavir. The GA4 derivative provided a lead for designing more effective HIV-1 PR inhibitors.

  6. Structural and thermodynamic basis of resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibition: implications for inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Muzammil, Salman; Ohtaka, Hiroyasu; Schön, Arne; Vega, Sonia; Freire, Ernesto

    2003-12-01

    One of the most serious side effects associated with the therapy of HIV-1 infection is the appearance of viral strains that exhibit resistance to protease inhibitors. At the molecular level, resistance to protease inhibition predominantly takes the form of mutations within the protease molecule that preferentially lower the affinity of protease inhibitors with respect to protease substrates, while still maintaining a viable catalytic activity. Mutations associated with drug resistance occur within the active site cavity as well as distal sites. Active site mutations affect directly inhibitor/protease interactions while non-active site mutations affect inhibitor binding through long range cooperative perturbations. The effects of mutations associated with drug resistance are compounded by the presence of naturally occurring polymorphisms, especially those observed in non-B subtypes of HIV-1. The binding thermodynamics of all clinical inhibitors against the wild type protease, drug resistant mutations and non-B subtype HIV-1 proteases has been determined by high sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. In conjunction with structural information, these data have provided a precise characterization of the binding mechanism of different inhibitors and their response to mutations. Inhibitors that exhibit extremely high affinity and low susceptibility to the effects of mutations share common features and binding determinants even if they belong to different chemical scaffolds. These binding determinants define a set of rules and constraints for the design of better HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  7. Impact of protease inhibitors on intracellular concentration of tenofovir-diphosphate among HIV-1 infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Cecile D.; Tao, Sijia; Jiang, Yong; Sheth, Anandi N.; Acosta, Edward P.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Vunnava, Aswani; Sanford, Sara; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) concentrations are associated with plasma HIV-1 response. Coadministration of protease inhibitors with NRTIs can affect intra-cellular concentrations due to protease inhibitor inhibition of efflux transporters. Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations within peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared among individuals receiving either atazanavir or darunavir-based regimens. There was a trend towards higher TFV-DP concentrations among women and among participants receiving atazanavir. TFV-DP intracellular concentrations were positively associated with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. PMID:25870991

  8. Fluorogenic Assay for Inhibitors of HIV-1 Protease with Sub-picomolar Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windsor, Ian W.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2015-08-01

    A fluorogenic substrate for HIV-1 protease was designed and used as the basis for a hypersensitive assay. The substrate exhibits a kcat of 7.4 s-1, KM of 15 μM, and an increase in fluorescence intensity of 104-fold upon cleavage, thus providing sensitivity that is unmatched in a continuous assay of HIV-1 protease. These properties enabled the enzyme concentration in an activity assay to be reduced to 25 pM, which is close to the Kd value of the protease dimer. By fitting inhibition data to Morrison’s equation, Ki values of amprenavir, darunavir, and tipranavir were determined to be 135, 10, and 82 pM, respectively. This assay, which is capable of measuring Ki values as low as 0.25 pM, is well-suited for characterizing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  9. Probing Multidrug-Resistance and Protein-Ligand Interactions with Oxatricyclic Designed Ligands in HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Rao, Kalapala V.; Baldridge, Abigail; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T.; Aoki, Manabu; Miguel, Salcedo Pedro; Amano, Masayuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2010-10-29

    We report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and X-ray crystallographic analysis of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Compound 4 proved to be an extremely potent inhibitor toward various multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants, representing a near 10-fold improvement over darunavir (DRV). Compound 4 also blocked protease dimerization with at least 10-fold greater potency than DRV.

  10. Protease inhibitors effectively block cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) spreads by cell-free diffusion and by direct cell-to-cell transfer, the latter being a significantly more efficient mode of transmission. Recently it has been suggested that cell-to-cell spread may permit ongoing virus replication in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on studies performed using Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs). Protease Inhibitors (PIs) constitute an important component of ART; however whether this class of inhibitors can suppress cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 is unexplored. Here we have evaluated the inhibitory effect of PIs during cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between T lymphocytes. Results Using quantitative assays in cell line and primary cell systems that directly measure the early steps of HIV-1 infection we find that the PIs Lopinavir and Darunavir are equally potent against both cell-free and cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1. We further show that a protease resistant mutant maintains its resistant phenotype during cell-to-cell spread and is transmitted more efficiently than wild-type virus in the presence of drug. By contrast we find that T cell-T cell spread of HIV-1 is 4–20 fold more resistant to inhibition by the RTIs Nevirapine, Zidovudine and Tenofovir. Notably, varying the ratio of infected and uninfected cells in co-culture impacted on the degree of inhibition, indicating that the relative efficacy of ART is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. Conclusions We conclude that if the variable effects of antiviral drugs on cell-to-cell virus dissemination of HIV-1 do indeed impact on viral replication and maintenance of viral reservoirs this is likely to be influenced by the antiviral drug class, since PIs appear particularly effective against both modes of HIV-1 spread. PMID:24364896

  11. Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yanuar, Arry; Suhartanto, Heru; Munim, Abdul; Anugraha, Bram Hik; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1)׳s infection is considered as one of most harmful disease known by human, the survivability rate of the host reduced significantly when it developed into AIDS. HIV drug resistance is one of the main problems of its treatment and several drug designs have been done to find new leads compound as the cure. In this study, in silico virtual screening approach was used to find lead molecules from the library or database of natural compounds as HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Virtual screening against Indonesian Herbal Database with AutoDock was performed on HIV-1 protease. From the virtual screening, top ten compounds obtained were 8-Hydroxyapigenin 8-(2",4"-disulfatoglucuronide), Isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether, Amaranthin, Torvanol A, Ursonic acid, 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), Oleoside, Jacoumaric acid, Platanic acid and 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside.

  12. Drug Resistance Mutations Alter Dynamics of Inhibitor-Bound HIV-1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yufeng; Myint, Wazo; Paulsen, Janet L; Schiffer, Celia A; Ishima, Rieko; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese

    2014-08-12

    Under the selective pressure of therapy, HIV-1 protease mutants resistant to inhibitors evolve to confer drug resistance. Such mutations can impact both the dynamics and structures of the bound and unbound forms of the enzyme. Flap+ is a multidrug-resistant variant of HIV-1 protease with a combination of primary and secondary resistance mutations (L10I, G48V, I54V, V82A) and a strikingly altered thermodynamic profile for darunavir (DRV) binding relative to the wild-type protease. We elucidated the impact of these mutations on protein dynamics in the DRV-bound state using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR relaxation experiments. Both methods concur in that the conformational ensemble and dynamics of protease are impacted by the drug resistance mutations in Flap+ variant. Surprisingly this change in ensemble dynamics is different from that observed in the unliganded form of the same variant (Cai, Y. et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 3452-3462). Our comparative analysis of both inhibitor-free and bound states presents a comprehensive picture of the altered dynamics in drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 protease and underlies the importance of incorporating dynamic analysis of the whole system, including the unliganded state, into revealing drug resistance mechanisms. PMID:25136270

  13. Pulsed EPR Characterization of HIV-1 Protease Conformational Sampling and Inhibitor-Induced Population Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanglong; Casey, Thomas M.; Blackburn, Mandy E.; Huang, Xi; Pham, Linh; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Veloro, Angelo M.; Galiano, Luis; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2015-01-01

    The conformational landscape of HIV-1 protease (PR) can be experimentally characterized by pulsed-EPR double electron-electron resonance (DEER). For this characterization, nitroxide spin labels are attached to an engineered cysteine residue in the flap region of HIV-1 PR. DEER distance measurements from spin-labels contained within each flap of the homodimer provide a detailed description of the conformational sampling of apo-enzyme as well as induced conformational shifts as a function inhibitor binding. The distance distribution profiles are further interpreted in terms of a conformational ensemble scheme that consists of four unique states termed “curled/tucked”, “closed”, “semi-open” and “wide-open” conformations. Reported here are the DEER results for a drug-resistant variant clinical isolate sequence, V6, in the presence of FDA approved protease inhibitors (PIs) as well as a non-hydrolyzable substrate mimic, CaP2. Results are interpreted in the context of the current understanding of the relationship between conformational sampling, drug resistance, and kinetic efficiency of HIV-1PR as derived from previous DEER and kinetic data for a series of HIV-1PR constructs that contain drug-pressure selected mutations or natural polymorphisms. Specifically, these collective results support the notion that inhibitor-induced closure of the flaps correlates with inhibitor efficiency and drug resistance. This body of work also suggests DEER as a tool for studying conformational sampling in flexible enzymes as it relates to function. PMID:26489725

  14. Inhibitors of HIV-1 protease: a major success of structure-assisted drug design.

    PubMed

    Wlodawer, A; Vondrasek, J

    1998-01-01

    Retroviral protease (PR) from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was identified over a decade ago as a potential target for structure-based drug design. This effort was very successful. Four drugs are already approved, and others are undergoing clinical trials. The techniques utilized in this remarkable example of structure-assisted drug design included crystallography, NMR, computational studies, and advanced chemical synthesis. The development of these drugs is discussed in detail. Other approaches to designing HIV-1 PR inhibitors, based on the concepts of symmetry and on the replacement of a water molecule that had been found tetrahedrally coordinated between the enzyme and the inhibitors, are also discussed. The emergence of drug-induced mutations of HIV-1 PR leads to rapid loss of potency of the existing drugs and to the need to continue the development process. The structural basis of drug resistance and the ways of overcoming this phenomenon are mentioned.

  15. Design, Synthesis, Biological and Structural Evaluations of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Parai, Maloy Kumar; Huggins, David J.; Cao, Hong; Nalam, Madhavi N. L.; Ali, Akbar; Schiffer, Celia A.; Tidor, Bruce; Rana, Tariq M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) were designed using a general strategy that combines computational structure-based design with substrate-envelope constraints. The PIs incorporate various alcohol-derived P2 carbamates with acyclic and cyclic heteroatomic functionalities into the (R)-hydroxyethylamine isostere. Most of the new PIs show potent binding affinities against wild-type HIV-1 protease and three multidrug resistant (MDR) variants, in particular inhibitors containing 2,2-dichloroacetamide, pyrrolidinone, imidazolidinone, and oxazolidinone moieties at P2 are the most potent with Ki values in the picomolar range. Several new PIs exhibit nanomolar antiviral potencies against patient-derived wild-type viruses from HIV-1 clades A, B, and C and two MDR variants. Crystal structure analyses of four potent inhibitors revealed that carbonyl groups of the new P2 moieties promote extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the invariant Asp-29 residue of the protease. These structure-activity relationship findings can be utilized to design new PIs with enhanced enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potencies. PMID:22708897

  16. Relation between flexibility and positively selected HIV-1 protease mutants against inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braz, Antônio S K; Tufanetto, Patrícia; Perahia, David; Scott, Luis P B

    2012-12-01

    The antiretroviral chemotherapy helps to reduce the mortality of HIVs infected patients. However, RNA dependant virus replication has a high mutation rate. Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 protease plays an essential role in viral replication cycle. This protein is an important target for therapy with viral protein inhibitors. There are few works using normal mode analysis to investigate this problem from the structural changes viewpoint. The investigation of protein flexibility may be important for the study of processes associated with conformational changes and state transitions. The normal mode analysis allowed us to investigate structural changes in the protease (such as flexibility) in a straightforward way and try to associate these changes with the increase of fitness for each positively selected HIV-1 mutant protease of patients treated with several protease inhibitors (saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, and tripanavir) in combination or separately. These positively selected mutations introduce significant flexibility in important regions such as the active site cavity and flaps. These mutations were also able to cause changes in accessible solvent area. This study showed that the majority of HIV-1 protease mutants can be grouped into two main classes of protein flexibility behavior. We presented a new approach to study structural changes caused by positively selected mutations in a pathogen protein, for instance the HIV-1 protease and their relationship with their resistance mechanism against known inhibitors. The method can be applied to any pharmaceutically relevant pathogen proteins and could be very useful to understand the effects of positively selected mutations in the context of structural changes.

  17. Protonation state and free energy calculation of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor complex based on electrostatic polarisation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Maoyou; Jiang, Xiaonan; Jiang, Ning

    2014-06-01

    The protonation states of catalytic Asp25/25‧ residues remarkably affect the binding mechanism of the HIV-1 protease-inhibitor complex. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study, which includes electrostatic polarisation effect, to investigate the influence of Asp25/25‧ protonation states upon the binding free energy of the HIV-1 protease and a C2-symmetric inhibitor. Good agreements are obtained on inhibitor structure, hydrogen bond network, and binding free energy between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data. The calculations show that the Asp25 residue is deprotonated, and the Asp25‧ residue is protonated. Our results reveal that the Asp25/25‧ residues can have different protonation states when binding to different inhibitors although the protease and the inhibitors have the same symmetry. This study offers some insights into understanding the protonation state of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor complex, which could be helpful in designing new inhibitor molecules.

  18. Structure-Based Design of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh,A.; Sridhar, P.; Leshchenko, S.; Hussain, A.; Li, J.; Kovalevsky, A.; Walters, D.; Wedelind, J.; Grum-Tokars, V.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Structure-based design and synthesis of novel HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed specifically to interact with the backbone of HIV protease active site to combat drug resistance. Inhibitor 3 has exhibited exceedingly potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potency. Furthermore, this inhibitor maintains impressive potency against a wide spectrum of HIV including a variety of multi-PI-resistant clinical strains. The inhibitors incorporated a stereochemically defined 5-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furanyl urethane as the P2-ligand into the (R)-(hydroxyethylamino)sulfonamide isostere. Optically active (3aS,5R,6aR)-5-hydroxy-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furan was prepared by an enzymatic asymmetrization of meso-diacetate with acetyl cholinesterase, radical cyclization, and Lewis acid-catalyzed anomeric reduction as the key steps. A protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of inhibitor 3-bound HIV-1 protease (1.35 Angstroms resolution) revealed extensive interactions in the HIV protease active site including strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone. This design strategy may lead to novel inhibitors that can combat drug resistance.

  19. Genetic Changes in HIV-1 Gag-Protease Associated with Protease Inhibitor-Based Therapy Failure in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Giandhari, Jennifer; Basson, Adriaan E.; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Abrams, Elaine J.; Strehlau, Renate; Morris, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown a low frequency of HIV-1 protease drug resistance mutations in patients failing protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy. Recent studies have identified mutations in Gag as an alternate pathway for PI drug resistance in subtype B viruses. We therefore genotyped the Gag and protease genes from 20 HIV-1 subtype C-infected pediatric patients failing a PI-based regimen. Major protease resistance mutations (M46I, I54V, and V82A) were identified in eight (40%) patients, as well as Gag cleavage site (CS) mutations (at codons 373, 374, 378, 428, 431, 449, 451, and 453) in nine (45%) patients. Four of these Gag CS mutations occurred in the absence of major protease mutations at PI failure. In addition, amino acid changes were noted at Gag non-CS with some predicted to be under HLA/KIR immune-mediated pressure and/or drug selection pressure. Changes in Gag during PI failure therefore warrant further investigation of the Gag gene and its role in PI failure in HIV-1 subtype C infection. PMID:25919760

  20. Directed HIV-1 Evolution of Protease Inhibitor Resistance by Second-Generation Short Hairpin RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Schopman, Nick C. T.; Braun, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral drugs in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, a substantial fraction of HIV-infected patients experience therapy failure due to the emergence of drug-resistant virus variants. For durable inhibition of HIV-1 replication, the emergence of such escape viruses must be controlled. In addition to antiretroviral drugs, RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy can be used to inhibit HIV-1 replication by targeting the viral RNA genome. RNAi is an evolutionary conserved gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific breakdown of the targeted mRNA. Here we investigated an alternative strategy combining the activity of a protease inhibitor (PI) with second-generation short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) designed to specifically block the emergence of PI-resistant HIV-1 variants. We demonstrate that dominant viral escape routes can be effectively blocked by second-generation shRNAs and that virus evolution can be redirected toward less-fit variants. These results are of importance for a deeper understanding of HIV-1 evolution under combined drug and RNAi pressure and may be used to design future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22064528

  1. Directed HIV-1 evolution of protease inhibitor resistance by second-generation short hairpin RNAs.

    PubMed

    Schopman, Nick C T; Braun, Anja; Berkhout, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral drugs in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, a substantial fraction of HIV-infected patients experience therapy failure due to the emergence of drug-resistant virus variants. For durable inhibition of HIV-1 replication, the emergence of such escape viruses must be controlled. In addition to antiretroviral drugs, RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy can be used to inhibit HIV-1 replication by targeting the viral RNA genome. RNAi is an evolutionary conserved gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific breakdown of the targeted mRNA. Here we investigated an alternative strategy combining the activity of a protease inhibitor (PI) with second-generation short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) designed to specifically block the emergence of PI-resistant HIV-1 variants. We demonstrate that dominant viral escape routes can be effectively blocked by second-generation shRNAs and that virus evolution can be redirected toward less-fit variants. These results are of importance for a deeper understanding of HIV-1 evolution under combined drug and RNAi pressure and may be used to design future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22064528

  2. Insights From Atomic-Resolution X-Ray Structures Of Chemically-Synthesized Hiv-1 Protease In Complex With Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erik C.B.; Malito, Enrico; Shen, Yuequan; Pentelute, Brad; Rich, Dan; Florián, Jan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The HIV-1 protease is an aspartyl protease essential for HIV-1 viral infectivity. HIV-1 protease has one catalytic site formed by the homodimeric enzyme. We have chemically synthesized fully active HIV-1 protease using modern ligation methods. When complexed with the classic substrate-derived inhibitors JG-365 and MVT-101, the synthetic HIV-1 protease formed crystals that diffracted to 1.04 and 1.2Å resolution, respectively. These atomic resolution structures revealed additional structural details of the HIV-1 protease interactions with its active site ligands. Heptapeptide inhibitor JG-365, which has a hydroxyethylamine moiety in place of the scissile bond, binds in two equivalent antiparallel orientations within the catalytic groove, whereas the reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101 binds in a single orientation. When JG-365 was converted into the natural peptide substrate for molecular dynamic simulations, we found putative catalytically competent reactant states for both lytic water and direct nucleophilic attack mechanisms. Moreover, free energy perturbation calculations indicated that the insertion of catalytic water into the catalytic site is an energetically favorable process. PMID:17869270

  3. Contribution of Gag and Protease to HIV-1 Phenotypic Drug Resistance in Pediatric Patients Failing Protease Inhibitor-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Giandhari, Jennifer; Basson, Adriaan E.; Sutherland, Katherine; Parry, Chris M.; Cane, Patricia A.; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Hunt, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are used as a first-line regimen in HIV-1-infected children. Here we investigated the phenotypic consequences of amino acid changes in Gag and protease on lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) susceptibility among pediatric patients failing PI therapy. The Gag-protease from isolates from 20 HIV-1 subtype C-infected pediatric patients failing an LPV and/or RTV-based regimen was phenotyped using a nonreplicative in vitro assay. Changes in sensitivity to LPV and RTV relative to that of the matched baseline (pretherapy) sample were calculated. Gag and protease amino acid substitutions associated with PI failure were created in a reference clone by site-directed mutagenesis and assessed. Predicted phenotypes were determined using the Stanford drug resistance algorithm. Phenotypic resistance or reduced susceptibility to RTV and/or LPV was observed in isolates from 10 (50%) patients, all of whom had been treated with RTV. In most cases, this was associated with protease resistance mutations, but substitutions at Gag cleavage and noncleavage sites were also detected. Gag amino acid substitutions were also found in isolates from three patients with reduced drug susceptibilities who had wild-type protease. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that some amino acid changes in Gag contributed to PI resistance but only in the presence of major protease resistance-associated substitutions. The isolates from all patients who received LPV exclusively were phenotypically susceptible. Baseline isolates from the 20 patients showed a large (47-fold) range in the 50% effective concentration of LPV, which accounted for most of the discordance seen between the experimentally determined and the predicted phenotypes. Overall, the inclusion of the gag gene and the use of matched baseline samples provided a more comprehensive assessment of the effect of PI-induced amino acid changes on PI resistance. The lack of phenotypic resistance to LPV supports the continued use of

  4. Crystal structure of a novel synthetic inhibitor of HIV-1 protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgeroth, Andreas; Tykarska, Ewa; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2002-02-01

    The crystal structure of a novel non-peptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor derived by simple solid-state dimerization of 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines, reveals a strained central cage and the conformation of its phenyl, benzyl, and hydroxymethylene substituents. The polycyclic cage includes two nearly flat cyclobutane rings and four fused piperidine rings in boat conformations. The cage geometry reveals two unexpected features, namely marked distortions of the valence angles in every second piperidine and a shortening of one of the cyclobutane bonds. The molecule displays exact centrosymmetry, but the central cage and the hydroxymethylene substituents also approximate the C2-symmetry of the target enzyme. The two independent hydroxyl groups are involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding, one as a donor, the other as an acceptor. The disposition of the hydroxyl groups in the molecular framework is compatible with the dual role of the inhibitor in the active-site cavity of HIV-1 protease, whereby one OH group is hydrogen-bonded to the catalytic aspartates, whereas another one provides an interface to the locked flaps of the enzyme.

  5. Prevalence, mutation patterns, and effects on protease inhibitor susceptibility of the L76V mutation in HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Young, Thomas P; Parkin, Neil T; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J; Norton, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir. PMID:20805393

  6. HIV-1 Protease with 20 Mutations Exhibits Extreme Resistance to Clinical Inhibitors through Coordinated Structural Rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Aniana, Annie; Sayer, Jane M.; Louis, John M.; Weber, Irene T.

    2012-06-28

    The escape mutant of HIV-1 protease (PR) containing 20 mutations (PR20) undergoes efficient polyprotein processing even in the presence of clinical protease inhibitors (PIs). PR20 shows >3 orders of magnitude decreased affinity for PIs darunavir (DRV) and saquinavir (SQV) relative to PR. Crystal structures of PR20 crystallized with yttrium, substrate analogue p2-NC, DRV, and SQV reveal three distinct conformations of the flexible flaps and diminished interactions with inhibitors through the combination of multiple mutations. PR20 with yttrium at the active site exhibits widely separated flaps lacking the usual intersubunit contacts seen in other inhibitor-free dimers. Mutations of residues 35-37 in the hinge loop eliminate interactions and perturb the flap conformation. Crystals of PR20/p2-NC contain one uninhibited dimer with one very open flap and one closed flap and a second inhibitor-bound dimer in the closed form showing six fewer hydrogen bonds with the substrate analogue relative to wild-type PR. PR20 complexes with PIs exhibit expanded S2/S2' pockets and fewer PI interactions arising from coordinated effects of mutations throughout the structure, in agreement with the strikingly reduced affinity. In particular, insertion of the large aromatic side chains of L10F and L33F alters intersubunit interactions and widens the PI binding site through a network of hydrophobic contacts. The two very open conformations of PR20 as well as the expanded binding site of the inhibitor-bound closed form suggest possible approaches for modifying inhibitors to target extreme drug-resistant HIV.

  7. The QSAR and docking calculations of fullerene derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Noha A.

    2015-02-01

    The inhibition of HIV-1 protease is considered as one of the most important targets for drug design and the deactivation of HIV-1. In the present work, the fullerene surface (C60) is modified by adding oxygen atoms as well as hydroxymethylcarbonyl (HMC) groups to form 6 investigated fullerene derivative compounds. These compounds have one, two, three, four or five O atoms + HMC groups at different positions on phenyl ring. The effect of the repeating of these groups on the ability of suggested compounds to inhibit the HIV protease is studied by calculating both Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) properties and docking simulation. Based on the QSAR descriptors, the solubility and the hydrophilicity of studied fullerene derivatives increased with increasing the number of oxygen atoms + HMC groups in the compound. While docking calculations indicate that, the compound with two oxygen atoms + HMC groups could interact and binds with HIV-1 protease active site. This is could be attributed to the active site residues of HIV-1 protease are hydrophobic except the two aspartic acids. So that, the increase in the hydrophilicity and polarity of the compound is preventing and/or decreasing the hydrophobic interaction between the compound and HIV-1 protease active site.

  8. Relationships between structure and interaction kinetics for HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Markgren, Per-Olof; Schaal, Wesley; Hämäläinen, Markku; Karlén, Anders; Hallberg, Anders; Samuelsson, Bertil; Danielson, U Helena

    2002-12-01

    The interaction between HIV-1 protease and 58 structurally diverse transition-state analogue inhibitors has been analyzed by a surface plasmon resonance based biosensor. Association and dissociation rate constants and affinities were determined and displayed as k(on)-k(off)-K(D) maps. It was shown that different classes of inhibitors fall into distinct clusters in these maps. Significant changes in association and dissociation rates were found as a result of modifying the P1/P1' or P2/P2' side chains of a linear lead compound. Similarly, cyclic urea and cyclic sulfamide inhibitors displayed different kinetic features and the affinities of both classes of cyclic compounds were limited by fast dissociation rates. These results confirm that association and dissociation rates are important features of drug-target interactions and indicate that optimization of inhibitor efficacy may be guided by aiming for high association and low dissociation rates rather than high affinity alone. The present approach thus provides a new tool for structure-interaction kinetic analysis and drug discovery. PMID:12459011

  9. Insights from atomic-resolution X-ray structures of chemically synthesized HIV-1 protease in complex with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erik C B; Malito, Enrico; Shen, Yuequan; Pentelute, Brad; Rich, Dan; Florián, Jan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kent, Stephen B H

    2007-10-26

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is an aspartyl protease essential for HIV-1 viral infectivity. HIV-1 PR has one catalytic site formed by the homodimeric enzyme. We chemically synthesized fully active HIV-1 PR using modern ligation methods. When complexed with the classic substrate-derived inhibitors JG-365 and MVT-101, the synthetic HIV-1 PR formed crystals that diffracted to 1.04- and 1.2-A resolution, respectively. These atomic-resolution structures revealed additional structural details of the HIV-1 PR's interactions with its active site ligands. Heptapeptide inhibitor JG-365, which has a hydroxyethylamine moiety in place of the scissile bond, binds in two equivalent antiparallel orientations within the catalytic groove, whereas the reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101 binds in a single orientation. When JG-365 was converted into the natural peptide substrate for molecular dynamic simulations, we found putative catalytically competent reactant states for both lytic water and direct nucleophilic attack mechanisms. Moreover, free energy perturbation calculations indicated that the insertion of catalytic water into the catalytic site is an energetically favorable process.

  10. A preference-based free-energy parameterization of enzyme-inhibitor binding. Applications to HIV-1-protease inhibitor design.

    PubMed Central

    Wallqvist, A.; Jernigan, R. L.; Covell, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    The interface between protein receptor-ligand complexes has been studied with respect to their binary interatomic interactions. Crystal structure data have been used to catalogue surfaces buried by atoms from each member of a bound complex and determine a statistical preference for pairs of amino-acid atoms. A simple free energy model of the receptor-ligand system is constructed from these atom-atom preferences and used to assess the energetic importance of interfacial interactions. The free energy approximation of binding strength in this model has a reliability of about +/- 1.5 kcal/mol, despite limited knowledge of the unbound states. The main utility of such a scheme lies in the identification of important stabilizing atomic interactions across the receptor-ligand interface. Thus, apart from an overall hydrophobic attraction (Young L, Jernigan RL, Covell DG, 1994, Protein Sci 3:717-729), a rich variety of specific interactions is observed. An analysis of 10 HIV-1 protease inhibitor complexes is presented that reveals a common binding motif comprised of energetically important contacts with a rather limited set of atoms. Design improvements to existing HIV-1 protease inhibitors are explored based on a detailed analysis of this binding motif. PMID:8528086

  11. Critical differences in HIV-1 and HIV-2 protease specificity for clinical inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Boross, Peter I.; Chiu, Ting-Yi; Ghosh, Arun K.; Tozser, Jozsef; Louis, John M.; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2012-03-15

    Clinical inhibitor amprenavir (APV) is less effective on HIV-2 protease (PR{sub 2}) than on HIV-1 protease (PR{sub 1}). We solved the crystal structure of PR{sub 2} with APV at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution to identify structural changes associated with the lowered inhibition. Furthermore, we analyzed the PR{sub 1} mutant (PR{sub 1M}) with substitutions V32I, I47V, and V82I that mimic the inhibitor binding site of PR{sub 2}. PR{sub 1M} more closely resembled PR{sub 2} than PR{sub 1} in catalytic efficiency on four substrate peptides and inhibition by APV, whereas few differences were seen for two other substrates and inhibition by saquinavir (SQV) and darunavir (DRV). High resolution crystal structures of PR{sub 1M} with APV, DRV, and SQV were compared with available PR{sub 1} and PR{sub 2} complexes. Val/Ile32 and Ile/Val47 showed compensating interactions with SQV in PR{sub 1M} and PR{sub 1}, however, Ile82 interacted with a second SQV bound in an extension of the active site cavity of PR{sub 1M}. Residues 32 and 82 maintained similar interactions with DRV and APV in all the enzymes, whereas Val47 and Ile47 had opposing effects in the two subunits. Significantly diminished interactions were seen for the aniline of APV bound in PR{sub 1M} and PR{sub 2} relative to the strong hydrogen bonds observed in PR{sub 1}, consistent with 15- and 19-fold weaker inhibition, respectively. Overall, PR{sub 1M} partially replicates the specificity of PR{sub 2} and gives insight into drug resistant mutations at residues 32, 47, and 82. Moreover, this analysis provides a structural explanation for the weaker antiviral effects of APV on HIV-2.

  12. The Effect of Clade-Specific Sequence Polymorphisms on HIV-1 Protease Activity and Inhibitor Resistance Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, Rajintha M.; Kolli, Madhavi; King, Nancy M.; Nalivaika, Ellen A.; Heroux, Annie; Kakizawa, Junko; Sugiura, Wataru; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2010-09-08

    The majority of HIV-1 infections around the world result from non-B clade HIV-1 strains. The CRF01{_}AE (AE) strain is seen principally in Southeast Asia. AE protease differs by {approx}10% in amino acid sequence from clade B protease and carries several naturally occurring polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance in clade B. AE protease has been observed to develop resistance through a nonactive-site N88S mutation in response to nelfinavir (NFV) therapy, whereas clade B protease develops both the active-site mutation D30N and the nonactive-site mutation N88D. Structural and biochemical studies were carried out with wild-type and NFV-resistant clade B and AE protease variants. The relationship between clade-specific sequence variations and pathways to inhibitor resistance was also assessed. AE protease has a lower catalytic turnover rate than clade B protease, and it also has weaker affinity for both NFV and darunavir (DRV). This weaker affinity may lead to the nonactive-site N88S variant in AE, which exhibits significantly decreased affinity for both NFV and DRV. The D30N/N88D mutations in clade B resulted in a significant loss of affinity for NFV and, to a lesser extent, for DRV. A comparison of crystal structures of AE protease shows significant structural rearrangement in the flap hinge region compared with those of clade B protease and suggests insights into the alternative pathways to NFV resistance. In combination, our studies show that sequence polymorphisms within clades can alter protease activity and inhibitor binding and are capable of altering the pathway to inhibitor resistance.

  13. 3D-QSAR studies on chromone derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn; Samee, Weerasak; Pimthon, Jutarat

    2004-02-01

    The three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) approach using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was applied to a series of 30 chromone derivatives, a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. The best predictive CoMFA model gives cross-validated r2 ( q2)=0.763, non-cross-validated r2=0.967, standard error of estimate ( S)=5.092, F=90.701. The best CoMSIA model has q2=0.707, non-cross-validated r2=0.943, S=7.018, F=51.734, included steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bond donor fields. The predictive ability of these models was validated by a set of five compounds that were not included in the training set. The calculated (predicted) and experimental inhibitory activities were well correlated. The contour maps obtained from CoMFA and CoMSIA models were in agreement with the previous docking study for this chromone series.

  14. [Dysmetabolic syndrome related to HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Review of the literature and personal data].

    PubMed

    Urso, R; Croce, G F; Tubili, C; De Marco, M; La Scala, P; Luglio, D; Narciso, P

    2000-02-01

    HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with HIV-1 protease-inhibitors (PI) frequently show insulin-resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and lipodystrophy (LD). LD has often been reported only after the beginning of PI therapy. Some authors link LD to HIV chronic infection, some others suggest that PIs increase pre-existent disturb. Preliminary data of an observational study drawn in IV day-hospital of Spallanzani Institute in Rome showed hypertriglyceridaemia in 36.4% and hyperglycaemia in 11.2% of patients treated with PI. Carr suggests that such drugs should have this lipid-increasing effect because of their inhibition of low density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein, cytoplasmic retinoic-acid binding protein type 1 and P450 3A cytochrome. This theory doesn't explain why both untreated patients and treated with only reverse transcriptase inhibitors show sometimes the same disorders. According to another hypothesis Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, through inhibition of lipoprotein-lipase, would determine high fat-storage in the adipose tissue. Cardiovascular risk factors have always to be assessed before starting a therapy with PI. Glycaemia, triglyceridaemia, cholesterolaemia have to be performed every three months during the treatment and, if necessary, C-Peptide and insulinaemia too. A treatment with lipid-lowering drugs is always recommended in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia > 500 mg/dl and/or hypercholesterolaemia LDL > 190 mg/dl in two following checks. Fibrates have proven to be effective in reducing hypertriglyceridaemia, but there is no certainty that such therapies could have good effects on the LD itself too.

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Biological and Structural Evaluations of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors To Combat Drug Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Parai, Maloy Kumar; Huggins, David J.; Cao, Hong; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Ali, Akbar; Schiffer, Celia A.; Tidor, Bruce; Rana, Tariq M.

    2012-09-11

    A series of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) were designed using a general strategy that combines computational structure-based design with substrate-envelope constraints. The PIs incorporate various alcohol-derived P2 carbamates with acyclic and cyclic heteroatomic functionalities into the (R)-hydroxyethylamine isostere. Most of the new PIs show potent binding affinities against wild-type HIV-1 protease and three multidrug resistant (MDR) variants. In particular, inhibitors containing the 2,2-dichloroacetamide, pyrrolidinone, imidazolidinone, and oxazolidinone moieties at P2 are the most potent with Ki values in the picomolar range. Several new PIs exhibit nanomolar antiviral potencies against patient-derived wild-type viruses from HIV-1 clades A, B, and C and two MDR variants. Crystal structure analyses of four potent inhibitors revealed that carbonyl groups of the new P2 moieties promote extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the invariant Asp29 residue of the protease. These structure-activity relationship findings can be utilized to design new PIs with enhanced enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potencies.

  16. HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, John M.; Ishima, R.; Torchia, D.A.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-06-03

    The HIV-1 protease is synthesized as part of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein. It is responsible for its own release from the precursor and the processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into the mature structural and functional proteins required for virus maturation. Because of its indispensable role, the mature HIV-1 protease dimer has proven to be a successful target for the development of antiviral agents. In the last 5 years, a major emphasis in protease research has been to improve inhibitor design and treatment regimens.

  17. Structural and electronic properties of new fullerene derivatives and their possible application as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Medhat; Saleh, Noha A.; Hameed, Ali Jameel; Elshemey, Wael M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2010-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out at the hybrid Becke 3-Lee-Yang-Parr; B3LYP/3-21G** level of theory to study two series of hydroxy-chalca-acetic acid-(4-pyrrolidin-1-yl-phenyl) ester [C 60-C 2H 4N-(4-XCOCH 2OH)C 6H 4] and hydroxy-chalcoacetic acid-[2-(2-hydroxy-acetylchalcanyl)-4-pyrrolidin-1-yl-phenyl] ester[C 60-C 2H 4N-(3,4-XCOCH 2OH)C 6H 4]. The X atom is O, S or Se for the two series. The vibrational spectra, physical, chemical, thermodynamics and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) properties of the studied molecules are calculated and discussed. We have evaluated these molecules as HIV-1 protease inhibitors based on the hydrogenation interaction between the hydroxymethylcarbonyl (HMC) groups and the two aspartic acid of the HIV-1 protease active site. Results show that some of the investigated fullerene-based derivatives can be considered promising as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  18. Structure-based Design of Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Modified P1 - Biphenyl Ligands: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Enzyme-inhibitor X-ray Structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Yu, Xufen; Osswald, Heather L.; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, X-ray structural studies, and biological evaluation of a novel series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. We designed a variety of functionalized biphenyl derivatives to make enhanced van der Waals interactions in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease. These biphenyl derivatives were conveniently synthesized using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction as the key step. We examined the potential of these functionalized biphenyl-derived P1 ligands in combination with 3-(S)-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane and bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane as the P2 ligands. Inhibitor 21e, with a 2-methoxy-1, 1’-biphenyl derivative as P1 ligand and bis-THF as the P2 ligand, displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. This inhibitor also exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of related Boc-derivative 17a-bound HIV-1 protease provided important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions of the biphenyl core in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease. PMID:26107245

  19. Conformation of inhibitor-free HIV-1 protease derived from NMR spectroscopy in a weakly oriented solution

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Julien; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility of the glycine-rich flaps is known to be essential for catalytic activity of the HIV-1 protease, but their exact conformations at the different stages of the enzymatic pathway remain subject to much debate. While hundreds of crystal structures of protease-inhibitor complexes have been solved, only about a dozen inhibitor-free protease structures have been reported. These apo-structures reveal a large diversity of flap conformations, ranging from closed, to semi-open and wide-open. To evaluate the average structure in solution, we measured residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and compared these to values calculated for crystal structures representative of the closed, semi-open and wide-open states. The RDC data clearly indicate that the inhibitor-free protease, on average, adopts a closed conformation in solution that is very similar to the inhibitor-bound state. By contrast, a highly drug-resistant protease mutant, PR20, adopts the wide-open flap conformation. PMID:25470009

  20. Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and docking studies of novel chromone derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn; Wiwat, Chanpen; Samee, Weerasak; Nunthanavanit, Patcharawee; Phosrithong, Narumol

    2011-08-01

    Novel chromone derivatives with a benzopyran-4-one scaffold have been prepared by the one-pot cyclization reaction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of these new compounds towards HIV-1 protease have been evaluated using stop time HPLC method as the preliminary screening. The most potent compound, 7,8-dihydroxy-2-(3'-trifluoromethyl phenyl)-3-(3″-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)chromone ( 32), showed IC 50 = 0.34 μM. The molecular docking study supported results from experimental activity testing and also provided structure-activity relationship of this series.

  1. Crystal structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 protease and a ketomethylene isostere inhibitor based on the p2/NC cleavage site

    SciTech Connect

    Torbeev, Vladimir Yu.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Terechko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2009-09-02

    Here we report the X-ray structures of chemically synthesized HIV-1 protease and the inactive [D25N]HIV-1 protease complexed with the ketomethylene isostere inhibitor Ac-Thr-Ile-Nle{psi}[CO-CH{sub 2}]Nle-Gln-Arg.amide at 1.4 and 1.8 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In complex with the active enzyme, the keto-group was found to be converted into the hydrated gem-diol, while the structure of the complex with the inactive D25N enzyme revealed an intact keto-group. These data support the general acid-general base mechanism for HIV-1 protease catalysis.

  2. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with C3-Substituted Hexahydrocyclopentafuranyl Urethanes as P2-Ligands: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Crystal Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K; Chapsal, Bruno D; Parham, Garth L; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2011-11-07

    We report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and the X-ray crystal structure of a novel inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease. Various C3-functionalized cyclopentanyltetrahydrofurans (Cp-THF) were designed to interact with the flap Gly48 carbonyl or amide NH in the S2-subsite of the HIV-1 protease. We investigated the potential of those functionalized ligands in combination with hydroxyethylsulfonamide isosteres. Inhibitor 26 containing a 3-(R)-hydroxyl group on the Cp-THF core displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Our studies revealed a preference for the 3-(R)-configuration over the corresponding 3-(S)-derivative. Inhibitor 26 exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray structure of 26-bound HIV-1 protease revealed important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  3. Receptor-independent 4D-QSAR analysis of a set of norstatine derived inhibitors of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Senese, Craig L; Hopfinger, A J

    2003-01-01

    A training set of 27 norstatine derived inhibitors of HIV-1 protease, based on the 3(S)-amino-2(S)-hydroxyl-4-phenylbutanoic acid core (AHPBA), for which the -log IC(50) values were measured, was used to construct 4D-QSAR models. Five unique RI-4D-QSAR models, from two different alignments, were identified (q(2) = 0.86-0.95). These five models were used to map the atom type morphology of the lining of the inhibitor binding site at the HIV protease receptor site as well as predict the inhibition potencies of seven test set compounds for model validation. The five models, overall, predict the -log IC(50) activity values for the test set compounds in a manner consistent with their q(2) values. The models also correctly identify the hydrophobic nature of the HIV protease receptor site, and inferences are made as to further structural modifications to improve the potency of the AHPBA inhibitors of HIV protease. The finding of five unique, and nearly statistically equivalent, RI-4D-QSAR models for the training set demonstrates that there can be more than one way to fit structure-activity data even within a given QSAR methodology. This set of unique, equally good individual models is referred to as the manifold model.

  4. Ionic derivatives of betulinic acid as novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Holmes, Shaletha S; Baker, Gary A; Challa, Suresh; Bose, Himangshu S; Song, Zhiyan

    2012-10-01

    Betulinic acid is a natural product possessing abundant and favourable biological activity, including anti-cancer, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV properties, while causing minimal toxicity to unaffected cells. The full biological potency of betulinic acid cannot be fully unlocked, however, for a number of reasons, a primary one being its limited solubility in aqueous and biologically pertinent organic media. Aiming to improve the water solubility of betulinic acid without disrupting its structurally related bioactivity, we have prepared different ionic derivatives of betulinic acid. Inhibition bioassays on HIV-1 protease-catalysed peptide hydrolysis indicate significantly improved performance resulting from converting the betulinic acid to organic salt form. Indeed, for one particular cholinium-based derivative, its water solubility is improved more than 100 times and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value (22 μg mL(-1)) was one-third that of wide-type betulinic acid (60 μg mL(-1)). These encouraging results advise that additional studies of ionic betulinic acid derivatives as a therapeutic solution against HIV-1 infection are warranted.

  5. Free energy component analysis for drug design: a case study of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Kalra, P; Reddy, T V; Jayaram, B

    2001-12-01

    A theoretically rigorous and computationally tractable methodology for the prediction of the free energies of binding of protein-ligand complexes is presented. The method formulated involves developing molecular dynamics trajectories of the enzyme, the inhibitor, and the complex, followed by a free energy component analysis that conveys information on the physicochemical forces driving the protein-ligand complex formation and enables an elucidation of drug design principles for a given receptor from a thermodynamic perspective. The complexes of HIV-1 protease with two peptidomimetic inhibitors were taken as illustrative cases. Four-nanosecond-level all-atom molecular dynamics simulations using explicit solvent without any restraints were carried out on the protease-inhibitor complexes and the free proteases, and the trajectories were analyzed via a thermodynamic cycle to calculate the binding free energies. The computed free energies were seen to be in good accord with the reported data. It was noted that the net van der Waals and hydrophobic contributions were favorable to binding while the net electrostatics, entropies, and adaptation expense were unfavorable in these protease-inhibitor complexes. The hydrogen bond between the CH2OH group of the inhibitor at the scissile position and the catalytic aspartate was found to be favorable to binding. Various implicit solvent models were also considered and their shortcomings discussed. In addition, some plausible modifications to the inhibitor residues were attempted, which led to better binding affinities. The generality of the method and the transferability of the protocol with essentially no changes to any other protein-ligand system are emphasized.

  6. INTERACTIONS OF DIFFERENT INHIBITORS WITH ACTIVE-SITE ASPARTYL RESIDUES OF HIV-1 PROTEASE AND POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO PEPSINS

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Jane M.; Louis, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the active site region aspartyl residues 25 and 29 of the mature HIV-1 protease (PR) for the binding of five clinical and three experimental protease inhibitors (symmetric cyclic urea inhibitor DMP323, non-hydrolysable substrate analog (RPB) and the generic aspartic protease inhibitor acetyl-pepstatin (Ac-PEP)) was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. ΔTm values, defined as the difference in Tm for a given protein in the presence and absence of inhibitor, for PR with DRV, ATV, SQV, RTV, APV, DMP323, RPB and Ac-PEP are 22.4, 20.8, 19.3, 15.6, 14.3, 14.7, 8.7, and 6.5 °C, respectively. Binding of APV and Ac-PEP is most sensitive to the D25N mutation, as shown by ΔTm ratios [ΔTm(PR)/ΔTm(PRD25N)] of 35.8 and 16.3, respectively, whereas binding of DMP323 and RPB (ΔTm ratios of 1-2) is least affected. Binding of the substrate-like inhibitors RPB and Ac-PEP is nearly abolished (ΔTm(PR)/ΔTm(PRD29N) ≥ 44) by the D29N mutation, whereas this mutation only moderately affects binding of the smaller inhibitors (ΔTm ratios of 1.4-2.2). Of the 9 FDA approved clinical HIV-1 protease inhibitors screened, APV, RTV and DRV competitively inhibit porcine pepsin with Ki values of 0.3, 0.6 and 2.14 μM, respectively. DSC results were consistent with this relatively weak binding of APV (ΔTm 2.7 °C) compared with the tight binding of AcPEP (ΔTm ≥17 °C). Comparison of superimposed structures of the PR/APV complex with those of PR/Ac-PEP and pepsin/pepstatin A complexes suggests a role for Asp215, Asp32 and Ser219 in pepsin, equivalent to Asp25, Asp25′ and Asp29 in PR, in the binding and stabilization of the pepsin/APV complex. PMID:18951411

  7. Molecular mechanisms and design principles for promiscuous inhibitors to avoid drug resistance: lessons learned from HIV-1 protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Radhakrishnan, Mala L; Tidor, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Molecular recognition is central to biology and ranges from highly selective to broadly promiscuous. The ability to modulate specificity at will is particularly important for drug development, and discovery of mechanisms contributing to binding specificity is crucial for our basic understanding of biology and for applications in health care. In this study, we used computational molecular design to create a large dataset of diverse small molecules with a range of binding specificities. We then performed structural, energetic, and statistical analysis on the dataset to study molecular mechanisms of achieving specificity goals. The work was done in the context of HIV-1 protease inhibition and the molecular designs targeted a panel of wild-type and drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 protease structures. The analysis focused on mechanisms for promiscuous binding to bind robustly even to resistance mutants. Broadly binding inhibitors tended to be smaller in size, more flexible in chemical structure, and more hydrophobic in nature compared to highly selective ones. Furthermore, structural and energetic analyses illustrated mechanisms by which flexible inhibitors achieved binding; we found ligand conformational adaptation near mutation sites and structural plasticity in targets through torsional flips of asymmetric functional groups to form alternative, compensatory packing interactions or hydrogen bonds. As no inhibitor bound to all variants, we designed small cocktails of inhibitors to do so and discovered that they often jointly covered the target set through mechanistic complementarity. Furthermore, using structural plasticity observed in experiments, and potentially in simulations, is suggested to be a viable means of designing adaptive inhibitors that are promiscuous binders.

  8. Highly Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Novel Tricyclic P2 Ligands: Design, Synthesis, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Parham, Garth L.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R.; Osswald, Heather L.; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2013-10-08

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating stereochemically defined fused tricyclic P2 ligands are described. Various substituent effects were investigated to maximize the ligand-binding site interactions in the protease active site. Inhibitors 16a and 16f showed excellent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity, although the incorporation of sulfone functionality resulted in a decrease in potency. Both inhibitors 16a and 16f maintained activity against a panel of multidrug resistant HIV-1 variants. A high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of 16a-bound HIV-1 protease revealed important molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions, which may account for the inhibitor’s potent antiviral activity and excellent resistance profiles.

  9. Docking and 3-D QSAR studies on the binding of tetrahydropyrimid-2-one HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shashidhar N.; Balaji, Govardhan A.; Balaji, Vitukudi N.

    2013-06-01

    We present molecular docking and 3-D QSAR studies on a series of tetrahydropyrimid-2-one HIV-1 protease inhibitors whose binding affinities to the enzyme span nearly 6 orders of magnitude. The docking investigations have been carried out with Surflex (GEOM, GEOMX) and Glide (SP and XP) methodologies available through Tripos and Schrodinger suite of tools in the context of Sybyl-X and Maestro interfaces, respectively. The alignments for 3-D QSAR studies were obtained by using the automated Surflex-SIM methodology in Sybyl-X and the analyses were performed using the CoMFA and CoMSIA methods. Additionally, the top-ranked poses obtained from various docking protocols were also employed to generate CoMFA and CoMSIA models to evaluate the qualitative consistency of the docked models with experimental data. Our studies demonstrate that while there are a number of common features in the docked models obtained from Surflex-dock and Glide methodologies, the former sets of models are generally better correlated with deduced experimental binding modes based on the X-ray structures of known HIV-1 protease complexes with cyclic ureas. The urea moiety common to all the ligands are much more tightly aligned in Surflex docked structures than in the models obtained from Glide SP and XP dockings. The 3-D QSAR models are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported, suggesting the utility of automatically generated alignments from Surflex-SIM methodology.

  10. Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Structure of Substituted Bis-tetrahydrofuran (Bis-THF)-Derived Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Steffey, Melinda; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Agniswamy, Johnson; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2012-06-18

    We investigated substituted bis-THF-derived HIV-1 protease inhibitors in order to enhance ligand-binding site interactions in the HIV-1 protease active site. In this context, we have carried out convenient syntheses of optically active bis-THF and C4-substituted bis-THF ligands using a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement as the key step. The synthesis provided convenient access to a number of substituted bis-THF derivatives. Incorporation of these ligands led to a series of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Inhibitor 23c turned out to be the most potent (K{sub i} = 2.9 pM; IC{sub 50} = 2.4 nM) among the inhibitors. An X-ray structure of 23c-bound HIV-1 protease showed extensive interactions of the inhibitor with the protease active site, including a unique water-mediated hydrogen bond to the Gly-48 amide NH in the S2 site.

  11. Gag-Protease Sequence Evolution Following Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy Treatment Failure in HIV-1 Viruses Circulating in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Katherine A; Goodall, Ruth L; McCormick, Adele; Kapaata, Anne; Lyagoba, Fred; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Thiltgen, Geant; Gilks, Charles F; Spyer, Moira; Kityo, Cissy; Pillay, Deenan; Dunn, David; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-10-01

    Around 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals failing first-line therapy qualify for boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based second-line therapy globally. Major resistance mutations are rarely present at treatment failure in patients receiving bPI and the determinants of failure in these patients remain unknown. There is evidence that Gag can impact PI susceptibility. Here, we have sequenced Gag-Protease before and following failure in 23 patients in the SARA trial infected with subtypes A, C, and D viruses. Before bPI, significant variation in Protease and Gag was observed at positions previously associated with PI exposure and resistance including Gag mutations L449P, S451N, and L453P and Protease K20I and L63P. Following PI failure, previously described mutations in Protease and Gag were observed, including those at the cleavage sites such as R361K and P453L. However, the emergence of clear genetic determinants of therapy failure across patients was not observed. Larger Gag sequence datasets will be required to comprehensively identify mutational correlates of bPI failure across subtypes. PMID:26258548

  12. Trp42 rotamers report reduced flexibility when the inhibitor acetyl-pepstatin is bound to HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, B.; Laberge, M.; Tölgyesi, F.; Szeltner, Z.; Polgár, L.; Fidy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Q7K/L331/L631 HIV-1 protease mutant was expressed in Escherichia coli and the effect of binding a substrate-analog inhibitor, acetyl-pepstatin, was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. The dimeric enzyme has four intrinsic tryptophans, located at positions 6 and 42 in each monomer. Fluorescence spectra and acrylamide quenching experiments show two differently accessible Trp populations in the apoenzyme with k(q1) = 6.85 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) and k(q2) = 1.88 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), that merge into one in the complex with k(q) = 1.78 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). 500 ps trajectory analysis of Trp X1/X2 rotameric interconversions suggest a model to account for the observed Trp fluorescence. In the simulations, Trp6/Trp6B rotameric interconversions do not occur on this timescale for both HIV forms. In the apoenzyme simulations, however, both Trp42s and Trp42Bs are flipping between X1/X2 states; in the complexed form, no such interconverions occur. A detailed investigation of the local Trp environments sampled during the molecular dynamics simulation suggests that one of the apoenzyme Trp42B rotameric interconversions would allow indole-quencher contact, such as with nearby Tyr59. This could account for the short lifetime component. The model thus interprets the experimental data on the basis of the conformational fluctuations of Trp42s alone. It suggests that the rotameric interconversions of these Trps, located relatively far from the active site and at the very start of the flap region, becomes restrained when the apoenzyme binds the inhibitor. The model is thus consistent with associating components of the fluorescence decay in HIV-1 protease to ground state conformational heterogeneity. PMID:11152134

  13. Design, Synthesis, Evaluation, and Crystallographic-Based Structural Studies of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Reduced Response to the V82A Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente,J.; Robbins, A.; Grana, P.; Paleo, M.; Correa, J.; Villaverde, M.; Sardina, F.; Govindasamy, L.; Agbandje-McKenna, M.; et al

    2008-01-01

    In our quest for HIV-1 protease inhibitors that are not affected by the V82A resistance mutation, we have synthesized and tested a second generation set of C2-symmetric HIV-1 protease inhibitors that contain a cyclohexane group at P1 and/or P1'. The binding affinity results indicate that these compounds have an improved response to the appearance of the V82A mutation than the parent compound. The X-ray structure of one of these compounds with the V82A HIV-1 PR variant provides the structural rationale for the better resistance profile of these compounds. Moreover, scrutiny of the X-ray structure suggests that the ring of the Cha side chain might be in a boat rather than in the chair conformation, a result supported by molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Rigidity analysis of HIV-1 protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heal, J. W.; Wells, S. A.; Jimenez-Roldan, E.; Freedman, R. F.; Römer, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present a rigidity analysis on a large number of X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme HIV-1 protease using the 'pebble game' algorithm of the software FIRST. We find that although the rigidity profile remains similar across a comprehensive set of high resolution structures, the profile changes significantly in the presence of an inhibitor. Our study shows that the action of the inhibitors is to restrict the flexibility of the β-hairpin flaps which allow access to the active site. The results are discussed in the context of full molecular dynamics simulations as well as data from NMR experiments.

  15. PL-100, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor displaying a high genetic barrier to resistance: an in vitro selection study.

    PubMed

    Dandache, Serge; Coburn, Craig A; Oliveira, Maureen; Allison, Timothy J; Holloway, M Katharine; Wu, Jinzi J; Stranix, Brent R; Panchal, Chandra; Wainberg, Mark A; Vacca, Joseph P

    2008-12-01

    The development of new HIV inhibitors with distinct resistance profiles is essential in order to combat the development of multi-resistant viral strains. A drug discovery program based on the identification of compounds that are active against drug-resistant viruses has produced PL-100, a novel potent protease inhibitor (PI) that incorporates a lysine-based scaffold. A selection for resistance against PL-100 in cord blood mononuclear cells was performed, using the laboratory-adapted IIIb strain of HIV-1, and it was shown that resistance appears to develop slower against this compound than against amprenavir, which was studied as a control. Four mutations in protease (PR) were selected after 25 weeks: two flap mutations (K45R and M46I) and two novel active site mutations (T80I and P81S). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that all four mutations were required to develop low-level resistance to PL-100, which is indicative of the high genetic barrier of the compound. Importantly, these mutations did not cause cross-resistance to currently marketed PIs. In contrast, the P81S mutation alone caused hypersensitivity to two other PIs, saquinavir (SQV) and nelfinavir (NFV). Analysis of p55Gag processing showed that a marked defect in protease activity caused by mutation P81S could only be compensated when K45R and M46I were present. These data correlated well with the replication capacity (RC) of the mutant viruses as measured by a standard viral growth assay, since only viruses containing all four mutations approached the RC of wild type virus. X-ray crystallography provided insight on the structural basis of the resistance conferred by the identified mutations. PMID:19040279

  16. Efavirenz, nelfinavir, and stavudine rescue combination therapy in HIV-1-positive patients heavily pretreated with nucleoside analogues and protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Seminari, E; Maggiolo, F; Villani, P; Suter, F; Pan, A; Regazzi, M B; Paolucci, S; Baldanti, F; Tinelli, C; Maserati, R

    1999-12-15

    Tolerability, activity, and pharmacokinetic parameters of a combination therapy with efavirenz (EFV), nelfinavir (NFV), and stavudine (d4T) were evaluated in this study. Forty-seven HIV-1-infected study subjects, naive to NFV and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), who had experienced virologic failure while being treated with combination antiretroviral therapies including protease inhibitors (PIs), were enrolled. At baseline, HIV-1 viral load in plasma was 4.8 log10, CD4+ count was 204 cells/microl (both mean values); patients had received a mean of 3.1 different treatments (range, 2-5 treatments). Study medications were generally well tolerated; 7 of 47 patients (14.8%) were dropped from the study because of related drug toxicity. At week 24, mean plasma viral load (pVL) was reduced by 1.9 log10, with mean CD4+ count increased to 324 cells/microl (+/-59% from baseline); pVL was below the limit of detection (500 copies/ml) in 46.1% of patients. An extended follow-up study was performed at 12 months. Results showed a reduction of 1.7 log10 in pVL from basal values that was consistent with values observed at months 3 and 6. A history of previous use of PIs represented a negative prognostic marker. Sequencing analysis, performed in a subset of patients, showed the presence of multiple point mutations associated with PI resistance. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a marked interindividual variability in NFV plasma concentrations, producing in 4 of 18 patients (22%) trough concentrations lower than minimum effective concentration. In pretreated patients, further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic factors that affect response to therapy and the association of these results with the 95% inhibitory concentration (IC95) determined by phenotyping.

  17. A Novel Tricyclic Ligand-Containing Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, GRL-0739, Effectively Inhibits the Replication of Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and Has a Desirable Central Nervous System Penetration Property In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Masayuki; Tojo, Yasushi; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Parham, Garth L.; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R.; Das, Debananda; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    We report here that GRL-0739, a novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing a tricycle (cyclohexyl-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane [THF]) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0019 to 0.0036 μM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 21.0 μM). GRL-0739 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by concentrations of up to 5 μM ritonavir or atazanavir (EC50, 0.035 to 0.058 μM). GRL-0739 was also highly active against multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, as well as against the HIV-2ROD variant. The development of resistance against GRL-0739 was substantially delayed compared to that of amprenavir (APV). The effects of the nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on the anti-HIV-1 activity of GRL-0739 were insignificant. In addition, GRL-0739 showed a desirable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property, as assessed using a novel in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Molecular modeling demonstrated that the tricyclic ring and methoxybenzene of GRL-0739 have a larger surface and make greater van der Waals contacts with protease than in the case of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0739 has desirable features as a compound with good CNS-penetrating capability for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants and that the newly generated cyclohexyl-bis-THF moiety with methoxybenzene confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency in the design of novel protease inhibitors with greater CNS penetration profiles. PMID:25691652

  18. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.; Liu, Zhigang; Bencze, Krisztina Z.; Koupparis, Kyriacos; O’Connor, Carrie E.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Spaller, Mark R.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Inhibitors against MDR HIV-1 protease were designed, synthesized and evaluated. •Lead peptide (6a) showed potent inhibition (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) of MDR HIV-1 protease. •(6a) Showed favorable binding isotherms against NL4-3 and MDR proteases. •(6a) Induced perturbations in the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectrum of MDR HIV-1 protease. •Molecular modeling suggested that (6a) may induce total flap closure inMDR protease. -- Abstract: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: (1TW7)), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6aagainst both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of {sup 15}N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV.

  19. Extreme multidrug resistant HIV-1 protease with 20 mutations is resistant to novel protease inhibitors with P1'-pyrrolidinone or P2-tris-tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Sayer, Jane M; Louis, John M; Weber, Irene T

    2013-05-23

    Extreme drug resistant mutant of HIV-1 protease (PR) bearing 20 mutations (PR20) has been studied with the clinical inhibitor amprenavir (1) and two potent antiviral investigational inhibitors GRL-02031 (2) and GRL-0519 (3). Clinical inhibitors are >1000-fold less active on PR20 than on wild-type enzyme, which is consistent with dissociation constants (KL) from isothermal titration calorimetry of 40 nM for 3, 178 nM for amprenavir, and 960 nM for 2. High resolution crystal structures of PR20-inhibitor complexes revealed altered interactions compared with the corresponding wild-type PR complexes in agreement with relative inhibition. Amprenavir lacks interactions due to PR20 mutations in the S2/S2' subsites relative to PR. Inhibitors 2 and 3 lose interactions with Arg8' in PR20 relative to the wild-type enzyme because Arg8' shifts to interact with mutated L10F side chain. Overall, inhibitor 3 compares favorably with darunavir in affinity for PR20 and shows promise for further development.

  20. Binding of novel fullerene inhibitors to HIV-1 protease: insight through molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations.

    PubMed

    Tzoupis, Haralambos; Leonis, Georgios; Durdagi, Serdar; Mouchlis, Varnavas; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Papadopoulos, Manthos G

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study include the design of a series of novel fullerene-based inhibitors for HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR), by employing two strategies that can also be applied to the design of inhibitors for any other target. Additionally, the interactions which contribute to the observed exceptionally high binding free energies were analyzed. In particular, we investigated: (1) hydrogen bonding (H-bond) interactions between specific fullerene derivatives and the protease, (2) the regions of HIV-1 PR that play a significant role in binding, (3) protease changes upon binding and (4) various contributions to the binding free energy, in order to identify the most significant of them. This study has been performed by employing a docking technique, two 3D-QSAR models, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. Our computed binding free energies are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. The suitability of specific fullerene derivatives as drug candidates was further enhanced, after ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) properties have been estimated to be promising. The outcomes of this study revealed important protein-ligand interaction patterns that may lead towards the development of novel, potent HIV-1 PR inhibitors.

  1. C-5-Modified Tetrahydropyrano-Tetrahydofuran-Derived Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Exert Potent Inhibition of the Replication of HIV-1 Variants Highly Resistant to Various PIs, including Darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Teruya; Nakata, Hirotomo; Das, Debananda; Yamagata, Yuriko; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified three nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-015, -085, and -097, containing tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) with a C-5 hydroxyl. The three compounds were potent against a wild-type laboratory HIV-1 strain (HIV-1WT), with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3.0 to 49 nM, and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for GRL-015, -085, and -097 of 80, >100, and >100 μM, respectively. All the three compounds potently inhibited the replication of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants selected with each of the currently available PIs and recombinant clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained from patients harboring multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants (HIVMDR). Importantly, darunavir (DRV) was >1,000 times less active against a highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant (HIV-1DRVRP51); the three compounds remained active against HIV-1DRVRP51 with only a 6.8- to 68-fold reduction. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was considerably delayed compared to the case of DRV. In particular, HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-085 and -097 did not emerge even when two different highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variants were used as a starting population. In the structural analyses, Tp-THF of GRL-015, -085, and -097 showed strong hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone atoms of active-site amino acid residues (Asp29 and Asp30) of HIV-1 protease. A strong hydrogen bonding formation between the hydroxyl moiety of Tp-THF and a carbonyl oxygen atom of Gly48 was newly identified. The present findings indicate that the three compounds warrant further study as possible therapeutic agents for treating individuals harboring wild-type HIV and/or HIVMDR. IMPORTANCE Darunavir (DRV) inhibits the replication of most existing multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and has a high genetic barrier. However, the emergence of highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains (HIVDRVR) has recently been observed in vivo and in

  2. Clinical validation and applicability of different tipranavir/ritonavir genotypic scores in HIV-1 protease inhibitor-experienced patients.

    PubMed

    Saracino, Annalisa; Monno, Laura; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Tinelli, Carmine; Seminari, Elena; Maggiolo, Franco; Bonora, Stefano; Rusconi, Stefano; Micheli, Valeria; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Lazzaroni, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Nasta, Paola; Parruti, Giustino; Bellagamba, Rita; Forbici, Federica; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2009-07-01

    Tipranavir, a non-peptidic protease inhibitor which shows in vitro efficacy against some HIV-1-resistant strains, can be used in salvage therapies for multi-experienced HIV patients due to its peculiar resistance profile including 21 mutations at 16 protease positions according to International AIDS Society (IAS). Other genotypic scores, however, which attribute a different weight to single amino-acid substitutions, have been recently proposed. To validate the clinical utility of four different genotypic scores for selecting tipranavir responders, the baseline resistance pattern of 176 HIV heavily experienced patients was correlated with virological success (HIV-RNA<50 copies/ml) after 24 weeks of a new treatment based on tipranavir/ritonavir. Virological suppression after 24 weeks was reached by 42.5% of patients. With univariate analysis, genotypic scores were all associated with outcome but showed a low accuracy with ROC analysis, with the weighted score (WS) by Scherer et al. demonstrating the best performance with an AUC of 68%. Only 52% of patients classified as susceptible (WS< or =3) responded to the new therapy. The following variables were significantly associated (p<0.05) to failure with multivariate analysis: WS, log peak of HIV-RNA, IAS mutations: L33F, I54AMV, Q58E, and non-IAS mutation: N37DES. On the contrary, the use of T20 in T20-naïve patients and the V82AFSI and F53LY non-IAS mutations were associated with virological success. The study suggests that even if the "weighted" scores are able to interpret correctly the antiretroviral resistance profile of multi-experienced patients, it is difficult to individuate a cut-off which can be easily applied to this population for discriminating responders.

  3. Design of HIV-1 protease inhibitors with pyrrolidinones and oxazolidinones as novel P1'-ligands to enhance backbone-binding interactions with protease: synthesis, biological evaluation, and protein-ligand X-ray studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Anderson, David D.; Baldridge, Abigail; Noetzel, Marcus; Miller, Heather B.; Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Koh, Yasuhiro; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2009-09-02

    Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to enhance interactions with protease backbone atoms, we have incorporated stereochemically defined methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methyl oxazolidinone as the P1{prime}-ligands. These ligands are designed to interact with Gly-27{prime} carbonyl and Arg-8 side chain in the S1{prime}-subsite of the HIV protease. We have investigated the potential of these ligands in combination with our previously developed bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) and cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) as the P2-ligands. Inhibitor 19b with a (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a Cp-THF was shown to be the most potent compound. This inhibitor maintained near full potency against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants. A high resolution protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 19b-bound HIV-1 protease revealed that the P1{prime}-pyrrolidinone heterocycle and the P2-Cp-ligand are involved in several critical interactions with the backbone atoms in the S1{prime} and S2 subsites of HIV-1 protease.

  4. Flexible Cyclic Ethers/Polyethers as Novel P2-Ligands for HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-Ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun; Gemma, Sandra; Baldridge, Abigal; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Koh, Yashiro; Weber, Irene; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2008-12-05

    We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors. The inhibitors incorporate stereochemically defined flexible cyclic ethers/polyethers as high affinity P2-ligands. Inhibitors containing small ring 1,3-dioxacycloalkanes have shown potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 3d and 3h are the most active inhibitors. Inhibitor 3d maintains excellent potency against a variety of multi-PI-resistant clinical strains. Our structure-activity studies indicate that the ring size, stereochemistry, and position of oxygens are important for the observed activity. Optically active synthesis of 1,3-dioxepan-5-ol along with the syntheses of various cyclic ether and polyether ligands have been described. A protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 3d-bound HIV-1 protease was determined. The structure revealed that the P2-ligand makes extensive interactions including hydrogen bonding with the protease backbone in the S2-site. In addition, the P2-ligand in 3d forms a unique water-mediated interaction with the NH of Gly-48.

  5. Lead expansion and virtual screening of Indinavir derivate HIV-1 protease inhibitors using pharmacophoric - shape similarity scoring function

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Dandekar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Indinavir (Crivaxan®) is a potent inhibitor of the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) protease. This enzyme has an important role in viral replication and is considered to be very attractive target for new antiretroviral drugs. However, it becomes less effective due to highly resistant new viral strains of HIV, which have multiple mutations in their proteases. For this reason, we used a lead expansion method to create a new set of compounds with a new mode of action to protease binding site. 1300 compounds chemically diverse from the initial hit were generated and screened to determine their ability to interact with protease and establish their QSAR properties. Further computational analyses revealed one unique compound with different protease binding ability from the initial hit and its role for possible new class of protease inhibitors is discussed in this report. PMID:20978602

  6. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Muhuhi, Joseck M; Liu, Zhigang; Bencze, Krisztina Z; Koupparis, Kyriacos; O'Connor, Carrie E; Kovari, Iulia A; Spaller, Mark R; Kovari, Ladislau C

    2013-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: 1TW7), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC50: 4.4nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6a against both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of (15)N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV.

  7. GRL-0519, a Novel Oxatricyclic Ligand-Containing Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor (PI), Potently Suppresses Replication of a Wide Spectrum of Multi-PI-Resistant HIV-1 Variants In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Masayuki; Tojo, Yasushi; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Campbell, Joseph Richard; Das, Debananda; Aoki, Manabu; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We report that GRL-0519, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing tris-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (tris-THF) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0005 to 0.0007 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 44.6 μM). GRL-0519 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to a 5 μM concentration of ritonavir, lopinavir, or atazanavir (EC50, 0.0028 to 0.0033 μM). GRL-0519 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, highly darunavir (DRV)-resistant variants, and HIV-2ROD. The development of resistance against GRL-0519 was substantially delayed compared to other PIs, including amprenavir (APV) and DRV. The effects of nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on GRL-0519's antiviral activity were insignificant. Our analysis of the crystal structures of GRL-0519 (3OK9) and DRV (2IEN) with protease suggested that the tris-THF moiety, compared to the bis-THF moiety present in DRV, has greater water-mediated polar interactions with key active-site residues of protease and that the tris-THF moiety and paramethoxy group effectively fill the S2 and S2′ binding pockets, respectively, of the protease. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0519 has highly favorable features as a potential therapeutic agent for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-PI-resistant variants and that the tris-THF moiety is critical for strong binding of GRL-0519 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and appears to be responsible for its favorable antiretroviral characteristics. PMID:23403426

  8. Antitumor and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities of a Hemagglutinin and a Protease Inhibitor from Mini-Black Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) and hemagglutinins are defense proteins produced by many organisms. From Chinese mini-black soybeans, a 17.5-kDa PI was isolated using chromatography on Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and DEAE-cellulose. A 25-kDa hemagglutinin was purified similarly, but using Superdex 75 instead of DEAE-cellulose in the final step. The PI inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin (IC50 = 7.2 and 8.8 μM). Its trypsin inhibitory activity was stable from pH 2 to pH 13 and from 0°C to 70°C. The hemagglutinin activity of the hemagglutinin was stable from pH 2 to pH 13 and from 0°C to 75°C. The results indicated that both PI and hemagglutinin were relatively thermostable and pH-stable. The trypsin inhibitory activity was inhibited by dithiothreitol, signifying the importance of the disulfide bond to the activity. The hemagglutinating activity was inhibited most potently by D (+)-raffinose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, suggesting that the hemagglutinin was specific for these two sugars. Both PI and hemagglutinin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 = 3.2 and 5.5 μM), proliferation of breast cancer cells (IC50 = 9.7 and 3.5 μM), and hepatoma cells (IC50 = 35 and 6.2 μM), with relatively high potencies. PMID:21527979

  9. Antitumor and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities of a Hemagglutinin and a Protease Inhibitor from Mini-Black Soybean.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) and hemagglutinins are defense proteins produced by many organisms. From Chinese mini-black soybeans, a 17.5-kDa PI was isolated using chromatography on Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and DEAE-cellulose. A 25-kDa hemagglutinin was purified similarly, but using Superdex 75 instead of DEAE-cellulose in the final step. The PI inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin (IC(50) = 7.2 and 8.8 μM). Its trypsin inhibitory activity was stable from pH 2 to pH 13 and from 0°C to 70°C. The hemagglutinin activity of the hemagglutinin was stable from pH 2 to pH 13 and from 0°C to 75°C. The results indicated that both PI and hemagglutinin were relatively thermostable and pH-stable. The trypsin inhibitory activity was inhibited by dithiothreitol, signifying the importance of the disulfide bond to the activity. The hemagglutinating activity was inhibited most potently by D (+)-raffinose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, suggesting that the hemagglutinin was specific for these two sugars. Both PI and hemagglutinin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC(50) = 3.2 and 5.5 μM), proliferation of breast cancer cells (IC(50) = 9.7 and 3.5 μM), and hepatoma cells (IC(50) = 35 and 6.2 μM), with relatively high potencies. PMID:21527979

  10. Strength of hydrogen bond network takes crucial roles in the dissociation process of inhibitors from the HIV-1 protease binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang

    2011-01-01

    To understand the underlying mechanisms of significant differences in dissociation rate constant among different inhibitors for HIV-1 protease, we performed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to analyze the entire dissociation processes of inhibitors from the binding pocket of protease at atomistic details. We found that the strength of hydrogen bond network between inhibitor and the protease takes crucial roles in the dissociation process. We showed that the hydrogen bond network in the cyclic urea inhibitors AHA001/XK263 is less stable than that of the approved inhibitor ABT538 because of their large differences in the structures of the networks. In the cyclic urea inhibitor bound complex, the hydrogen bonds often distribute at the flap tips and the active site. In contrast, there are additional accessorial hydrogen bonds formed at the lateral sides of the flaps and the active site in the ABT538 bound complex, which take crucial roles in stabilizing the hydrogen bond network. In addition, the water molecule W301 also plays important roles in stabilizing the hydrogen bond network through its flexible movement by acting as a collision buffer and helping the rebinding of hydrogen bonds at the flap tips. Because of its high stability, the hydrogen bond network of ABT538 complex can work together with the hydrophobic clusters to resist the dissociation, resulting in much lower dissociation rate constant than those of cyclic urea inhibitor complexes. This study may provide useful guidelines for design of novel potent inhibitors with optimized interactions.

  11. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics of ligands binding into protein: The case of HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dechang; Liu, Ming S.; Ji, Baohua; Hwang, Kehchih; Huang, Yonggang

    2009-06-01

    Binding dynamics and pathways of ligands or inhibitors to target proteins are challenging both experimental and theoretical biologists. A dynamics understanding of inhibitors interacting with protein is essential for the design of novel potent drugs. In this work we applied a coarse-grained molecular dynamics method for simulating inhibitors entering the binding cavity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (PR). It shows that the coarse-grained dynamics, consistent with the experimental results, can capture the essential molecular dynamics of various inhibitors binding into PR. The primary driving force for the binding processes is the nonbond interaction between inhibitors and PR. The size and topology of inhibitors and the interacting strength between inhibitors and PR have great influence on the binding mode and processes. The interaction strength between the PR and various inhibitors is also analyzed by atomistic molecular mechanics and Poisson-Boltzmann solvation area method.

  12. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  13. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  14. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  15. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  16. The hunt for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lataillade, Max; Kozal, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are three distinct mechanistic classes of antiretrovirals: inhibitors of the HIV- 1 reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes and inhibitors of HIV entry, including receptor and coreceptor binding and cell fusion. A new drug class that inhibits the HIV-1 integrase enzyme (IN) is in development and may soon be available in the clinic. IN is an attractive drug target because it is essential for a stable and productive HIV-1 infection and there is no mammalian homologue of IN. Inhibitors of integrase enzyme (INI) block the integration of viral double-stranded DNA into the host cell's chromosomal DNA. HIV-1 integration has many potential steps that can be inhibited and several new compounds that target specific integration steps have been identified by drug developers. Recently, two INIs, GS-9137 and MK-0518, demonstrated promising early clinical trial results and have been advanced into later stage trials. In this review, we describe how IN facilitates HIV-1 integration, the needed enzyme cofactors, and the resultant byproducts created during integration. Furthermore, we review the different INIs under development, their mechanism of actions, site of IN inhibition, potency, resistance patterns, and discuss the early clinical trial results.

  17. Severe Impairment of Endothelial Function with the HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor Indinavir is not Mediated by Insulin Resistance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Michael P.; Gorski, J. Christopher; Shen, Changyu

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction may contribute to increased cardiovascular events among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir causes both vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance, but the relationship between the two disturbances is not established. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), insulin-mediated vasodilation (IMV), and whole body and leg glucose uptake during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/m2/min) were measured before and after four weeks of indinavir in nine healthy men. EDV fell from 270 ± 67% above basal to 124 ± 30% (p=0.04) and IMV from 56 ± 14% above basal to 8 ± 8% (p=0.001) with indinavir. During the clamp, arteriovenous glucose difference and leg glucose uptake were not significantly different after indinavir and whole-body glucose uptake was only modestly reduced (8.0 ± 0.8 vs 7.2 ± 0.8 mg/kg/min, p=0.04). The change in EDV did not correlate with the change in whole-body glucose uptake after indinavir (r=0.21, p=0.6). Despite marked impairment of endothelial function and IMV with indinavir, only modest, inconsistent reductions in measures of insulin stimulated glucose uptake occurred. This suggests that indinavir's effects on glucose metabolism are not directly related to indinavir-associated endothelial dysfunction. Studies of the vascular effects of newer protease inhibitors are needed. PMID:18172783

  18. Multiple receptor conformation docking and dock pose clustering as tool for CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis - a case study on HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-02-01

    Multiple receptors conformation docking (MRCD) and clustering of dock poses allows seamless incorporation of receptor binding conformation of the molecules on wide range of ligands with varied structural scaffold. The accuracy of the approach was tested on a set of 120 cyclic urea molecules having HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity using 12 high resolution X-ray crystal structures and one NMR resolved conformation of HIV-1 protease extracted from protein data bank. A cross validation was performed on 25 non-cyclic urea HIV-1 protease inhibitor having varied structures. The comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) models were generated using 60 molecules in the training set by applying leave one out cross validation method, r (loo) (2) values of 0.598 and 0.674 for CoMFA and CoMSIA respectively and non-cross validated regression coefficient r(2) values of 0.983 and 0.985 were obtained for CoMFA and CoMSIA respectively. The predictive ability of these models was determined using a test set of 60 cyclic urea molecules that gave predictive correlation (r (pred) (2) ) of 0.684 and 0.64 respectively for CoMFA and CoMSIA indicating good internal predictive ability. Based on this information 25 non-cyclic urea molecules were taken as a test set to check the external predictive ability of these models. This gave remarkable out come with r (pred) (2) of 0.61 and 0.53 for CoMFA and CoMSIA respectively. The results invariably show that this method is useful for performing 3D QSAR analysis on molecules having different structural motifs.

  19. Decomposing the energetic impact of drug-resistant mutations: the example of HIV-1 protease-DRV binding.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yufeng; Schiffer, Celia

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 protease is a major drug target for AIDS therapy. With the appearance of drug-resistant HIV-1 protease variants, understanding the mechanism of drug resistance becomes critical for rational drug design. Computational methods can provide more details about inhibitor-protease binding than crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The latest FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor is Darunavir (DRV). Herein, each DRV atom is evaluated by free energy component analysis for its contribution to the binding affinity with wild-type protease and ACT, a drug-resistant variant. This information can contribute to the rational design of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  20. Potent Antiviral HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor GRL-02031 Adapts to the Structures of Drug Resistant Mutants with Its P1;#8242;-Pyrrolidinone Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yu-Chung E.; Yu, XiaXia; Zhang, Ying; Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yashchuk, Sofiya; Ghosh, Arun K.; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2012-11-14

    GRL-02031 (1) is an HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor containing a novel P1' (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone group. Crystal structures at resolutions of 1.25-1.55 {angstrom} were analyzed for complexes of 1 with the PR containing major drug resistant mutations, PR{sub I47V}, PR{sub L76V}, PR{sub V82A}, and PR{sub N88D}. Mutations of I47V and V82A alter residues in the inhibitor-binding site, while L76V and N88D are distal mutations having no direct contact with the inhibitor. Substitution of a smaller amino acid in PR{sub I47V} and PR{sub L76V} and the altered charge of PR{sub N88D} are associated with significant local structural changes compared to the wild-type PR{sub WT}, while substitution of alanine in PR{sub V82A} increases the size of the S1' subsite. The P1' pyrrolidinone group of 1 accommodates to these local changes by assuming two different conformations. Overall, the conformation and interactions of 1 with PR mutants resemble those of PR{sub WT} with similar inhibition constants in good agreement with the antiviral potency on multidrug resistant HIV-1.

  1. Nine Crystal Structures Determine the Substrate Envelope of the MDR HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-03-27

    Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistant, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment. It is known that nine substrate cleavage site peptides bind to wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease in a conserved pattern. However, how the multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease binds to the substrate cleavage site peptides is yet to be determined. MDR769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90) was selected for present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. MDR769 HIV-1 protease was co-crystallized with nine substrate cleavage site hepta-peptides. Crystallographic studies show that MDR769 HIV-1 protease has an expanded substrate envelope with wide open flaps. Furthermore, ligand binding energy calculations indicate weaker binding in MDR769 HIV-1 protease-substrate complexes. These results help in designing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by targeting the MDR HIV-1 protease.

  2. In Vitro Characterization of GS-8374, a Novel Phosphonate-Containing Inhibitor of HIV-1 Protease with a Favorable Resistance Profile ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Callebaut, Christian; Stray, Kirsten; Tsai, Luong; Williams, Matt; Yang, Zheng-Yu; Cannizzaro, Carina; Leavitt, Stephanie A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Kelly; Murray, Bernard P.; Mulato, Andrew; Hatada, Marcos; Priskich, Tina; Parkin, Neil; Swaminathan, Swami; Lee, William; He, Gong-Xin; Xu, Lianhong; Cihlar, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    GS-8374 is a novel bis-tetrahydrofuran HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) with a unique diethylphosphonate moiety. It was selected from a series of analogs containing various di(alkyl)phosphonate substitutions connected via a linker to the para position of a P-1 phenyl ring. GS-8374 inhibits HIV-1 PR with high potency (Ki = 8.1 pM) and with no known effect on host proteases. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of GS-8374 binding to PR demonstrated an extremely slow off rate for the inhibitor and favorable contributions of both the enthalpic and entropic components to the total free binding energy. GS-8374 showed potent antiretroviral activity in T-cell lines, primary CD4+ T cells (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 3.4 to 11.5 nM), and macrophages (EC50 = 25.5 nM) and exhibited low cytotoxicity in multiple human cell types. The antiviral potency of GS-8374 was only moderately affected by human serum protein binding, and its combination with multiple approved antiretrovirals showed synergistic effects. When it was tested in a PhenoSense assay against a panel of 24 patient-derived viruses with high-level PI resistance, GS-8374 showed lower mean EC50s and lower fold resistance than any of the clinically approved PIs. Similar to other PIs, in vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of GS-8374 was efficiently blocked by ritonavir, suggesting a potential for effective pharmacokinetic boosting in vivo. In summary, results from this broad in vitro pharmacological profiling indicate that GS-8374 is a promising candidate to be further assessed as a new antiretroviral agent with potential for clinical efficacy in both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. PMID:21245449

  3. GRL-04810 and GRL-05010, Difluoride-Containing Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs) That Inhibit the Replication of Multi-PI-Resistant HIV-1 In Vitro and Possess Favorable Lipophilicity That May Allow Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Yashchuk, Sofiya; Mizuno, Akira; Das, Debananda; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    We designed, synthesized, and identified two novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-04810 and GRL-05010, containing the structure-based designed privileged cyclic ether-derived nonpeptide P2 ligand, bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF), and a difluoride moiety, both of which are active against the laboratory strain HIV-1LAI (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 0.0008 and 0.003 μM, respectively) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentrations [CC50s], 17.5 and 37.0 μM, respectively, in CD4+ MT-2 cells). The two compounds were active against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to various antiviral regimens. GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 also blocked the infectivity and replication of each of the HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to 5 μM lopinavir (EC50s, 0.03 and 0.03 μM, respectively) and atazanavir (EC50s, 0.02 and 0.04 μM, respectively). Moreover, they were active against darunavir (DRV)-resistant variants (EC50 in 0.03 to 0.034 μM range for GRL-04810 and 0.026 to 0.043 μM for GRL-05010), while DRV had EC50s between 0.02 and 0.174 μM. GRL-04810 had a favorable lipophilicity profile as determined with the partition (log P) and distribution (log D) coefficients of −0.14 and −0.29, respectively. The in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability assay revealed that GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 may have a greater advantage in terms of crossing the BBB than the currently available PIs, with apparent penetration indexes of 47.8 × 10−6 and 61.8 × 10−6 cm/s, respectively. The present data demonstrate that GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 exert efficient activity against a wide spectrum of HIV-1 variants in vitro and suggest that two fluorine atoms added to their bis-THF moieties may well enhance their penetration across the BBB. PMID:24080647

  4. Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guodong; Ma, Aijing; Dou, Xianghua; Zhao, Liling; Wang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A) and inhibitor (GRL-0519) complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT) complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors. PMID:27240358

  5. Potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating meso-bicyclic urethanes as P2-ligands: structure-based design, synthesis, biological evaluation and protein-ligand X-ray studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun; Gemma, Sandra; Takayama, Jun; Baldridge, Abigail; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Miller, Heather; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Koh, Yashiro; Weber, Irene; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2008-12-05

    Recently, we designed a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating a stereochemically defined bicyclic fused cyclopentyl (Cp-THF) urethane as the high affinity P2-ligand. Inhibitor 1 with this P2-ligand has shown very impressive potency against multi-drug-resistant clinical isolates. Based upon the 1-bound HIV-1 protease X-ray structure, we have now designed and synthesized a number of meso-bicyclic ligands which can conceivably interact similarly to the Cp-THF ligand. The design of meso-ligands is quite attractive as they do not contain any stereocenters. Inhibitors incorporating urethanes of bicyclic-1,3-dioxolane and bicyclic-1,4-dioxane have shown potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activities. Inhibitor 2 (K{sub i} = 0.11 nM; IC{sub 50} = 3.8 nM) displayed very potent antiviral activity in this series. While inhibitor 3 showed comparable enzyme inhibitory activity (K{sub i} = 0.18 nM) its antiviral activity (IC{sub 50} = 170 nM) was significantly weaker than inhibitor 2. Inhibitor 2 maintained an antiviral potency against a series of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates comparable to amprenavir. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 3-bound HIV-1 protease revealed a number of key hydrogen bonding interactions at the S2-subsite. We have created an active model of inhibitor 2 based upon this X-ray structure.

  6. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Amino-bis-tetrahydrofuran Derivatives as P2-Ligands to Enhance Backbone-Binding Interactions. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Osswald, Heather L.; Sheri, Venkat Reddy; Kassekert, Luke A.; Chen, Shujing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Hayashi, Hironori; Aoki, Manabu; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2015-10-30

    Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to improve backbone ligand–binding site interactions, we have incorporated basic-amines at the C4 position of the bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) ring. We speculated that these substituents would make hydrogen bonding interactions in the flap region of HIV-1 protease. Synthesis of these inhibitors was performed diastereoselectively. A number of inhibitors displayed very potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 25f, 25i, and 25j were evaluated against a number of highly-PI-resistant HIV-1 strains, and they exhibited improved antiviral activity over darunavir. Two high resolution X-ray structures of 25f- and 25g-bound HIV-1 protease revealed unique hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone carbonyl group of Gly48 as well as with the backbone NH of Gly48 in the flap region of the enzyme active site. These ligand–binding site interactions are possibly responsible for their potent activity.

  7. Hydrophobic Core Flexibility Modulates Enzyme Activity in HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Seema; Cai, Yufeng; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Bolon, Daniel N.A.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-09-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) protease is crucial for viral maturation and infectivity. Studies of protease dynamics suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrophobic core is essential for enzyme activity. Many mutations in the hydrophobic core are also associated with drug resistance and may modulate the core flexibility. To test the role of flexibility in protease activity, pairs of cysteines were introduced at the interfaces of flexible regions remote from the active site. Disulfide bond formation was confirmed by crystal structures and by alkylation of free cysteines and mass spectrometry. Oxidized and reduced crystal structures of these variants show the overall structure of the protease is retained. However, cross-linking the cysteines led to drastic loss in enzyme activity, which was regained upon reducing the disulfide cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that altered dynamics propagated throughout the enzyme from the engineered disulfide. Thus, altered flexibility within the hydrophobic core can modulate HIV-1 protease activity, supporting the hypothesis that drug resistant mutations distal from the active site can alter the balance between substrate turnover and inhibitor binding by modulating enzyme activity.

  8. Alkyl hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives that inhibit HIV-1 protease dimerization.

    PubMed

    Flausino, O A; Dufau, L; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Rose, T; Bolzani, V S; Reboud-Ravaux, M

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of gallic acid and its derivatives as anti-cancer, antimicrobial and antiviral agents is well known. We have examined the mechanism by which natural gallic acid and newly synthesized gallic acid alkyl esters and related protocatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibit HIV-1 protease to compare the influence of the aromatic ring substitutions on inhibition. We used Zhang-Poorman's kinetic analysis and fluorescent probe binding to demonstrate that several gallic and protecatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibited HIV-1 protease by preventing the dimerization of this obligate homodimeric aspartic protease rather than targeting the active site. The tri-hydroxy substituted benzoic moiety in gallates was more favorable than the di-substituted one in protocatechuates. In both series, the type of inhibition, its mechanism and the inhibitory efficiency dramatically depended on the length of the alkyl chain: no inhibition with alkyl chains less than 8 carbon atoms long. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborated the kinetic data and propose that gallic esters are intercalated between the two N- and C-monomer ends. They complete the β-sheet and disrupt the dimeric enzyme. The best gallic ester (14 carbon atoms, K(id) of 320 nM) also inhibited the multi-mutated protease MDR-HM. These results will aid the rational design of future generations of non-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 protease dimerization that inhibit multi-mutated proteases. Finally, our work suggests the wide use of gallic and protocatechuic alkyl esters to dissociate intermolecular β-sheets involved in protein-protein interactions.

  9. Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance. X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Wang, Yong; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2013-01-08

    Ritonavir (RTV) is a first generation HIV-1 protease inhibitor with rapidly emerging drug resistance. Mutations at residues 46, 54, 82 and 84 render the HIV-1 protease drug resistant against RTV. We report the crystal structure of multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (carrying resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84 and 90) complexed with RTV and the in vitro enzymatic IC50 of RTV against MDR HIV-1 protease. The structural and functional studies demonstrate significant drug resistance of MDR HIV-1 protease against RTV, arising from reduced hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions between RTV and MDR HIV-1 protease.

  10. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-12-19

    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  11. Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Proteasa, Georghe; Martinez, Jorge L.; Vickrey, John F.; Martin, Philip D.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Zhigang; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2011-09-06

    The flexible flaps and the 80s loops (Pro79-Ile84) of HIV-1 protease are crucial in inhibitor binding. Previously, it was reported that the crystal structure of multidrug-resistant 769 (MDR769) HIV-1 protease shows a wide-open conformation of the flaps owing to conformational rigidity acquired by the accumulation of mutations. In the current study, the effect of mutations on the conformation of the 80s loop of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants is reported. Alternate conformations of Pro81 (proline switch) with a root-mean-square deviation of 3-4.8 {angstrom} in the C{alpha} atoms of the I10V mutant and a side chain with a 'flipped-out' conformation in the A82F mutant cause distortion in the S1/S1' binding pockets that affects inhibitor binding. The A82S and A82T mutants show local changes in the electrostatics of inhibitor binding owing to the mutation from nonpolar to polar residues. In summary, the crystallographic studies of four variants of MDR769 HIV-1 protease presented in this article provide new insights towards understanding the drug-resistance mechanism as well as a basis for design of future protease inhibitors with enhanced potency.

  12. Flap Conformations in HIV-1 Protease are Altered by Mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanucci, Gail; Blackburn, Mandy; Veloro, Angelo; Galiano, Luis; Fangu, Ding; Simmerling, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an enzyme that is a major drug target in the treatment of AIDS. Although the structure and function of HIV-1 PR have been studied for over 20 years, questions remain regarding the conformations and dynamics of the β-hairpin turns (flaps) that cover the active site cavity. Distance measurements with pulsed EPR spectroscopy of spin labeled constructs of HIV-1 PR have been used to characterize the flap conformations in the apo and inhibitor bound states. From the most probably distances and the breadth of the distance distribution profiles from analysis of the EPR data, insights regarding the flap conformations and flexibility are gained. The EPR results clearly show how drug pressure selected mutations alter the average conformation of the flaps and the degree of opening of the flaps. Molecular dynamics simulations successfully regenerate the experimentally determined distance distribution profiles, and more importantly, provide structural models for full interpretation of the EPR results. By combining experiment and theory to understand the role that altered flap flexibility/conformations play in the mechanism of drug resistance, key insights are gained toward the rational development of new inhibitors of this important enzyme.

  13. A Conserved Hydrogen-Bonding Network of P2 bis-Tetrahydrofuran-Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs) with a Protease Active-Site Amino Acid Backbone Aids in Their Activity against PI-Resistant HIV

    PubMed Central

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Garimella, Harisha; Aoki, Manabu; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Desai, Darshan V.; Chang, Simon B.; Davis, David A.; Fyvie, W. Sean; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Smith, David W.; Das, Debananda; Wingfield, Paul T.; Maeda, Kenji; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, GRL008, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI), and darunavir (DRV), both of which contain a P2-bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane (bis-THF) moiety, were found to exert potent antiviral activity (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 0.029 and 0.002 μM, respectively) against a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of HIV-1 (HIVA02) compared to ritonavir (RTV; EC50, >1.0 μM) and tipranavir (TPV; EC50, 0.364 μM). Additionally, GRL008 showed potent antiviral activity against an HIV-1 variant selected in the presence of DRV over 20 passages (HIVDRVRP20), with a 2.6-fold increase in its EC50 (0.097 μM) compared to its corresponding EC50 (0.038 μM) against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3 (HIVWT). Based on X-ray crystallographic analysis, both GRL008 and DRV showed strong hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with the backbone-amide nitrogen/carbonyl oxygen atoms of conserved active-site amino acids G27, D29, D30, and D30′ of HIVA02 protease (PRA02) and wild-type PR in their corresponding crystal structures, while TPV lacked H-bonds with G27 and D30′ due to an absence of polar groups. The P2′ thiazolyl moiety of RTV showed two conformations in the crystal structure of the PRA02-RTV complex, one of which showed loss of contacts in the S2′ binding pocket of PRA02, supporting RTV's compromised antiviral activity (EC50, >1 μM). Thus, the conserved H-bonding network of P2-bis-THF-containing GRL008 with the backbone of G27, D29, D30, and D30′ most likely contributes to its persistently greater antiviral activity against HIVWT, HIVA02, and HIVDRVRP20. PMID:24752271

  14. The higher barrier of darunavir and tipranavir resistance for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2011-11-17

    Darunavir and tipranavir are two inhibitors that are active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease variants. In this study, the invitro inhibitory efficacy was tested against a MDR HIV-1 protease variant, MDR 769 82T, containing the drug resistance mutations of 46L/54V/82T/84V/90M. Crystallographic and enzymatic studies were performed to examine the mechanism of resistance and the relative maintenance of potency. The key findings are as follows: (i) The MDR protease exhibits decreased susceptibility to all nine HIV-1 protease inhibitors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), among which darunavir and tipranavir are the most potent; (ii) the threonine 82 mutation on the protease greatly enhances drug resistance by altering the hydrophobicity of the binding pocket; (iii) darunavir or tipranavir binding facilitates closure of the wide-open flaps of the MDR protease; and (iv) the remaining potency of tipranavir may be preserved by stabilizing the flaps in the inhibitor-protease complex while darunavir maintains its potency by preserving protein main chain hydrogen bonds with the flexible P2 group. These results could provide new insights into drug design strategies to overcome multi-drug resistance of HIV-1 protease variants.

  15. Binding to the Open Conformation of HIV-1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lexa, Katrina W.; Carlson, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    A recent crystal structure of HIV-1 protease (HIVp) was the first to experimentally observe a ligand targeting an open-flap conformation. Researchers studying a symmetric pyrrolidine inhibitor found that two ligands co-crystallized with the protease, forcing an unusual configuration and unique crystallographic contacts. One molecule is centered in the traditional binding site (α pose), and the other binds between the flaps (β pose). The ligands stack against each other in a region termed the “eye” site. Ligands bound to the eye site should prevent flap closure, but it is unclear if the pyrrolidine inhibitors or the crystal packing are causing the open state. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the solution-state behavior of three possible binding modes: the ternary complex of HIVp+αβ and the binary complexes, HIVp+α and HIVp+β. We show that HIVp+α is the most stable of the three states. During conformational sampling, α takes an asymmetric binding pose, with one naphthyl ring occupying the eye site and the other reoriented down to occupy positions seen with traditional inhibitors. This finding supports previous studies that reveal a requirement for asymmetric binding at the eye site. In fact, if the α pose is modified to splay both naphthyl rings across the binding site like traditional inhibitors, one ring consistently flips to occupy the eye site. Our simulations reveal that interactions to the eye site encourage a conformationally-restrained state, and understanding those contacts may aid the design of ligands to specifically target alternate conformations of the protease. PMID:21604303

  16. Molecular dynamics study of the connection between flap closing and binding of fullerene-based inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongwei; Schuster, David I; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2003-02-11

    The complementary spatial relationship between fullerene C(60) and the hydrophobic cavity region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease, which houses the active site of the enzyme, has led to the suggestion that fullerene-based derivatives could have potential use as effective HIV protease inhibitors. The ability of such compounds to desolvate the cavity region leads to a strong hydrophobic interaction between the C(60) moiety and residues in the cavity region. In this study, the connection between the motion of the so-called flexible flaps of the cavity and favorable binding of a fullerene-based protease inhibitor is explored using multiple-time scale molecular dynamics simulations and free energy techniques. In addition, the effect of the interaction between the C(60) moiety and the residues in the cavity region on the water content of the cavity is also investigated. Conformational free energy profiles along a suitably chosen flap opening coordinate show a considerable barrier to flap opening in the presence of the inhibitor, while no such barrier exists for the protease alone. This result is interpreted in terms of a strong hydrophobic interaction between the C(60) moiety and the flexible flaps, which cause the latter to close tightly around the inhibitor, thereby expelling water from the cavity and leading to a favorable binding interaction. This interpretation is rationalized by direct analysis of the water content in the cavity in the presence and absence of the inhibitor.

  17. A simple clustering technique to improve QSAR model selection and predictivity: application to a receptor independent 4D-QSAR analysis of cyclic urea derived inhibitors of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Senese, Craig L; Hopfinger, A J

    2003-01-01

    A training set of 50 tetrahydropyrimidine-2-one based inhibitors of HIV-1 protease, for which the -log K(i) values were measured, was used to construct receptor independent 4D-QSAR models. A novel clustering technique was employed to facilitate and improve model selection as well as test set predictions. Following the manifold model theory, five unique models were chosen by the clustering algorithm (q(2) = 0.81-0.84). The models were used to map the atom type morphology of the inhibitor binding site of HIV-1 protease as well as to predict the potencies (-log K(i)) of 10 test set compounds. The rank-difference correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the quality of the test set predictions, which was improved from 0.39 to 0.68 when the clustering technique was applied. The set of five models, collectively, identify the important binding characteristics of the HIV protease receptor site. This study demonstrates that the selected simple clustering technique provides a discrete algorithm for model selection, as well as improving the quality of test set, or unknown, compound prediction as determined by the rank-difference correlation coefficient.

  18. Genotype dependent QSAR for HIV-1 protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boutton, Carlo W; De Bondt, Hendrik L; De Jonge, Marc R

    2005-03-24

    The development of drug-resistant viruses limits the therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies. Some of these genetic HIV-variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene that codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the most investigated molecular targets for antiretroviral therapy. In this paper, we present a computational structure-based approach to predict the resistance of a HIV-1 protease strain to amprenavir by calculating the interaction energy of the drug with HIV-1 protease. By considering the interaction energy per residue, we can identify what residue mutations contribute to drug-resistance. This approach is presented here as a structure-based tool for the prediction of resistance of HIV-1 protease toward amprenavir, with a view to use the drug-protein interaction-energy pattern in a lead-optimization procedure for the discovery of new anti-HIV drugs. PMID:15771454

  19. Identification of potent maturation inhibitors against HIV-1 clade C

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Uddhav; Ghimire, Dibya; Timalsina, Bivek; Nitz, Theodore J.; Wild, Carl T.; Freed, Eric O.; Gaur, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to a profound improvement in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients. However, drug tolerability and the evolution of drug resistance have limited treatment options for many patients. Maturation inhibitors are a new class of antiretroviral agents for treatment of HIV-1. They act by interfering with the maturation of the virus by blocking the last step in Gag processing: the cleavage of the capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) intermediate to mature CA by the viral protease (PR). The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) failed against a subset of HIV-1 isolates in clinical trials due to polymorphisms present in the CA-SP1 region of the Gag protein. Sequence analysis indicated that these polymorphisms are more common in non-clade B strains of HIV-1 such as HIV-1 clade C. Indeed, BVM was found to be ineffective against HIV-1 clade C molecular clones tested in this study. A number of BVM analogs were synthesized by chemical modifications at the C-28 position to improve its activity. The new BVM analogs displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B and C and also reduced infectivity of the virus. This study identifies novel and broadly active BVM analogs that may ultimately demonstrate efficacy in the clinic. PMID:27264714

  20. Effects of drug-resistant mutations on the dynamic properties of HIV-1 protease and inhibition by Amprenavir and Darunavir.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the dynamic properties of wild-type HIV-1 protease and its two multi-drug-resistant variants (Flap + (L10I/G48V/I54V/V82A) and Act (V82T/I84V)) as well as their binding with APV and DRV inhibitors. The hydrophobic interactions between flap and 80 s (80's) loop residues (mainly I50-I84' and I50'-I84) play an important role in maintaining the closed conformation of HIV-1 protease. The double mutation in Act variant weakens the hydrophobic interactions, leading to the transition from closed to semi-open conformation of apo Act. APV or DRV binds with HIV-1 protease via both hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The hydrophobic interactions from the inhibitor is aimed to the residues of I50 (I50'), I84 (I84'), and V82 (V82') which create hydrophobic core clusters to further stabilize the closed conformation of flaps, and the hydrogen bonding interactions are mainly focused with the active site of HIV-1 protease. The combined change in the two kinds of protease-inhibitor interactions is correlated with the observed resistance mutations. The present study sheds light on the microscopic mechanism underlying the mutation effects on the dynamics of HIV-1 protease and the inhibition by APV and DRV, providing useful information to the design of more potent and effective HIV-1 protease inhibitors. PMID:26012849

  1. Extreme Entropy-Enthalpy Compensation in a Drug Resistant Variant of HIV-1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    King, Nancy M.; Prabu-Jeyabalan, Moses; Bandaranayake, Rajintha M.; Nalam, Madhavi N. L.; Nalivaika, Ellen A.; Özen, Ayşegül; Haliloglu, Türkan; Yılmaz, Neşe Kurt; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of HIV-1 protease inhibitors has been the historic paradigm of rational structure-based drug design, where structural and thermodynamic analyses have assisted in the discovery of novel inhibitors. While the total enthalpy and entropy change upon binding determine the affinity, often the thermodynamics are considered in terms of inhibitor properties only. In the current study, profound changes are observed in the binding thermodynamics of a drug resistant variant compared to wild-type HIV-1 protease, irrespective of the inhibitor bound. This variant (Flap+) has a combination of flap and active site mutations and exhibits extremely large entropy-enthalpy compensation compared to wild-type protease, 5–15 kcal/mol, while losing only 1–3 kcal/mol in total binding free energy for any of six FDA approved inhibitors. Although entropy-enthalpy compensation has been previously observed for a variety of systems, never have changes of this magnitude been reported. The co-crystal structures of Flap+ protease with four of the inhibitors were determined and compared with complexes of both the wildtype protease and another drug resistant variant that does not exhibit this energetic compensation. Structural changes conserved across the Flap+ complexes, which are more pronounced for the flaps covering the active site, likely contribute to the thermodynamic compensation. The finding that drug resistant mutations can profoundly modulate the relative thermodynamic properties of a therapeutic target independent of the inhibitor presents a new challenge for rational drug design. PMID:22712830

  2. An inhibitor of HIV-1 protease modulates constitutive eIF2α dephosphorylation to trigger a specific integrated stress response

    PubMed Central

    De Gassart, Aude; Bujisic, Bojan; Zaffalon, Léa; Decosterd, Laurent A.; Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Tallant, Rémy; Martinon, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the HIV aspartyl protease [HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs)] are the cornerstone of treatment for HIV. Beyond their well-defined antiretroviral activity, these drugs have additional effects that modulate cell viability and homeostasis. However, little is known about the virus-independent pathways engaged by these molecules. Here we show that the HIV-PI Nelfinavir decreases translation rates and promotes a transcriptional program characteristic of the integrated stress response (ISR). Mice treated with Nelfinavir display hallmarks of this stress response in the liver, including α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) phosphorylation, activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) induction, and increased expression of known downstream targets. Mechanistically, Nelfinavir-mediated ISR bypassed direct activation of the eIF2α stress kinases and instead relied on the inhibition of the constitutive eIF2α dephosphorylation and down-regulation of the phophatase cofactor CReP (Constitutive Repressor of eIF2α Phosphorylation; also known as PPP1R15B). These findings demonstrate that the modulation of eIF2α-specific phosphatase cofactor activity can be a rheostat of cellular homeostasis that initiates a functional ISR and suggest that the HIV-PIs could be repositioned as therapeutics in human diseases to modulate translation rates and stress responses. PMID:26715744

  3. An inhibitor of HIV-1 protease modulates constitutive eIF2α dephosphorylation to trigger a specific integrated stress response.

    PubMed

    De Gassart, Aude; Bujisic, Bojan; Zaffalon, Léa; Decosterd, Laurent A; Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Tallant, Rémy; Martinon, Fabio

    2016-01-12

    Inhibitors of the HIV aspartyl protease [HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs)] are the cornerstone of treatment for HIV. Beyond their well-defined antiretroviral activity, these drugs have additional effects that modulate cell viability and homeostasis. However, little is known about the virus-independent pathways engaged by these molecules. Here we show that the HIV-PI Nelfinavir decreases translation rates and promotes a transcriptional program characteristic of the integrated stress response (ISR). Mice treated with Nelfinavir display hallmarks of this stress response in the liver, including α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) phosphorylation, activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) induction, and increased expression of known downstream targets. Mechanistically, Nelfinavir-mediated ISR bypassed direct activation of the eIF2α stress kinases and instead relied on the inhibition of the constitutive eIF2α dephosphorylation and down-regulation of the phophatase cofactor CReP (Constitutive Repressor of eIF2α Phosphorylation; also known as PPP1R15B). These findings demonstrate that the modulation of eIF2α-specific phosphatase cofactor activity can be a rheostat of cellular homeostasis that initiates a functional ISR and suggest that the HIV-PIs could be repositioned as therapeutics in human diseases to modulate translation rates and stress responses.

  4. The Role of Select Subtype Polymorphisms on HIV-1 Protease Conformational Sampling and Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Britto, Manuel D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Boone, Christopher D.; Rocca, James R.; Simmerling, Carlos; Mckenna, Robert; Bieri, Michael; Gooley, Paul R.; Dunn, Ben M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 protease is an essential enzyme for viral particle maturation and is a target in the fight against HIV-1 infection worldwide. Several natural polymorphisms are also associated with drug resistance. Here, we utilized both pulsed electron double resonance, also called double electron-electron resonance, and NMR 15N relaxation measurements to characterize equilibrium conformational sampling and backbone dynamics of an HIV-1 protease construct containing four specific natural polymorphisms commonly found in subtypes A, F, and CRF_01 A/E. Results show enhanced backbone dynamics, particularly in the flap region, and the persistence of a novel conformational ensemble that we hypothesize is an alternative flap orientation of a curled open state or an asymmetric configuration when interacting with inhibitors. PMID:24742668

  5. Quenched near-infrared fluorescent peptide substrate for HIV-1 protease assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.

    2006-02-01

    The HIV-1 protease enzyme is an excellent target for drug therapy of HIV infection/AIDS. To measure the protease activity and screen for potent protease inhibitors, homogeneous protease assays based on quenched fluorescent peptide substrates have been widely used as a high-throughput screening methods. The major problem in these assays is the compound interference or assay artifacts from colored or insoluble materials in the assay, e.g. assay components, screening library compounds, etc. We report in this paper a near-infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NIRFRET) based HIV-1 protease assay that can dramatically reduce or completely eliminate these assay artifacts by using a novel near-IR donor-quencher pair and long wavelength excitation (780 nm) and detection (820+/-10 nm). In this assay, a HIV-1 protease peptide substrate is conjugated with a near-IR fluorescent donor (IRDye TM 800CW), and a novel near-IR non-fluorescent quencher (QC1) on opposite sides of the proteolytic cleavage site. The quencher, QC1, has extremely good spectral overlap of its absorption spectrum with the donor emission spectrum to ensure the efficient quenching of the donor's fluorescence. In the HIV-1 protease assay, this NIR-FRET system shows a large dynamic range, high signal to noise ratio, excellent Z'-factors, a wide range of DMSO tolerance, and no compound interference. This system provides a sensitive, robust assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) and can be readily adapted to other therapeutically significant protease targets.

  6. Effects of drug-resistant mutations on the dynamic properties of HIV-1 protease and inhibition by Amprenavir and Darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the dynamic properties of wild-type HIV-1 protease and its two multi-drug-resistant variants (Flap + (L10I/G48V/I54V/V82A) and Act (V82T/I84V)) as well as their binding with APV and DRV inhibitors. The hydrophobic interactions between flap and 80 s (80’s) loop residues (mainly I50-I84’ and I50’-I84) play an important role in maintaining the closed conformation of HIV-1 protease. The double mutation in Act variant weakens the hydrophobic interactions, leading to the transition from closed to semi-open conformation of apo Act. APV or DRV binds with HIV-1 protease via both hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The hydrophobic interactions from the inhibitor is aimed to the residues of I50 (I50’), I84 (I84’), and V82 (V82’) which create hydrophobic core clusters to further stabilize the closed conformation of flaps, and the hydrogen bonding interactions are mainly focused with the active site of HIV-1 protease. The combined change in the two kinds of protease-inhibitor interactions is correlated with the observed resistance mutations. The present study sheds light on the microscopic mechanism underlying the mutation effects on the dynamics of HIV-1 protease and the inhibition by APV and DRV, providing useful information to the design of more potent and effective HIV-1 protease inhibitors. PMID:26012849

  7. Natural polymorphisms and unusual mutations in HIV-1 protease with potential antiretroviral resistance: a bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The correlations of genotypic and phenotypic tests with treatment, clinical history and the significance of mutations in viruses of HIV-infected patients are used to establish resistance mutations to protease inhibitors (PIs). Emerging mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease confer resistance to PIs by inducing structural changes at the ligand interaction site. The aim of this study was to establish an in silico structural relationship between natural HIV-1 polymorphisms and unusual HIV-1 mutations that confer resistance to PIs. Results Protease sequences isolated from 151 Mexican HIV-1 patients that were naïve to, or subjected to antiretroviral therapy, were examined. We identified 41 unrelated resistance mutations with a prevalence greater than 1%. Among these mutations, nine exhibited positive selection, three were natural polymorphisms (L63S/V/H) in a codon associated with drug resistance, and six were unusual mutations (L5F, D29V, L63R/G, P79L and T91V). The D29V mutation, with a prevalence of 1.32% in the studied population, was only found in patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. Using in silico modelling, we observed that D29V formed unstable protease complexes when were docked with lopinavir, saquinavir, darunavir, tipranavir, indinavir and atazanavir. Conclusions The structural correlation of natural polymorphisms and unusual mutations with drug resistance is useful for the identification of HIV-1 variants with potential resistance to PIs. The D29V mutation likely confers a selection advantage in viruses; however, in silico, presence of this mutation results in unstable enzyme/PI complexes, that possibly induce resistance to PIs. PMID:24629078

  8. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of specificity designed HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Alvizo, Oscar; Mittal, Seema; Mayo, Stephen L.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-10-23

    HIV-1 protease recognizes and cleaves more than 12 different substrates leading to viral maturation. While these substrates share no conserved motif, they are specifically selected for and cleaved by protease during viral life cycle. Drug resistant mutations evolve within the protease that compromise inhibitor binding but allow the continued recognition of all these substrates. While the substrate envelope defines a general shape for substrate recognition, successfully predicting the determinants of substrate binding specificity would provide additional insights into the mechanism of altered molecular recognition in resistant proteases. We designed a variant of HIV protease with altered specificity using positive computational design methods and validated the design using X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry. The engineered variant, Pr3 (A28S/D30F/G48R), was designed to preferentially bind to one out of three of HIV protease's natural substrates; RT-RH over p2-NC and CA-p2. In kinetic assays, RT-RH binding specificity for Pr3 increased threefold compared to the wild-type (WT), which was further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Crystal structures of WT protease and the designed variant in complex with RT-RH, CA-p2, and p2-NC were determined. Structural analysis of the designed complexes revealed that one of the engineered substitutions (G48R) potentially stabilized heterogeneous flap conformations, thereby facilitating alternate modes of substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that while substrate specificity could be engineered in HIV protease, the structural pliability of protease restricted the propagation of interactions as predicted. These results offer new insights into the plasticity and structural determinants of substrate binding specificity of the HIV-1 protease.

  9. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of specificity designed HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Alvizo, Oscar; Mittal, Seema; Mayo, Stephen L; Schiffer, Celia A

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 protease recognizes and cleaves more than 12 different substrates leading to viral maturation. While these substrates share no conserved motif, they are specifically selected for and cleaved by protease during viral life cycle. Drug resistant mutations evolve within the protease that compromise inhibitor binding but allow the continued recognition of all these substrates. While the substrate envelope defines a general shape for substrate recognition, successfully predicting the determinants of substrate binding specificity would provide additional insights into the mechanism of altered molecular recognition in resistant proteases. We designed a variant of HIV protease with altered specificity using positive computational design methods and validated the design using X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry. The engineered variant, Pr3 (A28S/D30F/G48R), was designed to preferentially bind to one out of three of HIV protease's natural substrates; RT-RH over p2-NC and CA-p2. In kinetic assays, RT-RH binding specificity for Pr3 increased threefold compared to the wild-type (WT), which was further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Crystal structures of WT protease and the designed variant in complex with RT-RH, CA-p2, and p2-NC were determined. Structural analysis of the designed complexes revealed that one of the engineered substitutions (G48R) potentially stabilized heterogeneous flap conformations, thereby facilitating alternate modes of substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that while substrate specificity could be engineered in HIV protease, the structural pliability of protease restricted the propagation of interactions as predicted. These results offer new insights into the plasticity and structural determinants of substrate binding specificity of the HIV-1 protease.

  10. Crystal structures of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with two potent anti-malarial compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Woster, Patrick M.; Kovari, Ladislau C.; Gupta, Deepak

    2012-06-19

    Two potent inhibitors (compounds 1 and 2) of malarial aspartyl protease, plasmepsin-II, were evaluated against wild type (NL4-3) and multidrug-resistant clinical isolate 769 (MDR) variants of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) aspartyl protease. Enzyme inhibition assays showed that both 1 and 2 have better potency against NL4-3 than against MDR protease. Crystal structures of MDR protease in complex with 1 and 2 were solved and analyzed. Crystallographic analysis revealed that the MDR protease exhibits a typical wide-open conformation of the flaps (Gly48 to Gly52) causing an overall expansion in the active site cavity, which, in turn caused unstable binding of the inhibitors. Due to the expansion of the active site cavity, both compounds showed loss of direct contacts with the MDR protease compared to the docking models of NL4-3. Multiple water molecules showed a rich network of hydrogen bonds contributing to the stability of the ligand binding in the distorted binding pockets of the MDR protease in both crystal structures. Docking analysis of 1 and 2 showed a decrease in the binding affinity for both compounds against MDR supporting our structure-function studies. Thus, compounds 1 and 2 show promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease variants and hence are good candidates for further development to enhance their potency against NL4-3 as well as MDR HIV-1 protease variants.

  11. Fucoidans as Potential Inhibitors of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Prokofjeva, Maria M.; Imbs, Tatyana I.; Shevchenko, Natalya M.; Spirin, Pavel V.; Horn, Stefan; Fehse, Boris; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of different structure fucoidans (α-l-fucans and galactofucans) was studied using two model viral systems based on a lentiviral vectors and a replication competent Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). It was found that investigated fucoidans have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat and SC-1cell at the concentration range of 0.001–100 µg/mL. Fucoidans with different efficiency suppressed transduction of Jurkat cell line by pseudo-HIV-1 particles carrying the envelope protein of HIV-1 and infection of SC-1 cells by Mo-MuLV. According to our data, all natural fucoidans can be considered as potential anti-HIV agents regardless of their carbohydrate backbone and degree of sulfating, since their activity is shown at low concentrations (0.001–0.05 µg/mL). High molecular weight fucoidans isolated from Saccharina cichorioides (1.3-α-l-fucan), and S. japonica (galactofucan) were the most effective inhibitors. PMID:23966033

  12. Fucoidans as potential inhibitors of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Prokofjeva, Maria M; Imbs, Tatyana I; Shevchenko, Natalya M; Spirin, Pavel V; Horn, Stefan; Fehse, Boris; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N; Prassolov, Vladimir S

    2013-08-19

    The antiviral activity of different structure fucoidans (α-l-fucans and galactofucans) was studied using two model viral systems based on a lentiviral vectors and a replication competent Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). It was found that investigated fucoidans have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat and SC-1cell at the concentration range of 0.001-100 µg/mL. Fucoidans with different efficiency suppressed transduction of Jurkat cell line by pseudo-HIV-1 particles carrying the envelope protein of HIV-1 and infection of SC-1 cells by Mo-MuLV. According to our data, all natural fucoidans can be considered as potential anti-HIV agents regardless of their carbohydrate backbone and degree of sulfating, since their activity is shown at low concentrations (0.001-0.05 µg/mL). High molecular weight fucoidans isolated from Saccharina cichorioides (1.3-α-l-fucan), and S. japonica (galactofucan) were the most effective inhibitors.

  13. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-Level Darunavir Resistance.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Masaaki; Ode, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Maejima, Masami; Kimura, Yuki; Masaoka, Takashi; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hachiya, Atsuko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Atsuo; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors (PIs) for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V), which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses. PMID:26870021

  14. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-Level Darunavir Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaaki; Ode, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Maejima, Masami; Kimura, Yuki; Masaoka, Takashi; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hachiya, Atsuko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Atsuo; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors (PIs) for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V), which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses. PMID:26870021

  15. Raltegravir, an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Merck & Co has developed and launched raltegravir, an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-experienced adult patients who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. This drug is the lead from a series of integrase strand transfer inhibitors and, by April 2008, it had been launched in Canada, the US, the UK, France, Germany and Spain, and had been filed for approval in Japan.

  16. HIV-1 Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, and Integrase Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Kris; Varghese, Vici; Winters, Mark A.; Hurt, Christopher B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Parkin, Neil; Holmes, Susan P.; Holodniy, Mark; Shafer, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN) variability presents a challenge to laboratories performing genotypic resistance testing. This challenge will grow with increased sequencing of samples enriched for proviral DNA such as dried blood spots and increased use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect low-abundance HIV-1 variants. We analyzed PR and RT sequences from >100,000 individuals and IN sequences from >10,000 individuals to characterize variation at each amino acid position, identify mutations indicating APOBEC-mediated G-to-A editing, and identify mutations resulting from selective drug pressure. Forty-seven percent of PR, 37% of RT, and 34% of IN positions had one or more amino acid variants with a prevalence of ≥1%. Seventy percent of PR, 60% of RT, and 60% of IN positions had one or more variants with a prevalence of ≥0.1%. Overall 201 PR, 636 RT, and 346 IN variants had a prevalence of ≥0.1%. The median intersubtype prevalence ratios were 2.9-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold for these PR, RT, and IN variants, respectively. Only 5.0% of PR, 3.7% of RT, and 2.0% of IN variants had a median intersubtype prevalence ratio of ≥10-fold. Variants at lower prevalences were more likely to differ biochemically and to be part of an electrophoretic mixture compared to high-prevalence variants. There were 209 mutations indicative of APOBEC-mediated G-to-A editing and 326 mutations nonpolymorphic treatment selected. Identification of viruses with a high number of APOBEC-associated mutations will facilitate the quality control of dried blood spot sequencing. Identifying sequences with a high proportion of rare mutations will facilitate the quality control of NGS. IMPORTANCE Most antiretroviral drugs target three HIV-1 proteins: PR, RT, and IN. These proteins are highly variable: many different amino acids can be present at the same position in viruses from different individuals. Some of the amino acid variants cause drug

  17. Selection of multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants that encode viral proteases with decreased sensitivity to an inhibitor of the viral protease.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, A H; Michael, S F; Wehbie, R S; Knigge, M F; Paul, D A; Everitt, L; Kempf, D J; Norbeck, D W; Erickson, J W; Swanstrom, R

    1994-01-01

    Inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease represent a promising addition to the available agents used to inhibit virus replication in a therapeutic setting. HIV-1 is capable of generating phenotypic variants in the face of a variety of selective pressures. The potential to generate variants with reduced sensitivity to a protease inhibitor was examined by selecting for virus growth in cell culture in the presence of the protease inhibitor A-77003. Virus variants grew out in the presence of the inhibitor, and these variants encoded proteases with reduced sensitivity to the inhibitor. Variants were identified that encoded changes in each of the three subsites of the protease that interact with the inhibitor. HIV-1 displays significant potential for altering its interaction with this protease inhibitor, suggesting the need for multiple protease inhibitors with varying specificities. Images PMID:8202533

  18. Synthetic "interface" peptides alter dimeric assembly of the HIV 1 and 2 proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Babé, L. M.; Rosé, J.; Craik, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Retroviral proteases are obligate homodimers and play an essential role in the viral life cycle. Dissociation of dimers or prevention of their assembly may inactivate these enzymes and prevent viral maturation. A salient structural feature of these enzymes is an extended interface composed of interdigitating N- and C-terminal residues of both monomers, which form a four-stranded beta-sheet. Peptides mimicking one beta-strand (residues 95-99), or two beta-strands (residues 1-5 plus 95-99 or 95-99 plus 95-99) from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1) interface were shown to inhibit the HIV1 and 2 proteases (PRs) with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These interface peptides show cognate enzyme preference and do not inhibit pepsin, renin, or the Rous sarcoma virus PR, indicating a degree of specificity for the HIV PRs. A tethered HIV1 PR dimer was not inhibited to the same extent as the wild-type enzymes by any of the interface peptides, suggesting that these peptides can only interact effectively with the interface of the two-subunit HIV PR. Measurements of relative dissociation constants by limit dilution of the enzyme show that the one-strand peptide causes a shift in the observed Kd for the HIV1 PR. Both one- and two-strand peptides alter the monomer/dimer equilibrium of both HIV1 and HIV2 PRs. This was shown by the reduced cross-linking of the HIV2 PR by disuccinimidyl suberate in the presence of the interface peptides. Refolding of the HIV1 and HIV2 PRs with the interface peptides shows that only the two-strand peptides prevent the assembly of active PR dimers. Although both one- and two-strand peptides seem to affect dimer dissociation, only the two-strand peptides appear to block assembly. The latter may prove to be more effective backbones for the design of inhibitors directed toward retroviral PR dimerization in vivo. PMID:1338945

  19. An efficient procedure for the expression and purification of HIV-1 protease from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong-Loan Thi; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Vu, Quy Thi; Le, Hang Thi; Pham, Yen; Trinh, Phuong Le; Bui, Thuan Phuong; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have focused on HIV-1 protease for developing drugs for treating AIDS. Recombinant HIV-1 protease is used to screen new drugs from synthetic compounds or natural substances. However, large-scale expression and purification of this enzyme is difficult mainly because of its low expression and solubility. In this study, we constructed 9 recombinant plasmids containing a sequence encoding HIV-1 protease along with different fusion tags and examined the expression of the enzyme from these plasmids. Of the 9 plasmids, pET32a(+) plasmid containing the HIV-1 protease-encoding sequence along with sequences encoding an autocleavage site GTVSFNF at the N-terminus and TEV plus 6× His tag at the C-terminus showed the highest expression of the enzyme and was selected for further analysis. The recombinant protein was isolated from inclusion bodies by using 2 tandem Q- and Ni-Sepharose columns. SDS-PAGE of the obtained HIV-1 protease produced a single band of approximately 13 kDa. The enzyme was recovered efficiently (4 mg protein/L of cell culture) and had high specific activity of 1190 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) at an optimal pH of 4.7 and optimal temperature of 37 °C. This procedure for expressing and purifying HIV-1 protease is now being scaled up to produce the enzyme on a large scale for its application.

  20. Anti-HIV-1 protease- and HIV-1 integrase activities of Thai medicinal plants known as Hua-Khao-Yen.

    PubMed

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Itharat, Arunporn; Rattanasuwan, Pranee

    2006-04-21

    Ethanolic- and water extracts from five species of Thai medicinal plants known as Hua-Khao-Yen were tested for their inhibitory effects against HIV-1 protease (HIV-PR) and HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN). The result revealed that the ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Smilax corbularia exhibited anti-HIV-1 IN activity with an IC50 value of 1.9 microg/ml, followed by the water extract of Dioscorea birmanica (IC50 = 4.5 microg/ml), the EtOH extract of Dioscorea birmanica (IC50 = 4.7 microg/ml), the water extract of Smilax corbularia (IC50 = 5.4 microg/ml), the EtOH extract of Smilax glabra (IC50 = 6.7 microg/ml) and the water extract of Smilax glabra (IC50 = 8.5 microg/ml). The extracts of Pygmaeopremna herbacea and Dioscorea membranacea were apparently inactive (IC50 > 100 microg/ml). Interestingly, only the EtOH extract of Dioscorea membranacea showed appreciable activity (IC50 = 48 microg/ml) against HIV-1 PR, while the other extracts possessed mild activity. This result strongly supported the basis for the use of Smilax corbularia and Dioscorea membranacea for AIDS treatment by Thai traditional doctors. PMID:16406414

  1. Evolution under Drug Pressure Remodels the Folding Free-Energy Landscape of Mature HIV-1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Louis, John M; Roche, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, we investigate the folding landscape of the mature HIV-1 protease homodimer. The cooperativity of unfolding was measured in the absence or presence of a symmetric active site inhibitor for the optimized wild type protease (PR), its inactive variant PRD25N, and an extremely multidrug-resistant mutant, PR20. The individual fit of the pressure denaturation profiles gives rise to first order, ∆GNMR, and second order, ∆VNMR (the derivative of ∆GNMR with pressure); apparent thermodynamic parameters for each amide proton considered. Heterogeneity in the apparent ∆VNMR values reflects departure from an ideal cooperative unfolding transition. The narrow to broad distribution of ∆VNMR spanning the extremes from inhibitor-free PR20D25N to PR-DMP323 complex, and distinctively for PRD25N-DMP323 complex, indicated large variations in folding cooperativity. Consistent with this data, the shape of thermal unfolding transitions varies from asymmetric for PR to nearly symmetric for PR20, as dimer-inhibitor ternary complexes. Lack of structural cooperativity was observed between regions located close to the active site, including the hinge and tip of the glycine-rich flaps, and the rest of the protein. These results strongly suggest that inhibitor binding drastically decreases the cooperativity of unfolding by trapping the closed flap conformation in a deep energy minimum. To evade this conformational trap, PR20 evolves exhibiting a smoother folding landscape with nearly an ideal two-state (cooperative) unfolding transition. This study highlights the malleability of retroviral protease folding pathways by illustrating how the selection of mutations under drug pressure remodels the free-energy landscape as a primary mechanism. PMID:27170547

  2. Evolution under Drug Pressure Remodels the Folding Free-Energy Landscape of Mature HIV-1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Louis, John M; Roche, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, we investigate the folding landscape of the mature HIV-1 protease homodimer. The cooperativity of unfolding was measured in the absence or presence of a symmetric active site inhibitor for the optimized wild type protease (PR), its inactive variant PRD25N, and an extremely multidrug-resistant mutant, PR20. The individual fit of the pressure denaturation profiles gives rise to first order, ∆GNMR, and second order, ∆VNMR (the derivative of ∆GNMR with pressure); apparent thermodynamic parameters for each amide proton considered. Heterogeneity in the apparent ∆VNMR values reflects departure from an ideal cooperative unfolding transition. The narrow to broad distribution of ∆VNMR spanning the extremes from inhibitor-free PR20D25N to PR-DMP323 complex, and distinctively for PRD25N-DMP323 complex, indicated large variations in folding cooperativity. Consistent with this data, the shape of thermal unfolding transitions varies from asymmetric for PR to nearly symmetric for PR20, as dimer-inhibitor ternary complexes. Lack of structural cooperativity was observed between regions located close to the active site, including the hinge and tip of the glycine-rich flaps, and the rest of the protein. These results strongly suggest that inhibitor binding drastically decreases the cooperativity of unfolding by trapping the closed flap conformation in a deep energy minimum. To evade this conformational trap, PR20 evolves exhibiting a smoother folding landscape with nearly an ideal two-state (cooperative) unfolding transition. This study highlights the malleability of retroviral protease folding pathways by illustrating how the selection of mutations under drug pressure remodels the free-energy landscape as a primary mechanism.

  3. HIV-1 Protease Dimerization Dynamics Reveals a Transient Druggable Binding Pocket at the Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pietrucci, Fabio; Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Kranjc, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The binding mechanism of HIV-1 protease monomers leading to the catalytically competent dimeric enzyme has been investigated by means of state-of-the-art atomistic simulations. The emerging picture allows a deeper understanding of experimental observations and reveals that water molecules trapped at the interface have an important role in slowing down the kinetics of the association process. Unexpectedly, a cryptic binding pocket is identified at the interface of the complex, corresponding to a partially bound dimer that lacks enzymatic function. The pocket has a transient nature with a lifetime longer than 1 μs, and it displays very favorable druggability features. Docking as well as MM-GBSA free-energy calculations further support the possibility to target the new binding site by means of inhibitors able to prevent the complete dimerization by capturing the inactive conformation. This discovery could open the way to the rational design of a new class of anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26692118

  4. HIV-1 Protease Dimerization Dynamics Reveals a Transient Druggable Binding Pocket at the Interface.

    PubMed

    Pietrucci, Fabio; Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Kranjc, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The binding mechanism of HIV-1 protease monomers leading to the catalytically competent dimeric enzyme has been investigated by means of state-of-the-art atomistic simulations. The emerging picture allows a deeper understanding of experimental observations and reveals that water molecules trapped at the interface have an important role in slowing down the kinetics of the association process. Unexpectedly, a cryptic binding pocket is identified at the interface of the complex, corresponding to a partially bound dimer that lacks enzymatic function. The pocket has a transient nature with a lifetime longer than 1 μs, and it displays very favorable druggability features. Docking as well as MM-GBSA free-energy calculations further support the possibility to target the new binding site by means of inhibitors able to prevent the complete dimerization by capturing the inactive conformation. This discovery could open the way to the rational design of a new class of anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26692118

  5. Four Amino Acid Changes in HIV-2 Protease Confer Class-Wide Sensitivity to Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protease is essential for retroviral replication, and protease inhibitors (PI) are important for treating HIV infection. HIV-2 exhibits intrinsic resistance to most FDA-approved HIV-1 PI, retaining clinically useful susceptibility only to lopinavir, darunavir, and saquinavir. The mechanisms for this resistance are unclear; although HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share just 38 to 49% sequence identity, all critical structural features of proteases are conserved. Structural studies have implicated four amino acids in the ligand-binding pocket (positions 32, 47, 76, and 82). We constructed HIV-2ROD9 molecular clones encoding the corresponding wild-type HIV-1 amino acids (I32V, V47I, M76L, and I82V) either individually or together (clone PRΔ4) and compared the phenotypic sensitivities (50% effective concentration [EC50]) of mutant and wild-type viruses to nine FDA-approved PI. Single amino acid replacements I32V, V47I, and M76L increased the susceptibility of HIV-2 to multiple PI, but no single change conferred class-wide sensitivity. In contrast, clone PRΔ4 showed PI susceptibility equivalent to or greater than that of HIV-1 for all PI. We also compared crystallographic structures of wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases complexed with amprenavir and darunavir to models of the PRΔ4 enzyme. These models suggest that the amprenavir sensitivity of PRΔ4 is attributable to stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the P2 and P2′ pockets of the protease dimer. Together, our results show that the combination of four amino acid changes in HIV-2 protease confer a pattern of PI susceptibility comparable to that of HIV-1, providing a structural rationale for intrinsic HIV-2 PI resistance and resolving long-standing questions regarding the determinants of differential PI susceptibility in HIV-1 and HIV-2. IMPORTANCE Proteases are essential for retroviral replication, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share a great deal of structural similarity. However, only three of nine

  6. Purification and characterization of naturally occurring HIV-1 (South African subtype C) protease mutants from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Sibusiso B; Natarajan, Satheesh; Sharma, Vikas; Bhattacharyya, Neelakshi; Govender, Thavendran; Sayed, Yasien; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lin, Johnson; Kruger, Hendrik G

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa represent about 56% of global infections. Many studies have targeted HIV-1 protease for the development of drugs against AIDS. Recombinant HIV-1 protease is used to screen new drugs from synthetic compounds or natural substances. Along with the wild type (C-SA) we also over-expressed and characterized two mutant forms from patients that had shown resistance to protease inhibitors. Using recombinant DNA technology, we constructed three recombinant plasmids in pGEX-6P-1 and expressed them containing a sequence encoding wild type HIV protease and two mutants (I36T↑T contains 100 amino acids and L38L↑N↑L contains 101 amino acids). These recombinant proteins were isolated from inclusion bodies by using QFF anion exchange and GST trap columns. In SDS-PAGE, we obtained these HIV proteases as single bands of approximately 11.5, 11.6 and 11.7 kDa for the wild type, I36T↑Tand L38L↑N↑L mutants, respectively. The enzyme was recovered efficiently (0.25 mg protein/L of Escherichia coli culture) and had high specific activity of 2.02, 2.20 and 1.33 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) at an optimal pH of 5 and temperature of 37 °C for the wild type, I36T↑T and L38L↑N↑L, respectively. The method employed here provides an easy and rapid purification of the HIV-1(C-SA) protease from the inclusion bodies, with high yield and high specific activities.

  7. Sulfonation Pathway Inhibitors Block Reactivation of Latent HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Jeffrey P.; Godoy, Joseph; Mukim, Amey; Swann, Justine; Bruce, James W.; Ahlquist, Paul; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente; Spina, Celsa A.; Young, John A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived pools of latently infected cells are a significant barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1 infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms of reactivation from latency is needed to facilitate the development of novel therapies that address this problem. Here we show that chemical inhibitors of the sulfonation pathway prevent virus reactivation, both in latently infected J-Lat and U1 cell lines and in a primary human CD4+ T cell model of latency. In each of these models, sulfonation inhibitors decreased transcription initiation from the HIV-1 promoter. These inhibitors block transcription initiation at a step that lies downstream of nucleosome remodeling and affects RNA polymerase II recruitment to the viral promoter. These results suggest that the sulfonation pathway acts by a novel mechanism to regulate efficient virus transcription initiation during reactivation from latency, and further that augmentation of this pathway could be therapeutically useful. PMID:25310595

  8. Development of a Novel Anti-HIV-1 Agent from within: Effect of Chimeric Vpr-Containing Protease Cleavage Site Residues on Virus Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, D.; Rizvi, T. A.; Cartas, M.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Weber, I. T.; Koprowski, H.; Srinivasan, A.

    1997-04-01

    Effective antiviral agents will be of great value in controlling virus replication and delaying the onset of HIV-1-related disease symptoms. Current therapy involves the use of antiviral agents that target the enzymatic functions of the virus, resulting in the emergence of resistant viruses to these agents, thus lowering their effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we have considered the idea of developing novel agents from within HIV-1 as inhibitors of virus replication. The specificity of the Vpr protein for the HIV-1 virus particle makes it an attractive molecule for the development of antiviral agents targeting the events associated with virus maturation. We have generated chimeric Vpr proteins containing HIV-1-specific sequences added to the C terminus of Vpr. These sequences correspond to nine cleavage sites of the Gag and Gag-Pol precursors of HIV-1. The chimeric Vpr constructs were introduced into HIV-1 proviral DNA to assess their effect on virus infectivity using single- and multiple-round replication assays. The virus particles generated exhibited a variable replication pattern depending on the protease cleavage site used as a fusion partner. Interestingly, the chimeric Vpr containing the cleavage sequences from the junction of p24 and p2, 24/2, completely abolished virus infectivity. These results show that chimeric proteins generated from within HIV-1 have the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication and make ideal agents for gene therapy or intracellular immunization to treat HIV-1 infection.

  9. Development of a novel anti-HIV-1 agent from within: effect of chimeric Vpr-containing protease cleavage site residues on virus replication.

    PubMed

    Serio, D; Rizvi, T A; Cartas, M; Kalyanaraman, V S; Weber, I T; Koprowski, H; Srinivasan, A

    1997-04-01

    Effective antiviral agents will be of great value in controlling virus replication and delaying the onset of HIV-1-related disease symptoms. Current therapy involves the use of antiviral agents that target the enzymatic functions of the virus, resulting in the emergence of resistant viruses to these agents, thus lowering their effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we have considered the idea of developing novel agents from within HIV-1 as inhibitors of virus replication. The specificity of the Vpr protein for the HIV-1 virus particle makes it an attractive molecule for the development of antiviral agents targeting the events associated with virus maturation. We have generated chimeric Vpr proteins containing HIV-1-specific sequences added to the C terminus of Vpr. These sequences correspond to nine cleavage sites of the Gag and Gag-Pol precursors of HIV-1. The chimeric Vpr constructs were introduced into HIV-1 proviral DNA to assess their effect on virus infectivity using single- and multiple-round replication assays. The virus particles generated exhibited a variable replication pattern depending on the protease cleavage site used as a fusion partner. Interestingly, the chimeric Vpr containing the cleavage sequences from the junction of p24 and p2, 24/2, completely abolished virus infectivity. These results show that chimeric proteins generated from within HIV-1 have the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication and make ideal agents for gene therapy or intracellular immunization to treat HIV-1 infection.

  10. Development of a novel anti-HIV-1 agent from within: Effect of chimeric Vpr-containing protease cleavage site residues on virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Serio, D.; Rizvi, T. A.; Cartas, M.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Weber, I. T.; Koprowski, H.; Srinivasan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Effective antiviral agents will be of great value in controlling virus replication and delaying the onset of HIV-1-related disease symptoms. Current therapy involves the use of antiviral agents that target the enzymatic functions of the virus, resulting in the emergence of resistant viruses to these agents, thus lowering their effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we have considered the idea of developing novel agents from within HIV-1 as inhibitors of virus replication. The specificity of the Vpr protein for the HIV-1 virus particle makes it an attractive molecule for the development of antiviral agents targeting the events associated with virus maturation. We have generated chimeric Vpr proteins containing HIV-1-specific sequences added to the C terminus of Vpr. These sequences correspond to nine cleavage sites of the Gag and Gag–Pol precursors of HIV-1. The chimeric Vpr constructs were introduced into HIV-1 proviral DNA to assess their effect on virus infectivity using single- and multiple-round replication assays. The virus particles generated exhibited a variable replication pattern depending on the protease cleavage site used as a fusion partner. Interestingly, the chimeric Vpr containing the cleavage sequences from the junction of p24 and p2, 24/2, completely abolished virus infectivity. These results show that chimeric proteins generated from within HIV-1 have the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication and make ideal agents for gene therapy or intracellular immunization to treat HIV-1 infection. PMID:9096396

  11. Terminal Interface Conformations Modulate Dimer Stability Prior to Amino Terminal Autoprocessing of HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Sayer, Jane M.; Weber, Irene T.; Louis, John M.

    2012-04-17

    The HIV-1 protease (PR) mediates its own release (autoprocessing) from the polyprotein precursor, Gag-Pol, flanked by the transframe region (TFR) and reverse transcriptase at its N- and C-termini, respectively. Autoprocessing at the N-terminus of PR mediates stable dimer formation essential for catalytic activity, leading to the formation of infectious virus. An antiparallel {beta}-sheet interface formed by the four N- and C-terminal residues of each subunit is important for dimer stability. Here, we present the first high-resolution crystal structures of model protease precursor-clinical inhibitor (PI darunavir or saquinavir) complexes, revealing varying conformations of the N-terminal flanking (S{sup -4}FNF{sup -1}) and interface residues (P{sup 1}QIT{sup 4}). A 180{sup o} rotation of the T{sup 4}-L{sup 5} peptide bond is accompanied by a new Q{sup 2}-L{sup 5} hydrogen bond and complete disengagement of PQIT from the {beta}-sheet dimer interface, which may be a feature for intramolecular autoprocessing. This result is consistent with drastically lower thermal stability by 14-20 C of PI complexes of precursors and the mature PR lacking its PQIT residues (by 18.3 C). Similar to the TFR-PR precursor, this deletion also results in a darunavir dissociation constant (2 x 10{sup 4})-fold higher and a markedly increased dimer dissociation constant relative to the mature PR. The terminal {beta}-sheet perturbations of the dimeric structure likely account for the drastically poorer inhibition of autoprocessing of TFR-PR relative to the mature PR, even though significant differences in active site-PI interactions in these structures were not observed. The novel conformations of the dimer interface may be exploited to target selectively the protease precursor prior to its N-terminal cleavage.

  12. Cleavage of eIF4G by HIV-1 protease: effects on translation.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Carrasco, Luis; Ventoso, Iván

    2003-01-01

    We have recently reported that HIV-1 protease (PR) cleaves the initiation factor of translation eIF4GI [Ventoso et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 12966-12971]. Here, we analyze the proteolytic activity of HIV-1 PR on eIF4GI and eIF4GII and its implications for the translation of mRNAs. HIV-1 PR efficiently cleaves eIF4GI, but not eIF4GII, in cell-free systems as well as in transfected mammalian cells. This specific proteolytic activity of the retroviral protease on eIF4GI was more selective than that observed with poliovirus 2A(pro). Despite the presence of an intact endogenous eIF4GII, cleavage of eIF4GI by HIV-1 PR was sufficient to impair drastically the translation of capped and uncapped mRNAs. In contrast, poliovirus IRES-driven translation was unaffected or even enhanced by HIV-1 PR after cleavage of eIF4GI. Further support for these in vitro results has been provided by the expression of HIV-1 PR in COS cells from a Gag-PR precursor. Our present findings suggest that eIF4GI intactness is necessary to maintain cap-dependent translation, not only in cell-free systems but also in mammalian cells.

  13. Intravirion display of a peptide corresponding to the dimer structure of protease attenuates HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Cartas, M; Singh, S P; Serio, D; Rizvi, T A; Kalyanaraman, V S; Goldsmith, C S; Zaki, S R; Weber, I T; Srinivasan, A

    2001-12-01

    Current treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals involves the administration of several drugs, all of which target either the reverse transcriptase or the protease activity of the virus. Unfortunately, the benefits of such treatments are compromised by the emergence of viruses exhibiting resistance to the drugs. This situation warrants new approaches for interfering with virus replication. Considering the activation of protease in the virus particles, a novel strategy to inhibit HIV-1 replication was tested targeting the dimerization domain of the protease. To test this idea, we have selected four residues from the C terminus of HIV-1 protease that map to the dimer interface region of the enzyme. We have exploited Vpr to display the peptides in the virus particles. The chimeric Vpr exhibited expression and virion incorporation similar to wildtype Vpr. The virus derived from the HIV-1 proviral DNA containing chimeric Vpr sequences registered a reduced level of replication in CEM and CEM X 174 cells in comparison with viruses containing wildtype Vpr. Similar results were observed in a single-round replication assay. These results suggest that the intravirion display of peptides targeting viral proteins is a powerful approach for developing antiviral agents and for dissecting the dynamic interactions between structural proteins during virus assembly and disassembly.

  14. Improving Viral Protease Inhibitors to Counter Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Swanstrom, Ronald; Schiffer, Celia A

    2016-07-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in health care, undermining therapy outcomes and necessitating novel approaches to drug design. Extensive studies on resistance to viral protease inhibitors, particularly those of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease, revealed a plethora of information on the structural and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. These insights led to several strategies to improve viral protease inhibitors to counter resistance, such as exploiting the essential biological function and leveraging evolutionary constraints. Incorporation of these strategies into structure-based drug design can minimize vulnerability to resistance, not only for viral proteases but for other quickly evolving drug targets as well, toward designing inhibitors one step ahead of evolution to counter resistance with more intelligent and rational design. PMID:27090931

  15. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John T; DeGoey, David A

    2004-01-01

    There are currently (July, 2002) six protease inhibitors approved for the treatment of HIV infection, each of which can be classified as peptidomimetic in structure. These agents, when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents, produce a sustained decrease in viral load, often to levels below the limits of quantifiable detection, and a significant reconstitution of the immune system. Therapeutic regimens containing one or more HIV protease inhibitors thus provide a highly effective method for disease management. The important role of protease inhibitors in HIV therapy, combined with numerous challenges remaining in HIV treatment, have resulted in a continued effort both to optimize regimens using the existing agents and to identify new protease inhibitors that may provide unique properties. This review will provide an overview of the discovery and clinical trials of the currently approved HIV protease inhibitors, followed by an examination of important aspects of therapy, such as pharmacokinetic enhancement, resistance and side effects. A description of new peptidomimetic compounds currently being investigated in the clinic and in preclinical discovery will follow. PMID:15193140

  16. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted. PMID:27048482

  17. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted.

  18. Effect of Flap Mutations on Structure of HIV-1 Protease and Inhibition by Sanquinavir and Darunavir

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Kovalevsky, A.; Tie, Y.; Ghosh, A.; Harrison, R.; Weber, I.

    2008-08-25

    HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) protease (PR) and its mutants are important antiviral drug targets. The PR flap region is critical for binding substrates or inhibitors and catalytic activity. Hence, mutations of flap residues frequently contribute to reduced susceptibility to PR inhibitors in drug-resistant HIV. Structural and kinetic analyses were used to investigate the role of flap residues Gly48, Ile50, and Ile54 in the development of drug resistance. The crystal structure of flap mutants PR{sub I50V} (PR with I50V mutation), PR{sub I54V} (PR with I54V mutation), and PR{sub I54M} (PR with I54M mutation) complexed with saquinavir (SQV) as well as PR{sub G48V} (PR with G48V mutation), PR{sub I54V}, and PR{sub I54M} complexed with darunavir (DRV) were determined at resolutions of 1.05--1.40 {angstrom}. The PR mutants showed changes in flap conformation, interactions with adjacent residues, inhibitor binding, and the conformation of the 80s loop relative to the wild-type PR. The PR contacts with DRV were closer in PR{sub G48V}-DRV than in the wild-type PR-DRV, whereas they were longer in PR{sub I54M}-DRV. The relative inhibition of PR{sub I54V} and that of PR{sub I54M} were similar for SQV and DRV. PR{sub G48V} was about twofold less susceptible to SQV than to DRV, wheres the opposite was observed for PR{sub I50V}. The observed inhibition was in agreement with the association of G48V and I50V with clinical resistance to SQV and DRV, respectively. This analysis of structural and kinetic effects of the mutants will assist in the development of more effective inhibitors for drug-resistant HIV.

  19. Understanding the basis of I50V-induced affinity decrease in HIV-1 protease via molecular dynamics simulations using polarized force field.

    PubMed

    Duan, Rui; Lazim, Raudah; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-09-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease is one of the most promising drug target commonly utilized to combat Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). However, with the emergence of drug resistance arising from mutations, the efficiency of protease inhibitors (PIs) as a viable treatment for AIDS has been greatly reduced. I50V mutation as one of the most significant mutations occurring in HIV-1 protease will be investigated in this study. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was utilized to examine the effect of I50V mutation on the binding of two PIs namely indinavir and amprenavir to HIV-1 protease. Prior to the simulations conducted, the electron density distributions of the PI and each residue in HIV-1 protease are derived by combining quantum fragmentation approach molecular fractionation with conjugate caps and Poisson-Boltzmann solvation model based on polarized protein-specific charge scheme. The atomic charges of the binding complex are subsequently fitted using delta restrained electrostatic potential (delta-RESP) method to overcome the poor charge determination of buried atom. This way, both intraprotease polarization and the polarization between protease and the PI are incorporated into partial atomic charges. Through this study, the mutation-induced affinity variations were calculated and significant agreement between experiments and MD simulations conducted was observed for both HIV-1 protease-drug complexes. In addition, the mechanism governing the decrease in the binding affinity of PI in the presence of I50V mutation was also explored to provide insights pertaining to the design of the next generation of anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26198456

  20. Bis-Tetrahydrofuran: a Privileged Ligand for Darunavir and a New Generation of HIV Protease Inhibitors That Combat Drug Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Sridhar, Perali Ramu; Kumaragurubaran, Nagaswamy; Koh, Yasuhiro; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2008-06-06

    Two inhibitors that incorporate bis-THF as an effective high-affinity P{sub 2} ligand for the HIV-1 protease substrate binding site maintain impressive potency against mutant strains resistant to currently approved protease inhibitors. Crystallographic structures of protein-ligand complexes help to explain the superior antiviral property of these inhibitors and their potency against a wide spectrum of HIV-1 strains.

  1. Indole-based allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pratiq A; Kvaratskhelia, Nina; Mansour, Yara; Antwi, Janet; Feng, Lei; Koneru, Pratibha; Kobe, Mathew J; Jena, Nivedita; Shi, Guqin; Mohamed, Mosaad S; Li, Chenglong; Kessl, Jacques J; Fuchs, James R

    2016-10-01

    Employing a scaffold hopping approach, a series of allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) have been synthesized based on an indole scaffold. These compounds incorporate the key elements utilized in quinoline-based ALLINIs for binding to the IN dimer interface at the principal LEDGF/p75 binding pocket. The most potent of these compounds displayed good activity in the LEDGF/p75 dependent integration assay (IC50=4.5μM) and, as predicted based on the geometry of the five- versus six-membered ring, retained activity against the A128T IN mutant that confers resistance to many quinoline-based ALLINIs. PMID:27568085

  2. Screening of the Pan-African Natural Product Library Identifies Ixoratannin A-2 and Boldine as Novel HIV-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A.; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva’a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Rice, Charles M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world. PMID:25830320

  3. Screening of the Pan-African natural product library identifies ixoratannin A-2 and boldine as novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva'a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M; Rice, Charles M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world.

  4. Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pugach, Pavel; Ketas, Thomas J.; Michael, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.

    2008-08-01

    The small molecule CCR5 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for treating infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor and preventing its use during HIV-1-cell fusion. Escape mutants can be raised against CCR5 inhibitors in vitro and will arise when these drugs are used clinically. Here, we have assessed the responses of CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses to other anti-retroviral drugs that act by different mechanisms, and their sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The rationale for the latter study is that the resistance pathway for CCR5 inhibitors involves changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are also targets for NAbs. The escape mutants CC101.19 and D1/85.16 were selected for resistance to AD101 and vicriviroc (VVC), respectively, from the primary R5 HIV-1 isolate CC1/85. Each escape mutant was cross-resistant to other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors (aplaviroc, maraviroc, VVC, AD101 and CMPD 167), but sensitive to protein ligands of CCR5: the modified chemokine PSC-RANTES and the humanized MAb PRO-140. The resistant viruses also retained wild-type sensitivity to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside RTI nevirapine, the protease inhibitor atazanavir and other attachment and fusion inhibitors that act independently of CCR5 (BMS-806, PRO-542 and enfuvirtide). Of note is that the escape mutants were more sensitive than the parental CC1/85 isolate to a subset of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and to some sera from HIV-1-infected people, implying that sequence changes in Env that confer resistance to CCR5 inhibitors can increase the accessibility of some NAb epitopes. The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo.

  5. Protein conformational dynamics in the mechanism of HIV-1 protease catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Torbeev, Vladimir Yu.; Raghuraman, H.; Hamelberg, Donald; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M.; Perozo, Eduardo; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2013-09-17

    We have used chemical protein synthesis and advanced physical methods to probe dynamics-function correlations for the HIV-1 protease, an enzyme that has received considerable attention as a target for the treatment of AIDS. Chemical synthesis was used to prepare a series of unique analogues of the HIV-1 protease in which the flexibility of the 'flap' structures (residues 37-61 in each monomer of the homodimeric protein molecule) was systematically varied. These analogue enzymes were further studied by X-ray crystallography, NMR relaxation, and pulse-EPR methods, in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations. We show that conformational isomerization in the flaps is correlated with structural reorganization of residues in the active site, and that it is preorganization of the active site that is a rate-limiting factor in catalysis.

  6. The molecular evolution of HIV-1 protease simulated at atomic detail.

    PubMed

    Tiana, G; Broglia, R A

    2009-09-01

    Progress in understanding protein folding allows to simulate, with atomic detail, the evolution of amino-acid sequences folding to a given native conformation. A particularly attractive example is the HIV-1 protease, main target of therapies to fight AIDS, which under drug pressure is able to develop resistance within few months from the starting of therapy. By comparing the results of simulations of the evolution of the protease with the corresponding proteomic data, one can approximately determine the value of the associated evolution pressure under which the enzyme has become and, as a consequence, map out the energy landscape in sequence space of the HIV-1 protease. It is found that there are several families of sequences folding to the native conformations of the enzyme. Each of these families are characterized by different sets of highly conserved ("hot") amino acids which play a critical role in the folding and stability of the protease. There are two main possibilities for the virus to move from one family to a different one: (a) in a single generation, through the concerted mutations of the hot amino acids, a highly unlikely event, (b) through a folding path (if it exists), again a very improbable event. In fact, the number of generations needed by the virus to change stepwise its sequence from one family to another is astronomically large. These results point to the "hot" segments of the protease as promising targets for a nonconventional inhibition strategy, likely not to create resistance.

  7. Interpretation of protein/ligand crystal structure using QM/MM calculations: case of HIV-1 protease/metallacarborane complex.

    PubMed

    Fanfrlík, Jindrich; Brynda, Jirí; Rezác, Jan; Hobza, Pavel; Lepsík, Martin

    2008-11-27

    Deltahedral metallacarborane compounds have recently been discovered as potent, specific, stable, and nontoxic inhibitors of HIV-1 protease (PR), the major target for AIDS therapy. The 2.15 A-resolution X-ray structure has exhibited a nonsymmetrical binding of the parental compound [Co(3+)-(C2B9H11)2](-) (GB-18) into PR dimer and a symmetrical arrangement in the crystal of two PR dimer complexes into a tetramer. In order to explore structural and energetic details of the inhibitor binding, quantum mechanics coupled with molecular mechanics approach was utilized. Realizing the close positioning of anionic inhibitors in the active site cavity, the possibility of an exchange of structural water molecules Wat50 and Wat128 by Na+ counterions was studied. The energy profiles for the rotation of the GB-18 molecules along their longitudinal axes in complex with PR were calculated. The results show that two Na+ counterions are present in the active site cavity and provide energetically favorable and unfavorable positions for carbon atoms within the carborane cages. Eighty-one rotamer combinations of four molecules of GB-18 bound to PR out of 4 x 10(5) are predicted to be highly populated. These results lay ground for further calculations of interaction energies between GB-18 and amino acids of PR active site and will make it possible to interpret computationally the binding of similar metallacarborane molecules to PR as well as to resistant PR variants. Moreover, this computational tool will allow the design of new, more potent metallacarborane-based HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  8. RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Is Inhibited in HIV-1 Infection by a Protease-Mediated Sequestration of RIG-I▿

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Mayra; Nakhaei, Peyman; Jalalirad, Mohammad; Lacoste, Judith; Douville, Renée; Arguello, Meztli; Zhao, Tiejun; Laughrea, Michael; Wainberg, Mark A.; Hiscott, John

    2011-01-01

    The rapid induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential for establishing innate antiviral responses. During infection, cytoplasmic viral RNA is sensed by two DExD/H box RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, ultimately driving IFN production. Here, we demonstrate that purified genomic RNA from HIV-1 induces a RIG-I-dependent type I IFN response. Both the dimeric and monomeric forms of HIV-1 were sensed by RIG-I, but not MDA5, with monomeric RNA, usually found in defective HIV-1 particles, acting as a better inducer of IFN than dimeric RNA. However, despite the presence of HIV-1 RNA in the de novo infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 replication did not lead to a substantial induction of IFN signaling. We demonstrate the existence of an evasion mechanism based on the inhibition of the RIG-I sensor through the action of the HIV-1 protease (PR). Indeed, the ectopic expression of PR resulted in the inhibition of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) phosphorylation and decreased expression of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes. A downregulation of cytoplasmic RIG-I levels occurred in cells undergoing a single-cycle infection with wild-type provirus BH10 but not in cells transfected with a protease-deficient provirus, BH10-PR−. Cellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RIG-I translocated from the cytosol to an insoluble fraction during the de novo HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, in the presence of PR. The loss of cytoplasmic RIG-I was prevented by the lysosomal inhibitor E64, suggesting that PR targets RIG-I to the lysosomes. This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. PMID:21084468

  9. HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jose-Luis; Varghese, Vici; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Gatell, Jose M; Shafer, Robert W

    2011-05-01

    With the approval in 2007 of the first integrase inhibitor (INI), raltegravir, clinicians became better able to suppress virus replication in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who were harboring many of the most highly drug-resistant viruses. Raltegravir also provided clinicians with additional options for first-line therapy and for the simplification of regimens in patients with stable virological suppression. Two additional INIs in advanced clinical development-elvitegravir and S/GSK1349572-may prove equally versatile. However, the INIs have a relatively low genetic barrier to resistance in that 1 or 2 mutations are capable of causing marked reductions in susceptibility to raltegravir and elvitegravir, the most well-studied INIs. This perspective reviews the genetic mechanisms of INI resistance and their implications for initial INI therapy, the treatment of antiretroviral-experienced patients, and regimen simplification.

  10. A small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the HIV-1 envelope and inhibits CD4 receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Blair, Wade; Wang, Tao; Spicer, Timothy; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Nannan; Gong, Yi-Fei; Wang, H.-G. Heidi; Rose, Ronald; Yamanaka, Gregory; Robinson, Brett; Li, Chang-Ben; Fridell, Robert; Deminie, Carol; Demers, Gwendeline; Yang, Zheng; Zadjura, Lisa; Meanwell, Nicholas; Colonno, Richard

    2003-01-01

    BMS-378806 is a recently discovered small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor that blocks viral entrance to cells. The compound exhibits potent inhibitory activity against a panel of R5-(virus using the CCR5 coreceptor), X4-(virus using the CXCR4 coreceptor), and R5/X4 HIV-1 laboratory and clinical isolates of the B subtype (median EC50 of 0.04 μM) in culture assays. BMS-378806 is selective for HIV-1 and inactive against HIV-2, SIV and a panel of other viruses, and exhibits no significant cytotoxicity in the 14 cell types tested (concentration for 50% reduction of cell growth, >225 μM). Mechanism of action studies demonstrated that BMS-378806 binds to gp120 and inhibits the interactions of the HIV-1 envelope protein to cellular CD4 receptors. Further confirmation that BMS-378806 targets the envelope in infected cells was obtained through the isolation of resistant variants and the mapping of resistance substitutions to the HIV-1 envelope. In particular, two substitutions, M426L and M475I, are situated in the CD4 binding pocket of gp120. Recombinant HIV-1 carrying these two substitutions demonstrated significantly reduced susceptibility to compound inhibition. BMS-378806 displays many favorable pharmacological traits, such as low protein binding, minimal human serum effect on anti-HIV-1 potency, good oral bioavailability in animal species, and a clean safety profile in initial animal toxicology studies. Together, the data show that BMS-378806 is a representative of a new class of HIV inhibitors that has the potential to become a valued addition to our current armamentarium of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:12930892

  11. Molecular modeling studies suggest that zinc ions inhibit HIV-1 protease by binding at catalytic aspartates.

    PubMed Central

    York, D M; Darden, T A; Pedersen, L G; Anderson, M W

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease is inhibited in vitro by zinc ions at neutral pH. The binding site of these ions is not known; however, experimental data suggest that binding may occur in the active site. To examine the possibility of zinc binding in the active site, molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of zinc have been carried out to 200 psec. The results are compared with the 2.8-A crystallographic structures of a synthetic HIV-1 protease, and a zinc binding site at the catalytic aspartate residues (Asp-25, Asp-25') is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the zinc ion remains stably bound in this region, coordinating the carboxylate side chains of both aspartate residues. Interaction with zinc does not disrupt the dimeric structure of the protein or significantly alter the structure of the active site. These data are consistent with experimental studies of HIV-1 protease inhibition by zinc and give strong evidence that this is the binding site that leads to inactivation. Images p246-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8404763

  12. Insights into the structural function of the complex of HIV-1 protease with TMC-126: molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dan; Han, Ju-Guang; Chen, Hang; Li, Liang; Zhao, Run-Ning Zhao; Liu, Guang; Duan, Yuhua

    2012-05-01

    The binding properties of the protein-inhibitor complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease with the inhibitor TMC-126 are investigated by combining computational alanine scanning (CAS) mutagenesis with binding free-energy decomposition (BFED). The calculated results demonstrate that the flap region (residues 38-58) and the active site region (residues 23-32) in HIV-1 protease contribute 63.72% of the protease to the binding of the inhibitor. In particular, the mechanisms for the interactions of key residues of these species are fully explored and analyzed. Interestingly, the regression analyses show that both CAS and BFED based on the generalized Born model yield similar results, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. However, compared to CAS, BFED is faster and can decompose the per-residue binding free-energy contributions into backbone and sidechain contributions. The results obtained in this study are useful for studying the binding mechanism between receptor and ligand and for designing potent inhibitors that can combat diseases.

  13. Dynamical Network of HIV-1 Protease Mutants Reveals the Mechanism of Drug Resistance and Unhindered Activity.

    PubMed

    Appadurai, Rajeswari; Senapati, Sanjib

    2016-03-15

    HIV-1 protease variants resist drugs by active and non-active-site mutations. The active-site mutations, which are the primary or first set of mutations, hamper the stability of the enzyme and resist the drugs minimally. As a result, secondary mutations that not only increase protein stability for unhindered catalytic activity but also resist drugs very effectively arise. While the mechanism of drug resistance of the active-site mutations is through modulating the active-site pocket volume, the mechanism of drug resistance of the non-active-site mutations is unclear. Moreover, how these allosteric mutations, which are 8-21 Å distant, communicate to the active site for drug efflux is completely unexplored. Results from molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the primary mechanism of drug resistance of the secondary mutations involves opening of the flexible protease flaps. Results from both residue- and community-based network analyses reveal that this precise action of protease is accomplished by the presence of robust communication paths between the mutational sites and the functionally relevant regions: active site and flaps. While the communication is more direct in the wild type, it traverses across multiple intermediate residues in mutants, leading to weak signaling and unregulated motions of flaps. The global integrity of the protease network is, however, maintained through the neighboring residues, which exhibit high degrees of conservation, consistent with clinical data and mutagenesis studies. PMID:26892689

  14. New, potent P1/P2-morpholinone-based HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Furfine, Eric; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Wright, Lois L

    2006-10-01

    We have developed efficient synthesis of morpholinone-based cyclic mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor Amprenavir. This effort led to discovery of allyl- and spiro-cyclopropyl-P2-substituted inhibitors 17 and 31, both 500 times more potent than the parent inhibitor 1. These results support morpholinones as novel mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of Amprenavir and potentially of other HIV-protease inhibitors, and thus provide a novel medicinal chemistry template for optimization toward more potent and drug-like inhibitors. PMID:16904316

  15. Crystal structures of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-07-01

    HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potentially specific and effective drugs in AIDS therapy. The presence of two aromatic systems with an angled orientation in the molecule of the inhibitor is crucial for interactions with HIV-1 RT. The inhibitor drives like a wedge into the cluster of aromatic residues of RT HIV-1 and restrains the enzyme in a conformation that blocks the chemical step of nucleotide incorporation. Structural studies provide useful information for designing new, more active inhibitors. The crystal structures of four NNRTIs are presented here. The investigated compounds are derivatives of N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazole with various aliphatic and aromatic substituents at carbon 2 positions and a 2,6-dihalogeno-substituted N-benzyl moiety. Structural data reported here show that the conformation of the investigated compounds is relatively rigid. Such feature is important for the nonnucleoside inhibitor binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  16. Characterization, biomedical and agricultural applications of protease inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-10-01

    This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc. They prevent an ongoing process begun by carcinogen exposure by keeping a check on metastasis. They also possess potential to reduce carcinogen-induced, increased levels of gene amplification to almost normal levels. Some PIs can principally be used for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure by blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II for example Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Also PIs target amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) level in brain which is prime responsible for development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Also, PIs inhibit enzymatic activity of HIV-1 Protease Receptor (PR) by preventing cleavage events in Gag and Gag-Pol that result in production of non-virulent virus particles.

  17. Characterization, biomedical and agricultural applications of protease inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-10-01

    This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc. They prevent an ongoing process begun by carcinogen exposure by keeping a check on metastasis. They also possess potential to reduce carcinogen-induced, increased levels of gene amplification to almost normal levels. Some PIs can principally be used for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure by blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II for example Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Also PIs target amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) level in brain which is prime responsible for development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Also, PIs inhibit enzymatic activity of HIV-1 Protease Receptor (PR) by preventing cleavage events in Gag and Gag-Pol that result in production of non-virulent virus particles. PMID:26955746

  18. Structure of the Unbound Form of HIV-1 Subtype A Protease: Comparison with Unbound Forms of Proteases from other HIV Subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Arthur H.; Coman, Roxana M.; Bracho-Sanchez, Edith; Fernandez, Marty A.; Gilliland, C.Taylor; Li, Mi; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dunn, Ben M.; McKenna, Robert

    2010-03-12

    The crystal structure of the unbound form of HIV-1 subtype A protease (PR) has been determined to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution and refined as a homodimer in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1} to an R{sub cryst} of 20.5%. The structure is similar in overall shape and fold to the previously determined subtype B, C and F PRs. The major differences lie in the conformation of the flap region. The flaps in the crystal structures of the unbound subtype B and C PRs, which were crystallized in tetragonal space groups, are either semi-open or wide open. In the present structure of subtype A PR the flaps are found in the closed position, a conformation that would be more anticipated in the structure of HIV protease complexed with an inhibitor. The amino-acid differences between the subtypes and their respective crystal space groups are discussed in terms of the differences in the flap conformations.

  19. Akt inhibitors as an HIV-1 infected macrophage-specific anti-viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Pauline; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Monteiro-Filho, Carlos MR; Planelles, Vicente; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Dewhurst, Stephen; Kim, Baek

    2008-01-01

    Background Unlike CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 infected macrophages exhibit extended life span even upon stress, consistent with their in vivo role as long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs. Results Here, we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt inhibitors, including clinically available Miltefosine, dramatically reduced HIV-1 production from long-living virus-infected macrophages. These PI3K/Akt inhibitors hyper-sensitize infected macrophages to extracellular stresses that they are normally exposed to, and eventually lead to cell death of infected macrophages without harming uninfected cells. Based on the data from these Akt inhibitors, we were able to further investigate how HIV-1 infection utilizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to establish the cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 infection, which extends the lifespan of infected macrophages, a key viral reservoir. First, we found that HIV-1 infection activates the well characterized pro-survival PI3K/Akt pathway in primary human macrophages, as reflected by decreased PTEN protein expression and increased Akt kinase activity. Interestingly, the expression of HIV-1 or SIV Tat is sufficient to mediate this cytoprotective effect, which is dependent on the basic domain of Tat – a region that has previously been shown to bind p53. Next, we observed that this interaction appears to contribute to the downregulation of PTEN expression, since HIV-1 Tat was found to compete with PTEN for p53 binding; this is known to result in p53 destabilization, with a consequent reduction in PTEN protein production. Conclusion Since HIV-1 infected macrophages display highly elevated Akt activity, our results collectively show that PI3K/Akt inhibitors may be a novel therapy for interfering with the establishment of long-living HIV-1 infected reservoirs. PMID:18237430

  20. Molecular dynamics studies on HIV-1 protease drug resistance and folding pathways.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, F; Micheletti, C; Carloni, P; Maritan, A

    2001-06-01

    Drug resistance to HIV-1 protease involves the accumulation of multiple mutations in the protein. We investigate the role of these mutations by using molecular dynamics simulations that exploit the influence of the native-state topology in the folding process. Our calculations show that sites contributing to phenotypic resistance of FDA-approved drugs are among the most sensitive positions for the stability of partially folded states and should play a relevant role in the folding process. Furthermore, associations between amino acid sites mutating under drug treatment are shown to be statistically correlated. The striking correlation between clinical data and our calculations suggest a novel approach to the design of drugs tailored to bind regions crucial not only for protein function, but for folding as well.

  1. Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV integrase.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W E; Reinecke, M G; Abdel-Malek, S; Jia, Q; Chow, S A

    1996-01-01

    HIV-1 replication depends on the viral enzyme integrase that mediates integration of a DNA copy of the virus into the host cell genome. This enzyme represents a novel target to which antiviral agents might be directed. Three compounds, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1-methoxyoxalyl-3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and L-chicoric acid, inhibit HIV-1 integrase in biochemical assays at concentrations ranging from 0.06-0.66 microgram/ml; furthermore, these compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture at 1-4 microgram/ml. The toxic concentrations of these compounds are fully 100-fold greater than their antiviral concentrations. These compounds represent a potentially important new class of antiviral agents that may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral integration. Thus, the dicaffeoylquinic acids are promising leads to new anti-HIV therapeutics and offer a significant advance in the search for new HIV enzyme targets as they are both specific for HIV-1 integrase and active against HIV-1 in tissue culture. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8692814

  2. QSAR prediction of HIV-1 protease inhibitory activities using docking derived molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Mohammad H; Heidari, Afsane; Gharaghani, Sajjad

    2015-03-21

    In this study, application of a new hybrid docking-quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) methodology to model and predict the HIV-1 protease inhibitory activities of a series of newly synthesized chemicals is reported. This hybrid docking-QSAR approach can provide valuable information about the most important chemical and structural features of the ligands that affect their inhibitory activities. Docking studies were used to find the actual conformations of chemicals in active site of HIV-1 protease. Then the molecular descriptors were calculated from these conformations. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) were used as QSAR models, respectively. The obtained results reveal that statistical parameters of the LS-SVM model are better than the MLR model, which indicate that there are some non-linear relations between selected molecular descriptors and anti-HIV activities of interested chemicals. The correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE) and average absolute error (AAE) for LS-SVM are: R=0.988, RMSE=0.207 and AAE=0.145 for the training set, and R=0.965, RMSE=0.403 and AAE=0.338 for the test set. Leave one out cross validation test was used for assessment of the predictive power and validity of models which led to cross-validation correlation coefficient QUOTE of 0.864 and 0.850 and standardized predicted relative error sum of squares (SPRESS) of 0.553 and 0.581 for LS-SVM and MLR models, respectively.

  3. Mechanism of Drug Resistance Revealed by the Crystal Structure of the Unliganded HIV-1 Protease with F53L Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fengling; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Louis, John M.; Boross, Peter I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2010-12-03

    Mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) that produce resistance to antiviral PR inhibitors are a major problem in AIDS therapy. The mutation F53L arising from antiretroviral therapy was introduced into the flexible flap region of the wild-type PR to study its effect and potential role in developing drug resistance. Compared to wild-type PR, PR{sub F53L} showed lower (15%) catalytic efficiency, 20-fold weaker inhibition by the clinical drug indinavir, and reduced dimer stability, while the inhibition constants of two peptide analog inhibitors were slightly lower than those for PR. The crystal structure of PR{sub F53L} was determined in the unliganded form at 1.35 {angstrom} resolution in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The tips of the flaps in PR{sub F53L} had a wider separation than in unliganded wild-type PR, probably due to the absence of hydrophobic interactions of the side-chains of Phe53 and Ile50{prime}. The changes in interactions between the flaps agreed with the reduced stability of PR{sub F53L} relative to wild-type PR. The altered flap interactions in the unliganded form of PR{sub F53L} suggest a distinct mechanism for drug resistance, which has not been observed in other common drug-resistant mutants.

  4. The BET inhibitor OTX015 reactivates latent HIV-1 through P-TEFb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panpan; Qu, Xiying; Shen, Yinzhong; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Pengfei; Zeng, Hanxian; Ji, Haiyan; Deng, Junxiao; Yang, Xinyi; Li, Xian; Lu, Hongzhou; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2016-01-01

    None of the currently used anti-HIV-1 agents can effectively eliminate latent HIV-1 reservoirs, which is a major hurdle to a complete cure for AIDS. We report here that a novel oral BET inhibitor OTX015, a thienotriazolodiazepine compound that has entered phase Ib clinical development for advanced hematologic malignancies, can effectively reactivate HIV-1 in different latency models with an EC50 value 1.95-4.34 times lower than JQ1, a known BET inhibitor that can reactivate HIV-1 latency. We also found that OTX015 was more potent when used in combination with prostratin. More importantly, OTX015 treatment induced HIV-1 full-length transcripts and viral outgrowth in resting CD4(+) T cells from infected individuals receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), while exerting minimal toxicity and effects on T cell activation. Finally, biochemical analysis showed that OTX015-mediated activation of HIV-1 involved an increase in CDK9 occupancy and RNAP II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the BET inhibitor OTX015 may be a candidate for anti-HIV-1-latency therapies. PMID:27067814

  5. The BET inhibitor OTX015 reactivates latent HIV-1 through P-TEFb

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Panpan; Qu, Xiying; Shen, Yinzhong; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Pengfei; Zeng, Hanxian; Ji, Haiyan; Deng, Junxiao; Yang, Xinyi; Li, Xian; Lu, Hongzhou; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2016-01-01

    None of the currently used anti-HIV-1 agents can effectively eliminate latent HIV-1 reservoirs, which is a major hurdle to a complete cure for AIDS. We report here that a novel oral BET inhibitor OTX015, a thienotriazolodiazepine compound that has entered phase Ib clinical development for advanced hematologic malignancies, can effectively reactivate HIV-1 in different latency models with an EC50 value 1.95–4.34 times lower than JQ1, a known BET inhibitor that can reactivate HIV-1 latency. We also found that OTX015 was more potent when used in combination with prostratin. More importantly, OTX015 treatment induced HIV-1 full-length transcripts and viral outgrowth in resting CD4+ T cells from infected individuals receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), while exerting minimal toxicity and effects on T cell activation. Finally, biochemical analysis showed that OTX015-mediated activation of HIV-1 involved an increase in CDK9 occupancy and RNAP II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the BET inhibitor OTX015 may be a candidate for anti-HIV-1-latency therapies. PMID:27067814

  6. HIV Protease Inhibitors and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Anuurad, Erdembileg; Bremer, Andrew; Berglund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the current scientific literature and recent clinical trials on HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and their potential role in the pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic disorders. Recent findings HIV PI treatment may affect the normal stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose and fat storage. Further, chronic inflammation from HIV infection and PI treatment trigger cellular homeostatic stress responses with adverse effects on intermediary metabolism. The physiologic outcome is such that total adipocyte storage capacity is decreased, and the remaining adipocytes resist further fat storage. This process leads to a pathologic cycle of lipodystrophy and lipotoxicity, a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, and a clinical phenotype of increased central body fat distribution similar to the metabolic syndrome. Summary PIs are a key component of antiretroviral therapy and have dramatically improved the life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals. However, they are also associated with abnormalities in glucose/lipid metabolism and body fat distribution. Further studies are needed to better define the pathogenesis of PI-associated metabolic and body fat changes and their potential treatment. PMID:20717021

  7. In Vitro Reactivation of Replication-Competent and Infectious HIV-1 by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Riddhima; Procopio, Francesco Andrea; Cavassini, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of long-lived HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4 T cells is thought to be the primary obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. In the search for novel therapeutic approaches that may reverse HIV-1 latency, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis) have been tested to reactivate HIV-1 replication with the objective of rendering HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to elimination either by HIV-specific CD8 T cells or through virus-mediated cytopathicity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of HDACis to reactivate HIV-1 replication from resting memory CD4 T cells isolated from aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. We demonstrate that following prolonged/repeated treatment of resting memory CD4 T cells with HDACis, HIV-1 replication may be induced from primary resting memory CD4 T cells isolated from aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. More importantly, we demonstrate that HIV-1 reactivated in the cell cultures was not only replication competent but also infectious. Interestingly, givinostat, an HDACi that has not been investigated in clinical trials, was more efficient than vorinostat, panobinostat, and romidepsin in reversing HIV-1 latency in vitro. Taken together, these results support further evaluation of givinostat as a latency-reversing agent (LRA) in aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. IMPORTANCE The major barrier to HIV cure is the existence of long-lived latently HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4 T cells. Latently HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells are transcriptionally silent and are therefore not targeted by conventional antiretroviral therapy (ART) or the immune system. In this context, one strategy to target latently infected cells is based on pharmacological molecules that may force the virus to replicate and would therefore render HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to elimination either by HIV-specific CD8 T cells or through virus-mediated cytopathicity. In this context, we developed an

  8. Cordysobin, a novel alkaline serine protease with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Xian; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Feng; Geng, Xiao-Li; Wang, He-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel serine protease, designated as cordysobin, was purified from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera. The isolation procedure utilized ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The protease did not adsorb on DEAE-cellulose but bound to SP-Sepharose. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the protease resolved as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa. Its optimal pH was 10.0, and the optimal temperature was 65°C. The protease displayed a K(m) value of 0.41 μM and 13.44 μM·min⁻¹ using Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA as substrate at pH 10.0 and 37°C. Protease activity was enhanced by the Fe²⁺ ion at low concentration range of 1.25-10 mM and was strongly inhibited by Hg²⁺ up to 1.25 mM. The protease was strongly inhibited by chymostatin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), suggesting that it is a serine protease. It manifested significant inhibitory activity toward HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with an IC₅₀ value of 8.2×10⁻³ μM, which is the highest anti-HIV-1 RT activity of reported mushroom proteins. PMID:22014786

  9. Identification of mechanistically distinct inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase through fragment screening.

    PubMed

    La, Jennifer; Latham, Catherine F; Tinetti, Ricky N; Johnson, Adam; Tyssen, David; Huber, Kelly D; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Simpson, Jamie S; Headey, Stephen J; Chalmers, David K; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2015-06-01

    Fragment-based screening methods can be used to discover novel active site or allosteric inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. Using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and in vitro activity assays, we have identified fragment-sized inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with distinct chemical scaffolds and mechanisms compared to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) and nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Three compounds were found to inhibit RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT in the micromolar range while retaining potency against RT variants carrying one of three major NNRTI resistance mutations: K103N, Y181C, or G190A. These compounds also inhibit Moloney murine leukemia virus RT but not the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Steady-state kinetic analyses demonstrate that one of these fragments is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 RT with respect to deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrate, whereas a second compound is a competitive inhibitor of RT polymerase activity with respect to the DNA template/primer (T/P), and consequently also inhibits RNase H activity. The dNTP competing RT inhibitor retains activity against the NRTI-resistant mutants K65R and M184V, demonstrating a drug resistance profile distinct from the nucleotide competing RT inhibitors indolopyridone-1 (INDOPY-1) and 4-dimethylamino-6-vinylpyrimidine-1 (DAVP-1). In antiviral assays, the T/P competing compound inhibits HIV-1 replication at a step consistent with an RT inhibitor. Screening of additional structurally related compounds to the three fragments led to the discovery of molecules with improved potency against HIV-1 RT. These fragment inhibitors represent previously unidentified scaffolds for development of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment. PMID:26038551

  10. Identification of mechanistically distinct inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase through fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    La, Jennifer; Latham, Catherine F.; Tinetti, Ricky N.; Johnson, Adam; Tyssen, David; Huber, Kelly D.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Simpson, Jamie S.; Headey, Stephen J.; Chalmers, David K.; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based screening methods can be used to discover novel active site or allosteric inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. Using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and in vitro activity assays, we have identified fragment-sized inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with distinct chemical scaffolds and mechanisms compared to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) and nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Three compounds were found to inhibit RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT in the micromolar range while retaining potency against RT variants carrying one of three major NNRTI resistance mutations: K103N, Y181C, or G190A. These compounds also inhibit Moloney murine leukemia virus RT but not the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Steady-state kinetic analyses demonstrate that one of these fragments is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 RT with respect to deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrate, whereas a second compound is a competitive inhibitor of RT polymerase activity with respect to the DNA template/primer (T/P), and consequently also inhibits RNase H activity. The dNTP competing RT inhibitor retains activity against the NRTI-resistant mutants K65R and M184V, demonstrating a drug resistance profile distinct from the nucleotide competing RT inhibitors indolopyridone-1 (INDOPY-1) and 4-dimethylamino-6-vinylpyrimidine-1 (DAVP-1). In antiviral assays, the T/P competing compound inhibits HIV-1 replication at a step consistent with an RT inhibitor. Screening of additional structurally related compounds to the three fragments led to the discovery of molecules with improved potency against HIV-1 RT. These fragment inhibitors represent previously unidentified scaffolds for development of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment. PMID:26038551

  11. Resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Wainberg, Mark A; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors that target the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) have played an indispensable role in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. They can be grouped into two distinct therapeutic groups, namely the nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs), and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs form the backbones of most first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens formulated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. They are also used to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and as pre-exposure prophylaxis in individuals at risk of HIV-1 infection. The NNRTIs nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz and rilpivirine also used to form part of first-line ART regimens, although this is no longer recommended, while etravirine can be used in salvage ART regimens. A single-dose of NVP administered to both mother and child has routinely been used in resource-limited settings to reduce the rate of HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, the development of HIV-1 resistance to RT inhibitors can compromise the efficacy of these antiviral drugs in both the treatment and prevention arenas. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 RT, and discuss their cross-resistance profiles, molecular mechanisms and clinical significance. PMID:26517190

  12. Small Molecule Inhibitors of BAF; A Promising Family of Compounds in HIV-1 Latency Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Stoszko, Mateusz; De Crignis, Elisa; Rokx, Casper; Khalid, Mir Mubashir; Lungu, Cynthia; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Kan, Tsung Wai; Boucher, Charles; Verbon, Annelies; Dykhuizen, Emily C.; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of latently infected cells in presence of Anti-Retroviral Therapy presents the main obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Much effort is thus placed on identification of compounds capable of HIV-1 latency reversal in order to render infected cells susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and immune clearance. We identified the BAF chromatin remodeling complex as a key player required for maintenance of HIV-1 latency, highlighting its potential as a molecular target for inhibition in latency reversal. Here, we screened a recently identified panel of small molecule inhibitors of BAF (BAFi's) for potential to activate latent HIV-1. Latency reversal was strongly induced by BAFi's Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Pyrimethamine, two molecules previously characterized for clinical application. BAFi's reversed HIV-1 latency in cell line based latency models, in two ex vivo infected primary cell models of latency, as well as in HIV-1 infected patient's CD4 + T cells, without inducing T cell proliferation or activation. BAFi-induced HIV-1 latency reversal was synergistically enhanced upon PKC pathway activation and HDAC-inhibition. Therefore BAFi's constitute a promising family of molecules for inclusion in therapeutic combinatorial HIV-1 latency reversal. PMID:26870822

  13. Small Molecule Inhibitors of BAF; A Promising Family of Compounds in HIV-1 Latency Reversal.

    PubMed

    Stoszko, Mateusz; De Crignis, Elisa; Rokx, Casper; Khalid, Mir Mubashir; Lungu, Cynthia; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Kan, Tsung Wai; Boucher, Charles; Verbon, Annelies; Dykhuizen, Emily C; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2016-01-01

    Persistence of latently infected cells in presence of Anti-Retroviral Therapy presents the main obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Much effort is thus placed on identification of compounds capable of HIV-1 latency reversal in order to render infected cells susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and immune clearance. We identified the BAF chromatin remodeling complex as a key player required for maintenance of HIV-1 latency, highlighting its potential as a molecular target for inhibition in latency reversal. Here, we screened a recently identified panel of small molecule inhibitors of BAF (BAFi's) for potential to activate latent HIV-1. Latency reversal was strongly induced by BAFi's Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Pyrimethamine, two molecules previously characterized for clinical application. BAFi's reversed HIV-1 latency in cell line based latency models, in two ex vivo infected primary cell models of latency, as well as in HIV-1 infected patient's CD4 + T cells, without inducing T cell proliferation or activation. BAFi-induced HIV-1 latency reversal was synergistically enhanced upon PKC pathway activation and HDAC-inhibition. Therefore BAFi's constitute a promising family of molecules for inclusion in therapeutic combinatorial HIV-1 latency reversal. PMID:26870822

  14. Substituted indoles as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a patent evaluation (WO2015044928).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Gao, Ping; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-01

    The invention described in this patent (WO2015044928) is related to compounds based on the substituted indole scaffold, their synthetic process and application to inhibit HIV-1 replication as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Some of the newly claimed compounds presented improved potency against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 strain in comparison to previously disclosed indole-based NNRTIs and were also shown to be effective against common resistant HIV-1 strains. In light of their novel structural characteristics, simple synthetic route and improved anti-HIV activity, these compounds deserve further study as promising NNRTIs.

  15. Conformational dynamics of HIV-1 protease: a comparative molecular dynamics simulation study with multiple amber force fields.

    PubMed

    Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Kumar, Mattaparthi Venkata Satish; Sharma, Smriti; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2012-12-01

    Flap dynamics of HIV-1 protease (HIV-pr) controls the entry of inhibitors and substrates to the active site. Dynamical models from previous simulations are not all consistent with each other and not all are supported by the NMR results. In the present work, the effect of force field on the dynamics of HIV-pr is investigated by MD simulations using three AMBER force fields ff99, ff99SB, and ff03. The generalized order parameters for amide backbone are calculated from the three force fields and compared with the NMR S2 values. We found that the ff99SB and ff03 force field calculated order parameters agree reasonably well with the NMR S2 values, whereas ff99 calculated values deviate most from the NMR order parameters. Stereochemical geometry of protein models from each force field also agrees well with the remarks from NMR S2 values. However, between ff99SB and ff03, there are several differences, most notably in the loop regions. It is found that these loops are, in general, more flexible in the ff03 force field. This results in a larger active site cavity in the simulation with the ff03 force field. The effect of this difference in computer-aided drug design against flexible receptors is discussed.

  16. Revealing Origin of Decrease in Potency of Darunavir and Amprenavir against HIV-2 relative to HIV-1 Protease by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wei; Yi, Changhong; Zhang, Shaolong; Zhang, Qinggang

    2014-11-01

    Clinical inhibitors Darunavir (DRV) and Amprenavir (APV) are less effective on HIV-2 protease (PR2) than on HIV-1 protease (PR1). To identify molecular basis associated with the lower inhibition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the PR1 inhibitors DRV and APV against PR1/PR2. The rank of predicted binding free energies agrees with the experimental determined one. Moreover, our results show that two inhibitors bind less strongly to PR2 than to PR1, again in agreement with the experimental findings. The decrease in binding free energies for PR2 relative to PR1 is found to arise from the reduction of the van der Waals interactions induced by the structural adjustment of the triple mutant V32I, I47V and V82I. This result is further supported by the difference between the van der Waals interactions of inhibitors with each residue in PR2 and in PR1. The results from the principle component analysis suggest that inhibitor binding tends to make the flaps of PR2 close and the one of PR1 open. We expect that this study can theoretically provide significant guidance and dynamics information for the design of potent dual inhibitors targeting PR1/PR2.

  17. Revealing Origin of Decrease in Potency of Darunavir and Amprenavir against HIV-2 relative to HIV-1 Protease by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wei; Yi, Changhong; Zhang, Shaolong; Zhang, Qinggang

    2014-01-01

    Clinical inhibitors Darunavir (DRV) and Amprenavir (APV) are less effective on HIV-2 protease (PR2) than on HIV-1 protease (PR1). To identify molecular basis associated with the lower inhibition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the PR1 inhibitors DRV and APV against PR1/PR2. The rank of predicted binding free energies agrees with the experimental determined one. Moreover, our results show that two inhibitors bind less strongly to PR2 than to PR1, again in agreement with the experimental findings. The decrease in binding free energies for PR2 relative to PR1 is found to arise from the reduction of the van der Waals interactions induced by the structural adjustment of the triple mutant V32I, I47V and V82I. This result is further supported by the difference between the van der Waals interactions of inhibitors with each residue in PR2 and in PR1. The results from the principle component analysis suggest that inhibitor binding tends to make the flaps of PR2 close and the one of PR1 open. We expect that this study can theoretically provide significant guidance and dynamics information for the design of potent dual inhibitors targeting PR1/PR2. PMID:25362963

  18. Ebselen, a Small-Molecule Capsid Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thenin-Houssier, Suzie; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Pedro-Rosa, Laura; Brady, Angela; Richard, Audrey; Konnick, Briana; Opp, Silvana; Buffone, Cindy; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Kota, Smitha; Billack, Blase; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Tellinghuisen, Timothy; Choe, Hyeryun; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid plays crucial roles in HIV-1 replication and thus represents an excellent drug target. We developed a high-throughput screening method based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (HTS-TR-FRET) assay, using the C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 capsid to identify inhibitors of capsid dimerization. This assay was used to screen a library of pharmacologically active compounds, composed of 1,280 in vivo-active drugs, and identified ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one], an organoselenium compound, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid CTD dimerization. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the direct interaction of ebselen with the HIV-1 capsid CTD and dimer dissociation when ebselen is in 2-fold molar excess. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that ebselen covalently binds the HIV-1 capsid CTD, likely via a selenylsulfide linkage with Cys198 and Cys218. This compound presents anti-HIV activity in single and multiple rounds of infection in permissive cell lines as well as in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ebselen inhibits early viral postentry events of the HIV-1 life cycle by impairing the incoming capsid uncoating process. This compound also blocks infection of other retroviruses, such as Moloney murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus, but displays no inhibitory activity against hepatitis C and influenza viruses. This study reports the use of TR-FRET screening to successfully identify a novel capsid inhibitor, ebselen, validating HIV-1 capsid as a promising target for drug development. PMID:26810656

  19. Pentosan polysulfate as an inhibitor of extracellular HIV-1 Tat.

    PubMed

    Rusnati, M; Urbinati, C; Caputo, A; Possati, L; Lortat-Jacob, H; Giacca, M; Ribatti, D; Presta, M

    2001-06-22

    HIV-1 Tat protein, released from HIV-infected cells, may act as a pleiotropic heparin-binding growth factor. From this observation, extracellular Tat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AIDS and of AIDS-associated pathologies. Here we demonstrate that the heparin analog pentosan polysulfate (PPS) inhibits the interaction of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Tat protein with heparin immobilized to a BIAcore sensor chip. Competition experiments showed that Tat-PPS interaction occurs with high affinity (K(d) = 9.0 nm). Also, GST.Tat prevents the binding of [(3)H]heparin to GST.Tat immobilized to glutathione-agarose beads. In vitro, PPS inhibits GST.Tat internalization and, consequently, HIV-1 long terminal repeat transactivation in HL3T1 cells. Also, PPS inhibits cell surface interaction and mitogenic activity of GST.Tat in murine adenocarcinoma T53 Tat-less cells. In all assays, PPS exerts its Tat antagonist activity with an ID(50) equal to approximately 1.0 nm. In vivo, PPS inhibits the neovascularization induced by GST.Tat or by Tat-overexpressing T53 cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In conclusion, PPS binds Tat protein and inhibits its cell surface interaction, internalization, and biological activity in vitro and in vivo. PPS may represent a prototypic molecule for the development of novel Tat antagonists with therapeutic implications in AIDS and AIDS-associated pathologies, including Kaposi's sarcoma.

  20. In vitro Isolation and Identification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Variants with Reduced Sensitivity to C-2 Symmetrical Inhibitors of HIV Type 1 Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, M. J.; Garber, S.; Winslow, D. L.; Reid, C. D.; Aldrich, P.; Jadhav, P. K.; Patterson, C. E.; Hodge, C. N.; Cheng, Y.-S. E.

    1993-08-01

    Protease inhibitors are another class of compounds for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-caused disease. The emergence of resistance to the current anti-HIV drugs makes the determination of potential resistance to protease inhibitors imperative. Here we describe the isolation of an HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistant to an HIV-protease inhibitor. Serial passage of HIV-1 (strain RF) in the presence of the inhibitor, [2-pyridylacetylisoleucylphenylalanyl-psi(CHOH)]_2 (P9941), failed to yield a stock of virus with a resistance phenotype. However, variants of the virus with 6- to 8-fold reduced sensitivity to P9941 were selected by using a combination of plaque assay and endpoint titration. Genetic analysis and computer modeling of the variant proteases revealed a single change in the codon for amino acid 82 (Val -> Ala), which resulted in a protease with lower affinity and reduced sensitivity to this inhibitor and certain, but not all, related inhibitors.

  1. In vitro isolation and identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants with reduced sensitivity to C-2 symmetrical inhibitors of HIV type 1 protease.

    PubMed

    Otto, M J; Garber, S; Winslow, D L; Reid, C D; Aldrich, P; Jadhav, P K; Patterson, C E; Hodge, C N; Cheng, Y S

    1993-08-15

    Protease inhibitors are another class of compounds for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-caused disease. The emergence of resistance to the current anti-HIV drugs makes the determination of potential resistance to protease inhibitors imperative. Here we describe the isolation of an HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistant to an HIV-protease inhibitor. Serial passage of HIV-1 (strain RF) in the presence of the inhibitor, [2-pyridylacetylisoleucylphenylalanyl-psi (CHOH)]2 (P9941), failed to yield a stock of virus with a resistance phenotype. However, variants of the virus with 6- to 8-fold reduced sensitivity to P9941 were selected by using a combination of plaque assay and endpoint titration. Genetic analysis and computer modeling of the variant proteases revealed a single change in the codon for amino acid 82 (Val-->Ala), which resulted in a protease with lower affinity and reduced sensitivity to this inhibitor and certain, but not all, related inhibitors.

  2. Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Hwang, Indeok; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Nah, Jae-Woon; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins (peptides) are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides). Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides) that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins). Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:19582234

  3. Current and Novel Inhibitors of HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Pokorná, Jana; Machala, Ladislav; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Konvalinka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The design, development and clinical success of HIV protease inhibitors represent one of the most remarkable achievements of molecular medicine. This review describes all nine currently available FDA-approved protease inhibitors, discusses their pharmacokinetic properties, off-target activities, side-effects, and resistance profiles. The compounds in the various stages of clinical development are also introduced, as well as alternative approaches, aiming at other functional domains of HIV PR. The potential of these novel compounds to open new way to the rational drug design of human viruses is critically assessed. PMID:21994591

  4. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor NCH-51 activates latent HIV-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Ann Florence B; Imai, Kenichi; Togami, Hiroaki; Ueno, Takaharu; Asamitsu, Kaori; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Okamoto, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacological manipulations to purge human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from latent reservoirs have been considered as an adjuvant therapeutic approach to highly-active antiretroviral therapy for the eradication of HIV. Our novel histone deacetylase inhibitor NCH-51 induced expression of latent HIV-1 with minimal cytotoxicity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we observed a reduction of HDAC1 occupancy, histone hyperacetylation and the recruitment of positive transcription factors at the HIV-1 promoter in latently infected-cells under the treatment with NCH-51. Mutation studies of the long terminal repeat (LTR) revealed NCH-51 mediated gene expression through the Sp1 sites. When Sp1 expression was knocked-down by small interfering RNA, the NCH-51-mediated activation of a stably integrated HIV-1 LTR was attenuated. Moreover, the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effects of NCH-51.

  5. Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance: X-ray structure analysis of G48V/C95F tethered HIV-1 protease dimer/saquinavir complex

    SciTech Connect

    Prashar, Vishal; Bihani, Subhash C.; Das, Amit; Rao, D.R.; Hosur, M.V.

    2010-06-11

    The mutation G48V in HIV-1 protease is a major resistance mutation against the drug saquinavir. Recently, G48V mutation is found to co-exist with the mutation C95F in AIDS patients treated with saquinavir. We report here the three-dimensional crystal structure of G48V/C95F tethered HIV-1 protease/saquinavir complex. The structure indicates following as the possible causes of drug resistance: (1) loss of direct van der Waals interactions between saquinavir and enzyme residues PHE-53 and PRO-1081, (2) loss of water-mediated hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atoms in saquinavir and amide nitrogen atoms of flap residues 50 and 1050, (3) changes in inter-monomer interactions, which could affect the energetics of domain movements associated with inhibitor-binding, and (4) significant reduction in the stability of the mutant dimer. The present structure also provides a rationale for the clinical observation that the resistance mutations C95F/G48V/V82A occur as a cluster in AIDS patients.

  6. The evaluation of catechins that contain a galloyl moiety as potential HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wei; Yi, Kejia; Wu, Zhiqiang; Si, Yiling; Han, Weidong; Zhao, Yali

    2010-12-01

    Four catechins with the galloyl moiety, including catechin gallate (CG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and epicatechin gallate (ECG), were found to inhibit HIV-1 integrase effectively as determined by our ELISA method. In our docking study, it is proposed that when the HIV-1 integrase does not combine with virus DNA, the four catechins may bind to Tyr143 and Gln148, thus altering the flexibility of the loop (Gly140-Gly149), which could lead to an inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity. In addition, after combining HIV-1 integrase with virus DNA, the four catechins may bind between the integrase and virus DNA, consequently, disrupt this interaction. Thus, the four catechins may reduce the activity of HIV-1 integrase by disrupting its interaction with virus DNA. The four catechins have a highly cooperative inhibitory effect (IC₅₀=0.1 μmol/L). Our study suggests that catechins with the galloyl moiety could be a novel and effective class of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

  7. Synthesis of a Vpr-Binding Derivative for Use as a Novel HIV-1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Kyoji; Ishii, Hideki; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Kawaji, Kumi; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Honda, Kaori; Osada, Hiroyuki; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Suzuki, Masaaki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. We previously identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-importin α interaction and inhibits HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner by blocking nuclear import of the pre-integration complex. However, it was unstable. Here, we synthesized a stable derivative of hematoxylin that bound specifically and stably to Vpr and inhibited HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Furthermore, like hematoxylin, the derivative inhibited nuclear import of Vpr in an in vitro nuclear import assay, but had no effect on Vpr-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest or caspase activity. Interestingly, this derivative bound strongly to amino acid residues 54–74 within the C-terminal α-helical domain (αH3) of Vpr. These residues are highly conserved among different HIV strains, indicating that this region is a potential target for drug-resistant HIV-1 infection. Thus, we succeeded in developing a stable hematoxylin derivative that bound directly to Vpr, suggesting that specific inhibitors of the interaction between cells and viral accessory proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26701275

  8. Synergistic reduction of HIV-1 infectivity by 5-azacytidine and inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Roth, Megan E; Xie, Jiashu; Daly, Michele B; Clouser, Christine L; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-06-01

    Although many compounds have been approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) infection, additional anti-HIV-1 drugs (particularly those belonging to new drug classes) are still needed due to issues such as long-term drug-associated toxicities, transmission of drug-resistant variants, and development of multi-class resistance. Lethal mutagenesis represents an antiviral strategy that has not yet been clinically translated for HIV-1 and is based on the use of small molecules to induce excessive levels of deleterious mutations within the viral genome. Here, we show that 5-azacytidine (5-aza-C), a ribonucleoside analog that induces the lethal mutagenesis of HIV-1, and multiple inhibitors of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) interact in a synergistic fashion to more effectively reduce the infectivity of HIV-1. In these drug combinations, RNR inhibitors failed to significantly inhibit the conversion of 5-aza-C to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, suggesting that 5-aza-C acts primarily as a deoxyribonucleoside even in the presence of RNR inhibitors. The mechanism of antiviral synergy was further investigated for the combination of 5-aza-C and one specific RNR inhibitor, resveratrol, as this combination improved the selectivity index of 5-aza-C to the greatest extent. Antiviral synergy was found to be primarily due to the reduced accumulation of reverse transcription products rather than the enhancement of viral mutagenesis. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first demonstration of antiretroviral synergy between a ribonucleoside analog and RNR inhibitors, and encourage the development of additional ribonucleoside analogs and RNR inhibitors with improved antiretroviral activity. PMID:27117260

  9. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Interactions with Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thammaporn, Ratsupa; Ishii, Kentaro; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Uchiyama, Susumu; Hannongbua, Supa; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) have been developed for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV-1 RT binding to NNRTIs has been characterized by various biophysical techniques. However, these techniques are often hampered by the low water solubility of the inhibitors, such as the current promising diarylpyrimidine-based inhibitors rilpivirine and etravirine. Hence, a conventional and rapid method that requires small sample amounts is desirable for studying NNRTIs with low water solubility. Here we successfully applied a recently developed mass spectrometric technique under non-denaturing conditions to characterize the interactions between the heterodimeric HIV-1 RT enzyme and NNRTIs with different inhibitory activities. Our data demonstrate that mass spectrometry serves as a semi-quantitative indicator of NNRTI binding affinity for HIV-1 RT using low and small amounts of samples, offering a new high-throughput screening tool for identifying novel RT inhibitors as anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26934936

  10. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  11. Discovery of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, molecular docking, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hardik; Patel, Paresh; Pannecouque, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    HIV-1 integrase enzyme plays an important role in the life cycle of HIV and responsible for integration of virus into human genome. Here, both computational and synthetic approaches were used to design and synthesize newer HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Pharmacophore mapping was performed on 20 chemically diverse molecules using DISCOtech, and refinement was carried out using GASP. Ten pharmacophore models were generated, and model 2, containing four features including two donor sites, one acceptor atom, and one hydrophobic region, was considered the best model as it has the highest fitness score. It was used as a query in NCI and Maybridge databases. Molecules having more than 99% Q(fit) value were used to design 30 molecules bearing pteridine ring and were docked on co-crystal structure of HIV-1 integrase enzyme. Among these, six molecules, showing good docking score compared with the reference standards, were synthesized by conventional as well as microwave-assisted methods. All compounds were characterized by physical and spectral data and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV activity against the replication of HIV-1 (IIIB) in MT-4 cells. The used approach of molecular docking and anti-HIV activity data of designed molecules will provide significant insights to discover novel HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors. PMID:23957390

  12. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Boggiano, Cesar; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Zhao Qian; Liu Shuwen; Binley, James; Blondelle, Sylvie E. . E-mail: sylvieb@burnham.org

    2006-09-08

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1{alpha} to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.

  13. Tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, triazoles and related heterocyclic derivatives as HIV protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K; Anderson, David D

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a formidable disease with millions of individuals inflicted worldwide. Although treatment regimens have improved considerably, drug resistance brought on by viral mutation continues to erode their effectiveness. Intense research efforts are currently underway in search of new and improved therapies. This review is concerned with the design of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors that incorporate heterocyclic scaffolds and which have been reported within the recent literature (2005–2010). Various examples in this review showcase the essential role heterocycles play as scaffolds and bioisosteres in HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug development. This review will hopefully stimulate the widespread application of these heterocycles in the design of other therapeutic agents. PMID:21806380

  14. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:22310379

  15. Loss of the Protease Dimerization Inhibition Activity of Tipranavir (TPV) and Its Association with the Acquisition of Resistance to TPV by HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Manabu; Danish, Matthew L.; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Amano, Masayuki; Ide, Kazuhiko; Das, Debananda; Koh, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Tipranavir (TPV), a protease inhibitor (PI) inhibiting the enzymatic activity and dimerization of HIV-1 protease, exerts potent activity against multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 isolates. When a mixture of 11 multi-PI-resistant (but TPV-sensitive) clinical isolates (HIV11MIX), which included HIVB and HIVC, was selected against TPV, HIV11MIX rapidly (by 10 passages [HIV11MIXP10]) acquired high-level TPV resistance and replicated at high concentrations of TPV. HIV11MIXP10 contained various amino acid substitutions, including I54V and V82T. The intermolecular FRET-based HIV-1 expression assay revealed that TPV's dimerization inhibition activity against cloned HIVB (cHIVB) was substantially compromised. The introduction of I54V/V82T into wild-type cHIVNL4-3 (cHIVNL4-3I54V/V82T) did not block TPV's dimerization inhibition or confer TPV resistance. However, the introduction of I54V/V82T into cHIVB (cHIVBI54V/V82T) compromised TPV's dimerization inhibition and cHIVBI54V/V82T proved to be significantly TPV resistant. L24M was responsible for TPV resistance with the cHIVC genetic background. The introduction of L24M into cHIVNL4-3 (cHIVNL4-3L24M) interfered with TPV's dimerization inhibition, while L24M increased HIV-1's susceptibility to TPV with the HIVNL4-3 genetic background. When selected with TPV, cHIVNL4-3I54V/V82T most readily developed TPV resistance and acquired E34D, which compromised TPV's dimerization inhibition with the HIVNL4-3 genetic background. The present data demonstrate that certain amino acid substitutions compromise TPV's dimerization inhibition and confer TPV resistance, although the loss of TPV's dimerization inhibition is not always associated with significantly increased TPV resistance. The findings that TPV's dimerization inhibition is compromised with one or two amino acid substitutions may explain at least in part why the genetic barrier of TPV against HIV-1's development of TPV resistance is relatively low compared to that of darunavir. PMID:23015723

  16. Identification of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the capsid hexamer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jimmy P; Branson, Jeffrey D; Lawrence, Rae; Cocklin, Simon

    2016-02-01

    The HIV-1 CA protein is an attractive therapeutic target for the development of new antivirals. An inter-protomer pocket within the hexamer configuration of the CA, which is a binding site for key host dependency factors, is an especially appealing region for small molecule targeting. Using a field-based pharmacophore derived from an inhibitor known to interact with this region, coupled to biochemical and biological assessment, we have identified a new compound that inhibits HIV-1 infection and that targets the assembled CA hexamer. PMID:26747394

  17. Discovery and crystallography of bicyclic arylaminoazines as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Gil; Frey, Kathleen M; Gallardo-Macias, Ricardo; Spasov, Krasimir A; Chan, Albert H; Anderson, Karen S; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-11-01

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) are reported that incorporate a 7-indolizinylamino or 2-naphthylamino substituent on a pyrimidine or 1,3,5-triazine core. The most potent compounds show below 10 nanomolar activity towards wild-type HIV-1 and variants bearing Tyr181Cys and Lys103Asn/Tyr181Cys resistance mutations. The compounds also feature good aqueous solubility. Crystal structures for two complexes enhance the analysis of the structure-activity data.

  18. Thermodynamics of peptide inhibitor binding to HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Cole, J L; Garsky, V M

    2001-05-15

    The gp41 subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein mediates fusion of the cellular and viral membranes. The gp41 ectodomain is a trimer of alpha-helical hairpins, where N-terminal helices form a parallel three-stranded coiled-coil core and C-terminal helices pack around the core. A deep hydrophobic pocket on the N-terminal core represents an attractive target for antiviral therapeutics. We have employed a soluble derivative of the gp41 core ectodomain and small cyclic disulfide D-peptide inhibitors to define the stoichiometry, affinity, and thermodynamics of ligand binding to this pocket using isothermal titration calorimetry. These inhibitors bind with micromolar affinity to the pocket with the expected stoichiometry of three peptides per gp41 core trimer. There are no cooperative interactions among the three binding sites. Linear eight- or nine-residue D-peptides derived from the pocket-binding domain of the cyclic molecules also bind specifically. A negative heat capacity change is observed and is consistent with burial of hydrophobic surface upon binding. Contrary to expectations for a reaction dominated by the classical hydrophobic effect, peptide binding is enthalpically driven and is opposed by an unfavorable negative entropy change. The calorimetry data support models whereby dominant negative inhibitors bind to a transiently exposed surface on the prefusion intermediate state of gp41 and disrupt subsequent resolution to the fusion-active six-stranded hairpin conformation.

  19. Synergistic binding of inhibitors to the protease from HIV type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Asante-Appiah, E; Chan, W W

    1996-01-01

    Inhibition of the protease in HIV is a potentially useful approach for the treatment of AIDS. In the course of evaluating inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease, we observed a strong synergism between certain inhibitors that might be expected to bind to different sites in this enzyme. The binding affinity of carbobenzyloxyisoleucinylphenylalaninol, for example, is increased 125-fold in the presence of carbobenzyloxyglutaminylisoamylamide. These synergistic effects between inhibitors have specific structural requirements that correlate well with the known substrate preference of the enzyme. The modular basis for this phenomenon remains to be elucidated but it could involve substrate-induced conformational change as part of the reaction mechanism. Similar effects have been reported previously for several zinc proteases. Thus this work extends the observation to a different class of enzymes and suggests that the phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:8670094

  20. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

    2004-01-01

    Background For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored. PMID:15485580

  1. 6,7-Dihydroxy-1-oxoisoindoline-4-sulfonamide-containing HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Smith, Steven J; Métifiot, Mathieu; Johnson, Barry C; Marchand, Christophe; Hughes, Stephen H; Pommier, Yves; Burke, Terrence R

    2012-12-15

    Although an extensive body of scientific and patent literature exists describing the development of HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors, Merck's raltegravir and Gilead's elvitegravir remain the only IN inhibitors FDA-approved for the treatment of AIDS. The emergence of raltegravir-resistant strains of HIV-1 containing mutated forms of IN underlies the need for continued efforts to enhance the efficacy of IN inhibitors against resistant mutants. We have previously described bicyclic 6,7-dihydroxyoxoisoindolin-1-ones that show good IN inhibitory potency. This report describes the effects of introducing substituents into the 4- and 5-positions of the parent 6,7-dihydroxyoxoisoindolin-1-one platform. We have developed several sulfonamide-containing analogs that enhance potency in cell-based HIV assays by more than two orders-of-magnitude and we describe several compounds that are more potent than raltegravir against the clinically relevant Y143R IN mutant.

  2. Structural investigation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 2-Aryl-substituted benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-11-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most destructive epidemics in history. Inhibitors of HIV enzymes are the main targets to develop drugs against that disease. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1 (NNRTIs) are potentially effective and nontoxic. Structural studies provide information necessary to design more active compounds. The crystal structures of four NNRTI derivatives of 2-aryl-substituted N-benzyl-benzimidazole are presented here. Analysis of the geometrical parameters shows that the structures of the investigated inhibitors are rigid. The important geometrical parameter is the dihedral angle between the planes of the π-electron systems of the benzymidazole and benzyl moieties. The values of these dihedral angles are in a narrow range for all investigated inhibitors. There is no significant difference between the structure of the free inhibitor and the inhibitor in the complex with RT HIV-1. X-ray structures of the investigated inhibitors are a good basis for modeling enzyme-inhibitor interactions in rational drug design.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin inhibits de novo HIV-1 infections.

    PubMed

    Jønsson, Kasper L; Tolstrup, Martin; Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Kjær, Kathrine; Laustsen, Anders; Andersen, Morten N; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Søgaard, Ole S; Østergaard, Lars; Denton, Paul W; Jakobsen, Martin R

    2015-07-01

    Adjunct therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin increases plasma viremia in HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a potential concern is that reversing HIV latency with an HDACi may reactivate the virus in anatomical compartments with suboptimal cART concentrations, leading to de novo infection of susceptible cells in these sites. We tested physiologically relevant romidepsin concentrations known to reactivate latent HIV in order to definitively address this concern. We found that romidepsin significantly inhibited HIV infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+) T cells but not in monocyte-derived macrophages. In addition, romidepsin impaired HIV spreading in CD4(+) T cell cultures. When we evaluated the impact of romidepsin on quantitative viral outgrowth assays with primary resting CD4(+) T cells, we found that resting CD4(+) T cells exposed to romidepsin exhibited reduced proliferation and viability. This significantly lowered assay sensitivity when measuring the efficacy of romidepsin as an HIV latency reversal agent. Altogether, our data indicate that romidepsin-based HIV eradication strategies are unlikely to reseed a latent T cell reservoir, even under suboptimal cART conditions, because romidepsin profoundly restricts de novo HIV infections.

  4. [RILPIVIRINE -- a novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Snopková, Svatava; Havlíčková, Kateřina; Polák, Pavel; Šlesinger, Pavel; Husa, Petr

    2013-03-01

    The article summarizes the basic facts about the pharmacokinetic profile, metabolism and drug interactions of rilpivirine (RPV). This is the latest orally administered second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) for antiretroviral-naive patients with HIV-1 infection. Conformational flexibility and adaptability are the factors that dominantly determine the high resistance barrier of RPV and are the unique features of diarylpyrimidine inhibitors (DAPY inhibitors - 2nd generation NNRTIs). Multicentre studies ECHO and THRIVE are also reviewed. Current guidelines for the treatment of HIV/AIDS are mentioned as well as the role of RPV in current therapeutic regimens.

  5. Inhibition Profiling of Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Using an HIV-2 Modular System

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Mohamed; Szojka, Zsófia; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) are fundamental pillars in the treatment of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Currently used PIs are designed against HIV-1, and their effect on HIV-2 is understudied. Using a modular HIV-2 protease cassette system, inhibition profiling assays were carried out for protease inhibitors both in enzymatic and cell culture assays. Moreover, the treatment-associated resistance mutations (I54M, L90M) were introduced into the modular system, and comparative inhibition assays were performed to determine their effect on the susceptibility of the protease. Our results indicate that darunavir, saquinavir, indinavir and lopinavir were very effective HIV-2 protease inhibitors, while tipranavir, nelfinavir and amprenavir showed a decreased efficacy. I54M, L90M double mutation resulted in a significant reduction in the susceptibility to most of the inhibitors with the exception of tipranavir. To our knowledge, this modular system constitutes a novel approach in the field of HIV-2 protease characterization and susceptibility testing. PMID:26633459

  6. Inhibition Profiling of Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Using an HIV-2 Modular System.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohamed; Szojka, Zsófia; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2015-12-01

    Retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) are fundamental pillars in the treatment of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Currently used PIs are designed against HIV-1, and their effect on HIV-2 is understudied. Using a modular HIV-2 protease cassette system, inhibition profiling assays were carried out for protease inhibitors both in enzymatic and cell culture assays. Moreover, the treatment-associated resistance mutations (I54M, L90M) were introduced into the modular system, and comparative inhibition assays were performed to determine their effect on the susceptibility of the protease. Our results indicate that darunavir, saquinavir, indinavir and lopinavir were very effective HIV-2 protease inhibitors, while tipranavir, nelfinavir and amprenavir showed a decreased efficacy. I54M, L90M double mutation resulted in a significant reduction in the susceptibility to most of the inhibitors with the exception of tipranavir. To our knowledge, this modular system constitutes a novel approach in the field of HIV-2 protease characterization and susceptibility testing. PMID:26633459

  7. Crystal structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexes with thiocarbamate non-nucleoside inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Spallarossa, Andrea Cesarini, Sara; Ranise, Angelo; Ponassi, Marco; Unge, Torsten; Bolognesi, Martino

    2008-01-25

    O-Phthalimidoethyl-N-arylthiocarbamates (TCs) have been recently identified as a new class of potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), by means of computer-aided drug design techniques [Ranise A. Spallarossa, S. Cesarini, F. Bondavalli, S. Schenone, O. Bruno, G. Menozzi, P. Fossa, L. Mosti, M. La Colla, et al., Structure-based design, parallel synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and molecular modeling studies of thiocarbamates, new potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor isosteres of phenethylthiazolylthiourea derivatives, J. Med. Chem. 48 (2005) 3858-3873]. To elucidate the atomic details of RT/TC interaction and validate an earlier TC docking model, the structures of three RT/TC complexes were determined at 2.8-3.0 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The conformations adopted by the enzyme-bound TCs were analyzed and compared with those of bioisosterically related NNRTIs.

  8. Amprenavir complexes with HIV-1 protease and its drug-resistant mutants altering hydrophobic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2010-10-22

    The structural and kinetic effects of amprenavir (APV), a clinical HIV protease (PR) inhibitor, were analyzed with wild-type enzyme and mutants with single substitutions of V32I, I50V, I54V, I54M, I84V and L90M that are common in drug resistance. Crystal structures of the APV complexes at resolutions of 1.02-1.85 {angstrom} reveal the structural changes due to the mutations. Substitution of the larger side chains in PR{sub V32I}, PR{sub I54M} and PR{sub L90M} resulted in the formation of new hydrophobic contacts with flap residues, residues 79 and 80, and Asp25, respectively. Mutation to smaller side chains eliminated hydrophobic interactions in the PR{sub I50V} and PR{sub I54V} structures. The PR{sub I84V}-APV complex had lost hydrophobic contacts with APV, the PR{sub V32I}-APV complex showed increased hydrophobic contacts within the hydrophobic cluster and the PR{sub I50V} complex had weaker polar and hydrophobic interactions with APV. The observed structural changes in PR{sub I84V}-APV, PR{sub V32I}-APV and PR{sub I50V}-APV were related to their reduced inhibition by APV of six-, 10- and 30-fold, respectively, relative to wild-type PR. The APV complexes were compared with the corresponding saquinavir complexes. The PR dimers had distinct rearrangements of the flaps and 80's loops that adapt to the different P1{prime} groups of the inhibitors, while maintaining contacts within the hydrophobic cluster. These small changes in the loops and weak internal interactions produce the different patterns of resistant mutations for the two drugs.

  9. Effect of mimetic CDK9 inhibitors on HIV-1 activated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Sampey, Gavin; Klase, Zachary; Chen, Hao; Zeng, Chen; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; el Kouni, Mahmoud H.; Lepene, Benjamin; Patanarut, Alexis; Nekhai, Sergei; Price, David H.; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-01-01

    Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV-1 infection into a chronic manageable disease; however drug resistance remains a common problem that limits the effectiveness and clinical benefits of this type of treatment. The discovery of viral reservoirs in the body, in which HIV-1 may persist, has helped to explain why therapeutic eradication of HIV-1 has proved so difficult. In the current study we utilized a combination of structure based analysis of Cyclin/CDK complexes with our previously published Tat peptide derivatives. We modeled the Tat peptide inhibitors with CDKs and found a particular pocket which showed the most stable binding site (Cavity 1) using in silico analysis. Furthermore, we were able to find peptide mimetics that bound to similar regions using in silico searches of a chemical library, followed by cell based biological assays. Using these methods we obtained the first generation mimetic drugs and tested these compounds on HIV-1 LTR activated transcription. Using biological assays followed by similar in silico analysis to find a 2nd generation drugs resembling the original mimetic, we found the new targets of Cavity 1 and Cavity 2 regions on CDK9. We examined the 2nd generation mimetic against various viral isolates, and observed a generalized suppression of most HIV-1 isolates. Finally, the drug inhibited viral replication in humanized mouse models of Rag2-/-γc-/- with no toxicity to the animals at tested concentrations. Our results suggest that it may be possible to model peptide inhibitors into available crystal structures and further find drug mimetics using in silico analysis. PMID:23247501

  10. Impact of HIV-1 Subtype and Antiretroviral Therapy on Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Genotype: Results of a Global Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate. Methods and Findings To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80%) of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates. Conclusion Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations. PMID:15839752

  11. Structure–Activity Relationships of a Novel Capsid Targeted Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, cumulative drug toxicities and the development of multidrug-resistant virus necessitate the search for new classes of antiretroviral agents with novel modes of action. The HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein has been structurally and functionally characterized as a druggable target. We have recently designed a novel small molecule inhibitor I-XW-053 using the hybrid structure based method to block the interface between CA N-terminal domains (NTD–NTD interface) with micromolar affinity. In an effort to optimize and improve the efficacy of I-XW-053, we have developed the structure activity relationship of I-XW-053 compound series using ligand efficiency methods. Fifty-six analogues of I-XW-053 were designed that could be subclassified into four different core domains based on their ligand efficiency values computed as the ratio of binding efficiency (BEI) and surface efficiency (SEI) indices. Compound 34 belonging to subcore-3 showed an 11-fold improvement over I-XW-053 in blocking HIV-1 replication in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the binding of compound 34 to purified HIV-1 CA protein. Molecular docking studies on compound 34 and I-XW-053 to HIV-1 CA protein suggested that they both bind to NTD–NTD interface region but with different binding modes, which was further validated using site-directed mutagenesis studies. PMID:25302989

  12. HIV-1 Protease Function and Structure Studies with the Simplicial Neighborhood Analysis of Protein Packing (SNAPP) Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxing; Kaplan, Andrew H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Simplicial Neighborhood Analysis of Protein Packing (SNAPP) method was used to predict the effect of mutagenesis on the enzymatic activity of the HIV-1 protease (HIVP). SNAPP relies on a four-body statistical scoring function derived from the analysis of spatially nearest neighbor residue compositional preferences in a diverse and representative subset of protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. The method was applied to the analysis of HIVP mutants with residue substitutions in the hydrophobic core as well as at the interface between the two protease monomers. Both wild type and tethered structures were employed in the calculations. We obtained a strong correlation, with R2 as high as 0.96, between ΔSNAPP score (i.e., the difference in SNAPP scores between wild type and mutant proteins) and the protease catalytic activity for tethered structures. A weaker but significant correlation was also obtained for non-tethered structures as well. Our analysis identified residues both in the hydrophobic core and at the dimeric interface (DI) that are very important for the protease function. This study demonstrates a potential utility of the SNAPP method for rational design of mutagenesis studies and protein engineering. PMID:18498108

  13. Antiviral agent based on the non-structural protein targeting the maturation process of HIV-1: expression and susceptibility of chimeric Vpr as a substrate for cleavage by HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Serio, D; Singh, S P; Cartas, M A; Weber, I T; Harrison, R W; Louis, J M; Srinivasan, A

    2000-06-01

    The processing of precursor proteins (Gag and Gag-pol) by the viral protease is absolutely required in order to generate infectious particles. This prompted us to consider novel strategies that target viral maturation. Towards this end, we have engineered an HIV-1 virion associated protein, Vpr, to contain protease cleavage signal sequences from Gag and Gag-pol precursor proteins. We previously reported that virus particles derived from HIV-1 proviral DNA, encoding chimeric Vpr, showed a lack of infectivity, depending on the fusion partner. As an extension of that work, the potential of chimeric Vpr as a substrate for HIV-1 protease was tested utilizing an epitope-based assay. Chimeric Vpr molecules were modified such that the Flag epitope is removed following cleavage, thus allowing us to determine the efficiency of protease cleavage. Following incubation with the protease, the resultant products were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation using antibodies directed against the Flag epitope. Densitometric analysis of the autoradiograms showed processing to be both rapid and specific. Further, the analysis of virus particles containing chimeric Vpr by immunoblot showed reactivities to antibodies against the Flag epitope similar to the data observed in vitro. These results suggest that the pseudosubstrate approach may provide another avenue for developing antiviral agents.

  14. Molecular basis for increased susceptibility of isolates with atazanavir resistance-conferring substitution I50L to other protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yanchunas, Joseph; Langley, David R; Tao, Li; Rose, Ronald E; Friborg, Jacques; Colonno, Richard J; Doyle, Michael L

    2005-09-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are highly effective drugs against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet long-term therapeutic use is limited by emergence of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) protease substitutions that confer cross-resistance to multiple protease inhibitor drugs. Atazanavir is a highly potent HIV protease inhibitor with a distinct resistance profile that includes effectiveness against most HIV-1 isolates resistant to one or two PIs. The signature resistance substitution for atazanavir is I50L, and it is frequently (53%) accompanied by a compensatory A71V substitution that helps restore viability and increases atazanavir resistance levels. We measured the binding affinities of wild-type (WT) and I50L/A71V HIV-1 proteases to atazanavir and other currently approved PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir, indinavir, and amprenavir) by isothermal titration calorimetry. Remarkably, we find that all of the PIs have 2- to 10-fold increased affinities for I50L/A71V protease, except for atazanavir. The results are also manifested by thermal stability measures of affinity for WT and I50L/A71V proteases. Additional biophysical and enzyme kinetics experiments show I50L/A71V protease is a stable enzyme with catalytic activity that is slightly reduced (34%) relative to the WT. Computational modeling reveals that the unique resistance phenotype of I50L/A71V protease likely originates from bulky tert-butyl groups at P2 and P2' (specific to atazanavir) that sterically clash with methyl groups on residue L50. The results of this study provide a molecular understanding of the novel hypersusceptibility of atazanavir-resistant I50L/A71V-containing clinical isolates to other currently approved PIs.

  15. Synthesis, antiviral activity, and bioavailability studies of gamma-lactam derived HIV protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hungate, R W; Chen, J L; Starbuck, K E; Vacca, J P; McDaniel, S L; Levin, R B; Dorsey, B D; Guare, J P; Holloway, M K; Whitter, W

    1994-09-01

    Incorporation of a gamma-lactam in hydroxyethylene isosteres results in modest inhibitors of HIV-1 protease. Additional structural activity studies have produced significantly more potent inhibitors with the introduction of the trisubstituted cyclopentane (see compound 20) as the optimum substituent for the C-terminus. This new amino acid amide surrogate can be readily prepared in large scale from (R)-pulegone. Optimized compounds (36) and (60) are potent antiviral agents and are well absorbed (15-20%) in a dog model after oral administration. PMID:7712123

  16. Structure of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors derivatives of N-benzyl-benzimidazole with different substituents in position 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2010-01-01

    The constant development of new drugs against HIV-1 is necessary due to global expansion of AIDS and HIV-1 drug resistance. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1 (NNRTIs) are potentially effective and nontoxic drugs in AIDS therapy. The crystal structures of six nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) derivatives of N-benzyl-benzimidazole are reported here. The investigated compounds belong to the group of so called "butterfly like" inhibitors with characteristic two π-electron moieties with an angled orientation. The structural data show the influence of the substituents of the benzimidazole ring on the geometry of the molecule and correlation between the structure of the inhibitor and its biological activity.

  17. Fragment Based Strategies for Discovery of Novel HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Latham, Catherine F; La, Jennifer; Tinetti, Ricky N; Chalmers, David K; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global health problem. While combined antiretroviral therapy has been successful in controlling the virus in patients, HIV can develop resistance to drugs used for treatment, rendering available drugs less effective and limiting treatment options. Initiatives to find novel drugs for HIV treatment are ongoing, although traditional drug design approaches often focus on known binding sites for inhibition of established drug targets like reverse transcriptase and integrase. These approaches tend towards generating more inhibitors in the same drug classes already used in the clinic. Lack of diversity in antiretroviral drug classes can result in limited treatment options, as cross-resistance can emerge to a whole drug class in patients treated with only one drug from that class. A fresh approach in the search for new HIV-1 drugs is fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a validated strategy for drug discovery based on using smaller libraries of low molecular weight molecules (<300 Da) screened using primarily biophysical assays. FBDD is aimed at not only finding novel drug scaffolds, but also probing the target protein to find new, often allosteric, inhibitory binding sites. Several fragment-based strategies have been successful in identifying novel inhibitory sites or scaffolds for two proven drug targets for HIV-1, reverse transcriptase and integrase. While any FBDD-generated HIV-1 drugs have yet to enter the clinic, recent FBDD initiatives against these two well-characterised HIV-1 targets have reinvigorated antiretroviral drug discovery and the search for novel classes of HIV-1 drugs. PMID:26324045

  18. Interaction of small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry with CCR5

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, Christoph . E-mail: seiberc@mail.rockefeller.edu; Ying Weiwen; Gavrilov, Svetlana; Tsamis, Fotini; Kuhmann, Shawn E.; Palani, Anandan; Tagat, Jayaram R.; Clader, John W.; McCombie, Stuart W.; Baroudy, Bahige M.; Smith, Steven O.; Dragic, Tatjana; Moore, John P.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2006-05-25

    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major coreceptor for macrophage-tropic (R5) HIV-1 strains. Several small molecule inhibitors of CCR5 that block chemokine binding and HIV-1 entry are being evaluated as drug candidates. Here we define how CCR5 antagonists TAK-779, AD101 (SCH-350581) and SCH-C (SCH-351125), which inhibit HIV-1 entry, interact with CCR5. Using a mutagenesis approach in combination with a viral entry assay to provide a direct functional read out, we tested predictions based on a homology model of CCR5 and analyzed the functions of more than 30 amino acid residues. We find that a key set of aromatic and aliphatic residues serves as a hydrophobic core for the ligand binding pocket, while E283 is critical for high affinity interaction, most likely by acting as the counterion for a positively charged nitrogen atom common to all three inhibitors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how specific antagonists interact with CCR5, and may be useful for the rational design of new, improved CCR5 ligands.

  19. Discovery, characterization, and lead optimization of 7-azaindole non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Richard A; Lu, Xiao; Detorio, Mervi; Montero, Catherine; Hammond, Emily T; Ehteshami, Maryam; Domaoal, Robert A; Nettles, James H; Feraud, Michel; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2016-08-15

    A library of 585 compounds built off a 7-azaindole core was evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity, and ten hits emerged with submicromolar potency and therapeutic index >100. Of these, three were identified as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and were assayed against relevant resistant mutants. Lead compound 8 inhibited RT with submicromolar potency (IC50=0.73μM) and also maintained some activity against the clinically important RT mutants K103N and Y181C (IC50=9.2, 3.5μM) in cell-free assays. Free energy perturbation guided lead optimization resulted in the development of a compound with a two-fold increase in potency against RT (IC50=0.36μM). These data highlight the discovery of a unique scaffold with the potential to move forward as next-generation anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:27390064

  20. Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-based macrocycles as novel HIV-1 inhibitors: a patent evaluation of WO2015123182.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Gao, Ping; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug resistance in Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) confirms a continuing need to investigate novel HIV-1 inhibitors with unexplored mechanisms of action. Recently, a series of pyrazolopyrimidine-based macrocyclic compounds were reported as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication disclosed in the patent WO2015123182. Most of the disclosed compounds possessed in vitro antiviral potency in single-digit nanomolar range, which were determined by MT-2 cell assay. Then, the structural diversity, pharmacophore similarity of HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 inhibitors, and implications for drug design were analyzed. In the end of this article, a glimpse of some macrocycles as potent antiviral agents (drug candidates) was provided. Some strategies and technologies enabling macrocycle design were also described. We expect that further development of these macrocyclic compounds will offer new anti-HIV-1 drug candidates.

  1. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein blocks HIV-1 infection in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Stantchev, Tzanko S; Markovic, Ingrid; Telford, William G; Clouse, Kathleen A; Broder, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    Binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) to its cellular receptors elicits a variety of signaling events, including the activation of select tyrosine kinases. To evaluate the potential role of such signaling, we examined the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, on HIV-1 entry and infection of human macrophages using a variety of assays. Without altering cell viability, cell surface expression of CD4 and CCR5 or their abilities to interact with Env, genistein inhibited infection of macrophages by reporter gene-encoding, beta-lactamase containing, or wild type virions, as well as Env-mediated cell-fusion. The observation that genistein blocked virus infection if applied before, during or immediately after the infection period, but not 24h later; coupled with a more pronounced inhibition of infection in the reporter gene assays as compared to both beta-lactamase and p24 particle entry assays, imply that genistein exerts its inhibitory effects on both entry and early post-entry steps. These findings suggest that other exploitable targets, or steps, of the HIV-1 infection process may exist and could serve as additional opportunities for the development of new therapeutics.

  2. A broad HIV-1 inhibitor blocks envelope glycoprotein transitions critical for entry

    PubMed Central

    Herschhorn, Alon; Gu, Christopher; Espy, Nicole; Richard, Jonathan; Finzi, Andrés; Sodroski, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Binding to the primary receptor, CD4, triggers conformational changes in the metastable envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer (gp1203/gp413) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) that are important for virus entry into host cells. These changes include an “opening” of the trimer, creation of a binding site for the CCR5 coreceptor, and formation/exposure of a gp41 coiled coil. Here we identify a new compound, 18A (1), that specifically inhibits the entry of a wide range of HIV-1 isolates. 18A does not interfere with CD4 or CCR5 binding, but inhibits the CD4-induced disruption of quaternary structures at the trimer apex and the formation/exposure of the gp41 HR1 coiled coil. Analysis of HIV-1 variants exhibiting increased or reduced sensitivity to 18A suggests that the inhibitor can distinguish distinct conformational states of gp120 in the unliganded Env trimer. The broad-range activity and observed hypersensitivity of resistant mutants to antibody neutralization support further investigation of 18A. PMID:25174000

  3. Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Barbato, Andrea; Pascarella, Antonia; Giannotti, Rossella; Genzano, Martina; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models. PMID:25493637

  4. Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Barbato, Andrea; Pascarella, Antonia; Giannotti, Rossella; Genzano, Martina; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models.

  5. Naturally occurring variability in the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 and development of cell entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brower, Evan T; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2010-03-23

    Naturally occurring genetic variability across HIV-1 subtypes causes amino acid polymorphisms in encoded HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins associated with viral entry. The effects of amino acid polymorphisms on the mechanism of HIV-1 entry into cells, a process initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor, are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that amino acid polymorphisms affect the structural stability and domain cooperativity of gp120 and that those differences are reflected in the binding mechanism of the viral envelope glycoprotein to the cell surface receptor and coreceptor. Moreover, subtype differences also affect the binding behavior of experimental HIV cell entry inhibitors. While gp120-A has a slightly lower denaturation temperature than gp120-B, the most notable stability difference is that for gp120-B the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratio (DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH) is 0.95 whereas for gp120-A is 0.6, indicative of more cooperative domain/domain interactions in gp120-B, as this protein more closely approaches a two-state transition. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that CD4 and 17b (a surrogate antibody for the chemokine coreceptor) exhibit 7- and 3-fold weaker binding affinities for gp120-A. The binding of these proteins as well as that of the experimental entry inhibitor NBD-556 induces smaller conformational changes in gp120-A as evidenced by significantly smaller binding enthalpies and binding entropies. Together, these results describe the effects of gp120 polymorphisms on binding to host cell receptors and emphasize that guidelines for developing future entry inhibitors must recognize and deal with genomic differences between HIV strains.

  6. Investigating the role of metal chelation in HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Alessia; Carcelli, Mauro; Compari, Carlotta; Fisicaro, Emilia; Pala, Nicolino; Rispoli, Gabriele; Rogolino, Dominga; Sanchez, Tino W; Sechi, Mario; Sinisi, Valentina; Neamati, Nouri

    2011-12-22

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) has been validated as an attractive target for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Several studies have confirmed that the metal binding function is a crucial feature in many of the reported IN inhibitors. To provide new insights on the metal chelating mechanism of IN inhibitors, we prepared a series of metal complexes of two ligands (HL1 and HL2), designed as representative models of the clinically used compounds raltegravir and elvitegravir. Potentiometric measurements were conducted for HL2 in the presence of Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) in order to delineate a metal speciation model. We also determined the X-ray structures of both of the ligands and of three representative metal complexes. Our results support the hypothesis that several selective strand transfer inhibitors preferentially chelate one cation in solution and that the metal complexes can interact with the active site of the enzyme.

  7. Structural Evidence for Effectiveness of Darunavir and Two Related Antiviral Inhibitors against HIV-2 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Louis, John M.; Aniana, Annie; Ghosh, Arun K.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-12-08

    No drug has been targeted specifically for HIV-2 (human immunodeficiency virus type 2) infection despite its increasing prevalence worldwide. The antiviral HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) protease (PR) inhibitor darunavir and the chemically related GRL98065 and GRL06579A were designed with the same chemical scaffold and different substituents at P2 and P2' to optimize polar interactions for HIV-1 PR (PR1). These inhibitors are also effective antiviral agents for HIV-2-infected cells. Therefore, crystal structures of HIV-2 PR (PR2) complexes with the three inhibitors have been solved at 1.2-{angstrom} resolution to analyze the molecular basis for their antiviral potency. Unusually, the crystals were grown in imidazole and zinc acetate buffer, which formed interactions with the PR2 and the inhibitors. Overall, the structures were very similar to the corresponding inhibitor complexes of PR1 with an RMSD of 1.1 {angstrom} on main-chain atoms. Most hydrogen-bond and weaker C-H...O interactions with inhibitors were conserved in the PR2 and PR1 complexes, except for small changes in interactions with water or disordered side chains. Small differences were observed in the hydrophobic contacts for the darunavir complexes, in agreement with relative inhibition of the two PRs. These near-atomic-resolution crystal structures verify the inhibitor potency for PR1 and PR2 and will provide the basis for the development of antiviral inhibitors targeting PR2.

  8. Design and synthesis of tetrahydrophthalimide derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are one of the key components in highly active anti-retroviral therapy because of their high specificity and less toxicity. NNRTIs inhibit reverse transcriptase enzyme by binding to the allosteric site, which is 10Å away from the active site. Rapid emergence of resistance is the major problem with all anti-HIV agents. Hence, there is continuous need to develop novel anti-HIV agents active against both drug sensitive and resistance strains. Results All the 16 synthesized 2-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4-dihydro-1H-isoindol-2(3H,7H,7aH)-yl)-N-(substitutedphenyl) acetamide 4(a-p) analogs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Lipinski rule of five parameters and molecular parameters like solubility, drug likeness, and drug score were derived for designed analogs using online servers like Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for their HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor activity by HIV-1 RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity assay at 2 and 20 μM concentrations. Conclusions Among the 16 synthesized compounds, 4a, 4b, 4f, 4g, 4k, and 4l showed weak reverse transcriptase inhibitor activity at 20 μM concentration. For the designed compounds, there was no correlation observed between molecular modeling and in vitro studies. PMID:23968361

  9. Electronic transitions of neutral and anionic quinolinone HIV-1 integrase inhibitor: Joint theory/experiment investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandurm, Pierre; Cauvin, Christine; Wouters, Johan; Perpète, Eric A.; Jacquemin, Denis

    2009-08-01

    In this joint experimental and theoretical study, the solution-state conformation of [6-bromo-1-(4-fluorophenylmethyl)-4(1 H)-quinolinon-3-yl)]-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-butenoïc acid (QDKA), a potential HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, is investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory. The neutral, mono-anionic and di-anionic species have been identified and their spectral characteristics rationalized. The possibility of forming enol tautomers and keto structures is assessed.

  10. New directions for protease inhibitors directed drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2016-11-01

    Proteases play crucial roles in various biological processes, and their activities are essential for all living organisms-from viruses to humans. Since their functions are closely associated with many pathogenic mechanisms, their inhibitors or activators are important molecular targets for developing treatments for various diseases. Here, we describe drugs/drug candidates that target proteases, such as malarial plasmepsins, β-secretase, virus proteases, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Previously, we reported inhibitors of aspartic proteases, such as renin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease, human T-lymphotropic virus type I protease, plasmepsins, and β-secretase, as drug candidates for hypertension, adult T-cell leukaemia, human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy, malaria, and Alzheimer's disease. Our inhibitors are also described in this review article as examples of drugs that target proteases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 563-579, 2016. PMID:26584340

  11. A bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease inhibitor that acts as a microbial serine protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hu; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Lee, Kyung Yong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors from bumblebee venom have been shown to block plasmin activity. In this study, we identified the protein BiVSPI from the venom of Bombus ignitus to be a serine protease inhibitor and an antimicrobial factor. BiVSPI is a 55-amino acid mature peptide with ten conserved cysteine residues and a P1 methionine residue. BiVSPI is expressed in the venom gland and also found in the venom as an 8-kDa peptide. Recombinant BiVSPI that was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin but not trypsin. BiVSPI also inhibited microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A (Ki=6.57nM) and proteinase K (Ki=7.11nM). In addition, BiVSPI was shown to bind directly to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Beauveria bassiana but not to Escherichia coli. Consistent with these results, BiVSPI exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. These findings provide evidence for a novel serine protease inhibitor in bumblebee venom that has antimicrobial functions.

  12. Gene expression and activity of digestive proteases in Daphnia: effects of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has increased worldwide, and these blooms have been claimed to be a major factor leading to the decline of the most important freshwater herbivores, i.e. representatives of the genus Daphnia. This suppression of Daphnia is partly attributed to the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria. Among these metabolites, protease inhibitors are found in almost every natural cyanobacterial bloom and have been shown to specifically inhibit Daphnia's digestive proteases in vitro, but to date no physiological responses of these serine proteases to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors in Daphnia have been reported in situ at the protein and genetic levels. Results Nine digestive proteases were detected in D. magna using activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Subsequent analyses by LC-MS/MS and database search led to the identification of respective protease genes. D. magna responded to dietary protease inhibitors by up-regulation of the expression of these respective proteases at the RNA-level and by the induction of new and less sensitive protease isoforms at the protein level. The up-regulation in response to dietary trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitors ranged from 1.4-fold to 25.6-fold. These physiological responses of Daphnia, i.e. up-regulation of protease expression and the induction of isoforms, took place even after feeding on 20% cyanobacterial food for only 24 h. These physiological responses proved to be independent from microcystin effects. Conclusion Here for the first time it was shown in situ that a D. magna clone responds physiologically to dietary cyanobacterial protease inhibitors by phenotypic plasticity of the targets of these specific inhibitors, i.e. Daphnia gut proteases. These regulatory responses are adaptive for D. magna, as they increase the capacity for protein digestion in the presence of dietary protease inhibitors. The type and extent of these responses in protease expression might

  13. Isolation of the human PC6 gene encoding the putative host protease for HIV-1 gp160 processing in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, L; Wolf, J; Pichuantes, S; Duke, R; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Production of infectious HIV-1 virions is dependent on the processing of envelope glycoprotein gp160 by a host cell protease. The protease in human CD4+ T lymphocytes has not been unequivocally identified, yet members of the family of mammalian subtilisin-like protein convertases (SPCs), which are soluble or membrane-bound proteases of the secretory pathway, best fulfill the criteria. These proteases are required for proprotein maturation and cleave at paired basic amino acid motifs in numerous cellular and viral glycoprotein precursors, both in vivo and in vitro. To identify the gp160 processing protease, we have used reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses to ascertain the spectrum of SPC proteases in human CD4+ T cells. We have cloned novel members of the SPC family, known as the human PC6 genes. Two isoforms of the hPC6 protease are expressed in human T cells, hPC6A and the larger hPC6B. The patterns of SPC gene expression in human T cells has been compared with the furin-defective LoVo cell line, both of which are competent in the production of infectious HIV virions. This comparison led to the conclusion that the hPC6 gene products are the most likely candidates for the host cell protease responsible for HIV-1 gp160 processing in human CD4+ T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8755538

  14. Early antiretroviral therapy: rationale, protease inhibitor-sparing regimens and once daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Gatell, J M

    1998-01-01

    In 1998 it seems reasonable and widely accepted that all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients willing to be treated may benefit from receiving antiretroviral therapy. Only those with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, normal CD4 lymphocyte counts and lack of markers of immunological system activation may be possible exceptions. The rationale supporting the early initiation of antiretroviral therapy are (i) data on viral dynamics; (ii) preliminary data pointing toward a better and a quicker restoration of immune function when treatment is initiated in very early stages (during or within a few weeks or months of acute symptomatic or asymptomatic HIV-1 infection); (iii) the lack of a stable viral load set-point even in patients in the early stages (CD4 > 500 cells/mm3) who have a very low viral load (< 5000 copies/ml); (iv) the relatively high likelihood of clinical progression at mid-term of the approximately 50-75% of patients in very early disease stages (CD4 > 500 cells/mm3) who have a plasma viral load above 5000 to 10,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml; (v) data from the Spanish Earth-1 study, which used a composite endpoint (virological, immunological or clinical progression), demonstrating that even in these very early stages of HIV-1 disease any antiretroviral therapy (double or triple combination) was better than no treatment. Even in early disease stages, a triple combination is needed to achieve a durable and profound virological and immunological response. In addition, the combination of stavudine plus didanosine has several advantages and can be considered one of the best double nucleoside combinations to combine with a protease inhibitor or with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The INCAS study and the preliminary results of the ongoing Spanish SCAN study have demonstrated the possibility of protease inhibitor-sparing combinations for initial antiretroviral treatment, at least in selected patient subsets, such as those with a

  15. FRET-based assay to screen inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal K.; Przybilla, Frédéric; Restle, Tobias; Godet, Julien; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    During HIV-1 reverse transcription, the single-stranded RNA genome is converted into proviral double stranded DNA by Reverse Transcriptase (RT) within a reverse transcription complex composed of the genomic RNA and a number of HIV-1 encoded proteins, including the nucleocapsid protein NCp7. Here, we developed a one-step and one-pot RT polymerization assay. In this in vitro assay, RT polymerization is monitored in real-time by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) using a commercially available doubly-labeled primer/template DNA. The assay can monitor and quantify RT polymerization activity as well as its promotion by NCp7. Z-factor values as high as 0.89 were obtained, indicating that the assay is suitable for high-throughput drug screening. Using Nevirapine and AZT as prototypical RT inhibitors, reliable IC50 values were obtained from the changes in the RT polymerization kinetics. Interestingly, the assay can also detect NCp7 inhibitors, making it suitable for high-throughput screening of drugs targeting RT, NCp7 or simultaneously, both proteins. PMID:26762982

  16. The Tat Inhibitor Didehydro-Cortistatin A Prevents HIV-1 Reactivation from Latency

    PubMed Central

    Mousseau, Guillaume; Kessing, Cari F.; Fromentin, Rémi; Trautmann, Lydie; Chomont, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) inhibits HIV-1 replication, but the virus persists in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells susceptible to viral reactivation. The virus-encoded early gene product Tat activates transcription of the viral genome and promotes exponential viral production. Here we show that the Tat inhibitor didehydro-cortistatin A (dCA), unlike other antiretrovirals, reduces residual levels of viral transcription in several models of HIV latency, breaks the Tat-mediated transcriptional feedback loop, and establishes a nearly permanent state of latency, which greatly diminishes the capacity for virus reactivation. Importantly, treatment with dCA induces inactivation of viral transcription even after its removal, suggesting that the HIV promoter is epigenetically repressed. Critically, dCA inhibits viral reactivation upon CD3/CD28 or prostratin stimulation of latently infected CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected subjects receiving suppressive ART. Our results suggest that inclusion of a Tat inhibitor in current ART regimens may contribute to a functional HIV-1 cure by reducing low-level viremia and preventing viral reactivation from latent reservoirs. PMID:26152583

  17. Development of a receptor model for efficient in silico screening of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Mario A; Ribone, Sergio R; Briñón, Margarita C; Dehaen, Wim

    2014-07-01

    Integrase (IN) is a key viral enzyme for the replication of the type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and as such constitutes a relevant therapeutic target for the development of anti-HIV agents. However, the lack of crystallographic data of HIV IN complexed with the corresponding viral DNA has historically hindered the application of modern structure-based drug design techniques to the discovery of new potent IN inhibitors (INIs). Consequently, the development and validation of reliable HIV IN structural models that may be useful for the screening of large databases of chemical compounds is of particular interest. In this study, four HIV-1 IN homology models were evaluated respect to their capability to predict the inhibition potency of a training set comprising 36 previously reported INIs with IC50 values in the low nanomolar to the high micromolar range. Also, 9 inactive structurally related compounds were included in this training set. In addition, a crystallographic structure of the IN-DNA complex corresponding to the prototype foamy virus (PFV) was also evaluated as structural model for the screening of inhibitors. The applicability of high throughput screening techniques, such as blind and ligand-guided exhaustive rigid docking was assessed. The receptor models were also refined by molecular dynamics and clustering techniques to assess protein sidechain flexibility and solvent effect on inhibitor binding. Among the studied models, we conclude that the one derived from the X-ray structure of the PFV integrase exhibited the best performance to rank the potencies of the compounds in the training set, with the predictive power being further improved by explicitly modeling five water molecules within the catalytic side of IN. Also, accounting for protein sidechain flexibility enhanced the prediction of inhibition potencies among the studied compounds. Finally, an interaction fingerprint pattern was established for the fast identification of potent IN

  18. Tuning of AKT-pathway by Nef and its blockade by protease inhibitors results in limited recovery in latently HIV infected T-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Colin, Laurence; Khan, Kashif Aziz; Bouchat, Sophie; Varin, Audrey; Larbi, Anis; Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Kabeya, Kabamba; Vanhulle, Caroline; Delacourt, Nadège; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Coquard, Laurie; Borch, Alexandra; König, Renate; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stephane; Rohr, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Fulop, Tamas; Van Lint, Carine; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes, which are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. We found that Akt interacts with HIV-1 Nef protein. In primary T cells treated with exogenous Nef or acutely infected with Nef-expressing HIV-1 in vitro, Akt became phosphorylated on serine473 and threonine308. In vitro, Akt activation mediated by Nef in T-cells was blocked by HIV protease inhibitors (PI), but not by reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). Ex vivo, we found that the Akt pathway is hyperactivated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from cART naïve HIV-1-infected patients. PBLs isolated from PI-treated patients, but not from RTI-treated patients, exhibited decreased Akt activation, T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. We found that PI but not RTI can block HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected J-Lat lymphoid cells stimulated with various stimuli. Using luciferase measurement, we further confirmed that Nef-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latency in 1G5 cells was blocked by PI parallel to decreased Akt activation. Our results indicate that PI-mediated blockade of Akt activation could impact the HIV-1 reservoir and support the need to further assess the therapeutic use of HIV-1 PI in order to curtail latently infected cells in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27076174

  19. A novel dipyridodiazepinone inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase acts through a nonsubstrate binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.C.; Warren, T.C.; Adams, J.; Proudfoot, J.; Skiles, J.; Raghavan, P.; Perry, C.; Potocki, I.; Farina, P.R.; Grob, P.M. )

    1991-02-26

    A novel dipyridodiazepinone, 6,11-dihydro-11-cyclopropyl-4-methyldipyrido(2,3-b:2{prime},3{prime}-e)-(1,4)diazepin-6-one (BI-RG-587), is a selective noncompetitive inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT-1). An azido photoaffinity analogue of BI-RG-587 was synthesized and found to irreversibly inhibit the enzyme upon UV irradiation. BI-RG-587 and close structural analogues competitively protected RT-1 from inactivation by the photoaffinity label. A thiobenzimidazolone (TIBO) derivative, a nonnucleoside inhibitor of RT-1, also protected the enzyme from photoinactivation, which suggests a common binding site for these compounds. Substrates dGTP, template-primer, and tRNA afforded no protection from enzyme inactivation. A tritiated photoaffinity probe was found to stoichiometrically and selectively label p66 such that 1 mol of probe inactivates 1 mol of RT-1.

  20. Raltegravir, elvitegravir, and metoogravir: the birth of "me-too" HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Erik; Odde, Srinivas; Ramkumar, Kavya; Neamati, Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Merck's MK-0518, known as raltegravir, has recently become the first FDA-approved HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitor and has since risen to blockbuster drug status. Much research has in turn been conducted over the last few years aimed at recreating but optimizing the compound's interactions with the protein. Resulting me-too drugs have shown favorable pharmacokinetic properties and appear drug-like but, as expected, most have a highly similar interaction with IN to that of raltegravir. We propose that, based upon conclusions drawn from our docking studies illustrated herein, most of these me-too MK-0518 analogues may experience a low success rate against raltegravir-resistant HIV strains. As HIV has a very high mutational competence, the development of drugs with new mechanisms of inhibitory action and/or new active substituents may be a more successful route to take in the development of second- and third-generation IN inhibitors. PMID:19265512

  1. Diketoacid chelating ligands as dual inhibitors of HIV-1 integration process.

    PubMed

    Rogolino, Dominga; Carcelli, Mauro; Compari, Carlotta; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Fisicaro, Emilia; Rispoli, Gabriele; Neamati, Nouri; Debyser, Zeger; Christ, Frauke; Chimirri, Alba

    2014-05-01

    HIV-1 Integrase (IN) represents a very attractive pharmacological target for the development of new and more efficient drugs. Recently, an allosteric inhibitory approach also emerged, that targets the interaction between IN and cellular cofactors, such as LEDGF/p75. Small molecules based on the diketoacid pharmachophore were studied for their ability to inhibit at the same time integration and IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction (dual inhibitors): in this study, we evaluated three indole diketoacid derivatives and their magnesium(II) complexes for their ability to act as dual inhibitors. Effectively, the metal complexes exhibited IN inhibition potency in low nanomolar/micromolar concentration range; both the complexes and the free ligands are also able to inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction at low μM values. Moreover, these magnesium compounds showed good antiviral activity, suggesting the possibility to exploit metal coordination for the design of new antivirals.

  2. Discovery of novel small-molecule HIV-1 replication inhibitors that stabilize capsid complexes.

    PubMed

    Lamorte, Louie; Titolo, Steve; Lemke, Christopher T; Goudreau, Nathalie; Mercier, Jean-François; Wardrop, Elizabeth; Shah, Vaibhav B; von Schwedler, Uta K; Langelier, Charles; Banik, Soma S R; Aiken, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I; Mason, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    The identification of novel antiretroviral agents is required to provide alternative treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients. The screening of a phenotypic cell-based viral replication assay led to the identification of a novel class of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazol-6-one (pyrrolopyrazolone) HIV-1 inhibitors, exemplified by two compounds: BI-1 and BI-2. These compounds inhibited early postentry stages of viral replication at a step(s) following reverse transcription but prior to 2 long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle formation, suggesting that they may block nuclear targeting of the preintegration complex. Selection of viruses resistant to BI-2 revealed that substitutions at residues A105 and T107 within the capsid (CA) amino-terminal domain (CANTD) conferred high-level resistance to both compounds, implicating CA as the antiviral target. Direct binding of BI-1 and/or BI-2 to CANTD was demonstrated using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift titration analyses. A high-resolution crystal structure of the BI-1:CANTD complex revealed that the inhibitor bound within a recently identified inhibitor binding pocket (CANTD site 2) between CA helices 4, 5, and 7, on the surface of the CANTD, that also corresponds to the binding site for the host factor CPSF-6. The functional consequences of BI-1 and BI-2 binding differ from previously characterized inhibitors that bind the same site since the BI compounds did not inhibit reverse transcription but stabilized preassembled CA complexes. Hence, this new class of antiviral compounds binds CA and may inhibit viral replication by stabilizing the viral capsid.

  3. Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule HIV-1 Replication Inhibitors That Stabilize Capsid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Titolo, Steve; Lemke, Christopher T.; Goudreau, Nathalie; Mercier, Jean-François; Wardrop, Elizabeth; Shah, Vaibhav B.; von Schwedler, Uta K.; Langelier, Charles; Banik, Soma S. R.; Aiken, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of novel antiretroviral agents is required to provide alternative treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients. The screening of a phenotypic cell-based viral replication assay led to the identification of a novel class of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazol-6-one (pyrrolopyrazolone) HIV-1 inhibitors, exemplified by two compounds: BI-1 and BI-2. These compounds inhibited early postentry stages of viral replication at a step(s) following reverse transcription but prior to 2 long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle formation, suggesting that they may block nuclear targeting of the preintegration complex. Selection of viruses resistant to BI-2 revealed that substitutions at residues A105 and T107 within the capsid (CA) amino-terminal domain (CANTD) conferred high-level resistance to both compounds, implicating CA as the antiviral target. Direct binding of BI-1 and/or BI-2 to CANTD was demonstrated using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift titration analyses. A high-resolution crystal structure of the BI-1:CANTD complex revealed that the inhibitor bound within a recently identified inhibitor binding pocket (CANTD site 2) between CA helices 4, 5, and 7, on the surface of the CANTD, that also corresponds to the binding site for the host factor CPSF-6. The functional consequences of BI-1 and BI-2 binding differ from previously characterized inhibitors that bind the same site since the BI compounds did not inhibit reverse transcription but stabilized preassembled CA complexes. Hence, this new class of antiviral compounds binds CA and may inhibit viral replication by stabilizing the viral capsid. PMID:23817385

  4. HIV-1 antiretroviral drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Arts, Eric J; Hazuda, Daria J

    2012-04-01

    The most significant advance in the medical management of HIV-1 infection has been the treatment of patients with antiviral drugs, which can suppress HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels. The discovery of HIV-1 as the causative agent of AIDS together with an ever-increasing understanding of the virus replication cycle have been instrumental in this effort by providing researchers with the knowledge and tools required to prosecute drug discovery efforts focused on targeted inhibition with specific pharmacological agents. To date, an arsenal of 24 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs are available for treatment of HIV-1 infections. These drugs are distributed into six distinct classes based on their molecular mechanism and resistance profiles: (1) nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), (2) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), (3) integrase inhibitors, (4) protease inhibitors (PIs), (5) fusion inhibitors, and (6) coreceptor antagonists. In this article, we will review the basic principles of antiretroviral drug therapy, the mode of drug action, and the factors leading to treatment failure (i.e., drug resistance).

  5. Identification and Characterization of BMS-955176, a Second-Generation HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor with Improved Potency, Antiviral Spectrum, and Gag Polymorphic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Li, Zhufang; Zhang, Sharon; Sun, Yongnian; Samanta, Himadri; Terry, Brian; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Swidorski, Jacob J.; Chen, Jie; Venables, Brian L.; Healy, Matthew; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Cockett, Mark; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Krystal, Mark

    2016-01-01

    BMS-955176 is a second-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor (MI). A first-generation MI, bevirimat, showed clinical efficacy in early-phase studies, but ∼50% of subjects had viruses with reduced susceptibility associated with naturally occurring polymorphisms in Gag near the site of MI action. MI potency was optimized using a panel of engineered reporter viruses containing site-directed polymorphic changes in Gag that reduce susceptibility to bevirimat (including V362I, V370A/M/Δ, and T371A/Δ), leading incrementally to the identification of BMS-955176. BMS-955176 exhibits potent activity (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3.9 ± 3.4 nM [mean ± standard deviation]) toward a library (n = 87) of gag/pr recombinant viruses representing 96.5% of subtype B polymorphic Gag diversity near the CA/SP1 cleavage site. BMS-955176 exhibited a median EC50 of 21 nM toward a library of subtype B clinical isolates assayed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Potent activity was maintained against a panel of reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase inhibitor-resistant viruses, with EC50s similar to those for the wild-type virus. A 5.4-fold reduction in EC50 occurred in the presence of 40% human serum plus 27 mg/ml of human serum albumin (HSA), which corresponded well to an in vitro measurement of 86% human serum binding. Time-of-addition and pseudotype reporter virus studies confirm a mechanism of action for the compound that occurs late in the virus replication cycle. BMS-955176 inhibits HIV-1 protease cleavage at the CA/SP1 junction within Gag in virus-like particles (VLPs) and in HIV-1-infected cells, and it binds reversibly and with high affinity to assembled Gag in purified HIV-1 VLPs. Finally, in vitro combination studies showed no antagonistic interactions with representative antiretrovirals (ARVs) of other mechanistic classes. In conclusion, BMS-955176 is a second-generation MI with potent in vitro anti-HIV-1

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors irreversibly block infectivity of purified virions from chronically infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, D M; Petteway, S R; McDanal, C E; Hart, T K; Leary, J J; Dreyer, G B; Meek, T D; Bugelski, P J; Bolognesi, D P; Metcalf, B W

    1992-05-01

    Synthetic peptide analog inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease were used to study the effects of inhibition of polyprotein processing on the assembly, structure, and infectivity of virions released from a T-cell line chronically infected with HIV-1. Inhibition of proteolytic processing of both Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol was observed in purified virions from infected T cells after treatment. Protease inhibition was evident by the accumulation of precursors and processing intermediates of Pr55gag and by corresponding decreases in mature protein products. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of the virion particles released from inhibitor-treated cells after a 24-h treatment had an immature or aberrant capsid morphology. This morphological change correlated with the inhibition of polyprotein processing and a loss of infectivity. The infectivity of virion particles purified from these chronically infected cell cultures was assessed following treatment with the inhibitor for 1 to 3 days. Virions purified from cultures treated with inhibitor for 1 or 2 days demonstrated a 95- to 100-fold reduction in virus titers, and treatment for 3 days resulted in complete loss of detectable infectivity. The fact that virions from treated cultures were unable to establish infection over the 7- to 10-day incubation period in the titration experiments strongly suggests that particles produced by inhibitor-treated cells were unable to reactivate to an infectious form when they were purified away from exogenous protease inhibitor. Thus, a block of HIV-1 protease processing of viral polyproteins by specific inhibitors results in a potent antiviral effect characterized by the production of noninfectious virions with altered protein structures and immature morphologies.

  7. Design of a modular tetrameric scaffold for the synthesis of membrane-localized D-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    Francis, J. Nicholas; Redman, Joseph S.; Eckert, Debra M.; Kay, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved HIV-1 gp41 “pocket” region is a promising target for inhibiting viral entry. PIE12-trimer is a protease-resistant trimeric D-peptide inhibitor that binds to this pocket and potently blocks HIV entry. PIE12-trimer also possesses a reserve of binding energy that provides it with a strong genetic barrier to resistance (“resistance capacitor”). Here we report the design of a modular scaffold employing PEGs of discrete lengths for the efficient optimization and synthesis of PIE12-trimer. This scaffold also allows us to conjugate PIE12-trimer to several membrane-localizing cargoes, resulting in dramatically improved potency and retention of PIE12-trimer’s ability to absorb the impact of resistance mutations. This scaffold design strategy should be of broad utility for the rapid prototyping of multimeric peptide inhibitors attached to potency- or pharmacokinetic-enhancing groups. PMID:22545664

  8. Treating chemical diversity in QSAR analysis: modeling diverse HIV-1 integrase inhibitors using 4D fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Manisha; Hopfinger, A J

    2007-01-01

    A set of 213 compounds across 12 structurally diverse classes of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors was used to develop and evaluate a combined clustering and QSAR modeling methodology to construct significant, reliable, and robust models for structurally diverse data sets. The trial-descriptor pool for both clustering- and QSAR-model building consisted of 4D fingerprints and classic QSAR descriptors. Clustering was carried out using a combination of the partitioning around medoids method and divisive hierarchical clustering. QSAR models were constructed for members of each cluster by linear-regression fitting and model optimization using the genetic function approximation. The 12 structurally diverse classes of integrase inhbitors were partitioned into five clusters from which corresponding QSAR models, overwhelmingly composed of 4D fingerprint descriptors, were constructed. Analysis of the five QSAR models suggests that three models correspond to structurally diverse inhibitors that likely bind at a common site on integrase characterized by a common inhibitor hydrogen-bond donor, but involving somewhat different alignments and/or poses for the inhibitors of each of the three clusters. The particular alignments for the inhibitors of each of the three QSAR models involve specific distributions of nonpolar groups over the inhibitors. The two other clusters, one for coumarins and the other for depsides and depsidones, lead to QSAR models with less-defined pharmacophores, likely representing an inhibitor binding to a site(s) different from that of the other nine classes of inhibitors. Overall, the clustering and QSAR methodology employed in this study suggests that it can meaningfully partition structurally diverse compounds expressing a common endpoint in such a manner that leads to statistically significant and pharmacologically insightful composite QSAR models. PMID:17661457

  9. Preclinical Profile of BI 224436, a Novel HIV-1 Non-Catalytic-Site Integrase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Amad, Ma'an; Bailey, Murray D.; Bethell, Richard; Bös, Michael; Bonneau, Pierre; Cordingley, Michael; Coulombe, René; Duan, Jianmin; Edwards, Paul; Faucher, Anne-Marie; Garneau, Michel; Jakalian, Araz; Kawai, Stephen; Lamorte, Louie; LaPlante, Steven; Luo, Laibin; Mason, Steve; Poupart, Marc-André; Rioux, Nathalie; Schroeder, Patricia; Simoneau, Bruno; Tremblay, Sonia; Tsantrizos, Youla; Witvrouw, Myriam; Yoakim, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    BI 224436 is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor with effective antiviral activity that acts through a mechanism that is distinct from that of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). This 3-quinolineacetic acid derivative series was identified using an enzymatic integrase long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA 3′-processing assay. A combination of medicinal chemistry, parallel synthesis, and structure-guided drug design led to the identification of BI 224436 as a candidate for preclinical profiling. It has antiviral 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of <15 nM against different HIV-1 laboratory strains and cellular cytotoxicity of >90 μM. BI 224436 also has a low, ∼2.1-fold decrease in antiviral potency in the presence of 50% human serum and, by virtue of a steep dose-response curve slope, exhibits serum-shifted EC95 values ranging between 22 and 75 nM. Passage of virus in the presence of inhibitor selected for either A128T, A128N, or L102F primary resistance substitutions, all mapping to a conserved allosteric pocket on the catalytic core of integrase. BI 224436 also retains full antiviral activity against recombinant viruses encoding INSTI resistance substitutions N155S, Q148H, and E92Q. In drug combination studies performed in cellular antiviral assays, BI 224436 displays an additive effect in combination with most approved antiretrovirals, including INSTIs. BI 224436 has drug-like in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties, including Caco-2 cell permeability, solubility, and low cytochrome P450 inhibition. It exhibited excellent pharmacokinetic profiles in rat (clearance as a percentage of hepatic flow [CL], 0.7%; bioavailability [F], 54%), monkey (CL, 23%; F, 82%), and dog (CL, 8%; F, 81%). Based on the excellent biological and pharmacokinetic profile, BI 224436 was advanced into phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:24663024

  10. Inhibitor Ranking through QM Based Chelation Calculations for Virtual Screening of HIV-1 RNase H Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Steinmann, Casper; Kongsted, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have been used to predict the binding affinity of a set of ligands towards HIV-1 RT associated RNase H (RNH). The QM based chelation calculations show improved binding affinity prediction for the inhibitors compared to using an empirical scoring function. Furthermore, full protein fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations were conducted and subsequently analysed for individual residue stabilization/destabilization energy contributions to the overall binding affinity in order to better understand the true and false predictions. After a successful assessment of the methods based on the use of a training set of molecules, QM based chelation calculations were used as filter in virtual screening of compounds in the ZINC database. By this, we find, compared to regular docking, QM based chelation calculations to significantly reduce the large number of false positives. Thus, the computational models tested in this study could be useful as high throughput filters for searching HIV-1 RNase H active-site molecules in the virtual screening process. PMID:24897431

  11. Effect of the Active Site D25N Mutation on the Structure, Stability and Ligand Binding of the Mature HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Jane M.; Liu, Fengling; Ishima, Rieko; Weber, Irene T.; Louis, John M.

    2008-09-03

    All aspartic proteases, including retroviral proteases, share the triplet DTG critical for the active site geometry and catalytic function. These residues interact closely in the active, dimeric structure of HIV-1 protease (PR). We have systematically assessed the effect of the D25N mutation on the structure and stability of the mature PR monomer and dimer. The D25N mutation (PR{sub D25N}) increases the equilibrium dimer dissociation constant by a factor >100-fold (1.3 {+-} 0.09 {mu}m) relative to PR. In the absence of inhibitor, NMR studies reveal clear structural differences between PR and PR{sub D25N} in the relatively mobile P1 loop (residues 79-83) and flap regions, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses show that the mutation lowers the stabilities of both the monomer and dimer folds by 5 and 7.3 C, respectively. Only minimal differences are observed in high resolution crystal structures of PR{sub D25N} complexed to darunavir (DRV), a potent clinical inhibitor, or a non-hydrolyzable substrate analogue, Ac-Thr-Ile-Nle-r-Nle-Gln-Arg-NH{sub 2} (RPB), as compared with PR{center_dot}DRV and PR{center_dot}RPB complexes. Although complexation with RPB stabilizes both dimers, the effect on their T{sub m} is smaller for PR{sub D25N} (6.2 C) than for PR (8.7 C). The T{sub m} of PR{sub D25N}{center_dot}DRV increases by only 3 C relative to free PR{sub D25N}, as compared with a 22 C increase for PR{center_dot}DRV, and the mutation increases the ligand dissociation constant of PR{sub D25N}{center_dot}DRV by a factor of {approx}10{sup 6} relative to PR{center_dot}DRV. These results suggest that interactions mediated by the catalytic Asp residues make a major contribution to the tight binding of DRV to PR.

  12. Novel quinolinonyl diketo acid derivatives as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: design, synthesis, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Roux, Alessandra; Miele, Gaetano; Crucitti, Giuliana Cuzzucoli; Iacovo, Alberto; Rosi, Federica; Lavecchia, Antonio; Marinelli, Luciana; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Novellino, Ettore; Palmisano, Lucia; Andreotti, Mauro; Amici, Roberta; Galluzzo, Clementina Maria; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2008-08-14

    Novel quinolinonyl diketo acids were designed to obtain integrase (IN) inhibitors selectively active against the strand transfer (ST) step of the HIV integration process. Those new compounds are characterized by a single aryl diketo acid (DKA) chain in comparison to 4, a bifunctional diketo acid reported by our group as an anti-IN agent highly potent against both the 3'-processing and ST steps. Compound 6d was the most potent derivative in IN enzyme assays, while 6i showed the highest potency against HIV-1 in acutely infected cells. The selective inhibition of ST suggested the newly designed monofunctional DKAs bind the IN-DNA acceptor site without affecting the DNA donor site.

  13. Complete inactivation of HIV-1 using photo-labeled non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rios, Adan; Quesada, Jorge; Anderson, Dallas; Goldstein, Allan; Fossum, Theresa; Colby-Germinario, Susan; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that a photo-labeled derivative of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine termed DAPY, when used together with exposure to ultraviolet light, was able to completely and irreversibly inactivate both HIV-1 RT activity as well as infectiousness in each of a T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Control experiments using various concentrations of DAPY revealed that a combination of exposure to ultraviolet light together with use of the specific, high affinity photo-labeled compound was necessary for complete inactivation to occur. This method of HIV RT inactivation may have applicability toward preservation of an intact viral structure and warrants further investigation in regard to the potential of this approach to elicit a durable, broad protective immune response. PMID:20937333

  14. [Effective components against HIV-1 replicative enzymes isolated from plants].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zong-gen; Xu, Li-jia; Ye, Wen-cai; Xiao, Pei-gen; Chen, Hong-shan

    2010-02-01

    Plant active components characterized of many different structures and activities on multiple targets, have made them to be the important sources of inhibitors on HIV-1. For finding leading compounds with new structure against HIV-1, three key HIV-1 replicative enzymes (reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase) were used as screening models. The in vitro activities of 45 plant derived components isolated from Schisandraceae, Rutaceae and Ranunculaceae were reported. Within twelve triterpene components isolated, eight compounds were found to inhibit HIV-1 protease, in these eight active compounds, kadsuranic acid A (7) and nigranoic acid (8), inhibited both HIV-1 protease and integrase; Among fifteen lignans, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (15) and kadsurarin (16) were active on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and 4, 4-di(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenly)-2, 3-dimethylbutanol (13) active on HIV-1 integrase. All of the six alkaloids, seven flavones, and five others compounds were not active or only with low activities against HIV-1 replicative enzymes. Further studies of the triterpene components showing strong inhibitory activities on HIV-1 were warranted.

  15. Alterations in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression in protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, Juan; Reeds, Dominic N.; Wen, Weidong; Xueping, E.; Klein, Samuel; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Quirk, Erin K.; Powderly, William G.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Li, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Use of protease inhibitor (PI)–based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with altered regional fat distribution, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemias. To assess how PI-based HAART affects adipocyte gene expression in male HIV-1–infected patients, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify messenger RNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors and adipocytokines in thigh and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from male (1) HIV-1 seronegative subjects (control, n = 9), (2) asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-1–infected patients (naive, n = 6), (3) HIV-1–infected patients who were receiving antiretroviral agents but never received PIs (PI naive, n = 5), (4) HIV-1–infected patients who were receiving PI-based HAART (PI, n = 7), and (5) HIV-1–infected patients who discontinued the PI component of their antiviral therapy more than 6 months before enrollment (past PI, n =7). In the PI group, the messenger RNA expression levels of the CCAAT/enhancer–binding protein α, leptin, and adiponectin (18%, P < .01; 23%, P < .05; and 13%, P < .05, respectively) were significantly lower than the levels measured in the PI-naive group. These results are consistent with previous studies on the effects of PIs on cultured adipocytes. Prospective longitudinal studies of thigh fat adipose tissue gene expression could provide further insights on the pathogenesis of metabolic complications associated with PI-based HAART. PMID:15877283

  16. On the nature of the reaction intermediate in the HIV-1 protease: a quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, V.; Raugei, S.; Piana, S.; Carloni, P.

    2008-07-01

    Several mechanistic aspects of Aspartic Proteases' enzymatic reaction are currently highly controversial. There is general consensus that the first step of the reaction involves a nucleophilic attack of a water molecule to the substrate carbonyl carbon with subsequent formation of a metastable intermediate (INT). However, the exact nature of this intermediate is subject of debate. While ab initio and QM/MM calculations predict that INT is a neutral gem-diol specie, empirical valence bond calculations suggest that the protein frame can stabilize a charged oxyanion intermediate. Here the relative stability of the gem diol and oxyanion intermediate is calculated by performing density functional and post-Hartree-Fock calculations. The robustness of the results is assessed by increasing the size of the system and of the basis set and by performing QM/MM calculations that explicitly include protein/solvent electrostatic effects. Our results suggest that the neutral gem-diol intermediate is 20-30 kcal/mol more stable than the charged oxyanion. It is therefore concluded that only the neutral specie is populated during the enzymatic reaction.

  17. NMR characterization of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase binding to various non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with different activities

    PubMed Central

    Thammaporn, Ratsupa; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Boonsri, Pornthip; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Techasakul, Supanna; Kato, Koichi; Hannongbua, Supa

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is an important target for antiviral therapy against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the efficiency of available drugs is impaired most typically by drug-resistance mutations in this enzyme. In this study, we applied a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic technique to the characterization of the binding of HIV-1 RT to various non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with different activities, i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, dapivirine, etravirine, and rilpivirine. 1H-13C heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) spectral data of HIV-1 RT, in which the methionine methyl groups of the p66 subunit were selectively labeled with 13C, were collected in the presence and absence of these NNRTIs. We found that the methyl 13C chemical shifts of the M230 resonance of HIV-1 RT bound to these drugs exhibited a high correlation with their anti-HIV-1 RT activities. This methionine residue is located in proximity to the NNRTI-binding pocket but not directly involved in drug interactions and serves as a conformational probe, indicating that the open conformation of HIV-1 RT was more populated with NNRTIs with higher inhibitory activities. Thus, the NMR approach offers a useful tool to screen for novel NNRTIs in developing anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26510386

  18. HIV-1 IN strand transfer chelating inhibitors: a focus on metal binding.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Alessia; Carcelli, Mauro; Compari, Carlotta; Fisicaro, Emilia; Pala, Nicolino; Rispoli, Gabriele; Rogolino, Dominga; Sanchez, Tino W; Sechi, Mario; Neamati, Nouri

    2011-04-01

    Most active and selective strand transfer HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors contain chelating functional groups that are crucial feature for the inhibition of the catalytic activities of the enzyme. In particular, diketo acids and their derivatives can coordinate one or two metal ions within the catalytic core of the enzyme. The present work is intended as a contribution to elucidate the mechanism of action of the HIV-IN inhibitors by studying the coordinative features of H₂L¹ (L-708,906), an important member of the diketo acids family of inhibitors, and H₂L₂, a model for S-1360, another potent IN inhibitor. Magnesium(II) and manganese(II) complexes of H₂L¹ and H₂L² were isolated and fully characterized in solution and in the solid state. The crystal structures of the manganese complex [Mn(HL₂)₂(CH₃OH)₂]·2CH₃OH were solved by X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the speciation models for H₂L₂ with magnesium(II) and manganese(II) ions were performed and the formation constants of the complexes were measured. M(HL₂)₂ (M = Mg²+, Mn²+) was the most abundant species in solution at physiological pH. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-IN activity, showing good results both for the ligand and the corresponding complexes. From analysis of the speciation models and of the biological data we can conclude that coordination of both metal cofactors could not be strictly necessary and that inhibitors can act as complexes and not only as free ligands.

  19. Cystatin protease inhibitors and immune functions.

    PubMed

    Zavasnik-Bergant, Tina

    2008-05-01

    Cystatins are natural tight-binding reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are wide spread in all living organisms (mammals, nematodes, arthropods etc.) and are involved in various biological processes where they regulate normal proteolysis and also take part in disease pathology. Many cystatins show changes in expression and/or localization, as well as changes in secretion, following certain stimuli acting on immune cells. In immune cells, cystatins interfere with antigen processing and presentation, phagocytosis, expression of cytokines and nitric oxide and these ways modify the immune response. Further, it has been suggested that cystatin-type molecules secreted from parasites down-modulate the host immune response. Precise understanding of the regulatory roles on proteolytic enzymes of endogenous and exogenous cystatins, such as those from parasites, will provide us with valuable insight into how immune response could be modulated to treat a specific disease. This review covers some specific functions of individual cystatins, with a particular focus on the relevance of cystatins to the immune response.

  20. Design of translactam HCMV protease inhibitors as potent antivirals.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D

    2005-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen for which there is a significant unmet medical need. New HCMV antivirals, active against novel molecular targets, are undoubtedly needed as the currently available drugs ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet, which are all viral DNA inhibitors, suffer from limited effectiveness, mainly due to the development of drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and toxicity. One of the newer molecular targets that has been exploited in the search for better drug candidates is HCMV protease. Our deltaAla HCMV protease (wild type variant with the internal cleavage site deleted) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. This viral enzyme was used to develop HCMV protease assays to evaluate potential inhibitors. The chirally pure (SRS)-alpha-methyl pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactam template was synthesized, which together with the natural substrate requirements of HCMV protease and detailed SAR, was used to design potent and selective mechanism based inhibitors of HCMV protease. The mechanism of action of these inhibitors of HCMV protease was investigated by ESI/MS, and the X-ray crystal structure of the HCMV protease was used to refine our selective viral enzyme inhibitors to obtain plasma stable antivirals. A novel ELISA antiviral assay was developed which, together with a cytotoxicity assay, enabled us to discover anti-HCMV drug candidates equivalent in potency to ganciclovir that had good pharmacokinetics in the dog and good brain and ocular penetration in the guinea pig.

  1. HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Structure with RNase H Inhibitor dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl Hydrazone Bound at a Novel Site

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel,D.; Sarafianos, S.; Dharmasena, S.; Hossain, M.; McCoy-Simandle, K.; Ilina, T.; Clark, A.; Knight, J.; Julias, J.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), has limited the efficacy of anti-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatments, and new lead compounds that target novel binding sites are needed. We have determined the 3.15 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) complexed with dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl hydrazone (DHBNH), an HIV-1 RT RNase H (RNH) inhibitor (RNHI). DHBNH is effective against a variety of drug-resistant HIV-1 RT mutants. While DHBNH has little effect on most aspects of RT-catalyzed DNA synthesis, at relatively high concentrations it does inhibit the initiation of RNA-primed DNA synthesis. Although primarily an RNHI, DHBNH binds >50 {angstrom} away from the RNH active site, at a novel site near both the polymerase active site and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) binding pocket. When DHBNH binds, both Tyr181 and Tyr188 remain in the conformations seen in unliganded HIV-1 RT. DHBNH interacts with conserved residues (Asp186, Trp229) and has substantial interactions with the backbones of several less well-conserved residues. On the basis of this structure, we designed substituted DHBNH derivatives that interact with the NNRTI-binding pocket. These compounds inhibit both the polymerase and RNH activities of RT.

  2. Structure of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase with the Inhibitor -thujaplicinol Bound at the RNase H Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, D.; Maegley, K; Pauly, T; Bauman, J; Das, K; Dharia, C; Clark, Jr., A; Ryan, K; Hickey, M; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Novel inhibitors are needed to counteract the rapid emergence of drug-resistant HIV variants. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) has both DNA polymerase and RNase H (RNH) enzymatic activities, but approved drugs that inhibit RT target the polymerase. Inhibitors that act against new targets, such as RNH, should be effective against all of the current drug-resistant variants. Here, we present 2.80 {angstrom} and 2.04 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures of an RNH inhibitor, {beta}-thujaplicinol, bound at the RNH active site of both HIV-1 RT and an isolated RNH domain. {beta}-thujaplicinol chelates two divalent metal ions at the RNH active site. We provide biochemical evidence that {beta}-thujaplicinol is a slow-binding RNH inhibitor with noncompetitive kinetics and suggest that it forms a tropylium ion that interacts favorably with RT and the RNA:DNA substrate.

  3. Broad antiviral activity and crystal structure of HIV-1 fusion inhibitor sifuvirtide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xue; Chong, Huihui; Zhang, Chao; Waltersperger, Sandro; Wang, Meitian; Cui, Sheng; He, Yuxian

    2012-02-24

    Sifuvirtide (SFT) is an electrostatically constrained α-helical peptide fusion inhibitor showing potent anti-HIV activity, good safety, and pharmacokinetic profiles, and it is currently under phase II clinical trials in China. In this study, we demonstrate its potent and broad anti-HIV activity by using diverse HIV-1 subtypes and variants, including subtypes A, B, and C that dominate the AIDS epidemic worldwide, and subtypes B', CRF07_BC, and CRF01_AE recombinants that are currently circulating in China, and those possessing cross-resistance to the first and second generation fusion inhibitors. To elucidate its mechanism of action, we determined the crystal structure of SFT in complex with its target N-terminal heptad repeat region (NHR) peptide (N36), which fully supports our rational inhibitor design and reveals its key motifs and residues responsible for the stability and anti-HIV activity. As anticipated, SFT adopts fully helical conformation stabilized by the multiple engineered salt bridges. The designing of SFT also provide novel inter-helical salt bridges and hydrogen bonds that improve the affinity of SFT to NHR trimer. The extra serine residue and acetyl group stabilize α-helicity of the N-terminal portion of SFT, whereas Thr-119 serves to stabilize the hydrophobic NHR pocket. In addition, our structure demonstrates that the residues critical for drug resistance, located at positions 37, 38, 41, and 43 of NHR, are irreplaceable for maintaining the stable fusogenic six-helix bundle structure. Our data present important information for developing SFT for clinical use and for designing novel HIV fusion inhibitors.

  4. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Macrocyclized Betulin Derivatives as a Novel Class of Anti-HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Jones, Stacey A.; Jeffery, Jerry L.; Miranda, Sonia R.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Irlbeck, David M.; Brown, Kevin W.; McDanal, Charlene B.; Han, Nianhe; Gao, Daxin; Wu, Yongyong; Shen, Bin; Liu, Chunyu; Xi, Caiming; Yang, Heping; Li, Rui; Yu, Yajun; Sun, Yufei; Jin, Zhimin; Wang, Erjuan; Johns, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    A macrocycle provides diverse functionality and stereochemical complexity in a conformationally preorganized ring structure, and it occupies a unique chemical space in drug discovery. However, the synthetic challenge to access this structural class is high and hinders the exploration of macrocycles. In this study, efficient synthetic routes to macrocyclized betulin derivatives have been established. The macrocycle containing compounds showed equal potency compared to bevirimat in multiple HIV-1 antiviral assays. The synthesis and biological evaluation of this novel series of HIV-1 maturation inhibitors will be discussed. PMID:25250097

  5. Molecular docking guided structure based design of symmetrical N,N'-disubstituted urea/thiourea as HIV-1 gp120-CD4 binding inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Sree Kanth; Vangala, Radhika; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2013-08-01

    Induced fit molecular docking studies were performed on BMS-806 derivatives reported as small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 gp120-CD4 binding. Comprehensive study of protein-ligand interactions guided in identification and design of novel symmetrical N,N'-disubstituted urea and thiourea as HIV-1 gp120-CD4 binding inhibitors. These molecules were synthesized in aqueous medium using microwave irradiation. Synthesized molecules were screened for their inhibitory ability by HIV-1 gp120-CD4 capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Designed compounds were found to inhibit HIV-1 gp120-CD4 binding in micromolar (0.013-0.247 μM) concentrations.

  6. Proteases and Protease Inhibitors of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tataruch, Dorota; Gu, Dongfeng; Liu, Xinyu; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes. PMID:25874235

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Diarylpyridines and Diarylanilines as Potent Non-nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingtao; Qin, Bingjie; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Chen, Chin Ho; Jiang, Shibo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xie, Lan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the structures and activities of our previously identified non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), we designed and synthesized two sets of derivatives, diarylpyridines (A) and diarylanilines (B), and tested their anti-HIV-1 activity against infection by HIV-1 NL4-3 and IIIB in TZM-bl and MT-2 cells, respectively. The results showed that most compounds exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with low nanomolar EC50 values, and some of them, such as 13m, 14c, and 14e, displayed high potency with subnanomolar EC50 values, which were more potent than etravirine (TMC125, 1) in the same assays. Notably, these compounds were also highly effective against infection by multi-RTI-resistant strains, suggesting a high potential to further develop these compounds as a novel class of NNRTIs with improved antiviral efficacy and resistance profile. PMID:21049929

  8. Gag-Pol Transframe Domain p6* Is Essential for HIV-1 Protease-Mediated Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Chou, Ting-An; Liao, Wei-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is encoded by pol, which is initially translated as a Pr160gag-pol polyprotein by a ribosomal frameshift event. Within Gag-Pol, truncated p6gag is replaced by a transframe domain (referred to as p6* or p6pol) located directly upstream of PR. p6* has been proposed as playing a role in modulating PR activation. Overlapping reading frames between p6* and p6gag present a challenge to researchers using genetic approaches to studying p6* biological functions. To determine the role of p6* in PR activation without affecting the gag reading frame, we constructed a series of Gag/Gag-Pol expression vectors by duplicating PR with or without p6* between PR pairs, and observed that PR duplication eliminated virus production due to significant Gag cleavage enhancement. This effect was mitigated when p6* was placed between the two PRs. Further, Gag cleavage enhancement was markedly reduced when either one of the two PRs was mutationally inactivated. Additional reduction in Gag cleavage efficiency was noted following the removal of p6* from between the two PRs. The insertion of a NC domain (wild-type or mutant) directly upstream of PR or p6*PR did not significantly improve Gag processing efficiency. With the exception of those containing p6* directly upstream of an active PR, all constructs were either noninfectious or weakly infectious. Our results suggest that (a) p6* is essential for triggering PR activation, (b) p6* has a role in preventing premature virus processing, and (c) the NC domain within Gag-Pol is not a major determinant of PR activation. PMID:26030443

  9. Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

    1999-09-01

    Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

  10. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells with combinations of HIV-1-specific inhibitors results in a different resistance pattern than does treatment with single-drug therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Pérez-Pérez, M J; Camarasa, M J; Tarpley, W G; De Clercq, E

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected CEM cells were treated by the HIV-1-specific inhibitors bis-heteroarylpiperazine (BHAP), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-5-methylimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1 H)-on e (TIBO) R82913, nevirapine, and the N3-methylthymine derivative of [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]-3'-spiro- 5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide) (TSAO-m3T), as single agents or in combination, at escalating concentrations. When used individually, the compounds led to the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains within two to five subcultivations. The resulting strains were designated HIV-1/BHAP, HIV-1/TIBO, HIV-1/Nev, and HIV-1/TSAO-m3T, respectively. The mutant viruses showed the following amino acid substitutions in their reverse transcriptase (RT): Leu-100-->Ile for HIV-1/BHAP; Lys-103-->Asn for HIV-1/TIBO; Val-106-->Ala for HIV-1/Nev; and Glu-138-->Lys for HIV-1/TSAO-m3T. Both the Tyr-181-->Cys and Val-106-->Ala mutations were found in another mutant emerging following treatment with nevirapine at escalating concentrations. The BHAP-resistant virus remained fully sensitive to the inhibitory effects of nevirapine and TSAO-m3T, whereas the TSAO-m3T-resistant virus remained fully sensitive to the inhibitory effects of nevirapine and BHAP. When different pairs of nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (i.e., BHAP plus TSAO-m3T, nevirapine plus TSAO-m3T, TIBO plus TSAO-m3T, nevirapine plus TIBO, and BHAP plus nevirapine) were used, resistant virus emerged as fast as with single-drug therapy. In all cases the Tyr-181-->Cys mutation appeared; the virus showed markedly reduced sensitivity to all HIV-1-specific inhibitors but retained sensitivity to 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs such as zidovudine, ddC, and ddI. Our findings argue against simultaneous combination of two different nonnucleoside RT inhibitors that are unable to inhibit HIV-1 mutant strains containing the Tyr-181-->Cys mutation when administered as single

  11. Genetic correlates of in vivo viral resistance to indinavir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Condra, J H; Holder, D J; Schleif, W A; Blahy, O M; Danovich, R M; Gabryelski, L J; Graham, D J; Laird, D; Quintero, J C; Rhodes, A; Robbins, H L; Roth, E; Shivaprakash, M; Yang, T; Chodakewitz, J A; Deutsch, P J; Leavitt, R Y; Massari, F E; Mellors, J W; Squires, K E; Steigbigel, R T; Teppler, H; Emini, E A

    1996-01-01

    Indinavir (IDV) (also called CRIXIVAN, MK-639, or L-735,524) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. During early clinical trials, in which patients initiated therapy with suboptimal dosages of IDV, we monitored the emergence of viral resistance to the inhibitor by genotypic and phenotypic characterization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Development of resistance coincided with variable patterns of multiple substitutions among at least 11 protease amino acid residues. No single substitution was present in all resistant isolates, indicating that resistance evolves through multiple genetic pathways. Despite this complexity, all of 29 resistant isolates tested exhibited alteration of residues M-46 (to I or L) and/or V-82 (to A, F, or T), suggesting that screening of these residues may be useful in predicting the emergence of resistance. We also extended our previous finding that IDV-resistant viral variants exhibit various patterns of cross-resistance to a diverse panel of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Finally, we noted an association between the number of protease amino acid substitutions and the observed level of IDV resistance. No single substitution or pair of substitutions tested gave rise to measurable viral resistance to IDV. The evolution of this resistance was found to be cumulative, indicating the need for ongoing viral replication in this process. These observations strongly suggest that therapy should be initiated with the most efficacious regimen available, both to suppress viral spread and to inhibit the replication that is required for the evolution of resistance. PMID:8970946

  12. Dynamic pharmacophore model optimization: identification of novel HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jinxia; Sanchez, Tino; Neamati, Nouri; Briggs, James M

    2006-03-01

    We extended the previously described dynamic pharmacophore model studies of HIV-1 integrase (IN) by considering more key residues in the active site, including Mg2+. First, we applied a Monte Carlo sampling method to map the complementary features of the IN binding surface. Two types of dynamic pharmacophore models were generated. One considers Mg2+ as part of the IN and therefore as an excluded volume, and the other treats Mg2+ as a positively charged feature, representing a new type of pharmacophore model aimed to identify compounds potentially preventing Mg2+ binding. Second, we validated the models with 385 known active (IC50 < 20 microM) and 235 (IC50 > 100 microM) inactive IN inhibitors. Third, we used the derived models to screen our small molecule database. Twenty-two structurally novel compounds were tested in an in vitro assay specific for IN, and two of them showed IC50 < or = 10 microM for strand transfer reaction.

  13. Design and synthesis of bicyclic pyrimidinones as potent and orally bioavailable HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Ester; Kinzel, Olaf; Gardelli, Cristina; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Donghi, Monica; Ferrara, Marco; Nizi, Emanuela; Orvieto, Federica; Pescatore, Giovanna; Laufer, Ralph; Gonzalez-Paz, Odalys; Di Marco, Annalise; Fiore, Fabrizio; Monteagudo, Edith; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Felock, Peter J; Rowley, Michael; Summa, Vincenzo

    2008-02-28

    HIV integrase is one of the three enzymes encoded by HIV genome and is essential for viral replication, but integrase inhibitors as marketed drugs have just very recently started to emerge. In this study, we show the evolution from the N-methylpyrimidinone structure to bicyclic pyrimidinones. Introduction of a suitably substituted amino moiety modulated the physical-chemical properties of the molecules and conferred nanomolar activity in the inhibition of spread of HIV-1 infection in cell culture. An extensive SAR study led to sulfamide (R)- 22b, which inhibited the strand transfer with an IC50 of 7 nM and HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 44 nM, and ketoamide (S)- 28c that inhibited strand transfer with an IC50 of 12 nM and the HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 13 nM and exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile when dosed orally to preclinical species.

  14. HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitors: design, synthesis and molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Laura; De Grazia, Sara; Ferro, Stefania; Gitto, Rosaria; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Chimirri, Alba

    2011-02-01

    This study is focused on a new series of benzylindole derivatives with various substituents at the benzene-fused ring, suggested by our 3D pharmacophore model developed for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (INIs). All synthesized compounds proved to be active in the nanomolar range (6-35 nM) on the strand-transfer step (ST). In particular, derivative 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (8e), presenting the highest best-fit value on pharmacophore model, showed a potency comparable to that of clinical INSTIs GS 9137 (1) and MK-0518 (2). The binding mode of our molecules has been investigated using the recently published crystal structure of the complex of full-length integrase from the prototype foamy virus in complex with its cognate DNA (PFV-IN/DNA). The results highlighted the ability of derivative 8e to assume the same binding mode of MK-0518 and GS 9137.

  15. Entry inhibitor-based microbicides are active in vitro against HIV-1 isolates from multiple genetic subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Ketas, Thomas J.; Schader, Susan M.; Zurita, Juan; Teo, Esther; Polonis, Victoria; Lu Min; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P. . E-mail: jpm2003@med.cornell.edu

    2007-08-01

    Inhibitors of viral entry are under consideration as topical microbicides to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. Small molecules targeting HIV-1 gp120 (BMS-378806) or CCR5 (CMPD167), and a peptide fusion inhibitor (C52L), each blocks vaginal infection of macaques by a SHIV. A microbicide, however, must be active against multiple HIV-1 variants. We therefore tested BMS-C (a BMS-378806 derivative), CMPD167, C52L and the CXCR4 ligand AMD3465, alone and in combination, against 25 primary R5, 12 X4 and 7 R5X4 isolates from subtypes A-G. At high concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M), the replication of most R5 isolates in human donor lymphocytes was inhibited by > 90%. At lower concentrations, double and triple combinations were more effective than individual inhibitors. Similar results were obtained with X4 viruses when AMD3465 was substituted for CMPD167. The R5X4 viruses were inhibited by combining AMD3465 with CMPD167, or by the coreceptor-independent compounds. Thus, combining entry inhibitors may improve microbicide effectiveness.

  16. Evaluation of novel Saquinavir analogs for resistance mutation compatibility and potential as an HIV-Protease inhibitor drug

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswal, Amit; Mishra, Ankita; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Shah, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue related to therapy of HIV-1 infection is the emergence of viral mutations which severely limits the long term efficiency of the HIV-protease (HIV-PR) inhibitors. Development of new drugs is therefore continuously needed. Chemoinformatics enables to design and discover novel molecules analogous to established drugs using computational tools and databases. Saquinavir, an anti-HIV Protease drug is administered for HIV therapy. In this work chemoinformatics tools were used to design structural analogs of Saquinavir as ligand and molecular dockings at AutoDock were performed to identify potential HIV-PR inhibitors. The analogs S1 and S2 when docked with HIV-PR had binding energies of -4.08 and -3.07 kcal/mol respectively which were similar to that for Saquinavir. The molecular docking studies revealed that the changes at N2 of Saquinavir to obtain newly designed analogs S1 (having N2 benzoyl group at N1) and S2 (having 3-oxo-3phenyl propanyl group at N2) were able to dock with HIV-PR with similar affinity as that of Saquinavir. Docking studies and computationally derived pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties׳ comparisons at ACD/I-lab establish that analog S2 has more potential to evade the problem of drug resistance mutation against HIV-1 PR subtype-A. S2 can be further developed and tested clinically as a real alternative drug for HIV-1 PR across the clades in future. PMID:24966525

  17. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  18. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  19. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  20. The complex folding behavior of HIV-1-protease monomer revealed by optical-tweezer single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Caldarini, M; Sonar, P; Valpapuram, I; Tavella, D; Volonté, C; Pandini, V; Vanoni, M A; Aliverti, A; Broglia, R A; Tiana, G; Cecconi, C

    2014-12-01

    We have used optical tweezers and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the unfolding and refolding process of a stable monomeric form of HIV-1-protease (PR). We have characterized the behavior under tension of the native state (N), and that of the ensemble of partially folded (PF) conformations the protein visits en route to N, which collectively act as a long-lived state controlling the slow kinetic phase of the folding process. Our results reveal a rich network of unfolding events, where the native state unfolds either in a two-state manner or by populating an intermediate state I, while the PF state unravels through a multitude of pathways, underscoring its structural heterogeneity. Refolding of mechanically denatured HIV-1-PR monomers is also a multiple-pathway process. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed us to gain insight into possible conformations the protein adopts along the unfolding pathways, and provide information regarding possible structural features of the PF state.

  1. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is activated by low concentrations of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Göran; Arenas, Omar Gutiérrez; Danielson, U Helena

    2009-12-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a bifunctional enzyme with a protease and a helicase functionality located in each of the two domains of the single peptide chain. There is little experimental evidence for a functional role of this unexpected arrangement since artificial single domain forms of both enzymes are catalytically competent. We have observed that low concentrations of certain protease inhibitors activate the protease of full-length NS3 from HCV genotype 1a with up to 100%, depending on the preincubation time and the inhibitor used. The activation was reduced, but not eliminated, by increased ionic strength, lowered glycerol concentration, or lowered pH. In all cases, it was at the expense of a significant loss of activity. Activation was not seen with the artificial protease domain of genotype 1b NS3 fused with a fragment of the NS4A cofactor. This truncated and covalently modified enzyme form was much less active and exhibited fundamentally different catalytic properties to the full-length NS3 protease without the fused cofactor. The most plausible explanation for the activation was found to involve a slow transition between two enzyme conformations, which differed in their catalytic ability and affinity for inhibitors. Equations derived based on this assumption resulted in better fits to the experimental data than the equation for simple competitive inhibition. The mechanism may involve an inhibitor-induced stabilization of the helicase domain in a conformation that enhances the protease activity, or an improved alignment of the catalytic triad in the protease. The proposed mnemonic mechanism and derived equations are viable for both these explanations and can serve as a basic framework for future studies of enzymes activated by inhibitors or other ligands.

  2. Predictors of virologic response to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Flandre, Philippe; Peytavin, Gilles; Calvez, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The primary mechanism of resistance to protease inhibitors involves the stepwise accumulation of mutations that alter and block the substrate binding site of HIV protease. The large degree of cross-resistance among the different protease inhibitors is a source of considerable concern for the management of patients after treatment failure. Although the output of HIV-resistance tests has been based on therapeutically arbitrary criteria, there is now an ongoing move towards correlating test interpretation with virologic outcomes on treatment. This approach is undeniably superior, in principle, for tests intended to guide drug choices. However, the predictive accuracy of a given stratagem that links genotype or phenotype to drug response is strongly influenced by the study design, data capture and the analytical methodology used to derive it. There is no definitively superior methodology for generating a genotype-response association for use in interpreting a resistance test, and the various approaches used to date all have their strengths and weaknesses. Combining the information of therapeutic drug monitoring and resistance tests is likely to be of greatest clinical utility in antiretroviral-experienced patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility. The combination of pharmacologic and virologic parameters as a predictor of the virologic response has been merged into the parameter known as "inhibitory quotient". This article discusses the potential interest of the use of inhibitory quotients as an approach for enhancing the potency and durability of boosted protease inhibitors against protease inhibitor-resistant viruses. PMID:16425962

  3. Discovery of small-molecule HIV-1 fusion and integrase inhibitors oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: Part I. Integrase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee-Huang, Sylvia . E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu; Huang, Philip Lin; Zhang Dawei; Lee, Jae Wook; Bao Ju; Sun Yongtao; Chang, Young-Tae; Zhang, John; Huang, Paul Lee

    2007-03-23

    We have identified oleuropein (Ole) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) as a unique class of HIV-1 inhibitors from olive leaf extracts effective against viral fusion and integration. We used molecular docking simulation to study the interactions of Ole and HT with viral targets. We find that Ole and HT bind to the conserved hydrophobic pocket on the surface of the HIV-gp41 fusion domain by hydrogen bonds with Q577 and hydrophobic interactions with I573, G572, and L568 on the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat peptide N36, interfering with formation of the gp41 fusion-active core. To test and confirm modeling predications, we examined the effect of Ole and HT on HIV-1 fusion complex formation using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Ole and HT exhibit dose-dependent inhibition on HIV-1 fusion core formation with EC{sub 50}s of 66-58 nM, with no detectable toxicity. Our findings on effects of HIV-1 integrase are reported in the subsequent article.

  4. Activity of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-626529, the active component of the prodrug BMS-663068, against CD4-independent viruses and HIV-1 envelopes resistant to other entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhufang; Zhou, Nannan; Sun, Yongnian; Ray, Neelanjana; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Krystal, Mark

    2013-09-01

    BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be associated with a CD4-independent phenotype. Finally, we evaluated whether cross-resistance exists between BMS-626529 and other HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Two laboratory-derived envelopes with a CD4-independent phenotype (one CXCR4 tropic and one CCR5 tropic), five envelopes from clinical isolates with preexisting BMS-626529 resistance, and several site-specific mutant BMS-626529-resistant envelopes were examined for their dependence on CD4 for infectivity or susceptibility to BMS-626529. Viruses resistant to other entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, maraviroc, and ibalizumab) were also examined for susceptibility to BMS-626529. Both CD4-independent laboratory isolates retained sensitivity to BMS-626529 in CD4(-) cells, while HIV-1 envelopes from viruses resistant to BMS-626529 exhibited no evidence of a CD4-independent phenotype. BMS-626529 also exhibited inhibitory activity against ibalizumab- and enfuvirtide-resistant envelopes. While there appeared to be some association between maraviroc resistance and reduced susceptibility to BMS-626529, an absolute correlation cannot be presumed, since some CCR5-tropic maraviroc-resistant envelopes remained sensitive to BMS-626529. Clinical use of the prodrug BMS-663068 is unlikely to promote resistance via generation of CD4-independent virus. No cross-resistance between BMS-626529 and other HIV entry inhibitors was observed, which could allow for sequential or concurrent use with different classes of entry inhibitors.

  5. The L76V drug resistance mutation decreases the dimer stability and rate of autoprocessing of HIV-1 protease by reducing internal hydrophobic contacts.

    PubMed

    Louis, John M; Zhang, Ying; Sayer, Jane M; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Harrison, Robert W; Weber, Irene T

    2011-05-31

    The mature HIV-1 protease (PR) bearing the L76V drug resistance mutation (PR(L76V)) is significantly less stable, with a >7-fold higher dimer dissociation constant (K(d)) of 71 ± 24 nM and twice the sensitivity to urea denaturation (UC(50) = 0.85 M) relative to those of PR. Differential scanning calorimetry showed decreases in T(m) of 12 °C for PR(L76V) in the absence of inhibitors and 5-7 °C in the presence of inhibitors darunavir (DRV), saquinavir (SQV), and lopinavir (LPV), relative to that of PR. Isothermal titration calorimetry gave a ligand dissociation constant of 0.8 nM for DRV, ∼160-fold higher than that of PR, consistent with DRV resistance. Crystal structures of PR(L76V) in complexes with DRV and SQV were determined at resolutions of 1.45-1.46 Å. Compared to the corresponding PR complexes, the mutated Val76 lacks hydrophobic interactions with Asp30, Lys45, Ile47, and Thr74 and exhibits closer interactions with Val32 and Val56. The bound DRV lacks one hydrogen bond with the main chain of Asp30 in PR(L76V) relative to PR, possibly accounting for the resistance to DRV. SQV shows slightly improved polar interactions with PR(L76V) compared to those with PR. Although the L76V mutation significantly slows the N-terminal autoprocessing of the precursor TFR-PR(L76V) to give rise to the mature PR(L76V), the coselected M46I mutation counteracts the effect by enhancing this rate but renders the TFR-PR(M46I/L76V) precursor less responsive to inhibition by 6 μM LPV while preserving inhibition by SQV and DRV. The correlation of lowered stability, higher K(d), and impaired autoprocessing with reduced internal hydrophobic contacts suggests a novel molecular mechanism for drug resistance.

  6. The L76V Drug Resistance Mutation Decreases the Dimer Stability and Rate of Autoprocessing of HIV-1 Protease by Reducing Internal Hydrophobic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, John M.; Zhang, Ying; Sayer, Jane M.; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2011-09-06

    The mature HIV-1 protease (PR) bearing the L76V drug resistance mutation (PR{sub L76V}) is significantly less stable, with a >7-fold higher dimer dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 71 {+-} 24 nM and twice the sensitivity to urea denaturation (UC{sub 50} = 0.85 M) relative to those of PR. Differential scanning calorimetry showed decreases in T{sub m} of 12 C for PR{sub L76V} in the absence of inhibitors and 5-7 C in the presence of inhibitors darunavir (DRV), saquinavir (SQV), and lopinavir (LPV), relative to that of PR. Isothermal titration calorimetry gave a ligand dissociation constant of 0.8 nM for DRV, {approx}160-fold higher than that of PR, consistent with DRV resistance. Crystal structures of PR{sub L76V} in complexes with DRV and SQV were determined at resolutions of 1.45-1.46 {angstrom}. Compared to the corresponding PR complexes, the mutated Val76 lacks hydrophobic interactions with Asp30, Lys45, Ile47, and Thr74 and exhibits closer interactions with Val32 and Val56. The bound DRV lacks one hydrogen bond with the main chain of Asp30 in PR{sub L76V} relative to PR, possibly accounting for the resistance to DRV. SQV shows slightly improved polar interactions with PR{sub L76V} compared to those with PR. Although the L76V mutation significantly slows the N-terminal autoprocessing of the precursor TFR-PR{sub L76V} to give rise to the mature PR{sub L76V}, the coselected M46I mutation counteracts the effect by enhancing this rate but renders the TFR-PRM46I/L76V precursor less responsive to inhibition by 6 {micro}M LPV while preserving inhibition by SQV and DRV. The correlation of lowered stability, higher K{sub d}, and impaired autoprocessing with reduced internal hydrophobic contacts suggests a novel molecular mechanism for drug resistance.

  7. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative.

    PubMed

    Bijina, B; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G; Basheer, Soorej M; Elyas, K K; Bahkali, Ali H; Chandrasekaran, M

    2011-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  8. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  9. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

  10. A Novel Bis-Tetrahydrofuranylurethane-Containing Nonpeptidic Protease Inhibitor (PI), GRL-98065, Is Potent Against Mulutiple-PI-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Amano,M.; Koh, Y.; Das, D.; Li, J.; Leschenko, S.; Wang, Y.; Boross, P.; Weber, I.; Ghosh, A.; Mitsuya, H.

    2007-01-01

    We designed, synthesized, and identified GRL-98065, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing the structure-based designed privileged cyclic ether-derived nonpeptide P2 ligand, 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF), and a sulfonamide isostere, which is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC{sub 50}], 0.0002 to 0.0005 {mu}M) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxicity, 35.7 {mu}M in CD4{sup +} MT-2 cells). GRL-98065 blocked the infectivity and replication of each of the HIV-1{sub NL4-3} variants exposed to and selected by up to a 5 {mu}M concentration of saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir and a 1 {mu}M concentration of lopinavir or atazanavir (EC{sub 50}, 0.0015 to 0.0075 {mu}M), although it was less active against HIV-1{sub NLV4-3} selected by amprenavir (EC{sub 50}, 0.032 {mu}M). GRL-98065 was also potent against multiple-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to existing antiviral regimens after having received a variety of antiviral agents, HIV-1 isolates of various subtypes, and HIV-2 isolates examined. Structural analyses revealed that the close contact of GRL-98065 with the main chain of the protease active-site amino acids (Asp29 and Asp30) is important for its potency and wide-spectrum activity against multiple-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants. The present data demonstrate that the privileged nonpeptide P2 ligand, bis-THF, is critical for the binding of GRL-98065 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and that this scaffold can confer highly potent antiviral activity against a wide spectrum of HIV isolates.

  11. Dysregulation of protease and protease inhibitors in a mouse model of human pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Budatha, Madhusudhan; Silva, Simone; Montoya, Teodoro Ignacio; Suzuki, Ayako; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Wieslander, Cecilia Karin; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Word, Ruth Ann; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Mice deficient for the fibulin-5 gene (Fbln5(-/-)) develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) due to compromised elastic fibers and upregulation of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. Here, we used casein zymography, inhibitor profiling, affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry to discover additional protease upregulated in the vaginal wall of Fbln5(-/-) mice, herein named V1 (25 kDa). V1 was a serine protease with trypsin-like activity similar to protease, serine (PRSS) 3, a major extrapancreatic trypsinogen, was optimum at pH 8.0, and predominantly detected in estrogenized vaginal epithelium of Fbln5(-/-) mice. PRSS3 was (a) localized in epithelial secretions, (b) detected in media of vaginal organ culture from both Fbln5(-/-) and wild type mice, and (c) cleaved fibulin-5 in vitro. Expression of two serine protease inhibitors [Serpina1a (α1-antitrypsin) and Elafin] was dysregulated in Fbln5(-/-) epithelium. Finally, we confirmed that PRSS3 was expressed in human vaginal epithelium and that SERPINA1 and Elafin were downregulated in vaginal tissues from women with POP. These data collectively suggest that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors contributes to support of the pelvic organs in humans and mice. PMID:23437119

  12. HIV-protease inhibitors block the replication of both vesicular stomatitis and influenza viruses at an early post-entry replication step

    SciTech Connect

    Federico, Maurizio

    2011-08-15

    The inhibitors of HIV-1 protease (PIs) have been designed to block the activity of the viral aspartyl-protease. However, it is now accepted that this family of inhibitors can also affect the activity of cell proteases. Since the replication of many virus species requires the activity of host cell proteases, investigating the effects of PIs on the life cycle of viruses other than HIV would be of interest. Here, the potent inhibition induced by saquinavir and nelfinavir on the replication of both vesicular stomatitis and influenza viruses is described. These are unrelated enveloped RNA viruses infecting target cells upon endocytosis and intracellular fusion. The PI-induced inhibition was apparently a consequence of a block at the level of the fusion between viral envelope and endosomal membranes. These findings would open the way towards the therapeutic use of PIs against enveloped RNA viruses other than HIV.

  13. Additivity in the Analysis and Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N.; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G. S.; Ali, Akbar; Altman, Michael D.; Chellappan, Sripriya; Anjum, Saima G.; Tidor, Bruce; Schiffer, Celia A.; Rana, Tariq M.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the applicability of an additive treatment of substituent effects to the analysis and design of HIV protease inhibitors. Affinity data for a set of inhibitors with a common chemical framework were analyzed to provide estimates of the free energy contribution of each chemical substituent. These estimates were then used to design new inhibitors, whose high affinities were confirmed by synthesis and experimental testing. Derivations of additive models by least-squares and ridge-regression methods were found to yield statistically similar results. The additivity approach was also compared with standard molecular descriptor-based QSAR; the latter was not found to provide superior predictions. Crystallographic studies of HIV protease-inhibitor complexes help explain the perhaps surprisingly high degree of substituent additivity in this system, and allow some of the additivity coefficients to be rationalized on a structural basis. PMID:19193159

  14. Homology models of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-626529 bound to gp120 suggest a unique mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Langley, David R; Roy Kimura, S; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Zhou, Nannan; Dicker, Ira; McAuliffe, Brian; Wang, Tao; Kadow, John F; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Krystal, Mark

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 gp120 undergoes multiple conformational changes both before and after binding to the host CD4 receptor. BMS-626529 is an attachment inhibitor (AI) in clinical development (administered as prodrug BMS-663068) that binds to HIV-1 gp120. To investigate the mechanism of action of this new class of antiretroviral compounds, we constructed homology models of unliganded HIV-1 gp120 (UNLIG), a pre-CD4 binding-intermediate conformation (pCD4), a CD4 bound-intermediate conformation (bCD4), and a CD4/co-receptor-bound gp120 (LIG) from a series of partial structures. We also describe a simple pathway illustrating the transition between these four states. Guided by the positions of BMS-626529 resistance substitutions and structure–activity relationship data for the AI series, putative binding sites for BMS-626529 were identified, supported by biochemical and biophysical data. BMS-626529 was docked into the UNLIG model and molecular dynamics simulations were used to demonstrate the thermodynamic stability of the different gp120 UNLIG/BMS-626529 models. We propose that BMS-626529 binds to the UNLIG conformation of gp120 within the structurally conserved outer domain, under the antiparallel β20–β21 sheet, and adjacent to the CD4 binding loop. Through this binding mode, BMS-626529 can inhibit both CD4-induced and CD4-independent formation of the “open state” four-stranded gp120 bridging sheet, and the subsequent formation and exposure of the chemokine co-receptor binding site. This unique mechanism of action prevents the initial interaction of HIV-1 with the host CD4+ T cell, and subsequent HIV-1 binding and entry. Our findings clarify the novel mechanism of BMS-626529, supporting its ongoing clinical development. Proteins 2015; 83:331–350. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25401969

  15. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. PMID:26996307

  16. Screening of Potential HIV-1 Inhibitors/Replication Blockers Using Secure Lentiviral in Vitro System.

    PubMed

    Prokofjeva, M M; Spirin, P V; Yanvarev, D V; Ivanov, A V; Novikov, M S; Stepanov, O A; Gottikh, M B; Kochetkov, S N; Fehse, B; Stocking, C; Prassolov, V S

    2011-10-01

    The development and usage of safe cell systems for testing agents which possess anti-HIV activity is a very important factor in the design of new drugs. We have described in detail a system we designed that is based on lentiviral vectors (Prokofjeva et. al.,Antiviral Therapy,in print) for swift and completely safe screening of potential HIV-1 replication inhibitors. The system enables one to test the efficiency of the inhibitory activity of compounds whose action is directed towards either wild-type HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or integrase, or mutant enzymes corresponding to the drug-resistant virus form. Testing results of a number of already known drugs, which correlate well with published data as well as data on newly synthesized compounds, were obtained. Application of this system substantially broadens the possibilities of preclinical anti-HIV drugs testing.

  17. Screening of Potential HIV-1 Inhibitors/Replication Blockers Using Secure Lentiviral in Vitro System

    PubMed Central

    Prokofjeva, M.M.; Spirin, P.V.; Yanvarev, D.V.; Ivanov, A.V.; Novikov, M.S.; Stepanov, O.A.; Gottikh, M.B.; Kochetkov, S.N.; Fehse, B.; Stocking, C.; Prassolov, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    The development and usage of safe cell systems for testing agents which possess anti-HIV activity is a very important factor in the design of new drugs. We have described in detail a system we designed that is based on lentiviral vectors (Prokofjeva et. al.,Antiviral Therapy,in print) for swift and completely safe screening of potential HIV-1 replication inhibitors. The system enables one to test the efficiency of the inhibitory activity of compounds whose action is directed towards either wild-type HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or integrase, or mutant enzymes corresponding to the drug-resistant virus form. Testing results of a number of already known drugs, which correlate well with published data as well as data on newly synthesized compounds, were obtained. Application of this system substantially broadens the possibilities of preclinical anti-HIV drugs testing. PMID:22649704

  18. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt astrocytic glutamate transporter function and neurobehavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Asahchop, Eugene L.; Acharjee, Shaona; Baker, Glen B.; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The neurotoxic actions of the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir (LPV) were investigated. Design: With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected persons exhibit neurocognitive impairments, raising the possibility that cART might exert adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. We examined the effects of LPV and APV using in-vitro and in-vivo assays of CNS function. Methods: Gene expression, cell viability and amino-acid levels were measured in human astrocytes, following exposure to APV or LPV. Neurobehavioral performance, amino-acid levels and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice after treatment with APV or LPV. Results: Excitatory amino-acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) expression was reduced in astrocytes treated with LPV or APV, especially LPV (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by reduced intracellular l-glutamate levels in LPV-treated cells (P < 0.05). Treatment of astrocytes with APV or LPV reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (P < 0.05) although cell survival was unaffected. Exposure of LPV to astrocytes augmented glutamate-evoked transient rises in [Cai] (P < 0.05). Vpr mice treated with LPV showed lower concentrations of l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-serine in cortex compared with vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.05). Total errors in T-maze assessment were increased in LPV and APV-treated animals (P < 0.05). EAAT2 expression was reduced in the brains of protease inhibitor-treated animals, which was associated with gliosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that contemporary protease inhibitors disrupt astrocyte functions at therapeutic concentrations with enhanced sensitivity to glutamate, which can lead to neurobehavioral impairments. ART neurotoxicity should be considered in future therapeutic regimens for HIV/AIDS. PMID:26558720

  19. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-23

    The structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å in space group P321. Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2–β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains selected for resistance against the HIV-1-specific [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro- 5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-pentofurano syl (TSAO) nucleoside analogues retain sensitivity to HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Vandamme, A M; Pérez-Pérez, M J; Zhang, H; Vrang, L; Oberg, B; Bäckbro, K; Unge, T; San-Félix, A

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported that a newly discovered class of nucleoside analogues--[2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- 3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D - pentofuranosyl derivatives of pyrimidines and purines (designated TSAO)--are highly specific inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and targeted at the nonsubstrate binding site of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We now find that HIV-1 strains selected for resistance against three different TSAO nucleoside derivatives retain sensitivity to the other HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside derivatives (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-phenylthiothymine, nevirapine, and pyridinone L697,661, as well as to the nucleoside analogues 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, ddI, ddC, and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Pol gene nucleotide sequence analysis of the TSAO-resistant and -sensitive HIV-1 strains revealed a single amino acid substitution at position 138 (Glu-->Lys) in the RT of all TSAO-resistant HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RT in which the Glu-138-->Lys substitution was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in Escherichia coli could not be purified because of rapid degradation. However, HIV-1 RT containing the Glu-138-->Arg substitution was stable. It lost its sensitivity to the TSAO nucleosides but not to the other HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors (i.e., TIBO and pyridinone). Our findings point to a specific interaction of the 4''-amino group on the 3'-spiro-substituted ribose moiety of the TSAO nucleosides with the carboxylic acid group of glutamic acid at position 138 of HIV-1 RT. PMID:7688467

  1. Antibacterial, anti-HIV-1 protease and cytotoxic activities of aqueous ethanolic extracts from Combretum adenogonium Steud. Ex A. Rich (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Records have shown that Combretum adenogonium Steud. Ex A. Rich (Combretaceae) is used in traditional medicine systems of several tribes in Tanzania. This study focused on the investigation of antibacterial activity, anti-HIV-1 protease activity, toxicity properties and classes of phytochemicals in extracts from C. adenogonium Steud. Ex A. Rich (Combretaceae) to evaluate potential of these extracts for development as herbal remedies. Methods Dried plant material were ground to fine powder and extracted using 80% aqueous ethanol to afford root, leaf and stem bark extracts. The extracts were assayed for anti-HIV-1 protease activities, antibacterial activities using microdilution methods and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps lethality assay. Screening for major phytochemical classes was carried out using standard chemical tests. Results All extracts exhibited antibacterial activity to at least one of the test bacteria with MIC-values ranging from 0.31-5.0 mg/ml. Two extracts, namely, root and stem bark exhibited anti-HIV-1 PR activity with IC50 values of 24.7 and 26.5 μg/ml, respectively. Stem bark and leaf extracts showed mild toxicity with LC50 values of 65.768 μg/ml and 76.965 μg/ml, respectively, whereas roots were relatively non-toxic (LC50 = 110.042 μg/ml). Phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides and saponins. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential development of C. adenogonium extracts in treatment of bacterial and HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections. PMID:23013240

  2. Protease Inhibitors in View of Peptide Substrate Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protease substrate profiling has nowadays almost become a routine task for experimentalists, and the knowledge on protease peptide substrates is easily accessible via the MEROPS database. We present a shape-based virtual screening workflow using vROCS that applies the information about the specificity of the proteases to find new small-molecule inhibitors. Peptide substrate sequences for three to four substrate positions of each substrate from the MEROPS database were used to build the training set. Two-dimensional substrate sequences were converted to three-dimensional conformations through mutation of a template peptide substrate. The vROCS query was built from single amino acid queries for each substrate position considering the relative frequencies of the amino acids. The peptide-substrate-based shape-based virtual screening approach gives good performance for the four proteases thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, and caspase-3 with the DUD-E data set. The results show that the method works for protease targets with different specificity profiles as well as for targets with different active-site mechanisms. As no structure of the target and no information on small-molecule inhibitors are required to use our approach, the method has significant advantages in comparison with conventional structure- and ligand-based methods. PMID:27247997

  3. Structural and thermodynamic basis for the binding of TMC114, a next-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    King, Nancy M; Prabu-Jeyabalan, Moses; Nalivaika, Ellen A; Wigerinck, Piet; de Béthune, Marie-Pierre; Schiffer, Celia A

    2004-11-01

    TMC114, a newly designed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor, is extremely potent against both wild-type (wt) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. Although chemically similar to amprenavir (APV), the potency of TMC114 is substantially greater. To examine the basis for this potency, we solved crystal structures of TMC114 complexed with wt HIV-1 protease and TMC114 and APV complexed with an MDR (L63P, V82T, and I84V) protease variant. In addition, we determined the corresponding binding thermodynamics by isothermal titration calorimetry. TMC114 binds approximately 2 orders of magnitude more tightly to the wt enzyme (K(d) = 4.5 x 10(-12) M) than APV (K(d) = 3.9 x 10(-10) M). Our X-ray data (resolution ranging from 2.2 to 1.2 A) reveal strong interactions between the bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane moiety of TMC114 and main-chain atoms of D29 and D30. These interactions appear largely responsible for TMC114's very favorable binding enthalpy to the wt protease (-12.1 kcal/mol). However, TMC114 binding to the MDR HIV-1 protease is reduced by a factor of 13.3, whereas the APV binding constant is reduced only by a factor of 5.1. However, even with the reduction in binding affinity to the MDR HIV protease, TMC114 still binds with an affinity that is more than 1.5 orders of magnitude tighter than the first-generation inhibitors. Both APV and TMC114 fit predominantly within the substrate envelope, a property that may be associated with decreased susceptibility to drug-resistant mutations relative to that of first-generation inhibitors. Overall, TMC114's potency against MDR viruses is likely a combination of its extremely high affinity and close fit within the substrate envelope.

  4. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs.

  5. Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Bluma G; Lowe, Matthew; Moisi, Daniela; Hardy, Isabelle; Gagnon, Simon; Charest, Hugues; Baril, Jean Guy; Wainberg, Mark A; Roger, Michel

    2011-05-01

    We used genotypic and phylogenetic analysis to determine integrase diversity among subtypes, and studied natural polymorphisms and mutations implicated in resistance to integrase inhibitors (INI) in treatment-naïve persons (n = 220) and -experienced individuals (n = 24). Phylogenetics revealed 7 and 10% inter-subtype diversity in the integrase and reverse transcriptase (RT)/protease regions, respectively. Integrase sequencing identified a novel A/B recombinant in which all viruses in a male-sex-male (MSM) transmission cluster (n = 12) appeared to possess subtype B in integrase and subtype A in the remainder of the pol region. Natural variations and signature polymorphisms were observed at codon positions 140, 148, 151, 157, and 160 among HIV subtypes. These variations predicted higher genetic barriers to G140S and G140C in subtypes C, CRF02_AG, and A/CRF01_AE, as well as higher genetic barriers toward acquisition of V151I in subtypes CRF02_AG and A/CRF01_AE. The E157Q and E160Q mutational motif was observed in 35% of INI-naïve patients harboring subtype C infections, indicating intra-subtype variations. Thirteen patients failed raltegravir (RAL)-containing regimens within 8 ± 1 months, in association with the major Q148K/R/H and G140A/S (n = 8/24) or N155H (n = 5/24) mutational pathways. Of note, the remaining patients on RAL regimens for 14 ± 3 months harbored no or only minor integrase mutations/polymorphisms (T66I, T97A, H114P, S119P, A124S, G163R, I203M, R263K). These results demonstrate the importance of understanding subtype variability in the development of resistance to INIs.

  6. Naturally Occurring Variability in the Envelope Glycoprotein of HIV-1 and the Development of Cell Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Evan T.; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring genetic variability across HIV-1 subtypes causes amino acid polymorphisms in encoded HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins associated with viral entry. The effects of amino acid polymorphisms on the mechanism of HIV-1 entry into cells, a process initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor, are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that amino acid polymorphisms affect the structural stability and domain cooperativity of gp120 and that those differences are reflected in the binding mechanism of the viral envelope glycoprotein to the cell surface receptor and coreceptor. Moreover, subtype differences also affect the binding behavior of experimental HIV cell entry inhibitors. While gp120-A has a slightly lower denaturation temperature than gp120-B, the most notable stability difference is that for gp120-B the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratio (ΔHvH/ΔH) is 0.95 whereas for gp120-A is 0.6, indicative of more cooperative domain/domain interactions in gp120-B, as this protein more closely approaches a two-state transition. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that CD4 and 17b (a surrogate antibody for the chemokine coreceptor) exhibit 7 and 3-fold weaker binding affinities for gp120-A. The binding of these proteins as well as that of the experimental entry inhibitor NBD-556 induce smaller conformational changes in gp120-A as evidenced by significantly smaller binding enthalpies and binding entropies. Together, these results describe the effects of gp120 polymorphisms on binding to host cell receptors and emphasize that guidelines for developing future entry inhibitors must recognize and deal with genomic differences between HIV strains. PMID:20166763

  7. TALEN Knockout of the PSIP1 Gene in Human Cells: Analyses of HIV-1 Replication and Allosteric Integrase Inhibitor Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, James H.; Saenz, Dyana T.; Fuchs, James R.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 utilizes the cellular protein LEDGF/p75 as a chromosome docking and integration cofactor. The LEDGF/p75 gene, PSIP1, is a potential therapeutic target because, like CCR5, depletion of LEDGF/p75 is tolerated well by human CD4+ T cells, and knockout mice have normal immune systems. RNA interference (RNAi) has been useful for studying LEDGF/p75, but the potent cofactor activity of small protein residua can be confounding. Here, in human cells with utility for HIV research (293T and Jurkat), we used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to completely eradicate all LEDGF/p75 expression. We performed two kinds of PSIP1 knockouts: whole-gene deletion and deletion of the integrase binding domain (IBD)-encoding exons. HIV-1 integration was inhibited, and spreading viral replication was severely impaired in PSIP1−/− Jurkat cells infected at high multiplicity. Furthermore, frameshifting the gene in the first coding exon with a single TALEN pair yielded trace LEDGF/p75 levels that were virologically active, affirming the cofactor's potency and the value of definitive gene or IBD exon segment deletion. Some recent studies have suggested that LEDGF/p75 may participate in HIV-1 assembly. However, we determined that assembly of infectious viral particles is normal in PSIP1−/− cells. The potency of an allosteric integrase inhibitor, ALLINI-2, for rendering produced virions noninfectious was also unaffected by total eradication of cellular LEDGF/p75. We conclude that HIV-1 particle assembly and the main ALLINI mechanism are LEDGF/p75 independent. The block to HIV-1 propagation in PSIP1−/− human CD4+ T cells raises the possibility of gene targeting PSIP1 combinatorially with CCR5 for HIV-1 cure. IMPORTANCE LEDGF/p75 dependence is universally conserved in the retroviral genus Lentivirus. Once inside the nucleus, lentiviral preintegration complexes are thought to attach to the chromosome when integrase binds to LEDGF/p75. This tethering

  8. Computer-based design of novel HIV-1 entry inhibitors: neomycin conjugated to arginine peptides at two specific sites.

    PubMed

    Berchanski, Alexander; Lapidot, Aviva

    2009-03-01

    Aminoglycoside-arginine conjugates (AAC and APAC) are multi-target inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Here, we predict new conjugates of neomycin with two arginine peptide chains binding at specific sites on neomycin [poly-arginine-neomycin-poly-arginine (PA-Neo-PA)]. The rationale for the design of such compounds is to separate two short arginine peptides with neomycin, which may extend the binding region of the CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). We used homology models of CXCR4 and unliganded envelope glycoprotein 120 (HIV-1(IIIB) gp120) and docked PA-Neo-PAs and APACs to these using a multistep docking procedure. The results indicate that PA-Neo-PAs spread over two negatively charged patches of CXCR4. PA-Neo-PA-CXCR4 complexes are energetically more favorable than AACs/APAC-CXCR4 complexes. Notably, our CXCR4 model and docking procedure can be applied to predict new compounds that are either inhibitors of gp120-CXCR4 binding without affecting stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) chemotaxis activity, or inhibitors of SDF-1 alpha-CXCR4 binding resulting in an anti-metastasis effect. We also predict that PA-Neo-PAs and APACs can interfere with CD4-gp120 binding in unliganded conformation.

  9. Effects of sequence changes in the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide on CCR5 inhibitor resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.

    2012-07-05

    A rare pathway of HIV-1 resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as Vicriviroc (VCV) involves changes solely in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP). Here, we show that the G516V change is critical to VCV resistance in PBMC and TZM-bl cells, although it must be accompanied by either M518V or F519I to have a substantial impact. Modeling VCV inhibition data from the two cell types indicated that G516V allows both double mutants to use VCV-CCR5 complexes for entry. The model further identified F519I as an independent determinant of preference for the unoccupied, high-VCV affinity form of CCR5. From inhibitor-free reversion cultures, we also identified a substitution in the inner domain of gp120, T244A, which appears to counter the resistance phenotype created by the FP substitutions. Examining the interplay of these changes will enhance our understanding of Env complex interactions that influence both HIV-1 entry and resistance to CCR5 inhibitors.

  10. Dual inhibition of HIV-1 replication by integrase-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors is predominant at the post-integration stage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background LEDGF/p75 (LEDGF) is the main cellular cofactor of HIV-1 integrase (IN). It acts as a tethering factor for IN, and targets the integration of HIV in actively transcribed gene regions of chromatin. A recently developed class of IN allosteric inhibitors can inhibit the LEDGF-IN interaction. Results We describe a new series of IN-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors, the most active of which is Mut101. We determined the crystal structure of Mut101 in complex with IN and showed that the compound binds to the LEDGF-binding pocket, promoting conformational changes of IN which explain at the atomic level the allosteric effect of the IN/LEDGF interaction inhibitor on IN functions. In vitro, Mut101 inhibited both IN-LEDGF interaction and IN strand transfer activity while enhancing IN-IN interaction. Time of addition experiments indicated that Mut101 behaved as an integration inhibitor. Mut101 was fully active on HIV-1 mutants resistant to INSTIs and other classes of anti-HIV drugs, indicative that this compound has a new mode of action. However, we found that Mut101 also displayed a more potent antiretroviral activity at a post-integration step. Infectivity of viral particles produced in presence of Mut101 was severely decreased. This latter effect also required the binding of the compound to the LEDGF-binding pocket. Conclusion Mut101 has dual anti-HIV-1 activity, at integration and post-integration steps of the viral replication cycle, by binding to a unique target on IN (the LEDGF-binding pocket). The post-integration block of HIV-1 replication in virus-producer cells is the mechanism by which Mut101 is most active as an antiretroviral. To explain this difference between Mut101 antiretroviral activity at integration and post-integration stages, we propose the following model: LEDGF is a nuclear, chromatin-bound protein that is absent in the cytoplasm. Therefore, LEDGF can outcompete compound binding to IN in the nucleus of target cells lowering its antiretroviral

  11. Metal-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by 5CITEP inhibitor: A theoretical QM/MM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Josenaide P.; Araújo Silva, José Rogério; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio N.

    2013-09-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a potential target for developing drugs against AIDS. In this letter, QM/MM approach was used to study the inhibition of IN by 5CITEP inhibitor in presence of divalent cations (Mg2+ or Mn2+). In addition, the main interactions occurring in 5CITEP-IN complex and the influence of divalent cations (Mg2+ or Mn2+) in enzymatic inhibition were investigated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)/MM. The results suggest that the Asp64, Asp116 and four crystal water molecules plays a crucial role in cation (Mg2+ or Mn2+) coordination sphere.

  12. Docking of anti-HIV-1 oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone derivatives as potential HSV-1 DNA polymerase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Batalha, Pedro Netto; Brozeguini, Leonardo; Seidl, Peter R.; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Cunha, Anna Cláudia; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Giongo, Viveca A.; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio; Paixão, Izabel C. P.

    2014-09-01

    Although there are many antiviral drugs available for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, still the synthesis of new anti-HSV candidates is an important strategy to be pursued, due to the emergency of resistant HSV strains mainly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Some 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinolines, such as PNU-183792 (1), show a broad spectrum antiviral activity against human herpes viruses, inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (POL) without affecting the human POLs. Thus, on an ongoing antiviral research project, our group has synthesized ribonucleosides containing the 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (quinolone) heterocyclic moiety, such as the 6-Cl derivative (2), which is a dual antiviral agent (HSV-1 and HIV-1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of 1 and 2 with the HSV-1 POL suggest that structural modifications of 2 should increase its experimental anti-HSV-1 activity, since its ribosyl and carboxyl groups are highly hydrophilic to interact with a hydrophobic pocket of this enzyme. Therefore, in this work, comparative molecular docking simulations of 1 and three new synthesized oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone HIV-1 inhibitors (3-5), which do not contain those hydrophilic groups, were carried out, in order to access these modifications in the proposition of new potential anti-HSV-1 agents, but maintaining the anti-HIV-1 activity. Among the docked compounds, the oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 3 is the best candidate for an anti-HSV-1 agent, and, in addition, it showed anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.3 μM). Compounds 2 and 3 were used as templates in the design of four new oxoquinoline-acylhydrazones (6-9) as potential anti-HSV-1 agents to increase the antiviral activity of 2. Among the docked compounds, oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 7 was selected as the best candidate for further development of dual anti-HIV/HSV activity.

  13. Interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. Molecular features.

    PubMed

    de Seidl, D S

    1996-12-01

    After having found that raw black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were toxic, while the cooked ones constitute the basic diet of the underdeveloped peoples of the world, in the sixties, our research directed by Dr. Jaffé, concentrated mainly around the detection and identification of the heat labile toxic factors in legume seeds. A micromethod for the detection of protease inhibitors (PI) in individual seeds was developed, for the purpose of establishing that the multiple trypsin inhibitors (TI) found in the Cubagua variety were expressions of single seeds and not a mixture of a non homogenous bean lot. Six isoinhibitors were isolated and purified, all of which were "double-headed" and interacted with trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (CHT) independently and simultaneously, as shown by electrophoresis of their binary and ternary complexes with each and both enzymes. However, their affinity for the enzymes, including elastases, was rather variable, as well as their amino acid composition which consisted of 51 units for inhibitor V, the smallest, and 83 amino acids for inhibitor I, the largest. A low molecular weight protein fraction that inhibited subtilisin (S), but recognized neither T, CHT nor pancreatic elastase was detected in 63 varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris as well as in broad beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum), jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis), kidney beans (Vigna aureus), etc., It was absent though, in soybeans (Glycine max), lentils (Lens culinaris), green peas (Pisum sativum), cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and lupine seeds (Lupinus sp). Subtilisin inhibitors (SI) were isolated from black beans, broad beans, chick peas and jack beans. Their Mr is between 8-9KD and they show a rather high stability in the presence of denaturing agents. They are specific toward microbial proteases, in addition to subtilisins, Carlsberg and BPN', they inhibit the alkaline protease from Tritirachium album (Protease K), from Aspergillus oryzae and one isolated from

  14. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2-β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol. PMID:26527265

  15. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2–β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol. PMID:26527265

  16. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2-β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol.

  17. Pyrazinone protease inhibitor metabolites from Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Bong; Crawford, Jason M

    2016-08-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a bioluminescent entomopathogenic bacterium that undergoes phenotypic variation and lives in mutualistic association with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae. The pair infects and kills insects, and during their coordinated lifecycle, the bacteria produce an assortment of specialized metabolites to regulate its mutualistic and pathogenic roles. As part of our search for new specialized metabolites from the Photorhabdus genus, we examined organic extracts from P. luminescens grown in an amino-acid-rich medium based on the free amino-acid levels found in the circulatory fluid of its common insect prey, the Galleria mellonella larva. Reversed-phase HPLC/UV/MS-guided fractionation of the culture extracts led to the identification of two new pyrazinone metabolites, lumizinones A (1) and B (2), together with two N-acetyl dipeptides (3 and 4). The lumizinones were produced only in the phenotypic variant associated with nematode development and insect pathogenesis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS spectral data. The absolute configurations of the amino acids in 3 and 4 were determined by Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their calpain protease inhibitory activity, and lumizinone A (1) showed inhibition with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 3.9 μm. PMID:27353165

  18. Elimination of protease-inhibitor complexes from the arthritic joint.

    PubMed

    Ekerot, L; Ohlsson, K; Necking, L

    1985-01-01

    In the rheumatic joint, destructive proteolytic enzymes are released and counteracted by complexation to the predominant inhibitors alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin. The articular elimination of these complexes is thought to be of decisive importance in the protease-inhibitor interplay influencing the inhibitory capacity of the synovial fluid. Protease-alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes showed an intraarticular half-life shorter than 2 hours in arthritis and were eliminated by various routes including phagocytosis in cells of the synovial membrane and in regional lymph nodes, in addition to haematogenous resorption and uptake in the liver. The phagocytosed complexes were degraded to low-molecular-weight metabolites excretable in the urine. The articular elimination of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes seemed to be an equivalent process, but an additional intrasynovial dissociation of the complexes was also indicated. Thus the intraarticularly released elastase seemed to be bound and eliminated in complex with alpha 2-macroglobulin. PMID:2414244

  19. [Inhibitory effect of human saliva on HIV-1 infectivity].

    PubMed

    Etsuko, K; Wei, S

    2001-08-01

    Human saliva is known to decrease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to confirm these findings and to explore the mechanism of action of saliva. Whole saliva from seronegative donors was incubated with HIV-1IIIB chronically infected MOLT 4 cells (MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells) or cell-free HIV-1IIIB or KMT strains. We monitored viral infectivity by using MAGI/CCR5 cells. Whole saliva with Na levels less than 20 mEq/l rapidly damaged MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells, thereby HIV infection to MAGI/CCR5 cells by MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells was nearly abolished. On the contrary, in the cace of whole saliva with Na levels more than 23 mEq/l which damaged few cells, cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1IIIB was prevented by more than 50%. The infectivity of cell-free HIV-1IIIB to MAGI/CCR5 cells was abolished after incubating and filtering the HIV with whole saliva. Depletion of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) from whole saliva resulted in a 11-28% decrease in the anti HIV-1KMT activity of saliva. Preincubation of host cells with whole saliva led to an enhancement of the HIV infection rather than inhibition. Whole saliva had no effect on the expression level of the cellular receptors (CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5). These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of whole saliva on HIV-1 infectivity is directly linked to the virus itself rather than on the host cell. Moreover, the physical entrapment of cell-free HIV-1 by whole saliva seems to have major salivaly defence mechanisms against HIV-1 infection through the oral cavity. PMID:16578966

  20. Effect of template secondary structure on the inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by a pyridinone non-nucleoside inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, D B; Carroll, S S; Culberson, J C; Shafer, J A; Kuo, L C

    1994-01-01

    The importance of RNA secondary structure on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase catalyzed polymerization and on the potency of the pyridin-2-one inhibitor 3-(4,7-dichlorobenzoxazol-2-ylmethylamino)-5-ethyl-6-meth ylpyridin-2(1H)-one, L-697,661, were investigated by employing heteromeric primer-template systems. Our data revealed that a stem-loop hairpin secondary structure in the RNA template could lead to strong hindrance of reverse transcription in the reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resulting in the build up of intermediate-length (pause) polymerization products. The presence of L-697,661 greatly enhanced the accumulation of the pause products suggesting that the rate of enzyme translocation from the pause product might be more potently inhibited than polymerization up to the pause site. Model experiments using a synthetic RNA template containing a stem-loop hairpin revealed that the inhibitory potency of L-697, 661 increased 2-fold upon polymerization to within four bases of the secondary structure. Inhibitor potency was enhanced over 6-fold when primer-extension proceeded through the duplex region of the stem-loop. Images PMID:7514786

  1. Modification and structure-activity relationship of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingsong; Le, Nhut; Heredia, Alonso; Song, Haijing; Redfield, Robert; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes selected modification and structure-activity relationship of the small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, 4-benzoyl-1-[(4-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)oxoacetyl]-2-(R)-methylpiperazine (BMS-378806). The results revealed: i) that both the presence and configuration (R vs. S) of the 3-methyl group on the piperazine moiety are important for the antiviral activity, with the 3-(R)-methyl derivatives showing the highest activity; ii) that the electronegativity of the C-4 substituent on the indole or azaindole ring seems to be important for the activity, with a small, electron-donating group such as a fluoro or a methoxy group showing enhanced activity, while a nitro group diminishes the activity; iii) that the N-1 position of the indole ring is not eligible for modification without losing activity; and iv) that bulky groups around the C-4 position of the indole or azaindole ring diminish the activity, probably due to steric hindrance in the binding. We found that a synthetic bivalent compound with two BMS-378806 moieties being tethered by a spacer demonstrated about 5-fold enhanced activity in an nM range against HIV-1 infection than the corresponding monomeric inhibitor. But the polyacrylamide-based polyvalent compounds did not show inhibitory activity at up to 200 nM.

  2. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of an HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor Exploiting X-ray and Thermodynamic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The design, synthesis, thermodynamic and crystallographic characterization of a potent, broad spectrum, second-generation HIV-1 entry inhibitor that engages conserved carbonyl hydrogen bonds within gp120 has been achieved. The optimized antagonist exhibits a submicromolar binding affinity (110 nM) and inhibits viral entry of clade B and C viruses (IC50 geometric mean titer of 1.7 and 14.0 μM, respectively), without promoting CD4-independent viral entry. The thermodynamic signatures indicate a binding preference for the (R,R)- over the (S,S)-enantiomer. The crystal structure of the small-molecule/gp120 complex reveals the displacement of crystallographic water and the formation of a hydrogen bond with a backbone carbonyl of the bridging sheet. Thus, structure-based design and synthesis targeting the highly conserved and structurally characterized CD4–gp120 interface is an effective tactic to enhance the neutralization potency of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:23667716

  3. Modification and structure-activity relationship of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingsong; Le, Nhut; Heredia, Alonso; Song, Haijing; Redfield, Robert; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes selected modification and structure-activity relationship of the small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, 4-benzoyl-1-[(4-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)oxoacetyl]-2-(R)-methylpiperazine (BMS-378806). The results revealed: i) that both the presence and configuration (R vs. S) of the 3-methyl group on the piperazine moiety are important for the antiviral activity, with the 3-(R)-methyl derivatives showing the highest activity; ii) that the electronegativity of the C-4 substituent on the indole or azaindole ring seems to be important for the activity, with a small, electron-donating group such as a fluoro or a methoxy group showing enhanced activity, while a nitro group diminishes the activity; iii) that the N-1 position of the indole ring is not eligible for modification without losing activity; and iv) that bulky groups around the C-4 position of the indole or azaindole ring diminish the activity, probably due to steric hindrance in the binding. We found that a synthetic bivalent compound with two BMS-378806 moieties being tethered by a spacer demonstrated about 5-fold enhanced activity in an nM range against HIV-1 infection than the corresponding monomeric inhibitor. But the polyacrylamide-based polyvalent compounds did not show inhibitory activity at up to 200 nM. PMID:15858664

  4. Exceptionally Potent and Broadly Cross-Reactive, Bispecific Multivalent HIV-1 Inhibitors Based on Single Human CD4 and Antibody Domains

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Sun, Jianping; Macedo, Camila D. S.; Zhu, Zhongyu; He, Yuxian; Polonis, Victoria R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble forms of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary receptor CD4 (soluble CD4 [sCD4]) have been extensively characterized for a quarter of a century as promising HIV-1 inhibitors, but they have not been clinically successful. By combining a protein cavity-filling strategy and the power of library technology, we identified an engineered cavity-altered single-domain sCD4 (mD1.22) with a unique combination of excellent properties, including broad and potent neutralizing activity, high specificity, stability, solubility, and affinity for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, and small molecular size. To further improve its neutralizing potency and breadth, we generated bispecific multivalent fusion proteins of mD1.22 with another potent HIV-1 inhibitor, an antibody domain (m36.4) that targets the coreceptor-binding site on gp120. The fusion proteins neutralized all HIV-1 isolates tested, with potencies about 10-, 50-, and 200-fold higher than those of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, the U.S. FDA-approved peptide inhibitor T20, and the clinically tested sCD4-Fc fusion protein CD4-Ig, respectively. In addition, they exhibited higher stability and specificity and a lower aggregation propensity than CD4-Ig. Therefore, mD1.22 and related fusion proteins could be useful for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, including eradication of the virus. PMID:24198429

  5. Unexpected Activity of a Novel Kunitz-type Inhibitor: INHIBITION OF CYSTEINE PROTEASES BUT NOT SERINE PROTEASES.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Tikhonova, Irina G; Jewhurst, Heather L; Drysdale, Orla C; Dvořák, Jan; Robinson, Mark W; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P

    2016-09-01

    Kunitz-type (KT) protease inhibitors are low molecular weight proteins classically defined as serine protease inhibitors. We identified a novel secreted KT inhibitor associated with the gut and parenchymal tissues of the infective juvenile stage of Fasciola hepatica, a helminth parasite of medical and veterinary importance. Unexpectedly, recombinant KT inhibitor (rFhKT1) exhibited no inhibitory activity toward serine proteases but was a potent inhibitor of the major secreted cathepsin L cysteine proteases of F. hepatica, FhCL1 and FhCL2, and of human cathepsins L and K (Ki = 0.4-27 nm). FhKT1 prevented the auto-catalytic activation of FhCL1 and FhCL2 and formed stable complexes with the mature enzymes. Pulldown experiments from adult parasite culture medium showed that rFhKT1 interacts specifically with native secreted FhCL1, FhCL2, and FhCL5. Substitution of the unusual P1 Leu(15) within the exposed reactive loop of FhKT1 for the more commonly found Arg (FhKT1Leu(15)/Arg(15)) had modest adverse effects on the cysteine protease inhibition but conferred potent activity against the serine protease trypsin (Ki = 1.5 nm). Computational docking and sequence analysis provided hypotheses for the exclusive binding of FhKT1 to cysteine proteases, the importance of the Leu(15) in anchoring the inhibitor into the S2 active site pocket, and the inhibitor's selectivity toward FhCL1, FhCL2, and human cathepsins L and K. FhKT1 represents a novel evolutionary adaptation of KT protease inhibitors by F. hepatica, with its prime purpose likely in the regulation of the major parasite-secreted proteases and/or cathepsin L-like proteases of its host.

  6. Accurate prediction of explicit solvent atom distribution in HIV-1 protease and F-ATP synthase by statistical theory of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhikara, Daniel; Yoshida, Norio; Hirata, Fumio

    2012-02-01

    We have created a simple algorithm for automatically predicting the explicit solvent atom distribution of biomolecules. The explicit distribution is coerced from the 3D continuous distribution resulting from a 3D-RISM calculation. This procedure predicts optimal location of solvent molecules and ions given a rigid biomolecular structure. We show examples of predicting water molecules near KNI-275 bound form of HIV-1 protease and predicting both sodium ions and water molecules near the rotor ring of F-ATP synthase. Our results give excellent agreement with experimental structure with an average prediction error of 0.45-0.65 angstroms. Further, unlike experimental methods, this method does not suffer from the partial occupancy limit. Our method can be performed directly on 3D-RISM output within minutes. It is useful not only as a location predictor but also as a convenient method for generating initial structures for MD calculations.

  7. Mutations Proximal to Sites of Autoproteolysis and the α-Helix That Co-evolve under Drug Pressure Modulate the Autoprocessing and Vitality of HIV-1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Louis, John M; Deshmukh, Lalit; Sayer, Jane M; Aniana, Annie; Clore, G Marius

    2015-09-01

    N-Terminal self-cleavage (autoprocessing) of the HIV-1 protease precursor is crucial for liberating the active dimer. Under drug pressure, evolving mutations are predicted to modulate autoprocessing, and the reduced catalytic activity of the mature protease (PR) is likely compensated by enhanced conformational/dimer stability and reduced susceptibility to self-degradation (autoproteolysis). One such highly evolved, multidrug resistant protease, PR20, bears 19 mutations contiguous to sites of autoproteolysis in retroviral proteases, namely clusters 1-3 comprising residues 30-37, 60-67, and 88-95, respectively, accounting for 11 of the 19 mutations. By systematically replacing corresponding clusters in PR with those of PR20, and vice versa, we assess their influence on the properties mentioned above and observe no strict correlation. A 10-35-fold decrease in the cleavage efficiency of peptide substrates by PR20, relative to PR, is reflected by an only ∼4-fold decrease in the rate of Gag processing with no change in cleavage order. Importantly, optimal N-terminal autoprocessing requires all 19 PR20 mutations as evaluated in vitro using the model precursor TFR-PR20 in which PR is flanked by the transframe region. Substituting PR20 cluster 3 into TFR-PR (TFR-PR(PR20-3)) requires the presence of PR20 cluster 1 and/or 2 for autoprocessing. In accordance, substituting PR clusters 1 and 2 into TFR-PR20 affects the rate of autoprocessing more drastically (>300-fold) compared to that of TFR-PR(PR20-3) because of the cumulative effect of eight noncluster mutations present in TFR-PR20(PR-12). Overall, these studies imply that drug resistance involves a complex synchronized selection of mutations modulating all of the properties mentioned above governing PR regulation and function. PMID:26266692

  8. Primary structural analysis of sulfhydryl protease inhibitors from pineapple stem.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M N; Keim, P S; Heinrikson, R L; Kezdy, F J

    1975-03-10

    Pineapple stem acetone powder provides a rich source of the sulfhydryl protease bromelain and of a family of compositionally similar but chromatographically distinct polypeptide inihibtors of this enzyme. The isoinhibitors have molecular weights of 5600, and they contain five disulfide bonds and about 50 amino acids each (Perlstein, S. H., AND Kezdy, F.J. (1973) J. Supramol. Struct. 1, 249-254). Primary structural analysis of one of the seven inhibitor fractions (VII) revealed extensive microheterogeneity. Each of the inhibitor molecules in Fraction VII was shown to be composed of two peptide chains joined by disulfide bonds. These chains, designated A and B on the basis of size, comprise 41 and 10-11 residues, respectively, and the amino acid sequence of one of each are given below: (see article for formular). On the basis of ionization properties and yields of the A and B chains, it would appear that one of the major inhibitor species in Fraction VII is the covalently linked complex of the two chains shown, namely [A-1, B-2]. The second major inhibitor component of Fraction VII is identical in structure with [A-1, B-2i1 except that residues 1 and 8 in the A chain are pyroglutamate and threonine, respectively, and in the B chain glutamine 11 is replaced by arginine. The third inhibitor in Fraction VII is a minor constituent identical with the second, except that residue 1 in the A chain is glutamate rather than pyroglutamate. This microheterogeneity in the inhibitors of Fraction VII is further increased by the fact that B chains may lack threonine 1, in which case they are decapeptides beginning with alanine. On the basis of the striking homology of the cysteine residues with those of other protease inhibitors, it is proposed that the bromelain inhibitors are generated enzymatically from single chain precursors by excision of a "bridge" paptide which links the NH-2 termal A chain to the COOH-terminal B chain.

  9. A novel assay for screening inhibitors targeting HIV-1 integrase dimerization based on Ni-NTA magnetic agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; He, Hongqiu; Liu, Mengmeng; Meng, Zhixia; Guo, Shunxing

    2016-05-03

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase (IN), which mediates integration of viral cDNA into the cellular chromosome, is a validated antiviral drug target. Three IN inhibitors, raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir, have been clinically approved since 2008. However, drug resistance have emerged in infected patients receiving treatment using these drugs which share the same mechanism of action and have a low genetic barrier for resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop drugs with novel mechanism. IN requires a precise and dynamic equilibrium between several oligomeric species for its activities. The modulation of the process which is termed as IN oligomerization, presents an interesting allosteric target for drug development. In this research, we developed a magnetic beads based approach to assay the IN dimerization. Then, using the assay we screened a library of 1000 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for IN dimerization inhibitors and identified dexlansoprazole as a potential IN dimerization inhibitor. In conclusion, the assay presented here has been proven to be sensitive and specific for the detection of IN dimerization as well as for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting IN dimerization. Moreover, a FDA-approved proton-pump inhibitors, dexlansoprazole, was identified as a potential inhibitor for IN dimerization.

  10. A novel assay for screening inhibitors targeting HIV-1 integrase dimerization based on Ni-NTA magnetic agarose beads

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; He, Hongqiu; Liu, Mengmeng; Meng, Zhixia; Guo, Shunxing

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase (IN), which mediates integration of viral cDNA into the cellular chromosome, is a validated antiviral drug target. Three IN inhibitors, raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir, have been clinically approved since 2008. However, drug resistance have emerged in infected patients receiving treatment using these drugs which share the same mechanism of action and have a low genetic barrier for resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop drugs with novel mechanism. IN requires a precise and dynamic equilibrium between several oligomeric species for its activities. The modulation of the process which is termed as IN oligomerization, presents an interesting allosteric target for drug development. In this research, we developed a magnetic beads based approach to assay the IN dimerization. Then, using the assay we screened a library of 1000 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for IN dimerization inhibitors and identified dexlansoprazole as a potential IN dimerization inhibitor. In conclusion, the assay presented here has been proven to be sensitive and specific for the detection of IN dimerization as well as for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting IN dimerization. Moreover, a FDA-approved proton-pump inhibitors, dexlansoprazole, was identified as a potential inhibitor for IN dimerization. PMID:27137477

  11. Design and discovery of 5-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-4-carboxamide inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daoguang; Debnath, Bikash; Yu, Shenghui; Sanchez, Tino Wilson; Christ, Frauke; Liu, Yang; Debyser, Zeger; Neamati, Nouri; Zhao, Guisen

    2014-10-01

    Raltegravir (RAL) is a first clinically approved integrase (IN) inhibitor for the treatment of HIV but rapid mutation of the virus has led to chemo-resistant strains. Therefore, there is a medical need to develop new IN inhibitors to overcome drug resistance. At present, several IN inhibitors are in different phases of clinical trials and few have been discontinued due to toxicity and lack of efficacy. The development of potent second-generation IN inhibitors with improved safety profiles is key for selecting new clinical candidates. In this article, we report the design and synthesis of potent 5-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-4-carboxamide analogues as second-generation IN inhibitors. These compounds satisfy two structural requirements known for potent inhibition of HIV-1 IN catalysis: a metal chelating moiety and a hydrophobic functionality necessary for selectivity against the strand transfer reaction. Most of the new compounds described herein are potent and selective for the strand transfer reaction and show antiviral activity in cell-based assays. Furthermore, this class of compounds are drug-like and suitable for further optimization and preclinical studies.

  12. From the traditional Chinese medicine plant Schisandra chinensis new scaffolds effective on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistant to non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijia; Grandi, Nicole; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Mandas, Daniela; Corona, Angela; Piano, Dario; Esposito, Francesca; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is still an extremely attractive pharmaceutical target for the identification of new inhibitors possibly active on drug resistant strains. Medicinal plants are a rich source of chemical diversity and can be used to identify novel scaffolds to be further developed by chemical modifications. We investigated the ability of the main lignans from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. fruits, commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, to affect HIV-1 RT functions. We purified 6 lignans from Schisandra chinensis fruits and assayed their effects on HIV-1 RT and viral replication. Among the S. chinensis fruit lignans, Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin selectively inhibited the HIV-1 RT-associated DNA polymerase activity. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of cyclooctadiene ring substituents for efficacy. In addition, Schisandrin B was also able to impair HIV-1 RT drug resistant mutants and the early phases of viral replication. We identified Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin as new scaffold for the further development of novel HIV-1 RT inhibitors.

  13. Discovery of small-molecule HIV-1 fusion and integrase inhibitors oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: Part II. Integrase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee-Huang, Sylvia; Huang, Philip Lin; Zhang Dawei; Lee, Jae Wook; Bao Ju; Sun Yongtao; Chang, Young-Tae; Zhang, John; Huang, Paul Lee . E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu

    2007-03-23

    We report molecular modeling and functional confirmation of Ole and HT binding to HIV-1 integrase. Docking simulations identified two binding regions for Ole within the integrase active site. Region I encompasses the conserved D64-D116-E152 motif, while region II involves the flexible loop region formed by amino acid residues 140-149. HT, on the other hand, binds to region II. Both Ole and HT exhibit favorable interactions with important amino acid residues through strong H-bonding and van der Waals contacts, predicting integrase inhibition. To test and confirm modeling predictions, we examined the effect of Ole and HT on HIV-1 integrase activities including 3'-processing, strand transfer, and disintegration. Ole and HT exhibit dose-dependent inhibition on all three activities, with EC{sub 50}s in the nanomolar range. These studies demonstrate that molecular modeling of target-ligand interaction coupled with structural-activity analysis should facilitate the design and identification of innovative integrase inhibitors and other therapeutics.

  14. The thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) HDAC inhibitor ST7612AA1 as HIV-1 latency reactivation agent.

    PubMed

    Badia, Roger; Grau, Judith; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Ballana, Ester; Giannini, Giuseppe; Esté, José A

    2015-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to cure HIV infection. The ability of HIV to establish a subset of latent infected CD4(+) T cells, which remain undetectable to the immune system, becomes a major roadblock to achieve viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to potently induce the reactivation of latent HIV. Here, we show that a new thiol-based HDACi, the thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) derivative ST7612AA1, is a potent inducer of HIV reactivation. We evaluated HIV reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 compared to panobinostat (PNB), romidepsin (RMD) and vorinostat (VOR) in cell culture models of HIV-1 latency, in latently infected primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes and in PBMCs from HIV(+) patients. ST7612AA1 potently induced HIV-1 reactivation at submicromolar concentrations with comparable potency to panobinostat or superior to vorinostat. The presence of known antiretrovirals did not affect ST7612AA1-induced reactivation and their activity was not affected by ST7612AA1. Cell proliferation and cell activation were not affected by ST7612AA1, or any other HDACi used. In conclusion, our results indicate that ST7612AA1 is a potent activator of latent HIV and that reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 is exerted without activation or proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. ST7612AA1 is a suitable candidate for further studies of HIV reactivation strategies and potential new therapies to eradicate the viral reservoirs. PMID:26348004

  15. Secondary mutations in viruses resistant to HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that restore viral infectivity and replication kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Koichiro; Wakasa-Morimoto, Chiaki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miki, Shigeru; Noshi, Takeshi; Seki, Takahiro; Kanamori-Koyama, Mikiko; Kawauchi, Shinobu; Suyama, Akemi; Fujishita, Toshio; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Garvey, Edward P; Johns, Brian A; Foster, Scott A; Underwood, Mark R; Sato, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Tamio

    2009-02-01

    Passage of HIV-1 in the presence of integrase inhibitors (INIs) generates resistant viruses that have mutations in the integrase region. Integrase-resistant mutations Q148K and Q148R were identified as primary mutations with the passage of HIV-1 IIIB in the presence of INIs S-1360 or S/GSK-364735, respectively. Secondary amino acid substitutions E138K or G140S were observed when passage with INI was continued. The role of these mutations was investigated with molecular clones. Relative to Q148K alone, Q148K/E138K had 2- and >6-fold increases in resistance to S-1360 and S/GSK-364735, respectively, and the double mutant had slightly better infectivity and replication kinetics. In contrast, Q148K/G140S and Q148R/E138K had nearly equivalent or slightly reduced fold resistance to the INI compared with their respective Q148 primary mutants, and had increases in infectivity and replication kinetics. Recovery of these surrogates of viral fitness coincided with the recovery of integration efficiency of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome for these double mutants. These data show that recovery of viral integration efficiency can be an important factor for the emergence and maintenance of INI-resistant mutations.

  16. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Dual Hotspot Small-Molecule HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    LaLonde, Judith M.; Kwon, Young Do; Jones, David M.; Sun, Alexander W.; Courter, Joel R.; Soeta, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Princiotto, Amy M.; Wu, Xueling; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Sodroski, Joseph; Madani, Navid; Smith, III, Amos B.

    2012-06-19

    Cellular infection by HIV-1 is initiated with a binding event between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 and the cellular receptor protein CD4. The CD4-gp120 interface is dominated by two hotspots: a hydrophobic gp120 cavity capped by Phe43{sub CD4} and an electrostatic interaction between residues Arg59{sub CD4} and Asp368{sub gp120}. The CD4 mimetic small-molecule NBD-556 (1) binds within the gp120 cavity; however, 1 and related congeners demonstrate limited viral neutralization breadth. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, characterization, and X-ray structures of gp120 in complex with small molecules that simultaneously engage both binding hotspots. The compounds specifically inhibit viral infection of 42 tier 2 clades B and C viruses and are shown to be antagonists of entry into CD4-negative cells. Dual hotspot design thus provides both a means to enhance neutralization potency of HIV-1 entry inhibitors and a novel structural paradigm for inhibiting the CD4-gp120 protein-protein interaction.

  17. Effects of Mucuna pruriens protease inhibitors on Echis carinatus venom.

    PubMed

    Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozie Stanley; Ogueli, Godwin Ifeanyi; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Cerutti, Helena; Cito, Annarita; Aguiyi, John C; Guerranti, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The medicinal plant Mucuna pruriens, with reputed anti-snake venom properties has been reported to contain a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the protease inhibitory potential of gpMuc, a multiform glycoprotein, and other protein fractions from M. pruriens seeds against trypsin, chymotrypsin, Echis carinatus snake venom, ecarin and thrombin. The results showed that gpMuc inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and was thermally stable, maintaining its trypsin inhibitory activity at temperatures of up to 50°C. Its structural conformation was also maintained at pH ranges of 4-7. Immunoreactivity study confirms that it contains protease-recognizing epitope on one of its isoforms. The whole protein extract of M. pruriens seeds inhibited prothrombin activation by ecarin and whole E. carinatus venom, and also thrombin-like activity using chromogenic assay. PMID:22447581

  18. An intravaginal ring for the simultaneous delivery of an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor and reverse transcriptase inhibitor for prophylaxis of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ugaonkar, Shweta R.; Clark, Justin T.; English, Lexie B.; Johnson, Todd J.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Bahde, Robert J.; Appella, Daniel H.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7) inhibitors have been investigated extensively for their role in impeding the function of HIV-1 replication machinery and their ability to directly inactivate the virus. A class of NCp7 zinc finger inhibitors, S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters (SAMTs), was investigated for topical drug delivery. SAMTs are inherently unstable due to their hydrolytically labile thioester bond thus requiring formulation approaches that can lend stability. We describe the delivery of N-[2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylthio)benzoyl]-β-alanine amide (SAMT-10), as a single agent antiretroviral (ARV) therapeutic and in combination with the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor pyrimidinedione IQP-0528, from a hydrophobic polyether urethane (PEU) intravaginal ring (IVR) for a month. The physicochemical stability of the ARV-loaded IVRs was confirmed after 3 months at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH). In vitro, 25 ± 3 mg/IVR of SAMT-10 and 86 ± 13 mg/IVR of IQP-0528 were released. No degradation of the hydrolytically labile SAMT-10 was observed within the matrix. The combination of ARVs had synergistic antiviral activity when tested in in vitro cell based assays. Toxicological evaluations performed on an organotypic EpiVaginal™ tissue model demonstrated a lack of formulation toxicity. Overall, SAMT-10 and IQP-0528 were formulated in a stable PEU IVR for sustained release. Our findings support the need for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:26149293

  19. Characterization of HIV-1 Resistance to Tenofovir Alafenamide In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Margot, Nicolas A; Johnson, Audun; Miller, Michael D; Callebaut, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is an investigational prodrug of the HIV-1 nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TFV), with improved potency and drug delivery properties over the current prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). TAF is currently in phase 3 clinical studies for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Phase 1 and 2 studies have shown that TAF was associated with increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) drug loading and increased suppression of HIV-1 replication compared to treatment with TDF. In this study, selection of in vitro resistance to both TAF and the parent compound, TFV, led to the emergence of HIV-1 with the K65R amino acid substitution in RT with 6.5-fold-reduced susceptibility to TAF. Although TAF is more potent than TFV in vitro, the antiviral susceptibilities to TAF and TFV of a large panel of nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitor (NRTI)-resistant mutants were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.97), indicating that the two compounds have virtually the same resistance profile when assessed as fold change from the wild type. TAF showed full antiviral activity in PBMCs against primary HIV-1 isolates with protease inhibitor, nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI), or integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance but reduced activity against isolates with extensive NRTI resistance amino acid substitutions. However, the increased cell loading of TFV with TAF versus TDF observed in vivo suggests that TAF may retain activity against TDF-resistant mutant viruses. PMID:26149983

  20. Elastase and alpha 1-protease inhibitor in burn wound exudates.

    PubMed

    Prager, M D; Herring, M; Germany, B; Baxter, C R

    1991-01-01

    By degrading antithrombin III, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) elastase can become a procoagulant. Because intravascular coagulation may accompany severe burn injury, this study examined burn wound exudates for PMN elastase and its physiologic inhibitor, plasma alpha 1-protease inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), as a step in evaluating their contributions to coagulopathy in patients with burns. Each of the nine exudates examined were inhibitory for PMN elastase. Chromatographic characterization of the inhibitor indicated that it was alpha 1-PI; its elution volume for four exudates was identical to that of pure alpha 1-PI. Confirmation of the inhibitor's identity was achieved by reaction of anti-alpha 1-PI antibody with each exudate and with inhibitory chromatographic fractions of exudates with the most inhibitory activity. Inhibitor potency, determined from dose-response curves against a standard PMN elastase activity, varied twentyfold among exudates. Only one exudate had catalytic activity with the PMN elastase substrate. Although this enzyme had elastase-like properties, it appeared to differ from PMN elastase. The presence of alpha 1-PI in the wound exudate suggests that this inhibitor may act to diminish fibrin formation from the level that might otherwise have been seen if excess elastase were free to degrade antithrombin III.

  1. From dihydroxypyrimidine carboxylic acids to carboxamide HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: SAR around the amide moiety.

    PubMed

    Petrocchi, Alessia; Koch, Uwe; Matassa, Victor G; Pacini, Barbara; Stillmock, Kara A; Summa, Vincenzo

    2007-01-15

    4,5-Dihyroxypyrimidine carboxamides, which evolved from a related series of HCV NS5b polymerase inhibitors, have been optimized to provide selective HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Extensive SAR around the benzylamide moiety led to the identification of the p-fluorobenzylamide as optimal in the enzymatic assay.

  2. Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors Based on Inorganic Polyhedral Metallacarboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rezacova, Pavlina; Pokorna, Jana; Brynda, Ji; Kozisek, Milan; Cigler, Petr; Lesik, Martin; Fanfrlik, Jindrich; Rezac, Jan; Saskova, Klara Grantz; Sieglova, Irena; Plesek, Jaromir; Sicha, Vaclav; Gruner, Bohumir; Oberwinkler, Heike; Sedlacek, Juraj; Krausslich, Hans-Georg; Hobza, Pavel; Kral, Vladimir; Konvalinka, Jan

    2010-04-19

    HIV protease (HIV PR) is a primary target for anti-HIV drug design. We have previously identified and characterized substituted metallacarboranes as a new class of HIV protease inhibitors. In a structure-guided drug design effort, we connected the two cobalt bis(dicarbollide) clusters with a linker to substituted ammonium group and obtained a set of compounds based on a lead formula [H{sub 2}N-(8-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 2}-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 10})(1',2'-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11})-3,3'-Co){sub 2}]Na. We explored inhibition properties of these compounds with various substitutions, determined the HIV PR:inhibitor crystal structure, and computationally explored the conformational space of the linker. Our results prove the capacity of linker-substituted dual-cage cobalt bis(dicarbollides) as lead compounds for design of more potent inhibitors of HIV PR.

  3. Peptidyl cyclopropenones: Reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, or substrates of cysteine proteases?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Meital; Bretler, Uriel; Albeck, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl cyclopropenones were previously introduced as selective cysteine protease reversible inhibitors. In the present study we synthesized one such peptidyl cyclopropenone and investigated its interaction with papain, a prototype cysteine protease. A set of kinetics, biochemical, HPLC, MS, and 13C-NMR experiments revealed that the peptidyl cyclopropenone was an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, alkylating the catalytic cysteine. In parallel, this cyclopropenone also behaved as an alternative substrate of the enzyme, providing a product that was tentatively suggested to be either a spiroepoxy cyclopropanone or a gamma-lactone. Thus, a single family of compounds exhibits an unusual variety of activities, being reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors and alternative substrates towards enzymes of the same family. PMID:23553793

  4. Construction of dengue virus protease expression plasmid and in vitro protease assay for screening antiviral inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huiguo; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne human pathogens of global significance causing ~390 million cases annually worldwide. The virus infections cause in general a self-limiting disease, known as dengue fever, but occasionally also more severe forms, especially during secondary infections, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome causing ~25,000 deaths annually. The DENV genome contains a single-strand positive sense RNA, approximately 11 kb in length. The 5'-end has a type I cap structure. The 3'-end has no poly(A) tail. The viral RNA has a single long open reading frame that is translated by the host translational machinery to yield a polyprotein precursor. Processing of the polyprotein precursor occurs co-translationally by cellular proteases and posttranslationally by the viral serine protease in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to yield three structural proteins (capsid (C), precursor membrane (prM), and envelope (E) and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). The active viral protease consists of both NS2B, an integral membrane protein in the ER, and the N-terminal part of NS3 (180 amino acid residues) that contains the trypsin-like serine protease domain having a catalytic triad of H51, D75, and S135. The C-terminal part of NS3, ~170-618 amino acid residues, encodes an NTPase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA triphosphatase activities; the latter enzyme is required for the first step in 5'-capping. The cleavage sites of the polyprotein by the viral protease consist of two basic amino acid residues such as KR, RR, or QR, followed by short chain amino acid residues, G, S, or T. Since the cleavage of the polyprotein by the viral protease is absolutely required for assembly of the viral replicase, blockage of NS2B/NS3pro activity provides an effective means for designing dengue virus (DENV) small-molecule therapeutics. Here we describe the screening of small-molecule inhibitors against DENV2 protease. PMID

  5. [Prospects for the design of new therapeutically significant protease inhibitors based on knottins and sunflower seed trypsin inhibitor (SFTI 1)].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, S S; Kolesanova, E F; Talanova, A V; Veselovsky, A V

    2016-05-01

    Plant seed knottins, mainly from the Cucurbitacea family, and sunflower seed trypsin inhibitor (SFTI 1) are the most low-molecular canonical peptide inhibitors of serine proteases. High efficiency of inhibition of various serine proteases, structure rigidity together with the possibility of limited variations of amino acid sequences, high chemical stability, lack of toxic properties, opportunity of production by either chemical synthesis or use of heterologous expression systems make these inhibitors attractive templates for design of new compounds for regulation of therapeutically significant serine protease activities. Hence the design of such compounds represents a prospective research field. The review considers structural characteristics of these inhibitors, their properties, methods of preparation and design of new analogs. Examples of successful employment of natural serine protease inhibitors belonging to knottin family and SFTI 1 as templates for the design of highly specific inhibitors of certain proteases are given. PMID:27562989

  6. Structural studies of series HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 1-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)-2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-benzimidazoles with different 4-substituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2010-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, several anti-viral drugs have become available to fight the HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality of AIDS. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are specific and potentially nontoxic drugs against AIDS. The crystal structures of five nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are presented here. The structural parameters, especially those describing the angular orientation of the π-electron systems and influencing biological activity, were determined for all of the investigated inhibitors. The chemical character and orientation of the substituent at C4 position of the benzimidazole moiety substantially influences the anti-viral activity. The structural data of the investigated inhibitors is a good basis for modeling enzyme-inhibitor interactions for structure-assisted drug design.

  7. Azaindole N-methyl hydroxamic acids as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors-II. The impact of physicochemical properties on ADME and PK.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Steven P; Plewe, Michael B; Johnson, Ted W; Butler, Scott L; Dalvie, Deepak; DeLisle, Dorothy; Dress, Klaus R; Hu, Qiyue; Huang, Buwen; Kuehler, Jon E; Kuki, Atsuo; Liu, Wen; Peng, Qinghai; Smith, Graham L; Solowiej, Jim; Tran, Khanh T; Wang, Hai; Yang, Anle; Yin, Chunfeng; Yu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Junhu; Zhu, Huichun

    2010-12-15

    HIV-1 integrase is one of three enzymes encoded by the HIV genome and is essential for viral replication, and HIV-1 IN inhibitors have emerged as a new promising class of therapeutics. Recently, we reported the discovery of azaindole hydroxamic acids that were potent inhibitors of the HIV-1 IN enzyme. N-Methyl hydroxamic acids were stable against oxidative metabolism, however were cleared rapidly through phase 2 glucuronidation pathways. We were able to introduce polar groups at the β-position of the azaindole core thereby altering physical properties by lowering calculated log D values (c Log D) which resulted in attenuated clearance rates in human hepatocytes. Pharmacokinetic data in dog for representative compounds demonstrated moderate oral bioavailability and reasonable half-lives. These ends were accomplished without a large negative impact on enzymatic and antiviral activity, thus suggesting opportunities to alter clearance parameters in future series.

  8. Discovery of novel low-molecular-weight HIV-1 inhibitors interacting with cyclophilin A using in silico screening and biological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Shi; Verathamjamras, Chris; Kawashita, Norihito; Okamoto, Kousuke; Yasunaga, Teruo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Kameoka, Masanori; Takagi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophilin A has attracted attention recently as a new target of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drugs. However, so far no drug against HIV-1 infection exhibiting this mechanism of action has been approved. To identify new potent candidates for inhibitors, we performed in silico screening of a commercial database of more than 1,300 drug-like compounds by using receptor-based docking studies. The candidates selected from docking studies were subsequently tested using biological assays to assess anti-HIV activities. As a result, two compounds were identified as the most active. Specifically, both exhibited anti-HIV activity against viral replication at a low concentration and relatively low cytotoxicity at the effective concentration inhibiting viral growth by 50%. Further modification of these molecules may lead to the elucidation of potent inhibitors of HIV-1.

  9. Support Vector Machine (SVM) Models for Predicting Inhibitors of the 3' Processing Step of HIV-1 Integrase.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Shouyi; Wang, Maolin; Kang, Hang; Kirchmair, Johannes; Tan, Lu; Yan, Aixia

    2013-10-01

    Inhibition of the 3' processing step of HIV-1 integrase by small molecule inhibitors is one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of AIDS. Using a support vector machine (SVM) approach, we developed six classification models for predicting 3'P inhibitors. The models are based on up to 48 selected molecular descriptors and a comprehensive data set of 1253 molecules, with measured activities ranging from nanomolar to micromolar IC50 values. Model B2, the most robust SVM model, obtains a prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 93 %, 81 %, 94 % and 0.67 on the test set, respectively. The presence of hydrogen bonding features and hydrophilicity in general were identified as key determinants of inhibitory activity. Further important properties include molecular refractivity, π atom charge, total charge, lone pair electronegativity, and effective atom polarizability. Comparative fragment-based analysis of the active and inactive molecules corroborated these observations and revealed several characteristic structural elements of 3'P inhibitors. The models built in this study can be obtained from the authors.

  10. A Comparative Insight into Amprenavir Resistance of Mutations V32I, G48V, I50V, I54V, and I84V in HIV-1 Protease Based on Thermodynamic Integration and MM-PBSA Methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Wang, Xingyu; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qinggang; Zhang, John Z H

    2015-09-28

    Drug resistance of mutations V32I, G48V, I50V, I54V, and I84V in HIV-1 protease (PR) was found in clinical treatment of HIV patients with the drug amprenavir (APV). In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with these mutations, the thermodynamic integration (TI) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) methods were applied to calculate binding free energies of APV to wild-type PR and these mutated PRs. The relative binding free energy differences from the TI calculations reveal that the decrease in van der Waals interactions of APV with mutated PRs relative to the wild-type PR mainly drives the drug resistance. This result is in good agreement with the previous experimental results and is also consistent with the results from MM-PBSA calculations. Analyses based on molecular dynamics trajectories show that these mutations can adjust the shape and conformation of the binding pocket, which provides main contributions to the decrease in the van der Waals interactions of APV with mutated PRs. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of new potent inhibitors that could alleviate drug resistance of PR due to mutations. PMID:26317593

  11. An amphiphilic conjugate approach toward the design and synthesis of betulinic acid-polyphenol conjugates as inhibitors of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion core formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Ke, Zhuofeng; Wu, Kwok Yiu; Liu, Shuwen; Chen, Wen-Hua; Jiang, Shibo; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2011-09-01

    Exploration of potent inhibitors of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion core formation is a promising strategy to discover small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In this paper, a series of novel betulinic acid-polyphenol conjugates was designed, guided by molecular modeling of the binding of betulinic acid (BA) and phenolic galloyl/caffeoyl groups in the groove on the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) trimeric coiled coil. These conjugates were synthesized via conjugation of galloyl and caffeoyl groups with BA at the C-28 position. Their inhibitory activities of HIV gp41 six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between the NHR peptide N36 and the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) peptide C34 were evaluated with size-exclusion HPLC. Conjugates bearing a galloyl group were found to exhibit four to sixfold higher inhibitory activities than that of parent compound BA, suggesting that they may be exploitable as HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors targeting gp41. The docking study on BA and its derivatives suggests that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding pockets exist in the groove of the gp41 NHR trimeric coiled coil and that a potent inhibitor should have amphiphilic structures to cooperatively interact with both pockets. This possibility was explored by incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic groups into the conjugates in a well-defined orientation to bind with both pockets in the gp41 NHR-trimer.

  12. N-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-3-hydroxy-9,9-dimethyl-4-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrazino[1,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxamides a novel class of potent HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Petrocchi, Alessia; Jones, Philip; Rowley, Michael; Fiore, Fabrizio; Summa, Vincenzo

    2009-08-01

    A novel class of tetrahydro-pyrazinopyrimidine-2-carboxamides have been identified as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Optimization of the initial lead culminated in the discovery of a series of compounds with high potency on the enzyme and an antiviral cell-based activity equivalent to that showed by Raltegravir, the first in class HIV-1 integrase inhibitor.

  13. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Jayant S.; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies. PMID:27121513

  14. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goda, Jayant S; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-02-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies.

  15. Advances in the development of SUMO specific protease (SENP) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sumoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that involves the covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to their substrate proteins. Prior to their conjugation, SUMO proteins need to be proteolytically processed from its precursor form to mature or active form. SUMO specific proteases (SENPs) are cysteine proteases that cleave the pro or inactive form of SUMO at C-terminus using its hydrolase activity to expose two glycine residues. SENPs also catalyze the de-conjugation of SUMO proteins using their isopeptidase activity, which is crucial for recycling of SUMO from substrate proteins. SENPs are important for maintaining the balance between sumoylated and unsumoylated proteins required for normal cellular physiology. Several studies reported the overexpression of SENPs in disease conditions and highlighted their role in the development of various diseases, especially cancer. In this review, we will address the current biological understanding of various SENP isoforms and their role in the pathogenesis of different cancers and other diseases. We will then discuss the advances in the development of protein-based, peptidyl and small molecule inhibitors of various SENP isoforms. Finally, we will summarize successful examples of computational screening that allowed the identification of SENP inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:25893082

  16. Design of Annulated Pyrazoles As Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Z.K.; Harris, S.F.; Arora, N.; Javanbakht, H.; Li, Y.; Fretland, J.; Davidson, J.P.; Billedeau, J.R.; Gleason, S.; Hirschfeld, D.; Kennedy-Smith, J.J.; Mirzadegan, T.; Roetz, R.; Smith, M.; Sperry, S.; Suh, J.M.; Wu, J.; Tsing, S.; Villasenor, A.G.; Paul, A.; Su, G.

    2009-05-26

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are recommended components of preferred combination antiretroviral therapies used for the treatment of HIV. These regimens are extremely effective in suppressing virus replication. Structure-based optimization of diaryl ether inhibitors led to the discovery of a new series of pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine NNRTIs that bind the reverse transcriptase enzyme of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-RT) in an expanded volume relative to most other inhibitors in this class. The binding mode maintains the {beta}13 and {beta}14 strands bearing Pro236 in a position similar to that in the unliganded reverse transcriptase structure, and the distribution of interactions creates the opportunity for substantial resilience to single point mutations. Several pyrazolopyridazine NNRTIs were found to be highly effective against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant viral strains in cell culture.

  17. Inhibitors of HIV-1 attachment. Part 2: An initial survey of indole substitution patterns.

    PubMed

    Meanwell, Nicholas A; Wallace, Owen B; Fang, Haiquan; Wang, Henry; Deshpande, Milind; Wang, Tao; Yin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Pearce, Bradley C; James, Jennifer; Yeung, Kap-Sun; Qiu, Zhilei; Kim Wright, J J; Yang, Zheng; Zadjura, Lisa; Tweedie, Donald L; Yeola, Suresh; Zhao, Fang; Ranadive, Sunanda; Robinson, Brett A; Gong, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hwei-Gene Heidi; Spicer, Timothy P; Blair, Wade S; Shi, Pei-Yong; Colonno, Richard J; Lin, Pin-Fang

    2009-04-01

    The effects of introducing simple halogen, alkyl, and alkoxy substituents to the 4, 5, 6 and 7 positions of 1-(4-benzoylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethane-1,2-dione, an inhibitor of the interaction between HIV gp120 and host cell CD4 receptors, on activity in an HIV entry assay was examined. Small substituents at C-4 generally resulted in increased potency whilst substitution at C-7 was readily tolerated and uniformly produced more potent HIV entry inhibitors. Substituents deployed at C-6 and, particularly, C-5 generally produced a modest to marked weakening of potency compared to the prototype. Small alkyl substituents at N-1 exerted minimal effect on activity whilst increasing the size of the alkyl moiety led to progressively reduced inhibitory properties. These studies establish a basic understanding of the indole element of the HIV attachment inhibitor pharmacophore.

  18. Safe and Sustained Vaginal Delivery of Pyrimidinedione HIV-1 Inhibitors from Polyurethane Intravaginal Rings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Srinivasan, Priya; Albright, Theodore H.; Watson-Buckheit, Karen; Rabe, Lorna; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hendry, R. Michael; Otten, Ron; McNicholl, Janet; Buckheit, Robert; Smith, James

    2012-01-01

    The potent antiretroviral pyrimidinediones IQP-0528 (PYD1) and IQP-0532 (PYD2) were formulated in polyurethane intravaginal rings (IVRs) as prophylactic drug delivery systems to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. To aid in the selection of a pyrimidinedione candidate and the optimal loading of the drug in the IVR delivery system, four pyrimidinedione IVR formulations (PYD1 at 0.5 wt% [PYD10.5wt%], PYD11wt%, PYD24wt%, and PYD214wt%) were evaluated in pigtail macaques over 28 days for safety and pyrimidinedione vaginal biodistribution. Kinetic analysis of vaginal proinflammatory cytokines, native microflora, and drug levels suggested that all formulations were safe, but only the high-loaded PYD214wt% IVR demonstrated consistently high pyrimidinedione vaginal fluid and tissue levels over the 28-day study. This formulation delivered drug in excess of 10 μg/ml to vaginal fluid and 1 μg/g to vaginal tissue, a level over 1,000 times the in vitro 50% effective concentration. The in vitro release of PYD1 and PYD2 under nonsink conditions correlated well with in vivo release, both in amount and in kinetic profile, and therefore may serve as a more biologically relevant means of evaluating release in vitro than typically employed sink conditions. Lastly, the pyrimidinediones in the IVR formulation were chemically stable after 90 days of storage at elevated temperature, and the potent nanomolar-level antiviral activity of both molecules was retained after in vitro release. Altogether, these results point to the successful IVR formulation and vaginal biodistribution of the pyrimidinediones and demonstrate the usefulness of the pigtail macaque model in evaluating and screening antiretroviral IVR formulations prior to preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:22155820

  19. Positional adaptability in the design of mutation-resistant nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a supramolecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance is a key cause of failed treatment of HIV infection. The efficacy of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibiting (NNRTI) drugs is impaired by the rapid emergence of drug-resistant mutations. The literature supports the idea that purposefully designed flexible NNRTIs at an active site may help overcome drug resistance. It is proposed here that the usual "lock and key" model, with respect to NNRTI drug design, be expanded to consider creating "master keys" that would automatically adjust conformations to fit all of the "locks" mutations may make. The present work introduces the novel perspective of designing and creating supramolecular assemblies as potential NNRTIs (instead of the relatively more rigid single-molecule inhibitors). Specifically, flexible self-assembling quinhydrone supramolecular dimers formed from quinonoid monomers (designed to be highly flexible NNRTIs themselves) will be offered as a working example of this new perspective in NNRTI drug design. Quinonoid compounds have demonstrated binding interactions at various sites of the HIV-1 RT enzyme, including the elusive ribonuclease H area. Quinhydrone self-organized dimers have at some point in their molecular architecture a noncovalently interacting donor-acceptor ring pair complex. This complex is at the heart of the increased torsional, rotational, and translational motion this species will experience at a particular active site. Flexible supramolecular assemblies, together with their flexible monomer components, may offer a critical advantage in retaining potency against a wide range of drug-resistant HIV-1 RTs. This new supramolecular perspective may also have broader implications in the general field of antimicrobial drug design. PMID:22938539

  20. A model of the peptide triazole entry inhibitor binding to HIV-1 gp120 and mechanism of bridging sheet disruption

    PubMed Central

    Emileh, Ali; Tuzer, Ferit; Yeh, Herman; Umashankara, Muddegowda; Moreira, Diogo R. M.; LaLonde, Judith M.; Bewley, Carole A.; Abrams, Cameron F.; Chaiken, Irwin M.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide-triazole (PT) entry inhibitors prevent HIV-1 infection by blocking viral gp120 binding to both HIV-1 receptor and coreceptor on target cells. Here, we used all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) to propose a model for the encounter complex of the peptide-triazoles with gp120. Saturation Transfer Difference NMR (STD NMR) and single-site mutagenesis experiments were performed to test the simulation results. We found that docking of the peptide to a conserved patch of residues lining the “F43 pocket” of gp120 in a bridging sheet naïve gp120 conformation of the glycoprotein, led to a stable complex. This pose prevents formation of the bridging sheet minidomain, which is required for receptor/coreceptor binding, providing a mechanistic basis for dual-site antagonism of this class of inhibitors. Burial of the peptide triazole at gp120 inner/outer domain interface significantly contributed to complex stability and rationalizes the significant contribution of hydrophobic triazole groups to peptide potency. Both the simulation model and STD NMR experiments suggest that the I-X-W (where X=(2S, 4S)-4-(4-phenyl-1H-1, 2, 3-triazol-1-yl) pyrrolidine) tripartite hydrophobic motif in the peptide is the major contributor of contacts at the gp120/PT interface. Since the model predicts that the peptide Trp side chain hydrogen bonding with gp120 S375 contributes to stability of the PT/gp120 complex, we tested this prediction through analysis of peptide binding to gp120 mutant S375A. The results showed that a peptide triazole KR21 inhibits S375A with 20-fold less potency versus WT, consistent with predictions of the model. Overall, the PT/gp120 model provides a starting point for both rational design of higher affinity peptide triazoles and development of structure-minimized entry inhibitors that can trap gp120 into an inactive conformation and prevent infection. PMID:23470147

  1. Myelopathy in a previously asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Eyer-Silva, W A; Auto, I; Pinto, J F; Morais-de-Sá, C A

    2001-01-01

    A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients. The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HM) which characteristically complicates advanced HIV-1 disease in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. We describe an unusual presentation of HM in a previously asymptomatic patient with a relatively preserved CD4 cell count (458 cells/mm3) who was even unaware of his serological status. The patient presented with a clinically severe, slowly progressive myelopathy and could not walk unassisted. Significant neurological improvement could be obtained as rapidly as within 4 weeks after the institution of an antiretroviral combination of only two nucleoside analog HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine and didanosine). An HIV-1 protease inhibitor was also prescribed at that point but could only be added to intensify the regimen 3 months later, when significant neurological improvement had already been recorded. We also review the disorders reported to derange spinal cord function in previously asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. [d4U]-spacer-[HI-236] double-drug inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Yassir; Hunter, Roger; Muhanji, Clare I; Hale, Ian; Singh, Rajinder; Bailey, Christopher M.; Sullivan, Todd S.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Four double-drug HIV NRTI / NNRTI inhibitors 15a-d of the type [d4U]-spacer-[HI-236] in which the spacer is varied as 1-butynyl (15a), propargyl-1-PEG (15b), propargyl-2-PEG (15c) and propargyl-4-PEG (15d) have been synthesized and biologically evaluated as RT inhibitors against HIV-1. The key step in their synthesis involved a Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo d4U's benzoate with an alkynylated tethered HI-236 precursor followed by introduction of the HI-236 thiourea functionality. Biological evaluation in both cell-culture (MT-2 cells) as well as using an in vitro RT assay revealed 15a-c to be all more active than d4T. However, overall the results indicate the derivatives are acting as chain-extended NNRTIs in which for 15b-d the nucleoside component is likely situated outside of the pocket but with no evidence for any synergistic double binding between the NRTI and NNRTI sites. This is attributed, in part, to the lack of phosphorylation of the nucleoside component of the double drug as a result of kinase recognition failure, which is not improved upon with the phosphoramidate of 15d incorporating a 4-PEG spacer. PMID:20605472

  3. Discovery of novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase through virtual screening of experimental and theoretical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Ivetac, Anthony; Swift, Sara E; Boyer, Paul L; Diaz, Arturo; Naughton, John; Young, John A T; Hughes, Stephen H; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are potent anti-HIV chemotherapeutics. Although there are FDA-approved NNRTIs, challenges such as the development of resistance have limited their utility. Here, we describe the identification of novel NNRTIs through a combination of computational and experimental approaches. Based on the known plasticity of the NNRTI binding pocket (NNIBP), we adopted an ensemble-based virtual screening strategy: coupling receptor conformations from 10 X-ray crystal structures with 120 snapshots from a total of 480 ns of molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. A screening library of 2864 National Cancer Institute (NCI) compounds was built and docked against the ensembles in a hierarchical fashion. Sixteen diverse compounds were tested for their ability to block HIV infection in human tissue cultures using a luciferase-based reporter assay. Three promising compounds were further characterized, using a HIV-1 RT-based polymerase assay, to determine the specific mechanism of inhibition. We found that 2 of the three compounds inhibited the polymerase activity of RT (with potency similar to the positive control, the FDA-approved drug nevirapine). Through a computational approach, we were able to discover two compounds which inhibit HIV replication and block the activity of RT, thus offering the potential for optimization into mature inhibitors.

  4. Molecular Design, Functional Characterization and Structural Basis of a Protein Inhibitor Against the HIV-1 Pathogenicity Factor Nef

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Sebastian; Schievink, Simone I.; Schulte, Antje; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Geyer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Increased spread of HIV-1 and rapid emergence of drug resistance warrants development of novel antiviral strategies. Nef, a critical viral pathogenicity factor that interacts with host cell factors but lacks enzymatic activity, is not targeted by current antiviral measures. Here we inhibit Nef function by simultaneously blocking several highly conserved protein interaction surfaces. This strategy, referred to as “wrapping Nef”, is based on structure-function analyses that led to the identification of four target sites: (i) SH3 domain interaction, (ii) interference with protein transport processes, (iii) CD4 binding and (iv) targeting to lipid membranes. Screening combinations of Nef-interacting domains, we developed a series of small Nef interacting proteins (NIs) composed of an SH3 domain optimized for binding to Nef, fused to a sequence motif of the CD4 cytoplasmic tail and combined with a prenylation signal for membrane association. NIs bind to Nef in the low nM affinity range, associate with Nef in human cells and specifically interfere with key biological activities of Nef. Structure determination of the Nef-inhibitor complex reveals the molecular basis for binding specificity. These results establish Nef-NI interfaces as promising leads for the development of potent Nef inhibitors. PMID:21625496

  5. A Spider-Derived Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor That Acts as a Plasmin Inhibitor and an Elastase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hu; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Zou, Feng Ming; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Je, Yeon Ho; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. While spider-derived Kunitz-type proteins show activity in trypsin or chymotrypsin inhibition and K+ channel blocking, no additional role for these proteins has been elucidated. In this study, we identified the first spider (Araneus ventricosus) Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (AvKTI) that acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor. AvKTI possesses a Kunitz domain consisting of a 57-amino-acid mature peptide that displays features consistent with Kunitz-type inhibitors, including six conserved cysteine residues and a P1 lysine residue. Recombinant AvKTI, expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, showed a dual inhibitory activity against trypsin (Ki 7.34 nM) and chymotrypsin (Ki 37.75 nM), defining a role for AvKTI as a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. Additionally, AvKTI showed no detectable inhibitory effects on factor Xa, thrombin, or tissue plasminogen activator; however, AvKTI inhibited plasmin (Ki 4.89 nM) and neutrophil elastase (Ki 169.07 nM), indicating that it acts as an antifibrinolytic factor and an antielastolytic factor. These findings constitute molecular evidence that AvKTI acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor and also provide a novel view of the functions of a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. PMID:23308198

  6. Novel Dengue Virus NS2B/NS3 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmei; Bock, Stefanie; Snitko, Mariya; Berger, Thilo; Weidner, Thomas; Holloway, Steven; Kanitz, Manuel; Diederich, Wibke E.; Steuber, Holger; Walter, Christof; Hofmann, Daniela; Weißbrich, Benedikt; Spannaus, Ralf; Acosta, Eliana G.; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Engels, Bernd; Schirmeister, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is a severe, widespread, and neglected disease with more than 2 million diagnosed infections per year. The dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease (PR) represents a prime target for rational drug design. At the moment, there are no clinical PR inhibitors (PIs) available. We have identified diaryl (thio)ethers as candidates for a novel class of PIs. Here, we report the selective and noncompetitive inhibition of the serotype 2 and 3 dengue virus PR in vitro and in cells by benzothiazole derivatives exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the low-micromolar range. Inhibition of replication of DENV serotypes 1 to 3 was specific, since all substances influenced neither hepatitis C virus (HCV) nor HIV-1 replication. Molecular docking suggests binding at a specific allosteric binding site. In addition to the in vitro assays, a cell-based PR assay was developed to test these substances in a replication-independent way. The new compounds inhibited the DENV PR with IC50s in the low-micromolar or submicromolar range in cells. Furthermore, these novel PIs inhibit viral replication at submicromolar concentrations. PMID:25487800

  7. Abacavir/Lamivudine Versus Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Virologically Suppressed Patients Switching from Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitors to Raltegravir

    PubMed Central

    d'Albuquerque, Polyana M.; Pérez, Ignacio; Pich, Judit; Gatell, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are few clinical data on the combination abacavir/lamivudine plus raltegravir. We compared the outcomes of patients from the SPIRAL trial receiving either abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine at baseline who had taken at least one dose of either raltegravir or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. For the purpose of this analysis, treatment failure was defined as virological failure (confirmed HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/ml) or discontinuation of abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine because of adverse events, consent withdrawal, or lost to follow-up. There were 143 (72.59%) patients with tenofovir/emtricitabine and 54 (27.41%) with abacavir/lamivudine. In the raltegravir group, there were three (11.11%) treatment failures with abacavir/lamivudine and eight (10.96%) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (estimated difference 0.15%; 95% CI −17.90 to 11.6). In the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor group, there were four (14.81%) treatment failures with abacavir/lamivudine and 12 (17.14%) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (estimated difference −2.33%; 95% CI −16.10 to 16.70). Triglycerides decreased and HDL cholesterol increased through the study more pronouncedly with abacavir/lamivudine than with tenofovir/emtricitabine and differences in the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio between both combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tended to be higher in the raltegravir group, although differences at 48 weeks were not significant. While no patient discontinued abacavir/lamivudine due to adverse events, four (2.80%) patients (all in the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor group) discontinued tenofovir/emtricitabine because of adverse events (p=0.2744). The results of this analysis do not suggest that outcomes of abacavir/lamivudine are worse than those of tenofovir/emtricitabine when combined with raltegravir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults. PMID:22916715

  8. Abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine in virologically suppressed patients switching from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors to raltegravir.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Esteban; d'Albuquerque, Polyana M; Pérez, Ignacio; Pich, Judit; Gatell, José M

    2013-02-01

    There are few clinical data on the combination abacavir/lamivudine plus raltegravir. We compared the outcomes of patients from the SPIRAL trial receiving either abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine at baseline who had taken at least one dose of either raltegravir or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. For the purpose of this analysis, treatment failure was defined as virological failure (confirmed HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/ml) or discontinuation of abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine because of adverse events, consent withdrawal, or lost to follow-up. There were 143 (72.59%) patients with tenofovir/emtricitabine and 54 (27.41%) with abacavir/lamivudine. In the raltegravir group, there were three (11.11%) treatment failures with abacavir/lamivudine and eight (10.96%) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (estimated difference 0.15%; 95% CI -17.90 to 11.6). In the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor group, there were four (14.81%) treatment failures with abacavir/lamivudine and 12 (17.14%) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (estimated difference -2.33%; 95% CI -16.10 to 16.70). Triglycerides decreased and HDL cholesterol increased through the study more pronouncedly with abacavir/lamivudine than with tenofovir/emtricitabine and differences in the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio between both combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tended to be higher in the raltegravir group, although differences at 48 weeks were not significant. While no patient discontinued abacavir/lamivudine due to adverse events, four (2.80%) patients (all in the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor group) discontinued tenofovir/emtricitabine because of adverse events (p=0.2744). The results of this analysis do not suggest that outcomes of abacavir/lamivudine are worse than those of tenofovir/emtricitabine when combined with raltegravir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults. PMID:22916715

  9. Placevent: an algorithm for prediction of explicit solvent atom distribution-application to HIV-1 protease and F-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sindhikara, Daniel J; Yoshida, Norio; Hirata, Fumio

    2012-07-01

    We have created a simple algorithm for automatically predicting the explicit solvent atom distribution of biomolecules. The explicit distribution is coerced from the three-dimensional (3D) continuous distribution resulting from a 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) calculation. This procedure predicts optimal location of solvent molecules and ions given a rigid biomolecular structure and the solvent composition. We show examples of predicting water molecules near the KNI-272 bound form of HIV-1 protease and predicting both sodium ions and water molecules near the rotor ring of F-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. Our results give excellent agreement with experimental structure with an average prediction error of 0.39-0.65 Å. Further, unlike experimental methods, this method does not suffer from the partial occupancy limit. Our method can be performed directly on 3D-RISM output within minutes. It is extremely useful for examining multiple specific solvent-solute interactions, as a convenient method for generating initial solvent structures for molecular dynamics calculations, and may assist in refinement of experimental structures. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV.

  11. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile. PMID:27437081

  12. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  13. Parameterization of AZT-A widely used nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Fernandes, Pedro A.; Ramos, Maria J.

    Seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in the clinical treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These substrate analogues block DNA synthesis by the viral enzyme RT. However, the emergence of resistant variants of RT allied to their long-term toxicity requires the design of new and better RT inhibitors, with long-term in vivo efficacy. In this work we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to develop a set of molecular mechanics (MM) parameters committed to the AMBER force field for one of the most used in the clinic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine (AZT). These parameters were tested by comparing the optimized geometries of AZT at both the DFT and MM levels of theory. The ability of the new parameters to reproduce the torsional energy of the azide group was also verified by scanning the surface in MM with the new parameters and comparing the results with the same potential energy surface (PES) at the DFT level. Finally, the parameters were validated through classical MD simulations of AZT in aqueous environment.

  14. Diketoacid – Genre HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Containing Enantiomeric Arylamide Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Marchand, Christophe; Pommier, Yves; Burke, Terrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Using our recently disclosed 2,3-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1H-isoindol-1-one and 4,5-dihydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione integrase inhibitors, we report differential effects on inhibitory potency induced by introduction of an α-chiral center into a key aryl substitutent. We show that introduction of the chiral center is uniformly deleterious to binding, with the (R)-enantiomer being more deleterious than the (S)-enantiomer. A greater enantiomeric difference in potency is shown by inhibitors that have restricted rotation of the aryl ring, with the larger difference being due to poorer potency of the (R)-enantiomer rather than higher potency of the (S)-enantiomer. The potency difference for enantiomers based on the isoindoline-1,3-dione ring system is less than for those derived from the isoindol-1-one ring system. Our findings provide useful information that should aid in understanding molecular binding interactions of DKA – derived IN inhibitors. PMID:19527935

  15. A simple and cost-saving phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yunceng; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jin; Luo, Peifang; Bi, Siyuan; Yang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hai; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to monitor the occurrence of drug-resistant strains and to provide guidance for clinically adapted antiviral treatment of HIV/AIDS. In this study, an individual patient's HIV-1 pol gene encoding the full length of protease and part of the reverse transcriptase was packaged into a modified lentivirus carrying dual-reporters ZsGreen and luciferase. The optimal coefficient of correlation between drug concentration and luciferase activity was optimized. A clear-cut dose-dependent relationship between lentivirus production and luciferase activity was found in the phenotypic testing system. Fold changes (FC) to a wild-type control HIV-1 strain ratios were determined reflecting the phenotypic susceptibility of treatment-exposed patient's HIV-1 strains to 12 HIV-1 inhibitors including 6 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 4 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and 2 protease inhibitors (PIs). Phenotypic susceptibility calls from 8 HIV-1 infected patients were consistent with 80-90% genotypic evaluations, while phenotypic assessments rectified 10-20% genotypic resistance calls. By a half of replacement with ZsGreen reporter, the consumption of high cost Bright-Glo Luciferase Assay is reduced, making this assay cheaper when a large number of HIV-1 infected individuals are tested. The study provides a useful tool for interpreting meaningful genotypic mutations and guiding tailored antiviral treatment of HIV/AIDS in clinical practice. PMID:27640883

  16. A simple and cost-saving phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yunceng; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jin; Luo, Peifang; Bi, Siyuan; Yang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hai; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to monitor the occurrence of drug-resistant strains and to provide guidance for clinically adapted antiviral treatment of HIV/AIDS. In this study, an individual patient’s HIV-1 pol gene encoding the full length of protease and part of the reverse transcriptase was packaged into a modified lentivirus carrying dual-reporters ZsGreen and luciferase. The optimal coefficient of correlation between drug concentration and luciferase activity was optimized. A clear-cut dose-dependent relationship between lentivirus production and luciferase activity was found in the phenotypic testing system. Fold changes (FC) to a wild-type control HIV-1 strain ratios were determined reflecting the phenotypic susceptibility of treatment-exposed patient’s HIV-1 strains to 12 HIV-1 inhibitors including 6 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 4 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and 2 protease inhibitors (PIs). Phenotypic susceptibility calls from 8 HIV-1 infected patients were consistent with 80–90% genotypic evaluations, while phenotypic assessments rectified 10–20% genotypic resistance calls. By a half of replacement with ZsGreen reporter, the consumption of high cost Bright-Glo Luciferase Assay is reduced, making this assay cheaper when a large number of HIV-1 infected individuals are tested. The study provides a useful tool for interpreting meaningful genotypic mutations and guiding tailored antiviral treatment of HIV/AIDS in clinical practice. PMID:27640883

  17. Synthesis, Anti-HIV Activity, and Metabolic Stability of New Alkenyldiarylmethane (ADAM) HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bo-Liang; Hartman, Tracy L.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Cushman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs) are part of the combination therapy currently used to treat HIV infection. Based on analogy with known HIV-1 NNRT inhibitors, eighteen novel alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) containing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl, 3-cyanophenyl or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups were synthesized and evaluated as HIV inhibitors. Their stabilities in rat plasma have also been investigated. Although introducing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl, or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups into alkenyldiarylmethanes does not maintain the antiviral potency, the structural modification of alkenyldiarylmethanes with a 3-cyanophenyl substituent can be made without a large decrease in activity. The oxazolidinonyl group was introduced into the alkenyldiarylmethane framework and found to confer enhanced metabolic stability in rat plasma. PMID:16162014

  18. Therapy-Emergent Drug Resistance to Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors in HIV-1 Patients: A Subgroup Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongren; Huang, Xiaojun; Qin, Zhen; Deng, Zhaomin; Luo, Jun; Wang, Baoning; Li, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a novel class of anti-HIV agents that show high activity in inhibiting HIV-1 replication. Currently, licensed INSTIs include raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG) and dolutegravir (DTG); these drugs have played a critical role in AIDS therapy, serving as additional weapons in the arsenal for treating patients infected with HIV-1. To date, long-term data regarding clinical experience with INSTI use and the emergence of resistance remain scarce. However, the literature is likely now sufficiently comprehensive to warrant a meta-analysis of resistance to INSTIs. Methods Our team implemented a manuscript retrieval protocol using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) via the Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. We screened the literature based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and then performed a quality analysis and evaluation using RevMan software, Stata software, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). We also performed a subgroup analysis. Finally, we calculated resistance rates and risk ratios (RRs) for the three types of drugs. Results We identified 26 references via the database search. A meta-analysis of the RAL data revealed that the resistance rate was 3.9% (95% CI = 2.9%-4.9%) for the selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the RAL resistance rate reached 40.9% (95% CI = 8.8%-72.9%) for the selected observational studies (OBSs). The rates of resistance to RAL that were associated with HIV subtypes A, B, and C as well as with more complex subtypes were 0.1% (95% CI = -0.7%-0.9%), 2.5% (95% CI = 0.5%-4.5%), 4.6% (95% CI = 2.7%-6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI = 0.7%-3.7%), respectively. The rates of resistance to EVG and DTG were 1.2% (95% CI = 0.2%-2.2%) and 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2%-0.5%), respectively. Furthermore, we found that the RRs for antiviral resistance were 0.414 (95% CI = 0.210–0

  19. Design, discovery, modelling, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel and small, low toxicity s-triazine derivatives as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Selyutina, Anastasia; García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Merits, Andres; Maran, Uko

    2016-06-01

    A set of top-ranked compounds from a multi-objective in silico screen was experimentally tested for toxicity and the ability to inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in cell-free assay and in cell-based assay using HIV-1 based virus-like particles. Detailed analysis of a commercial sample that indicated specific inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription revealed that a minor component that was structurally similar to that of the main compound was responsible for the strongest inhibition. As a result, novel s-triazine derivatives were proposed, modelled, discovered, and synthesised, and their antiviral activity and cellular toxicity were tested. Compounds 18a and 18b were found to be efficient HIV-1 RT inhibitors, with an IC50 of 5.6±1.1μM and 0.16±0.05μM in a cell-based assay using infectious HIV-1, respectively. Compound 18b also had no detectable toxicity for different human cell lines. Their binding mode and interactions with the RT suggest that there was strong and adaptable binding in a tight (NNRTI) hydrophobic pocket. In summary, this iterative study produced structural clues and led to a group of non-toxic, novel compounds to inhibit HIV-RT with up to nanomolar potency. PMID:27108399

  20. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. PMID:27608950

  1. Development of potent inhibitors of the coxsackievirus 3C protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eui Seung; Lee, Won Gil; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Rho, Seong Hwan; Im, Isak; Yang, Sung Tae; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Lee, Yong Jae; Kwon, Sun Jae; Park, Ohkmae K.; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Woo Jin . E-mail: wjpark@gist.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Chul . E-mail: yongchul@gist.ac.kr

    2007-06-22

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C protease (3CP) plays essential roles in the viral replication cycle, and therefore, provides an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of human diseases caused by CVB3 infection. CVB3 3CP and human rhinovirus (HRV) 3CP have a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity. Comparative modeling of these two 3CPs revealed one prominent distinction; an Asn residue delineating the S2' pocket in HRV 3CP is replaced by a Tyr residue in CVB3 3CP. AG7088, a potent inhibitor of HRV 3CP, was modified by substitution of the ethyl group at the P2' position with various hydrophobic aromatic rings that are predicted to interact preferentially with the Tyr residue in the S2' pocket of CVB3 3CP. The resulting derivatives showed dramatically increased inhibitory activities against CVB3 3CP. In addition, one of the derivatives effectively inhibited the CVB3 proliferation in vitro.

  2. Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier da; Pires, Maria de Fátima Costa; Lotufo, Mônica Andrade

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).

  3. Non-aqueous silicone elastomer gels as a vaginal microbicide delivery system for the HIV-1 entry inhibitor maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Claire J.; Lowry, Deborah; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Shattock, Robin J.; Klasse, Per Johan; Mitchnick, Mark; Goldman, Laurie; Doyle, Lara A.; Muldoon, Brendan C.O.; Woolfson, A. David; Moore, John P.; Malcolm, R. Karl

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous semi-solid polymeric gels, such as those based on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and polyacrylic acid (e.g. Carbopol®), have a long history of use in vaginal drug delivery. However, despite their ubiquity, they often provide sub-optimal clinical performance, due to poor mucosal retention and limited solubility for poorly water-soluble actives. These issues are particularly pertinent for vaginal HIV microbicides, since many lead candidates are poorly water-soluble and where a major goal is the development of a coitally independent, once daily gel product. In this study, we report the use of a non-aqueous silicone elastomer gel for vaginal delivery of the HIV-1 entry inhibitor maraviroc. In vitro rheological, syringeability and retention studies demonstrated enhanced performance for silicone gels compared with a conventional aqueous HEC gel, while testing of the gels in the slug model confirmed a lack of mucosal irritancy. Pharmacokinetic studies following single dose vaginal administration of a maraviroc silicone gel in rhesus macaques showed higher and sustained MVC levels in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue and plasma compared with a HEC gel containing the same maraviroc loading. The results demonstrate that non-aqueous silicone gels have potential as a formulation platform for coitally independent vaginal HIV microbicides. PMID:21864598

  4. Thermodynamics of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in action elucidates the mechanism of action of non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bec, Guillaume; Meyer, Benoit; Gerard, Marie-Aline; Steger, Jessica; Fauster, Katja; Wolff, Philippe; Burnouf, Dominique; Micura, Ronald; Dumas, Philippe; Ennifar, Eric

    2013-07-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a heterodimeric enzyme that converts the genomic viral RNA into proviral DNA. Despite intensive biochemical and structural studies, direct thermodynamic data regarding RT interactions with its substrates are still lacking. Here we addressed the mechanism of action of RT and of non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using a new incremental-ITC approach, a step-by-step thermodynamic dissection of the RT polymerization activity showed that most of the driving force for DNA synthesis is provided by initial dNTP binding. Surprisingly, thermodynamic and kinetic data led to a reinterpretation of the mechanism of inhibition of NNRTIs. Binding of NNRTIs to preformed RT/DNA complexes is hindered by a kinetic barrier and NNRTIs mostly interact with free RT. Once formed, RT/NNRTI complexes bind DNA either in a seemingly polymerase-competent orientation or form high-affinity dead-end complexes, both RT/NNRTI/DNA complexes being unable to bind the incoming nucleotide substrate.

  5. Ninety-Nine Is Not Enough: Molecular Characterization of Inhibitor-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Mutants with Insertions in the Flap Region

    SciTech Connect

    Koiek, Milan; Saskova, Klara Grantz; Rezaova, Pavlina; Brynda, Jii; van Maarseveen, Noortje M.; De Jong, Dorien; Boucher, Charles A.; Kagan, Ron M.; Nijhuis, Monique; Konvalinka, Jan

    2008-07-21

    While the selection of amino acid insertions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a known mechanism of resistance against RT inhibitors, very few reports on the selection of insertions in the protease (PR) coding region have been published. It is still unclear whether these insertions impact protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and/or viral replication capacity. We show that the prevalence of insertions, especially between amino acids 30 to 41 of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PR, has increased in recent years. We identified amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 of the PR of HIV-1-infected patients who had undergone prolonged treatment with PIs, and we characterized the contribution of these insertions to viral resistance. We prepared the corresponding mutated, recombinant PR variants with or without insertions at positions 33 and 35 and characterized them in terms of enzyme kinetics and crystal structures. We also engineered the corresponding recombinant viruses and analyzed the PR susceptibility and replication capacity by recombinant virus assay. Both in vitro methods confirmed that the amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 contribute to the viral resistance to most of the tested PIs. The structural analysis revealed local structural rearrangements in the flap region and in the substrate binding pockets. The enlargement of the PR substrate binding site together with impaired flap dynamics could account for the weaker inhibitor binding by the insertion mutants. Amino acid insertions in the vicinity of the binding cleft therefore represent a novel mechanism of HIV resistance development.

  6. HIV gp120 H375 Is Unique to HIV-1 Subtype CRF01_AE and Confers Strong Resistance to the Entry Inhibitor BMS-599793, a Candidate Microbicide Drug

    PubMed Central

    Schader, Susan M.; Colby-Germinario, Susan P.; Quashie, Peter K.; Oliveira, Maureen; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Moisi, Daniela; Mespléde, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    BMS-599793 is a small molecule entry inhibitor that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120, resulting in the inhibition of CD4-dependent entry into cells. Since BMS-599793 is currently considered a candidate microbicide drug, we evaluated its efficacy against a number of primary patient HIV isolates from different subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and showed that activity varied between ∼3 ρM and 7 μM at 50% effective concentrations (EC50s). Interestingly, CRF01_AE HIV-1 isolates consistently demonstrated natural resistance against this compound. Genotypic analysis of >1,600 sequences (Los Alamos HIV sequence database) indicated that a single amino acid polymorphism in Env, H375, may account for the observed BMS-599793 resistance in CRF01_AE HIV-1. Results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed this hypothesis, and in silico drug docking simulations identified a drug resistance mechanism at the molecular level. In addition, CRF01_AE viruses were shown to be resistant to multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Thus, our results not only provide insight into how Env polymorphisms may contribute to entry inhibitor resistance but also may help to elucidate how HIV can evade some broadly neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, the high frequency of H375 in CRF01_AE HIV-1, and its apparent nonoccurrence in other subtypes, could serve as a means for rapid identification of CRF01_AE infections. PMID:22615295

  7. The A128T resistance mutation reveals aberrant protein multimerization as the primary mechanism of action of allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Sharma, Amit; Slaughter, Alison; Jena, Nivedita; Koh, Yasuhiro; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Larue, Ross C; Patel, Pratiq A; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Kessl, Jacques J; Engelman, Alan; Fuchs, James R; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-05-31

    Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a very promising new class of anti-HIV-1 agents that exhibit a multimodal mechanism of action by allosterically modulating IN multimerization and interfering with IN-lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding. Selection of viral strains under ALLINI pressure has revealed an A128T substitution in HIV-1 IN as a primary mechanism of resistance. Here, we elucidated the structural and mechanistic basis for this resistance. The A128T substitution did not affect the hydrogen bonding between ALLINI and IN that mimics the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction but instead altered the positioning of the inhibitor at the IN dimer interface. Consequently, the A128T substitution had only a minor effect on the ALLINI IC50 values for IN-LEDGF/p75 binding. Instead, ALLINIs markedly altered the multimerization of IN by promoting aberrant higher order WT (but not A128T) IN oligomers. Accordingly, WT IN catalytic activities and HIV-1 replication were potently inhibited by ALLINIs, whereas the A128T substitution in IN resulted in significant resistance to the inhibitors both in vitro and in cell culture assays. The differential multimerization of WT and A128T INs induced by ALLINIs correlated with the differences in infectivity of HIV-1 progeny virions. We conclude that ALLINIs primarily target IN multimerization rather than IN-LEDGF/p75 binding. Our findings provide the structural foundations for developing improved ALLINIs with increased potency and decreased potential to select for drug resistance. PMID:23615903

  8. Synergistic Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Bryostatin-1

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Isabel Clemente, Maria; Jesús Serramía, Maria; Muñoz, Eduardo; Moreno, Santiago; Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Viral reactivation from latently infected cells has become a promising therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV. Due to the complexity of the viral latency, combinations of efficient and available drugs targeting different pathways of latency are needed. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various combinations of bryostatin-1 (BRY) and novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on HIV-reactivation and on cellular phenotype. The lymphocyte (J89GFP) or monocyte/macrophage (THP89GFP) latently infected cell lines were treated with BRY, panobinostat (PNB) and romidepsin (RMD) either alone or in combination. Thus, the effect on the viral reactivation was evaluated. We calculated the combination index for each drug combination; the BRY/HDACIs showed a synergistic HIV-reactivation profile in the majority of the combinations tested, whereas non-synergistic effects were observed when PNB was mixed with RMD. Indeed, the 75% effective concentrations of BRY, PNB and RMD were reduced in these combinations. Moreover, primary CD4 T cells treated with such drug combinations presented similar activation and proliferation profiles in comparison with single drug treated cells. Summing up, combinations between BRY, PNB and/or RMD presented a synergistic profile by inducing virus expression in HIV-latently infected cells, rendering these combinations an attractive novel and safe option for future clinical trials. PMID:26563568

  9. Synergistic Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Bryostatin-1.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Clemente, Maria Isabel; Serramía, Maria Jesús; Muñoz, Eduardo; Moreno, Santiago; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-13

    Viral reactivation from latently infected cells has become a promising therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV. Due to the complexity of the viral latency, combinations of efficient and available drugs targeting different pathways of latency are needed. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various combinations of bryostatin-1 (BRY) and novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on HIV-reactivation and on cellular phenotype. The lymphocyte (J89GFP) or monocyte/macrophage (THP89GFP) latently infected cell lines were treated with BRY, panobinostat (PNB) and romidepsin (RMD) either alone or in combination. Thus, the effect on the viral reactivation was evaluated. We calculated the combination index for each drug combination; the BRY/HDACIs showed a synergistic HIV-reactivation profile in the majority of the combinations tested, whereas non-synergistic effects were observed when PNB was mixed with RMD. Indeed, the 75% effective concentrations of BRY, PNB and RMD were reduced in these combinations. Moreover, primary CD4 T cells treated with such drug combinations presented similar activation and proliferation profiles in comparison with single drug treated cells. Summing up, combinations between BRY, PNB and/or RMD presented a synergistic profile by inducing virus expression in HIV-latently infected cells, rendering these combinations an attractive novel and safe option for future clinical trials.

  10. Metabolism, Excretion, and Mass Balance of the HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Dolutegravir in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Castellino, Stephen; Moss, Lee; Wagner, David; Borland, Julie; Song, Ivy; Chen, Shuguang; Lou, Yu; Min, Sherene S.; Goljer, Igor; Culp, Amanda; Piscitelli, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of dolutegravir, an unboosted, once-daily human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibitor, were studied in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of [14C]dolutegravir at a dose of 20 mg (80 μCi). Dolutegravir was well tolerated, and absorption of dolutegravir from the suspension formulation was rapid (median time to peak concentration, 0.5 h), declining in a biphasic fashion. Dolutegravir and the radioactivity had similar terminal plasma half-lives (t1/2) (15.6 versus 15.7 h), indicating metabolism was formation rate limited with no long-lived metabolites. Only minimal association with blood cellular components was noted with systemic radioactivity. Recovery was essentially complete (mean, 95.6%), with 64.0% and 31.6% of the dose recovered in feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged dolutegravir was the predominant circulating radioactive component in plasma and was consistent with minimal presystemic clearance. Dolutegravir was extensively metabolized. An inactive ether glucuronide, formed primarily via UGT1A1, was the principal biotransformation product at 18.9% of the dose excreted in urine and the principal metabolite in plasma. Two minor biotransformation pathways were oxidation by CYP3A4 (7.9% of the dose) and an oxidative defluorination and glutathione substitution (1.8% of the dose). No disproportionate human metabolites were observed. PMID:23669385

  11. ELUCIDATING THE INHIBITION MECHANISM OF HIV-1 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS THROUGH MULTI-COPY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Ivetac, Anthony; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition is a major focus of current anti-AIDS drug discovery and development programs, comprising 17 of the 31 FDA-approved compounds. The emergence of the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) class of compounds provides a highly specific and structurally diverse set of drugs, which act non-competitively to perturb normal RT function. Despite a relatively rich set of crystallographic data of RT in various states, details of the allosteric modulation of RT dynamics by NNRTIs are lacking. Capturing this inhibitory mechanism could fuel the design of more effective inhibitors at the NNRTI site and also drive the identification of novel allosteric sites. To address this, we have performed multi-copy molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of RT in the presence and absence of the NNRTI nevirapine (cumulative total simulation time 360 ns). By comparing the collective motions of both the MD and crystallographic structures, we demonstrate that the chief effect of NNRTIs is to constrain a key rigid-body motion between the “fingers” and “thumb” subdomains of the p66 subunit. We show that the NNRTI binding pocket (NNIBP) is proximal to the hinge points for this essential motion and NNRTIs therefore act as “molecular wedges”, sterically blocking the full range of motion. To explain how this impaired movement might result in the experimentally observed loss of polymerase activity, we show that the motion influences the geometry of key catalytic residues on opposite faces of the NNIBP. From a methodological point of view, our results suggest that the multi-copy MD simulation approach is very useful when studying proteins which perform such large conformational changes. PMID:19324058

  12. Cysteine proteases as therapeutic targets: does selectivity matter? A systematic review of calpain and cathepsin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Siklos, Marton; BenAissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2015-11-01

    Cysteine proteases continue to provide validated targets for treatment of human diseases. In neurodegenerative disorders, multiple cysteine proteases provide targets for enzyme inhibitors, notably caspases, calpains, and cathepsins. The reactive, active-site cysteine provides specificity for many inhibitor designs over other families of proteases, such as aspartate and serine; however, a) inhibitor strategies often use covalent enzyme modification, and b) obtaining selectivity within families of cysteine proteases and their isozymes is problematic. This review provides a general update on strategies for cysteine protease inhibitor design and a focus on cathepsin B and calpain 1 as drug targets for neurodegenerative disorders; the latter focus providing an interesting query for the contemporary assumptions that irreversible, covalent protein modification and low selectivity are anathema to therapeutic safety and efficacy.

  13. Cysteine proteases as therapeutic targets: does selectivity matter? A systematic review of calpain and cathepsin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Siklos, Marton; BenAissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine proteases continue to provide validated targets for treatment of human diseases. In neurodegenerative disorders, multiple cysteine proteases provide targets for enzyme inhibitors, notably caspases, calpains, and cathepsins. The reactive, active-site cysteine provides specificity for many inhibitor designs over other families of proteases, such as aspartate and serine; however, a) inhibitor strategies often use covalent enzyme modification, and b) obtaining selectivity within families of cysteine proteases and their isozymes is problematic. This review provides a general update on strategies for cysteine protease inhibitor design and a focus on cathepsin B and calpain 1 as drug targets for neurodegenerative disorders; the latter focus providing an interesting query for the contemporary assumptions that irreversible, covalent protein modification and low selectivity are anathema to therapeutic safety and efficacy. PMID:26713267

  14. Integrase inhibitor (INI) genotypic resistance in treatment-naive and raltegravir-experienced patients infected with diverse HIV-1 clades

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tomas; Dunn, David T.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; De Mendoza, Carmen; Garcia, Frederico; Smit, Erasmus; Fearnhill, Esther; Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Kaiser, Rolf; Geretti, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence and patterns of genotypic integrase inhibitor (INI) resistance in relation to HIV-1 clade. Methods The cohort comprised 533 INI-naive subjects and 255 raltegravir recipients with viraemia who underwent integrase sequencing in routine care across Europe, including 134/533 (25.1%) and 46/255 (18.0%), respectively, with non-B clades (A, C, D, F, G, CRF01, CRF02, other CRFs, complex). Results No major INI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) occurred in INI-naive subjects. Among raltegravir recipients with viraemia (median 3523 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL), 113/255 (44.3%) had one or more major INI RAMs, most commonly N155H (45/255, 17.6%), Q148H/R/K + G140S/A (35/255, 13.7%) and Y143R/C/H (12/255, 4.7%). In addition, four (1.6%) raltegravir recipients showed novel mutations at recognized resistance sites (E92A, S147I, N155D, N155Q) and novel mutations at other integrase positions that were statistically associated with raltegravir exposure (K159Q/R, I161L/M/T/V, E170A/G). Comparing subtype B with non-B clades, Q148H/R/K occurred in 42/209 (20.1%) versus 2/46 (4.3%) subjects (P = 0.009) and G140S/A occurred in 36/209 (17.2%) versus 1/46 (2.2%) subjects (P = 0.005). Intermediate- to high-level cross-resistance to twice-daily dolutegravir was predicted in 40/255 (15.7%) subjects, more commonly in subtype B versus non-B clades (39/209, 18.7% versus 1/46, 2.2%; P = 0.003). A glycine (G) to serine (S) substitution at integrase position 140 required one nucleotide change in subtype B and two nucleotide changes in all non-B clades. Conclusions No major INI resistance mutations occurred in INI-naive subjects. Reduced occurrence of Q148H/R/K + G140S/A was seen in non-B clades versus subtype B, and was explained by the higher genetic barrier to the G140S mutation observed in all non-B clades analysed. PMID:26311843

  15. Isolation of alpha 1-protease inhibitor from human normal and malignant ovarian tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Bagdasarian, A; Wheeler, J; Stewart, G J; Ahmed, S S; Colman, R W

    1981-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are associated with normal and neoplastic tissues. Therefore protease inhibitors might also be involved in the control of cell function. alpha 1-protease antigen and antitryptic activity have been found in normal and neoplastic human ovarian homogenate. The inhibitor has been localized to ovarian stromal cells or tumor cells by immunoperoxidase staining. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by alkaline gel and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. Immunochemical studies revealed antigenic similarity of plasma alpha 1-protease inhibitor by double immunodiffusion and similar mobility on immunoelectrophoresis and two-dimensional electroimmunodiffusion. The molecular weight was similar to that described for plasma alpha 1-protease inhibitor: 60,000 by gel filtration and 53,500 by SDS electrophoresis. Furthermore, the phenotypic pattern as determined by acid starch gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation was PiMM, which is the predominant genetic variant in normal plasma alpha 1-protease inhibitor. An inhibitor ws isolated and purified from an ovarian carcinoma that exhibited functional, immunochemical, and physical similarity to the normal ovarian alpha 1-protease inhibitor. alpha 1-protease inhibitor from normal and malignant ovaries competitively inhibited bovine pancreatic trypsin at incubation times of 5 min at 30 degrees C. Inhibition constant (Ki) values were calculated at 0.67 and 0.51 inhibitory units, respectively. The alpha 1-protease inhibitor in malignant cells may be a factor in the control of proliferation in this tissue. Since ovulation is in part a proteolytic event, the alpha 1-protease inhibitor in ovarian cells may play a role in the control of this specialized tissue. Persistance of this protein in malignant ovarian tissue may be a vestige of its differentiated origin. Images PMID:6161137

  16. Different Effects of Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance Mutations on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Recognition between HIV-1 Subtype B and Subtype A/E Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kuse, Nozomi; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Murakoshi, Hayato; Tran, Giang Van; Chikata, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition has been analyzed in HIV-1 subtype B infections, but it remains unclear in infections by other HIV-1 subtypes that are epidemic in countries where antiretroviral drugs are not effectively used. We investigated the effect of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistance mutations (Y181C, Y181I, and Y181V) on epitope recognition by CTLs specific for 3 different HIV-1 epitopes (HLA-A*02:01-restricted IV10, HLA-B*35:01-restricted NY9, and HLA-C*12:02-restricted KY9) in subtype B and subtype A/E infections and the accumulation of these mutations in treatment-naive Japanese and Vietnamese. These NNRTI-resistance mutations critically affected NY9-specific and KY9-specific T cell responses in the subtype B infections, whereas they showed a different effect on IV10-specific T cell responses among the subtype B-infected individuals. These mutations affected IV10-specific T cell responses but weakly affected NY9-specific T cell responses in the subtype A/E infections. The substitution at position 3 of NY9 epitope which was found in the subtype A/E virus differently influenced the peptide binding to HLA-B*35:01, suggesting that the differences in peptide binding may result in the differences in T cell recognition between the subtype B virus and A/E virus infections. The Y181C mutation was found to be accumulating in treatment-naive Vietnamese infected with the subtype A/E virus. The present study demonstrated different effects of NNRTI-resistance RT181 mutations on CTL responses between the 2 subtype infections. The Y181C mutation may influence HIV-1 control by the CTLs in Vietnam, since this mutation has been accumulating in treatment-naive Vietnamese. IMPORTANCE Antiretroviral therapy leads to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1, resulting in virological and clinical failures. Though HIV-1-specific CTLs play a critical role in HIV-1 infection

  17. Positioning of HIV-protease inhibitors in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, M; Perno, C F

    2012-01-01

    The availability of more than 20 drugs for the treatment of HIV infection, and the success of the current antiretroviral regimens, should not overlook the difficulty of long-term maintaining the control of viral replication. The therapy needs to be continued for decades, if not for lifetime, and there are clear evidences that, even in patients fully suppressed for many years, HIV starts again its replication cycles in case antiviral pressure is removed. The development of resistance is a natural event at the time of virological failure, that needs to be taken into account in the global strategy against HIV in each particular patient. Taking all together, therapeutic regiments must be embedded, since the beginning, in a long-term strategy whose main task is the stable control of the replication of HIV. To do so, the choice of the first antiviral regimen has to be highly appropriate to keep the virus in check, and at the same time maintain future therapeutic options. Change of therapy at the time of failure has to be also appropriate, in term of timing, diagnostic strategy, and selection of drugs. Under these circumstances, the use of protease inhibitors in the first line acquires a strong rationale, that balances the greater pure potency of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and makes them a valuable options for many patients that need to start antiviral therapy.

  18. Triple Therapy with First Generation Protease Inhibitors for Hepatitis C Markedly Impairs Function of Neutrophil Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Schmerböck, Bianca; Zettel, Gabriele; Posch, Andreas; Streit, Andrea; Jurse, Petra; Lemesch, Sandra; Horn, Martin; Wuensch, Gerit; Stiegler, Philipp; Stauber, Rudolf E; Leber, Bettina; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    First-generation HCV protease inhibitors represent a milestone in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), but substantially increased rates of viral clearance are offset by increased rates of infection and infection-associated deaths, especially of patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to assess whether first generation protease inhibitors interfere with neutrophil function. We included 108 consecutive, retrospective CHC patients and 44 consecutive, prospective CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin with or without protease inhibitors according to the guidelines in the period of November 2012 to June 2015. 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. Infection data were evaluated in all patients. Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, elastase and diamine oxidase levels during 12 weeks of triple (n = 23) or dual therapy (n = 21) were studied in the prospective part. In the retro- and prospective cohorts patients experiencing clinically relevant infections were significantly more frequent during protease inhibitor therapy (31% and 26%) than during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (13% and 0%). Neutrophil phagocytosis decreased to 40% of baseline with addition of protease inhibitors to P/R but recovered 6 months after end of treatment. Protease inhibitors also seemed to reduce serum elastase levels but did not impact on gut permeability. Impaired neutrophil function during triple therapy with first generation HCV protease inhibitors may explain the high infection rate associated to these treatments and be of relevance for treatment success and patient survival. PMID:26938078

  19. Triple Therapy with First Generation Protease Inhibitors for Hepatitis C Markedly Impairs Function of Neutrophil Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tawdrous, Monika; Schmerböck, Bianca; Zettel, Gabriele; Posch, Andreas; Streit, Andrea; Jurse, Petra; Lemesch, Sandra; Horn, Martin; Wuensch, Gerit; Stiegler, Philipp; Stauber, Rudolf E.; Leber, Bettina; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    First-generation HCV protease inhibitors represent a milestone in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), but substantially increased rates of viral clearance are offset by increased rates of infection and infection-associated deaths, especially of patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to assess whether first generation protease inhibitors interfere with neutrophil function. We included 108 consecutive, retrospective CHC patients and 44 consecutive, prospective CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin with or without protease inhibitors according to the guidelines in the period of November 2012 to June 2015. 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. Infection data were evaluated in all patients. Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, elastase and diamine oxidase levels during 12 weeks of triple (n = 23) or dual therapy (n = 21) were studied in the prospective part. In the retro- and prospective cohorts patients experiencing clinically relevant infections were significantly more frequent during protease inhibitor therapy (31% and 26%) than during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (13% and 0%). Neutrophil phagocytosis decreased to 40% of baseline with addition of protease inhibitors to P/R but recovered 6 months after end of treatment. Protease inhibitors also seemed to reduce serum elastase levels but did not impact on gut permeability. Impaired neutrophil function during triple therapy with first generation HCV protease inhibitors may explain the high infection rate associated to these treatments and be of relevance for treatment success and patient survival. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02545400 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02545335 PMID:26938078

  20. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of calix[4]arene-based β-diketo derivatives as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaigang; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Chao; Li, Zhipeng; Xu, Xuemei; Hu, Liming; Huang, Nianyu; He, Hongqiu

    2015-03-01

    In this publication, we design and report the synthesis of calix[4]arene-based β-diketo derivatives as novel HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors. The target compounds were obtained using Claisen condensation, and their structures were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS. Preliminary bioassays showed that calix[4]arene-based β-diketo derivatives inhibit strand transfer (ST) with IC50 values between 5.9 and 21.2 µM. Docking studies revealed the predominant binding modes that were distinct from the binding modes of raltegravir, which suggests a novel binding region in the IN active site. Moreover, these compounds are predicted not to interact with some of the key amino acids (GLN148 and ASN155) implicated in viral resistance. Therefore, this series of compounds can further be investigated for a possible chemotype to circumvent resistance to clinical HIV-1 IN inhibitors.

  1. SjAPI, the First Functionally Characterized Ascaris-Type Protease Inhibitor from Animal Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Background Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Principal Findings Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI), Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2), Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI), and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI). The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues “AAV” and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of

  2. EFFECT OF TRANSLOCATION DEFECTIVE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS ON THE ACTIVITY OF N348I, A CONNECTION SUBDOMAIN DRUG RESISTANT HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE MUTANT

    PubMed Central

    MICHAILIDIS, E.; SINGH, K.; RYAN, E.M.; HACHIYA, A.; ONG, Y.T.; KIRBY, K.A.; MARCHAND, B.; KODAMA, E.N.; MITSUYA, H.; PARNIAK, M.A.; SARAFIANOS, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We have previously shown that its exceptional antiviral activity stems from a unique mechanism of action that is based primarily on blocking translocation of RT; therefore we named EFdA a Translocation Defective RT Inhibitor (TDRTI). The N348I mutation at the connection subdomain (CS) of HIV-1 RT confers clinically significant resistance to both nucleoside (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this study we tested EFdA-triphosphate (TP) together with a related compound, ENdA-TP (4′-ethynyl-2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosine triphosphate) against HIV-1 RTs that carry clinically relevant drug resistance mutations: N348I, D67N/K70R/L210Q/T215F, D67N/K70R/L210Q/T215F/N348I, and A62V/V75I/F77L/F116Y/Q151M. We demonstrate that these enzymes remain susceptible to TDRTIs. Similar to WT RT, the N348I RT is inhibited by EFdA mainly at the point of incorporation through decreased translocation. In addition, the N348I substitution decreases the RNase H cleavage of DNA terminated with EFdA-MP (T/PEFdA-MP). Moreover, N348I RT unblocks EFdA-terminated primers with similar efficiency as the WT enzyme, and further enhances EFdA unblocking in the background of AZT-resistance mutations. This study provides biochemical insights into the mechanism of inhibition of N348I RT by TDRTIs and highlights the excellent efficacy of this class of inhibitors against WT and drug-resistant HIV-1 RTs. PMID:23273211

  3. Effect of translocation defective reverse transcriptase inhibitors on the activity of N348I, a connection subdomain drug resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutant.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, E; Singh, K; Ryan, E M; Hachiya, A; Ong, Y T; Kirby, K A; Marchand, B; Kodama, E N; Mitsuya, H; Parniak, M A; Sarafianos, S G

    2012-01-01

    4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We have previously shown that its exceptional antiviral activity stems from a unique mechanism of action that is based primarily on blocking translocation of RT; therefore we named EFdA a Translocation Defective RT Inhibitor (TDRTI). The N348I mutation at the connection subdomain (CS) of HIV-1 RT confers clinically significant resistance to both nucleoside (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this study we tested EFdA-triphosphate (TP) together with a related compound, ENdA-TP (4'-ethynyl-2-amino-2'-deoxdyadenosine triphosphate) against HIV-1 RTs that carry clinically relevant drug resistance mutations: N348I, D67N/K70R/L210Q/T215F, D67N/K70R/L210Q/T215F/N348I, and A62V/V5I/F77L/F116Y/Q151M. We demonstrate that these enzymes remain susceptible to TDRTIs. Similar to WT RT, the N348I RT is inhibited by EFdA mainly at the point of incorporation through decreased translocation. In addition, the N348I substitution decreases the RNase H cleavage of DNA terminated with EFdA-MP (T/P(EFdA-MP)). Moreover, N348I RT unblocks EFdA-terminated primers with similar efficiency as the WT enzyme, and further enhances EFdA unblocking in the background of AZT-resistance mutations. This study provides biochemical insights into the mechanism of inhibition of N348I RT by TDRTIs and highlights the excellent efficacy of this class of inhibitors against WT and drug-resistant HIV-1 RTs. PMID:23273211

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of substituted 4-(N-benzylamino)cinnamate esters as potential anti-cancer agents and HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Faridoon; Edkins, Adrienne L; Isaacs, Michelle; Mnkandhla, Dumisani; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Kaye, Perry T

    2016-08-01

    Encouraging selectivity and low micromolar activity against HeLa cervical carcinoma (IC50⩾3.0μM) and the aggressive MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast carcinoma (IC50⩾9.6μM) cell lines has been exhibited by a number of readily accessible 4-(N-benzylamino)cinnamate esters. The potential of the ligands as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors has also been examined. PMID:27317645

  5. Development of an HIV-1 Microbicide Based on Caulobacter crescentus: Blocking Infection by High-Density Display of Virus Entry Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Farr, Christina; Nomellini, John F; Ailon, Evan; Shanina, Iryna; Sangsari, Sassan; Cavacini, Lisa A; Smit, John; Horwitz, Marc S

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains an enormous global health concern. Despite effective prevention options, 2.6 million new infections occur annually, with women in developing countries accounting for more than half of these infections. New prevention strategies that can be used by women are urgently needed. Topical microbicides specific for HIV-1 represent a promising prevention strategy. Conceptually, using harmless bacteria to display peptides or proteins capable of blocking entry provides an inexpensive approach to microbicide development. To avoid the potential pitfalls of engineering commensal bacteria, our strategy is to genetically display infection inhibitors on a non-native bacterium and rely on topical application of stabilized bacteria before potential virus exposure. Due to the high density cell-surface display capabilities and the inherent low toxicity of the bacterium, the S-layer mediated protein display capabilities of the non-pathogenic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has been exploited for this approach. We have demonstrated that C. crescentus displaying MIP1α or CD4 interfered with the virus entry pathway and provided significant protection from HIV-1 pseudovirus representing clade B in a standard single cycle infection assay. Here we have expanded our C. crescentus based microbicide approach with additional and diverse classes of natural and synthetic inhibitors of the HIV-1 entry pathway. All display constructs provided variable but significant protection from HIV-1 infection; some with protection as high as 70%. Further, we describe protection from infection with additional viral clades. These findings indicate the significant potential for engineering C. crescentus to be an effective and readily adaptable HIV-1 microbicide platform. PMID:23840383

  6. Structures of an ATP-independent Lon-like protease and its complexes with covalent inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Ihara, Kentaro; Kuo, Chiao-I; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Chung-I

    2013-08-01

    The Lon proteases are a unique family of chambered proteases with a built-in AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) module. Here, crystal structures of a unique member of the Lon family with no intrinsic ATPase activity in the proteolytically active form are reported both alone and in complexes with three covalent inhibitors: two peptidomimetics and one derived from a natural product. This work reveals the unique architectural features of an ATP-independent Lon that selectively degrades unfolded protein substrates. Importantly, these results provide mechanistic insights into the recognition of inhibitors and polypeptide substrates within the conserved proteolytic chamber, which may aid the development of specific Lon-protease inhibitors.

  7. Ribonuclease H/DNA Polymerase HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Dual Inhibitor: Mechanistic Studies on the Allosteric Mode of Action of Isatin-Based Compound RMNC6

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Angela; Meleddu, Rita; Esposito, Francesca; Distinto, Simona; Bianco, Giulia; Masaoka, Takashi; Maccioni, Elias; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Alcaro, Stefano; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Tramontano, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    The DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are needed for the replication of the viral genome and are validated drug targets. However, there are no approved drugs inhibiting RNase H and the efficiency of DNA polymerase inhibitors can be diminished by the presence of drug resistance mutations. In this context, drugs inhibiting both activities could represent a significant advance towards better anti-HIV therapies. We report on the mechanisms of allosteric inhibition of a newly synthesized isatin-based compound designated as RMNC6 that showed IC50 values of 1.4 and 9.8 μM on HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H and polymerase activities, respectively. Blind docking studies predict that RMNC6 could bind two different pockets in the RT: one in the DNA polymerase domain (partially overlapping the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor [NNRTI] binding pocket), and a second one close to the RNase H active site. Enzymatic studies showed that RMNC6 interferes with efavirenz (an approved NNRTI) in its binding to the RT polymerase domain, although NNRTI resistance-associated mutations such as K103N, Y181C and Y188L had a minor impact on RT susceptibility to RMNC6. In addition, despite being naturally resistant to NNRTIs, the polymerase activity of HIV-1 group O RT was efficiently inhibited by RMNC6. The compound was also an inhibitor of the RNase H activity of wild-type HIV-1 group O RT, although we observed a 6.5-fold increase in the IC50 in comparison with the prototypic HIV-1 group M subtype B enzyme. Mutagenesis studies showed that RT RNase H domain residues Asn474 and Tyr501, and in a lesser extent Ala502 and Ala508, are critical for RMNC6 inhibition of the endonuclease activity of the RT, without affecting its DNA polymerization activity. Our results show that RMNC6 acts as a dual inhibitor with allosteric sites in the DNA polymerase and the RNase H domains of HIV-1 RT. PMID:26800261

  8. Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Caroline B.F.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are the best-characterized family of serine protease inhibitors, probably due to their abundance in several organisms. These inhibitors consist of a chain of ~60 amino acid residues stabilized by three disulfide bridges, and was first observed in the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-like protease inhibitors, which strongly inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin. In this review we present the protease inhibitors (PIs) described to date from marine venomous animals, such as from sea anemone extracts and Conus venom, as well as their counterparts in terrestrial venomous animals, such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, Anurans, and Hymenopterans. More emphasis was given to the Kunitz-type inhibitors, once they are found in all these organisms. Their biological sources, specificity against different proteases, and other molecular blanks (being also K+ channel blockers) are presented, followed by their molecular diversity. Whereas sea anemone, snakes and other venomous animals present mainly Kunitz-type inhibitors, PIs from Anurans present the major variety in structure length and number of Cys residues, with at least six distinguishable classes. A representative alignment of PIs from these venomous animals shows that, despite eventual differences in Cys assignment, the key-residues for the protease inhibitory activity in all of them occupy similar positions in primary sequence. The key-residues for the K+ channel blocking activity was also compared. PMID:23771044

  9. Protease inhibitors from marine venomous animals and their counterparts in terrestrial venomous animals.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Caroline B F; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2013-06-14

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are the best-characterized family of serine protease inhibitors, probably due to their abundance in several organisms. These inhibitors consist of a chain of ~60 amino acid residues stabilized by three disulfide bridges, and was first observed in the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-like protease inhibitors, which strongly inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin. In this review we present the protease inhibitors (PIs) described to date from marine venomous animals, such as from sea anemone extracts and Conus venom, as well as their counterparts in terrestrial venomous animals, such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, Anurans, and Hymenopterans. More emphasis was given to the Kunitz-type inhibitors, once they are found in all these organisms. Their biological sources, specificity against different proteases, and other molecular blanks (being also K+ channel blockers) are presented, followed by their molecular diversity. Whereas sea anemone, snakes and other venomous animals present mainly Kunitz-type inhibitors, PIs from Anurans present the major variety in structure length and number of Cys residues, with at least six distinguishable classes. A representative alignment of PIs from these venomous animals shows that, despite eventual differences in Cys assignment, the key-residues for the protease inhibitory activity in all of them occupy similar positions in primary sequence. The key-residues for the K+ channel blocking activity was also compared.

  10. Design and discovery of flavonoid-based HIV-1 integrase inhibitors targeting both the active site and the interaction with LEDGF/p75.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Feng-Hua; Serrao, Erik; Chen, Huan; Sanchez, Tino W; Yang, Liu-Meng; Neamati, Nouri; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Wang, Hui; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-06-15

    HIV integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for the viral replication. Currently, three IN inhibitors have been approved for treating HIV-1 infection. All three drugs selectively inhibit the strand transfer reaction by chelating a divalent metal ion in the enzyme active site. Flavonoids are a well-known class of natural products endowed with versatile biological activities. Their β-ketoenol or catechol structures can serve as a metal chelation motif and be exploited for the design of novel IN inhibitors. Using the metal chelation as a common pharmacophore, we introduced appropriate hydrophobic moieties into the flavonol core to design natural product-based novel IN inhibitors. We developed selective and efficient syntheses to generate a series of mono 3/5/7/3'/4'-substituted flavonoid derivatives. Most of these new compounds showed excellent HIV-1 IN inhibitory activity in enzyme-based assays and protected against HIV-1 infection in cell-based assays. The 7-morpholino substituted 7c showed effective antiviral activity (EC50=0.826 μg/mL) and high therapeutic index (TI>242). More significantly, these hydroxyflavones block the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction with low- to sub-micromolar IC50 values and represent a novel scaffold to design new generation of drugs simultaneously targeting the catalytic site as well as protein-protein interaction domains.

  11. Systematic evaluation of methyl ester bioisosteres in the context of developing alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for anti-HIV-1 chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Ayako; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Takayama, Jun; Xuan, Meiyan; Okazaki, Mari; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; Cushman, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) are a class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) targeting HIV-1. Four chemically and metabolically stabilized ADAMs incorporating N-methoxyimidoyl halide replacements of the methyl esters of the lead compound were previously reported. In this study, twenty-five new ADAMs were synthesized in order to investigate the biological consequences of installing nine different methyl ester bioisosteres at three different locations. Attempts to define a universal rank order of methyl ester bioisosteres and discover the 'best' one in terms of inhibitory activity versus HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) led to the realization that the potencies are critically dependent on the surrounding structure at each location, and therefore the definition of universal rank order is impossible. This investigation produced several new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in which all three of the three methyl esters of the lead compound were replaced by methyl ester bioisosteres, resulting in compounds that are more potent as HIV-1 RT inhibitors and antiviral agents than the lead compound itself and are expected to also be more metabolically stable than the lead compound. PMID:27234889

  12. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Annadana, S; Peters, J; Gruden, K; Schipper, A; Outchkourov, N S; Beekwilder, M J.; Udayakumar, M; Jongsma, M A.

    2002-07-01

    Proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. The pH optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using cysteine proteases for protein digestion. The proteinaceous cysteine protease inhibitors chicken cystatin, potato cystatin and sea anemone equistatin inhibited in vitro more than 90% of the protease activity. To test in vivo the biological effect of such inhibitors on the oviposition rate of western flower thrips, recombinant potato cystatin and equistatin were fed to adult females. A gradual reduction in oviposition rate to about 45% of control was observed when reared on these PIs for a period of 5 days, with no increase in mortality. These results are discussed in the light of the application of protease inhibitors in transgenic plants to control this insect pest.

  13. Phenylalanine and Phenylglycine Analogues as Arginine Mimetics in Dengue Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Lena F; Nitsche, Christoph; Graf, Dominik; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Klein, Christian D

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus is an increasingly global pathogen. One of the promising targets for antiviral drug discovery against dengue and related flaviviruses such as West Nile virus is the viral serine protease NS2B-NS3. We here report the synthesis and in vitro characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of dengue virus protease that incorporate phenylalanine and phenylglycine derivatives as arginine-mimicking groups with modulated basicity. The most promising compounds were (4-amidino)-L-phenylalanine-containing inhibitors, which reached nanomolar affinities against dengue virus protease. The type and position of the substituents on the phenylglycine and phenylalanine side chains has a significant effect on the inhibitory activity against dengue virus protease and selectivity against other proteases. In addition, the non-natural, basic amino acids described here may have relevance for the development of other peptidic and peptidomimetic drugs such as inhibitors of the blood clotting cascade.

  14. Distinct Effects of Two HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor Families That Bind the Same Site within the N-Terminal Domain of the Viral CA Protein

    PubMed Central

    Titolo, Steve; von Schwedler, Uta; Goudreau, Nathalie; Mercier, Jean-François; Wardrop, Elizabeth; Faucher, Anne-Marie; Coulombe, René; Banik, Soma S. R.; Fader, Lee; Gagnon, Alexandre; Kawai, Stephen H.; Rancourt, Jean; Tremblay, Martin; Yoakim, Christiane; Simoneau, Bruno; Archambault, Jacques; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to existing classes of antiretroviral drugs necessitates finding new HIV-1 targets for drug discovery. The viral capsid (CA) protein represents one such potential new target. CA is sufficient to form mature HIV-1 capsids in vitro, and extensive structure-function and mutational analyses of CA have shown that the proper assembly, morphology, and stability of the mature capsid core are essential for the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. Here we describe the development of an in vitro capsid assembly assay based on the association of CA-NC subunits on immobilized oligonucleotides. This assay was used to screen a compound library, yielding several different families of compounds that inhibited capsid assembly. Optimization of two chemical series, termed the benzodiazepines (BD) and the benzimidazoles (BM), resulted in compounds with potent antiviral activity against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analyses showed that both series of inhibitors bound to the N-terminal domain of CA. These inhibitors induce the formation of a pocket that overlaps with the binding site for the previously reported CAP inhibitors but is expanded significantly by these new, more potent CA inhibitors. Virus release and electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that the BD compounds prevented virion release, whereas the BM compounds inhibited the formation of the mature capsid. Passage of virus in the presence of the inhibitors selected for resistance mutations that mapped to highly conserved residues surrounding the inhibitor binding pocket, but also to the C-terminal domain of CA. The resistance mutations selected by the two series differed, consistent with differences in their interactions within the pocket, and most also impaired virus replicative capacity. Resistance mutations had two modes of action, either directly impacting inhibitor binding affinity or apparently increasing the overall

  15. 2,4,5-Trisubstituted thiazole derivatives: a novel and potent class of non-nucleoside inhibitors of wild type and mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongliang; Ba, Mingyu; Zhou, Hua; Cao, Yingli; Tang, Chaojun; Yang, Ying; He, Ricai; Liang, Yu; Zhang, Xuemei; Li, Zhenzhong; Zhu, Lihong; Guo, Ying; Guo, Changbin

    2014-10-01

    Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted thiazole derivatives (TSTs) were designed and synthesized as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Among the thirty-eight synthesized target compounds, thirty TSTs showed potent inhibition against HIV-1 replication in wild type HIV-1 at submicromolar concentrations (from 0.046 to 9.59 μM). Compounds 21, 23 and 24 were also tested on seven NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains, and all exhibited inhibitory effects with fold changes in IC50 ranging from 2.6 to 111, which were better than those of nevirapine (15.6-fold-371-fold). Docking simulations of compound 24 revealed a reasonable mechanism for the binding mode, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3-DQSAR) studies on this novel series of TST further elucidated the structure-activity relationship (SAR). The results suggested the great potential of TSTs as a novel class of NNRTIs with antiviral efficacy and a good resistance profile.

  16. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 5-Alkyl-6-Adamantylmethylpyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxin; Huang, Boshi; Kang, Dongwei; De Clercq, Erik; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel 5-alkyl-6-Adamantylmethylpyrimidin-4(3H)-ones bearing various substituents at the C-2 position of the pyrimidinone ring were synthesized using a facile route and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. The biological results demonstrated that the majority of the newly designed compounds possessed moderate efficiency in inhibiting the replication of the wild-type (WT) HIV-1 strain (IIIB ) with EC50 values in the range from 0.10 to 5.39 μm. Among them, 5b1 and 5b3 proved to be the two most active inhibitors against WT HIV-1 with EC50 values of 0.10 and 0.12 μm, respectively, which were more active than nevirapine (NVP) in the same assay. In addition, HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibition assay indicated that the representative compound 5b1 showed affinity to WT HIV-1 RT, and inhibited the activity of RT with an IC50 value superior to the reference drug NVP. Moreover, the preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) and the molecular modeling analysis of these new derivatives are also discussed. PMID:27062197

  17. A Novel Class of HIV-1 Antiviral Agents Targeting HIV via a SUMOylation-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ikenna G; Li, Shirley; Li, Baozong; Li, Haitang; Chang, Tammy; Li, Yi-Jia; Vega, Ramir; Rossi, John; Yee, Jiing-Kuan; Zaia, John; Chen, Yuan

    2015-12-08

    We have recently identified a chemotype of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease (SENP) inhibitors. Prior to the discovery of their SENP inhibitory activity, these compounds were found to inhibit HIV replication, but with an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of how these compounds inhibit HIV-1. We found that they do not affect HIV-1 viral production, but significantly inhibited the infectivity of the virus. Interestingly, virions produced from cells treated with these compounds could gain entry and carry out reverse transcription, but could not efficiently integrate into the host genome. This phenotype is different from the virus produced from cells treated with the class of anti-HIV-1 agents that inhibit HIV protease. Upon removal of the SUMO modification sites in the HIV-1 integrase, the compound no longer alters viral infectivity, indicating that the effect is related to SUMOylation of the HIV integrase. This study identifies a novel mechanism for inhibiting HIV-1 integration and a new class of small molecules that inhibits HIV-1 via such mechanism that may contribute a new strategy for cure of HIV-1 by inhibiting the production of infectious virions upon activation from latency.

  18. A Novel Class of HIV-1 Antiviral Agents Targeting HIV via a SUMOylation-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Li, Shirley; Li, Baozong; Li, Haitang; Chang, Tammy; Li, Yi-Jia; Vega, Ramir; Rossi, John; Yee, Jiing-Kuan; Zaia, John; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We have recently identified a chemotype of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease (SENP) inhibitors. Prior to the discovery of their SENP inhibitory activity, these compounds were found to inhibit HIV replication, but with an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of how these compounds inhibit HIV-1. We found that they do not affect HIV-1 viral production, but significantly inhibited the infectivity of the virus. Interestingly, virions produced from cells treated with these compounds could gain entry and carry out reverse transcription, but could not efficiently integrate into the host genome. This phenotype is different from the virus produced from cells treated with the class of anti-HIV-1 agents that inhibit HIV protease. Upon removal of the SUMO modification sites in the HIV-1 integrase, the compound no longer alters viral infectivity, indicating that the effect is related to SUMOylation of the HIV integrase. This study identifies a novel mechanism for inhibiting HIV-1 integration and a new class of small molecules that inhibits HIV-1 via such mechanism that may contribute a new strategy for cure of HIV-1 by inhibiting the production of infectious virions upon activation from latency. PMID:26643614

  19. In vitro combination of PNU-140690, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, with ritonavir against ritonavir-sensitive and -resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Chong, K T; Pagano, P J

    1997-01-01

    PNU-140690 (sulfonamide-containing 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone) is a potent, nonpeptidic inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease currently under clinical evaluation. PNU-140690 and ritonavir were studied in two-drug combinations against the replication of HIV-1 clinical isolates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A ritonavir-sensitive (301-1x) and -resistant (301-6x) isolate pair derived from an individual before and after monotherapy with ritonavir were used. These isolates showed no significant difference in sensitivity to PNU-140690, but isolate 301-6x was more than 50-fold less sensitive to ritonavir than isolate 301-1x. Mathematical analysis showed that the combination of various concentrations of PNU-140690 with ritonavir yielded additive to moderately synergistic antiviral effects against the ritonavir-sensitive isolate and stronger synergy against the ritonavir-resistant isolate. The mechanism of synergy was not investigated, but the results suggested that both the virological and the observed in vitro pharmacological effects may have contributed to the observed synergy. Importantly, no significant antagonism was observed with the drug combinations studied. These data suggest that PNU-140690 may be useful in combination regimens with a structurally unrelated protease inhibitor such as ritonavir. PMID:9371335

  20. Evidence for Reduced Drug Susceptibility without Emergence of Major Protease Mutations following Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy Failure in the SARA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Katherine A.; Parry, Chris M.; McCormick, Adele; Kapaata, Anne; Lyagoba, Fred; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Gilks, Charles F.; Goodall, Ruth; Spyer, Moira; Kityo, Cissy; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major protease mutations are rarely observed following failure with protease inhibitors (PI), and other viral determinants of failure to PI are poorly understood. We therefore characterized Gag-Protease phenotypic susceptibility in subtype A and D viruses circulating in East Africa following viral rebound on PIs. Methods Samples from baseline and treatment failure in patients enrolled in the second line LPV/r trial SARA underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing. Data were expressed as fold-change in susceptibility relative to a LPV-susceptible reference strain. Results We cloned 48 Gag-Protease containing sequences from seven individuals and performed drug resistance phenotyping from pre-PI and treatment failure timepoints in seven patients. For the six patients where major protease inhibitor resistance mutations did not emerge, mean fold-change EC50 to LPV was 4.07 fold (95% CI, 2.08–6.07) at the pre-PI timepoint. Following viral failure the mean fold-change in EC50 to LPV was 4.25 fold (95% CI, 1.39–7.11, p = 0.91). All viruses remained susceptible to DRV. In our assay system, the major PI resistance mutation I84V, which emerged in one individual, conferred a 10.5-fold reduction in LPV susceptibility. One of the six patients exhibited a significant reduction in susceptibility between pre-PI and failure timepoints (from 4.7 fold to 9.6 fold) in the absence of known major mutations in protease, but associated with changes in Gag: V7I, G49D, R69Q, A120D, Q127K, N375S and I462S. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence of the emergence of genetically distinct viruses at the time of treatment failure, indicating ongoing viral evolution in Gag-protease under PI pressure. Conclusions Here we observe in one patient the development of significantly reduced susceptibility conferred by changes in Gag which may have contributed to treatment failure on a protease inhibitor containing regimen. Further phenotype-genotype studies are required to elucidate genetic

  1. Cyanobacterial Protease Inhibitor Microviridin J Causes a Lethal Molting Disruption in Daphnia pulicaria

    PubMed Central

    Rohrlack, Thomas; Christoffersen, Kirsten; Kaebernick, Melanie; Neilan, Brett A.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory experiments identified microviridin J as the source of a fatal molting disruption in Daphnia species organisms feeding on Microcystis cells. The molting disruption was presumably linked to the inhibitory effect of microviridin J on daphnid proteases, suggesting that hundreds of further cyanobacterial protease inhibitors must be considered potentially toxic to zooplankton. PMID:15294849

  2. Cyanobacterial protease inhibitor microviridin J causes a lethal molting disruption in Daphnia pulicaria.

    PubMed

    Rohrlack, Thomas; Christoffersen, Kirsten; Kaebernick, Melanie; Neilan, Brett A

    2004-08-01

    Laboratory experiments identified microviridin J as the source of a fatal molting disruption in Daphnia species organisms feeding on Microcystis cells. The molting disruption was presumably linked to the inhibitory effect of microviridin J on daphnid proteases, suggesting that hundreds of further cyanobacterial protease inhibitors must be considered potentially toxic to zooplankton.

  3. Probing the molecular mechanism of action of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) using pre-steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Sohl, Christal D; Mislak, Andrea C; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-06-01

    The novel antiretroviral 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI). Unlike other FDA-approved NRTIs, EFdA contains a 3'-hydroxyl. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed RT preferred incorporating EFdA-TP over native dATP. Moreover, RT slowly inserted nucleotides past an EFdA-terminated primer, resulting in delayed chain termination with unaffected fidelity. This is distinct from KP1212, another 3'-hydroxyl-containing RT inhibitor considered to promote viral lethal mutagenesis. New mechanistic features of RT inhibition by EFdA are revealed.

  4. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent HIV protease inhibitor-induced atherosclerosis by ubiquitination and degradation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Emily L; Li, Xiang-An; Guerin, Theresa; Everson, William V; Wilson, Melinda E; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Greenberg, Richard N; Guo, Ling; Ross, Stuart A; Smart, Eric J

    2006-12-01

    HIV protease inhibitors are important pharmacological agents used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. One of the major disadvantages of HIV protease inhibitors is that they increase several cardiovascular risk factors, including the expression of CD36 in macrophages. The expression of CD36 in macrophages promotes the accumulation of cholesterol, the development of foam cells, and ultimately atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested that alpha-tocopherol can prevent HIV protease inhibitor-induced increases in macrophage CD36 levels. Because of the potential clinical utility of using alpha-tocopherol to limit some of the side effects of HIV protease inhibitors, we tested the ability of alpha-tocopherol to prevent ritonavir, a common HIV protease inhibitor, from inducing atherosclerosis in the LDL receptor (LDLR) null mouse model. Surprisingly, alpha-tocopherol did not prevent ritonavir-induced atherosclerosis. However, cotreatment with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), didanosine or D4T, did prevent ritonavir-induced atherosclerosis. Using macrophages isolated from LDLR null mice, we demonstrated that the NRTIs prevented the upregulation of CD36 and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages. Treatment of LDLR null mice with NRTIs promoted the ubiquitination and downregulation of protein kinase Calpha (PKC). Previous studies demonstrated that HIV protease inhibitor activation of PKC was necessary for the upregulation of CD36. Importantly, the in vivo inhibition of PKC with chelerythrine prevented ritonavir-induced upregulation of CD36, accumulation of cholesterol, and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. These novel mechanistic studies suggest that NRTIs may provide protection from one of the negative side effects associated with HIV protease inhibitors, namely the increase in CD36 levels and subsequent cholesterol accumulation and atherogenesis.

  5. Interspecific Differences between D. pulex and D. magna in Tolerance to Cyanobacteria with Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, Christian J.; Von Elert, Eric

    2013-01-01

    It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids’ tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC− contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC−, the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. PMID:23650523

  6. HIV-1 pol mutation frequency by subtype and treatment experience

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A.; Camacho, Ricardo; Morris, Lynn; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Jorgensen, Louise; Brigido, Luis F.; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Shafer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective HIVseq was developed in 2000 to make published data on the frequency of HIV-1 group M protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations available in real time to laboratories and researchers sequencing these genes. Because most published protease and RT sequences belonged to subtype B, the initial version of HIVseq was based on this subtype. As additional non-B sequences from persons with well-characterized antiretroviral treatment histories have become available, the program has been extended to subtypes A, C, D, F, G, CRF01, and CRF02. Methods The latest frequency of each protease and RT mutation according to subtype and drug-class exposure was calculated using published sequences in the Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database. Each mutation was hyperlinked to published reports of viruses containing the mutation. Results As of September 2005, the mean number of protease sequences per non-B subtype was 534 from protease inhibitor-naive persons and 133 from protease inhibitor-treated persons, representing 13.2% and 2.3%, respectively, of the data available for subtype B. The mean number of RT sequences per non-B subtype was 373 from RT inhibitor-naive persons and 288 from RT inhibitor-treated persons, representing 17.9% and 3.8%, respectively, of the data available for subtype B. Conclusions HIVseq allows users to examine protease and RT mutations within the context of previously published sequences of these genes. The publication of additional non-B protease and RT sequences from persons with well-characterized treatment histories, however, will be required to perform the same types of analysis possible with the much larger number of subtype B sequences. PMID:16514293

  7. Assessment of the relative contribution of different protease inhibitors to the inhibition of plasmin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Roem, D; Kamp, A M; de Boer, J P; Hack, C E; ten Cate, J W

    1993-02-01

    It has been shown that the most important inhibitor of plasmin is alpha 2-antiplasmin, however, other protease inhibitors are able to inhibit this proteolytic enzyme as well. The contribution of the various protease inhibitors to the inhibition of plasmin in vivo has never been quantitatively assessed. To assess the relative contribution of the different protease inhibitors on the inhibition of plasmin we developed a series of sensitive immunoassays for the detection of complexes between plasmin and the protease inhibitors alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, antithrombin III, alpha 1-antitrypsin and C1-inhibitor, utilizing monoclonal antibodies that are specifically directed against complexed protease inhibitors and a monoclonal antibody against plasmin. It was confirmed that alpha 2-antiplasmin is the most important inhibitor of plasmin in vivo, however, complexes of plasmin with alpha 2-macroglobulin, antithrombin III, alpha 1-antitrypsin- and C1-inhibitor were also detected. Particularly during activation of fibrinolysis complexes between plasmin and inhibitors other than alpha 2-antiplasmin were detected. It was observed that during different situations the inhibition profile of plasmin was not constant e.g. in patients with diffuse intravascular coagulation plasma levels of plasmin-alpha 1-antitrypsin and plasmin-C1-inhibitor were increased whereas in plasma from patients who were treated with thrombolytic agents complexes of plasmin with alpha 2-macroglobulin and with antithrombin III were significantly elevated. In conclusion, we confirmed the important role of alpha 2-antiplasmin in the inhibition of plasmin, however, in situations in which fibrinolysis is activated other protease inhibitors also account for the inhibition of plasmin in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Nüesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T.; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  9. Juggling jobs: roles and mechanisms of multifunctional protease inhibitors in plants.

    PubMed

    Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional protease inhibitors juggle jobs by targeting different enzymes and thereby often controlling more than one biological process. Here, we discuss the biological functions, mechanisms and evolution of three types of multifunctional protease inhibitors in plants. The first type is double-headed inhibitors, which feature two inhibitory sites targeting proteases with different specificities (e.g. Bowman-Birk inhibitors) or even different hydrolases (e.g. α-amylase/protease inhibitors preventing both early germination and seed predation). The second type consists of multidomain inhibitors which evolved by intragenic duplication and are released by processing (e.g. multicystatins and potato inhibitor II, implicated in tuber dormancy and defence, respectively). The third type consists of promiscuous inhibitory folds which resemble mouse traps that can inhibit different proteases cleaving the bait they offer (e.g. serpins, regulating cell death, and α-macroglobulins). Understanding how multifunctional inhibitors juggle biological jobs increases our knowledge of the connections between the networks they regulate. These examples show that multifunctionality evolved independently from a remarkable diversity of molecular mechanisms that can be exploited for crop improvement and provide concepts for protein design. PMID:26800491

  10. Second generation bisheteroarylpiperazine (BHAP) HIV-1 reverse transcriptasae inhibitors: Enhancement of antiviral activity and aqueous solubility via 5- and 6-substitution of the indole ring

    SciTech Connect

    Poel, T.; Thomas, R.C.; Romero, D.L.; Hosley, M.J.; Morge, R.A.; Biles, C.; Reusser, F.; Althaus, I.W.; Schinzer, W.C.; Platzer, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    U-87201E, a potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) discovered at Upjohn, is currently in Phase II clinical trials. Additional structure-activity studies have identified second-generation BHAPs with enhanced antiviral activity and improved pharmaceutical properties, notably increased aqueous solubility. Capitalizing on initial SAR studies which demonstrated a tolerance for substitution in the indole ring, a series of BHAPs bearing 5- and 6-substituted indoles was evaluated. Substituents such as ethers, sulfonamides, ureas, and sulfamides containing water-solubilizing groups such as polyethers or basic amines provided highly potent BHAPs with greatly enhanced solubility, such as U-93923. The synthesis, antiviral evaluation and solubility properties of these potent HIV-1 RTIs will be detailed.

  11. Design and Synthesis of Novel N-Arylsulfonyl-3-(2-yl-ethanone)-6-methylindole Derivatives as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Che, Zhiping; Liu, Shengming; Tian, Yuee; Hu, Zhenjie; Chen, Yingwu; Chen, Genqiang

    2015-01-01

    Seven novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-(2-yl-ethanone)-6-methylindole derivatives 4a–f and 6 were readily synthesized and have been identified as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Initial biological studies indicated that among these derivatives, N-(p-ethyl)phenylsulfonyl-3-[2-morpholinoethanone]-6-methylindole (4f) and N-(p-ethyl)phenylsulfonyl-3-[2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl-thio)ethanone]-6-methylindole (6) showed the most promising activity against HIV-1 replication. The effective concentration (EC50) and therapeutic index (TI) values of 4f and 6 were 9.42/4.62 μM, and >49.77/66.95, respectively. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has also been assessed. No significant cytotoxicities were found for any of these compounds. PMID:26110320

  12. (Alkylamino) piperidine bis(heteroaryl)piperizine analogs are potent, broad-spectrum nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of drug-resistant isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and select for drug-resistant variants of HIV-1IIIB with reduced replication phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Olmsted, R A; Slade, D E; Kopta, L A; Poppe, S M; Poel, T J; Newport, S W; Rank, K B; Biles, C; Morge, R A; Dueweke, T J; Yagi, Y; Romero, D L; Thomas, R C; Sharma, S K; Tarpley, W G

    1996-01-01

    The (alkylamino)piperidine bis(heteroaryl)piperizines (AAP-BHAPs) are a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific inhibitors which were identified by targeted screening of recombinant reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes carrying key nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance-conferring mutations and NNRTI-resistant variants of HIV-1. Phenotypic profiling of the two most potent AAP-BHAPs, U-95133 and U-104489, against in vitro-selected drug-resistant HIV-1 variants carrying the NNRTI resistance-conferring mutation (Tyr->Cys) at position 181 of the HIV-1 RT revealed submicromolar 90% inhibitory concentration estimates for these compounds. Moreover, U-104489 demonstrated potent activity against BHA-P-resistant HIV-1MF harboring the Pro-236->Leu RT substitution and significantly suppressed the replication of clinical isolates of HIV-1 resistant to both delavirdine (BHAP U-90152T) and zidovudine. Biochemical and phenotypic characterization of AAP-BHAPresistant HIV-1IIIB variants revealed that high-level resistance to the AAP-BHAPs was mediated by a Gly-190->Glu substitution in RT, which had a deleterious effect on the integrity and enzymatic activity of virion-associated RT heterodimers, as well as the replication capacity of these resistant viruses. PMID:8648704

  13. Structural modifications of CH(OH)-DAPYs as new HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zi-Hong; Huang, Xia-Yun; Wu, Hai-Qiu; Chen, Wen-Xue; He, Qiu-Qin; Chen, Fen-Er; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe

    2014-04-15

    A series of CR2(OH)-diarylpyrimidine derivatives (CR2(OH)-DAPYs) featuring a hydrophobic group at CH(OH) linker between wing I and the central pyrimidine were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cell cultures. All the target compounds except for compound 3k displayed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 wild-type with EC50 values ranging from 7.21±1.99 to 0.067±0.006 μM. Among them, compound 3d showed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50=0.067±0.006 μM, SI>592), which was approximately 2-fold more potent than the reference drugs nevirapine (NVP) and delaviridine (DLV) in the same assay. In addition, the binding modes with HIV-1 RT and the preliminary SAR studies of these new derivatives were also investigated. PMID:24680058

  14. Redistribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants resistant to protease inhibitors after a protease inhibitor-sparing regimen.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Nicola; Seminari, Elena; Lazzarin, Adriano; Boeri, Enzo; Clementi, Massimo; Danise, Anna; Salpietro, Stefania; Fusetti, Giuliana; Castagna, Antonella

    2005-06-01

    The redistribution of mutations related to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance after a PI-sparing regimen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, highly PI-experienced patients was prospectively assessed. Twenty-five patients failing a PI-including regimen were given PI-sparing antiretroviral therapy, and then followed for 24 weeks after PI resumption. Genotyping was performed by direct sequencing before and during the PI-sparing regimen. The median (interquartile range, IQR) baseline CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 198 (120-255) cells/microl, and the median HIV-RNA level was 82,000 (41,000-300,000) copies/ml. Patients had experienced a median of 4.5 (4-5.25) PIs. The median number of PI mutations was eight (6-9). The PI-sparing regimen consisted of a median of three (3-4) drugs and lasted for a median of 53 (24-67) weeks. At the end of the study, the median number of PI mutations was 6.5 (6-9). The median change in the number of PI mutations was -1 (IQR from -1 to 0). A reduction from baseline was observed in 13 cases (52%); nine (36%) showed no change and three (12%) showed an increased number of PI substitutions. In highly PI-experienced patients, a PI-sparing regimen may lead to a reduction, no change, or increase in the number of PI mutations. The reduction is negligible in most cases.

  15. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship and comparative molecular field analysis studies within a series of tricyclic phthalimide HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Uiaran de Oliveira; Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles de; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Brito, Monique Araújo de; Bello, Murilo Lamim; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a public health problem worldwide caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment with antiretroviral drugs is the best option for viral suppression, reducing morbidity and mortality. However, viral resistance in HIV-1 therapy has been reported. HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication and an attractive target for the development of new inhibitors. In the study reported here, two- and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D/3D-QSAR) studies, applying hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methods, respectively, were performed on a series of tricyclic phthalimide HIV-1 IN inhibitors. The best HQSAR model (q (2) = 0.802, r (2) = 0.972) was obtained using atoms, bonds, and connectivity as the fragment distinction, a fragment size of 2-5 atoms, hologram length of 61 bins, and six components. The best CoMFA model (q (2) = 0.748, r (2) = 0.974) was obtained with alignment of all atoms of the tricyclic phthalimide moiety (alignment II). The HQSAR contribution map identified that the carbonyl-hydroxy-aromatic nitrogen motif made a positive contribution to the activity of the compounds. Furthermore, CoMFA contour maps suggested that bulky groups in meta and para positions in the phenyl ring would increase the biological activity of this class. The conclusions of this work may lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 IN inhibition and contribute to the design of new and more potent derivatives.

  16. Hologram quantitative structure–activity relationship and comparative molecular field analysis studies within a series of tricyclic phthalimide HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Magalhães, Uiaran; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Brito, Monique Araújo; Bello, Murilo Lamim; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a public health problem worldwide caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment with antiretroviral drugs is the best option for viral suppression, reducing morbidity and mortality. However, viral resistance in HIV-1 therapy has been reported. HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication and an attractive target for the development of new inhibitors. In the study reported here, two- and three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (2D/3D-QSAR) studies, applying hologram quantitative structure–activity relationship (HQSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methods, respectively, were performed on a series of tricyclic phthalimide HIV-1 IN inhibitors. The best HQSAR model (q2 = 0.802, r2 = 0.972) was obtained using atoms, bonds, and connectivity as the fragment distinction, a fragment size of 2–5 atoms, hologram length of 61 bins, and six components. The best CoMFA model (q2 = 0.748, r2 = 0.974) was obtained with alignment of all atoms of the tricyclic phthalimide moiety (alignment II). The HQSAR contribution map identified that the carbonyl-hydroxy-aromatic nitrogen motif made a positive contribution to the activity of the compounds. Furthermore, CoMFA contour maps suggested that bulky groups in meta and para positions in the phenyl ring would increase the biological activity of this class. The conclusions of this work may lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 IN inhibition and contribute to the design of new and more potent derivatives. PMID:24039405

  17. Trimeric Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored HCDR3 of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody PG16 Is a Potent HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihong; Wang, Weiming; Yang, Lifei; Ren, Huanhuan; Kimata, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    PG9 and PG16 are two quaternary-structure-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies with unique HCDR3 subdomains. Previously, we showed that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored HCDR3 subdomains (GPI-HCDR3) can be targeted to lipid rafts of the plasma membrane, bind to the epitope recognized by HCDR3 of PG16, and neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates. In this study, we further developed trimeric GPI-HCDR3s and demonstrated that trimeric GPI-HCDR3 (PG16) dramatically improves anti-HIV-1 neutralization, suggesting that a stoichiometry of recognition of 3 or 2 HCDR3 molecules (PG16) to 1 viral spike is possible. PMID:23152526

  18. Rational improvement of gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitors: an innovatively designed Ile-Asp-Leu tail with alternative conformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Su, Shan; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Shi, Lei; Ma, Zhenxuan; Tang, Jianchao; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of HIV gp41 have been developed as effective fusion inhibitors against HIV-1, but facing the challenges of enhancing potency and stability. Here, we report a rationally designed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitor derived from CHR-derived peptide (Trp628~Gln653, named CP), but with an innovative Ile-Asp-Leu tail (IDL) that dramatically increased the inhibitory activity by up to 100 folds. We also determined the crystal structures of artificial fusion peptides N36- and N43-L6-CP-IDL. Although the overall structures of both fusion peptides share the canonical six-helix bundle (6-HB) configuration, their IDL tails adopt two different conformations: a one-turn helix with the N36, and a hook-like structure with the longer N43. Structural comparison showed that the hook-like IDL tail possesses a larger interaction interface with NHR than the helical one. Further molecular dynamics simulations of the two 6-HBs and isolated CP-IDL peptides suggested that hook-like form of IDL tail can be stabilized by its binding to NHR trimer. Therefore, CP-IDL has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor, and this strategy could be widely used in developing artificial fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses. PMID:27666394

  19. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on triazolinone and pyridazinone, non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2010-06-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are allosteric inhibitors of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Recently a series of Triazolinone and Pyridazinone were reported as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 wild type reverse transcriptase. In the present study, docking and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) studies involving comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 31 molecules. Ligands were built and minimized using Tripos force field and applying Gasteiger-Hückel charges. These ligands were docked into protein active site using GLIDE 4.0. The docked poses were analyzed; the best docked poses were selected and aligned. CoMFA and CoMSIA fields were calculated using SYBYL6.9. The molecules were divided into training set and test set, a PLS analysis was performed and QSAR models were generated. The model showed good statistical reliability which is evident from the r2 nv, q2 loo and r2 pred values. The CoMFA model provides the most significant correlation of steric and electrostatic fields with biological activities. The CoMSIA model provides a correlation of steric, electrostatic, acceptor and hydrophobic fields with biological activities. The information rendered by 3D QSAR model initiated us to optimize the lead and design new potential inhibitors.

  20. Integrated computational tools for identification of CCR5 antagonists as potential HIV-1 entry inhibitors: homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulations and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Moonsamy, Suri; Dash, Radha Charan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-04-23

    Using integrated in-silico computational techniques, including homology modeling, structure-based and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, molecular dynamic simulations, per-residue energy decomposition analysis and atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis, we proposed ten novel compounds as potential CCR5-dependent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Via validated docking calculations, binding free energies revealed that novel leads demonstrated better binding affinities with CCR5 compared to maraviroc, an FDA-approved HIV-1 entry inhibitor and in clinical use. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis on the averaged MD structure showed that hydrophobic active residues Trp86, Tyr89 and Tyr108 contributed the most to inhibitor binding. The validated 3D-QSAR model showed a high cross-validated rcv2 value of 0.84 using three principal components and non-cross-validated r2 value of 0.941. It was also revealed that almost all compounds in the test set and training set yielded a good predicted value. Information gained from this study could shed light on the activity of a new series of lead compounds as potential HIV entry inhibitors and serve as a powerful tool in the drug design and development machinery.