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Sample records for hiv-infected malawian children

  1. Prompt initiation of ART With therapeutic food is associated with improved outcomes in HIV-infected Malawian children with malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Maria H; Cox, Carrie; Dave, Anjalee; Draper, Heather R; Kabue, Mark; Schutze, Gordon E; Ahmed, Saeed; Kazembe, Peter N; Kline, Mark W; Manary, Mark

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective observational study of 140 HIV-infected children with uncomplicated malnutrition in urban Malawi tested the hypothesis that initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 21 days of outpatient therapeutic feeding (prompt ART) improved clinical outcomes. Children receiving prompt ART were more likely to recover nutritionally (86% vs. 60%, P < 0.01) and had higher rates of weight gain (3.6 vs. 1.6 g/k/day; P = 0.02). Logistic regression modeling found prompt ART was associated with increased likelihood of nutritional recovery (odds ratio: 5.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 14.5). This suggests that prompt ART is associated with improved outcomes in HIV-infected Malawian children with uncomplicated malnutrition.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of generic and trade formulations of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in HIV-infected Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Amanda H; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Nyirenda, Jean; Kanyama, Cecelia; Rezk, Naser L; Mkupani, Pax; Sichali, Dorothy; Tien, Hsiao; Kashuba, Angela Dm; Mwansambo, Charles; Weigel, Ralf; Kazembe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T) and nevirapine (NVP) in HIV-infected Malawian children receiving quartered tablet multiples of Triomune 40 (generic tablet [GT]) compared with individual generic liquid (GL) and trade liquid (TL). This was a prospective randomized three-way crossover study. Patients (8-<12 kg, 18-<22 kg or 28-<32 kg body weight) taking Triomune 40 were recruited and randomized to receive GT twice daily (one-quarter, one-half or three-quarter tablets using Malawi treatment guidelines), GL twice daily (in the equivalent dose of GT) or TL twice daily (dosed using weight and age from US Department of Health and Human Services paediatric treatment guidelines). After 10 days of one formulation, 6-h pharmacokinetic sampling was performed, and patients were crossed over to subsequent formulations. Baseline concentration (C(0 h)), area under the curve (AUC)(0-6 h), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and time to C(max) were generated for each antiretroviral treatment. A total of 7 males and 11 females (6 in each GT dosing group) with a median (range) age of 7.2 years (1.3-13.6), weight of 19 kg (9.0-30.5) and height of 109 cm (75-132) were recruited. Combining all patients, no difference in pharmacokinetics was noted among the formulations for all drugs. However, patients in the one-quarter GT dosing group (8-<12 kg) had lower 3TC exposures than with the GL or TL (3TC AUC(0-6 h) 1,102, 1,720 and 2,060 h*ng/ml, respectively; P<0.005) and had more subtherapeutic NVP C(0 h) (10 of 13 occasions versus the one-half and three-quarter tablet groups). Compared with Western paediatric cohorts, Malawians had concentrations 30-40% lower for 3TC and d4T and 50% higher for NVP. Quartered multiples of Triomune 40 are appropriate for children 18-<22 kg and 28-<32 kg in weight; however, alternative formulations are suggested in children weighing 8-<12 kg.

  3. Seroprevalence of CMV, HSV-2 and HBV among HIV-Infected Malawian Children: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chris Buck, W.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Phiri, Sam; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Weigel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about viral co-infections in African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. We examined the prevalence of seromarkers for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: Ninety-one serum samples were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV, and IgG antibodies to HSV-2 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from electronic records. Results: CMV IgG was the most common positive result in all age groups (in 73% of children <1 year, and 100% in all other groups). Three patients were CMV IgM positive (3.3%), suggesting acute infection. HSV-2 IgG was positive in four patients (4.4%), and HBsAg in two (2.2%). Conclusions: CMV infection occurred early in life, and few children had specific signs of CMV infection at the time of ART initiation. Unrecognized HBV infection represents opportunities for testing and treatment of HIV/HBV co-infected children. PMID:26884443

  4. Steady-state nevirapine, lamivudine and stavudine levels in Malawian HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy using split Triomune 30 tablets.

    PubMed

    Poerksen, Goenke; Pollock, Louisa; Moons, Peter; Chesshyre, Emily; Burger, David; Khoo, Saye; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Children remain under-represented in national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in settings with limited resources and high HIV prevalence. In Malawi, an increasing number of HIV-infected children have been started on ART with split tablets of an adult fixed-dose combination drug in the past few years. In 2006, the national paediatric ART regime was changed from Triomune 40 (T40) to Triomune 30 (T30). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the paediatric ART clinic in Blantyre (Malawi) from September 2006 to July 2007. Children taking T30 for > 6 weeks from each dosing weight band (<5, 5-<8, 8-<12, 12-<14, 14-<19, 19-<26, 26-<30 and > or = 30 kg) were recruited. Plasma drug concentration, CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load were measured. A total of 74 children were analysed. The median nevirapine (NVP) concentration was 7.35 mg/l. A therapeutic NVP plasma level > 3 mg/l was found in 62 (87.8%) children. A subtherapeutic NVP level (< 3 mg/l) occurred significantly more often in children treated with T30 doses between one-quarter tablet once daily and one-half tablet twice daily (P=0.035). Median prescribed NVP dose was 342 mg/m(2)/day, but 13 (17.6%) children received a dose below the recommended dose of 300 mg/m(2)/day. Compared with a historical control, the median prescribed NVP dose was increased (from 243 to 342 mg/m(2)/day). Our findings indicate that with the Malawian T30-based ART regime, the majority (87.8%) of children in the study group achieved a therapeutic NVP level. However, treatment remains suboptimal especially for young children receiving T30 dosages less than or equal to one-half tablets twice daily and child appropriate formulations are warranted.

  5. HIV infection in children.

    PubMed

    Canosa, C A

    1991-01-01

    Various studies have reported rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child of 13-40%. Vertical transmission occurs in utero, during delivery, or, in a small number of cases, through breast milk. Whether mothers at various stages of HIV infection experience different rates of transmission remains unknown. Maternal antibodies cross the placenta and are present from birth up to 18 months of age. The offspring of HIV-positive mothers tend to be low birthweight, under 37 weeks' gestation, and at high risk of perinatal mortality. It is likely, however, that this profile is indicative of the low socioeconomic status of most women with HIV rather than a result of infection. Also emerging is a psychosocial profile of the HIV child. These children are isolated, neglected, battered, frequently abandoned, and exhibit various degrees of mental retardation. Also common are delayed psychomotor development, loss of developmental milestones, limited attention span, poor language development, and abnormal reflexes. These features result from the interaction of low socioeconomic status, a lack of psychosocial stimulation, nutritional deficiencies, and central nervous system infections. Since HIV-infected children tend to be the offspring of drug addicts, bisexuals, and prostitutes, they are not awarded the same compassion as children afflicted with other terminal illnesses. Moreover, these children are generally neglected by groups formed to provide support to AIDS patients. Thus, it is up to the general public, the mass media, and the health care system to advocate for the needs of these neglected children.

  6. Respiratory Virus-Associated Severe Acute Respiratory Illness and Viral Clustering in Malawian Children in a Setting With a High Prevalence of HIV Infection, Malaria, and Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ingrid; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kennedy, Neil; Ho, Antonia; Newberry, Laura; SanJoaquin, Miguel A; Menyere, Mavis; Alaerts, Maaike; Mapurisa, Gugulethu; Chilombe, Moses; Mambule, Ivan; Lalloo, David G; Anderson, Suzanne T; Katangwe, Thembi; Cunliffe, Nigel; Nagelkerke, Nico; McMorrow, Meredith; Widdowson, Marc-Allain; French, Neil; Everett, Dean; Heyderman, Robert S

    2016-12-01

     We used data from 4 years of pediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi, to identify factors associated with clinical severity and coviral clustering.  From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to the hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with viral codetection.  Hospital-attended influenza virus-positive SARI incidence was 2.0 cases per 10 000 children annually; it was highest among children aged <1 year (6.3 cases per 10 000), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children aged 5-9 years (6.0 cases per 10 000). A total of 605 SARI cases (26.8%) had warning signs, which were positively associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9), respiratory syncytial virus infection (aRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and rainy season (aRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8). We identified 6 coviral clusters; 1 cluster was associated with SARI with warning signs.  Influenza vaccination may benefit young children and HIV-infected children in this setting. Viral clustering may be associated with SARI severity; its assessment should be included in routine SARI surveillance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Respiratory Virus–Associated Severe Acute Respiratory Illness and Viral Clustering in Malawian Children in a Setting With a High Prevalence of HIV Infection, Malaria, and Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ingrid; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kennedy, Neil; Ho, Antonia; Newberry, Laura; SanJoaquin, Miguel A.; Menyere, Mavis; Alaerts, Maaike; Mapurisa, Gugulethu; Chilombe, Moses; Mambule, Ivan; Lalloo, David G.; Anderson, Suzanne T.; Katangwe, Thembi; Cunliffe, Nigel; Nagelkerke, Nico; McMorrow, Meredith; Widdowson, Marc-Allain; French, Neil; Everett, Dean; Heyderman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We used data from 4 years of pediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi, to identify factors associated with clinical severity and coviral clustering. Methods From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to the hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with viral codetection. Results Hospital-attended influenza virus–positive SARI incidence was 2.0 cases per 10 000 children annually; it was highest among children aged <1 year (6.3 cases per 10 000), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children aged 5–9 years (6.0 cases per 10 000). A total of 605 SARI cases (26.8%) had warning signs, which were positively associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–3.9), respiratory syncytial virus infection (aRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3–3.0) and rainy season (aRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.8). We identified 6 coviral clusters; 1 cluster was associated with SARI with warning signs. Conclusions Influenza vaccination may benefit young children and HIV-infected children in this setting. Viral clustering may be associated with SARI severity; its assessment should be included in routine SARI surveillance. PMID:27630199

  8. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8(+) T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4(+) and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cognitive Deficits in HIV Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, O. S.; Rani, Mrudula P.; Priya, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Children infected with HIV are at risk for significant neurological and neuropsychological problems. This study is aimed at identifying cognitive deficits in HIV-infected children and to compare them with equal number of normal controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty children with HIV infection who are currently on antiretroviral therapy were recruited. They were assessed for their intelligence using Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and also evaluated for their cognitive abilities with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were matched with equal number of normal controls. Results: HIV-infected children have shown substantial impairments in the domains of attention, language, verbal learning and memory, visuomotor functions, fine motor performance, and executive functions. Conclusion: HIV-infected children have average intelligence, but they performed poorly on several neuropsychological measures. PMID:25035547

  10. Patterns of body composition among HIV-infected, pregnant Malawians and the effects of famine season.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Tohill, Beth C; Kayira, Dumbani; King, Caroline C; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret E; Adair, Linda S

    2013-02-01

    We describe change in weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) in 1130 pregnant HIV-infected women with CD4 counts > 200 as part of the BAN Study ( www.thebanstudy.org ), a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breast feeding. In a longitudinal analysis, we found a linear increase in weight with a mean rate of weight gain of 0.27 kgs/week, from baseline (12 to 30 weeks gestation) until the last follow-up visit (32-38 weeks). Analysis of weight gain showed that 17.1% of the intervals between visits resulted in a weight loss. In unadjusted models, MUAC and AMA increased and AFA declined during late pregnancy. Based on multivariable regression analysis, exposure to the famine season resulted in larger losses in AMA [-0.08, 95% CI -0.14, -0.02; p = 0.01] while AFA losses occurred irrespective of season [-0.55, 95%: -0.95, -0.14, p = 0.01]. CD4 was associated with AFA [0.21, 95% CI 0.01, 0.41, p = .04]. Age was positively associated with MUAC and AMA. Wealth was positively associated with MUAC, AFA, and weight. While patterns of anthropometric measures among HIV-infected, pregnant women were found to be similar to those reported for uninfected women in sub-Saharan Africa, effects of the famine season among undernourished, Malawian women are of concern. Strategies to optimize nutrition during pregnancy for these women appear warranted.

  11. The Effect of Peers on HIV Infection Expectations among Malawian Adolescents: Using an Instrumental Variables/School Fixed Effect Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Malawian adolescents overestimate their HIV infection risk. Understanding why they do so is important since such overestimation is likely to be linked to later-life outcomes. This study focuses on the influence peers have on HIV infection expectations. I use novel school-based survey data collected in Malawi between October 2011 and March 2012 (n = 7,910), which has more reliable measures of peers’ HIV infection expectations than other studies. I employ a combined instrumental variables/fixed effects methodology designed to addresses several methodological challenges in estimating peer effects, including self-selection of friends, the issue of unobserved environmental confounders, and the bi-directionality of peer effects. Several tests are conducted in order to assess the robustness of the specifications. Results suggest that a one-percentage-point increase in the mean probabilistic expectation of HIV infection among peers increases an adolescent’s own subjective expectation of infection by an average of 0.65 percentage points. This paper shows that peer influence is greater for males than for females. Results also suggest that the peer effects on HIV infection expectations are only statistically significant among those lacking more complete knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:26840771

  12. Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection in children.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nikmah S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burgner, David; Cheung, Michael M H; Kurniati, Nia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2015-11-01

    HIV infection in children is now considered as a chronic condition, in which various non-infectious complications may occur, including those affecting the developing cardiovascular system. As children are expected to survive well into adulthood, understanding childhood as well as potential future cardiovascular complications is of major importance. We reviewed published literature on childhood cardiac manifestations and longer term effects of pediatric HIV infection on the cardiovascular system. Evidence gaps that should be prioritized in research are highlighted. Through poorly understood mechanisms, HIV infection may cause various cardiac complications already manifesting in childhood, such as structural and functional myocardial derangements, pulmonary hypertension, pericardial effusion and possibly endocarditis. Evidence indicates that HIV infection in children also has unfavorable effects on the vasculature and cardiovascular biomarkers, such as increased intima-media thickness and decreased flow-mediated dilation, a marker of endothelial function. However, studies are small and predominantly include antiretroviral therapy-treated children, so that it is difficult to differentiate between effects of HIV infection per se and antiretroviral therapy treatment, reported in adults to have cardiovascular side effects. HIV infection in children may greatly impact the cardiovascular system, including effects on the heart, which tend to manifest early in childhood, and on the vasculature. The underlying mechanisms, essential for targeted prevention, are poorly understood. Current evidence largely stems from research in adults. However, as modes of infection, immune maturity, growth and development, and treatment are markedly different in children, specific pediatric research, accounting for the complex interplay of normal growth and development, HIV infection and treatment, is clearly warranted. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions

  13. Cardiac manifestations in HIV infected children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pradeep; Hemal, Alok; Agarwal, Sheetal; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-03-01

    To determine the occurrence of cardiac involvement in HIV infected children and describe its spectrum using non-invasive tests like ECG and 2-Dimensional Echocardiography (2-D ECHO). A cross sectional observational study was carried out on 100 HIV infected children between 1 and 18 y of age. The various cardiac manifestations were determined clinically, by electrocardiogram (ECG) and 2-D echocardiography. Seventy four percent of the patients were males with a mean age of 9.62 ± 3.62 y. Seventy seven percent children were in WHO stage I. Sixty five percent did not have significant immune suppression. Eighty six percent children were on HAART (mean duration- 35.12 ± 29.48 mo). Fifty nine percent of children were symptomatic and only nine patients were clinically suspected to have cardiac involvement. ECG abnormalities were found in 14 % cases. The most common abnormal echocardiographic finding was left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler (E/E') observed in 64 % cases followed by systolic dysfunction (37 %), abnormal left ventricular mass (29 %), pericardial effusion (2 %) and dilated cardiomyopathy (2 %); 64.2 % cases with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) were in WHO stage III. Involvement of heart in HIV/AIDS is mostly subclinical. HIV myocarditis produces systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction. At present, echocardiography remains the only tool for identifying heart involvement in HIV-infected children. Early diagnosis and intervention may halt the progression of the disease, thereby preventing morbidity and mortality.

  14. Rotavirus antigen, cytokine, and neutralising antibody profiles in sera of children with and without HIV infection in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jennifer J; Cunliffe, Nigel; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Moon, Sung-Sil; Wang, Yuhuan; Parashar, Umesh; Jiang, Baoming

    2017-03-01

    Rotavirus and HIV infection are major causes of death among children in sub-Saharan Africa. A previous study reported no association between concomitant HIV infection and rotavirus disease severity among hospitalised children in Malawi. This study examined rotavirus antigenaemia and broader immune responses among HIV-infected and uninfected children. Stored (-80°C), paired sera from acute and convalescent phases of Malawian children less than 5 years old, hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in the primary study, collected from July 1997 to June 1999, were utilised. Among children older than 15 months, HIV infection was defined as the presence of HIV antibody in the blood, when confirmed by at least 2 established methods. For those younger than 15 months, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of proviral DNA was used for verification. All were followed for up to 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Rotavirus antigen levels in sera were measured with Premier™ Rotaclone® rotavirus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Acute-phase sera were examined for 17 cytokines, using Luminex fluorescent bead human cytokine immunoassay kit. Rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralising activity were determined by EIA and microneutralisation (MN) assay, respectively. Human strains and bovine-human reassortants were propagated in MA104 cells with serum-free Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM). Differences in results, from specimens with and without HIV infection, were analysed for statistical significance using the chi-square test. We detected rotavirus antigen in 30% of the HIV-infected and 21% HIV-uninfected, in the acute-phase sera. HIV-infected children developed slightly prolonged rotavirus antigenaemia compared to HIV-uninfected children. Rotavirus-specific IgA seroconversion rates and neutralising titres were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, thus, HIV infection had no major effect on immune responses to rotavirus infection.

  15. A review of renal disease in children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ankur Kumar; Tiewsoh, Karalanglin; Pilania, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-09-08

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected individuals are now surviving for a relatively longer period and this is because of easy accessibility to antiretroviral therapy these days. As a result, chronic disease-related complications are now being recognized more often. Kidney disease in HIV-infected children can vary from glomerular to tubular-interstitial involvement. We searched the database to identify various kidney diseases seen in HIV-infected children. We describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, management and outcome of commonly seen kidney disease in HIV-infected children. We also provide a brief overview of toxicity of antiretroviral drugs seen in HIV-infected children. Kidney involvement in HIV-infected children may arise because of HIV infection per se, opportunistic infections, immune mediated injury and drug toxicity. HIV-associated nephropathy is perhaps the most common and most severe form of kidney disease. Proteinuria may be a cost-effective screening test in the long-term management of HIV-infected children, however, there are no definite recommendations for the same. Other important renal diseases are HIV immune complex kidney disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

  16. [New diagnosis of HIV infection in children].

    PubMed

    Guillén, Sara; Prieto, Luis; Jiménez de Ory, Santiago; González-Granado, Ignacio; González-Tomé, María Isabel; Mellado, María José; de José, Maribel; Navarro, María Luisa; Beceiro, José; Roa, Miguel Ángel; Muñoz, María Ángeles; Tomás Ramos, José

    2012-03-01

    The number of children of immigrant origin in the last few years has increased the cohort of HIV-infected children in the Community of Madrid. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the new diagnosed children and describe the different subtypes of HIV-1. The new diagnosed children were analysed from the year 1997, divided into 3 periods: P1 (1997-2000), P2 (2001-2004), P3 (2005-2009). The regions and countries of origin, the clinical, immune and viral characteristics, as well as the response to treatment were analysed. The subtypes of HIV-1 were evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of protease genes and reverse transcriptase. We identified 141 new diagnoses of HIV infection, the percentage of immigrant origin in P1 was (22.5%), P2 (50%) and P3 (68%). The origin had changed from Latin America in P1 to sub-Saharan Africa in P3. There were no differences between Spanish and immigrant children in the age at diagnosis, the CDC clinical stage A/B/C, viral load, percentage of CD4 at diagnosis and actual. Better viral response was more likely in immigrants after the first regimen of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral treatment) independently of the treatment received. A total of 66 subtypes were obtained, 24% were subtypes non-B (56% recombinants forms). All subtypes of Spanish children (43) and Latin American (5) were subtypes B, and all the children from sub-Saharan Africa (14) were subtypes non-B. There were no differences between immigrants and Spanish children infected by HIV, except the different subtypes of HIV-1. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to maternal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Eliza H; Smith, Nathan A; Azman, Hana; McLeod, Deanna; Rutherford, George W

    2010-06-16

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a condition that similarly disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries; of the nearly 2.1 million children under age 15 years living with HIV/AIDS, the large majority reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Infants and children with HIV infection have more frequent and more severe diarrhoea than children without HIV. Interventions including vitamin A, zinc and cotrimoxazole may contribute substantially to preventing diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to HIV. We perform a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and nonrandomised studies that examine the effectiveness of vitamin A, zinc and cotrimoxazole on mortality and morbidity from diarrhoea in HIV-infected and -exposed infants and children. Electronic databases including Pubmed, Central and EMBASE were searched without limits to language from 1980 to April 2010. Conference database searches were performed, experts were contacted and bibliographies were handsearched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomised studies (NRSs) that examined the effectiveness of the three interventions were included. Two reviewers independently assessed citations for eligibility and double-extracted included studies. Assessment of bias of individual studies was performed independently by both reviewers. Only two summary estimates were performed due to heterogeneity in study design and interventions. Four RCTs were identified for vitamin A. One RCT was identified for zinc. One RCT and two NRSs were identified for cotrimoxazole. Vitamin A reduced mortality overall in children with HIV infection (four studies). A pooled estimate of three studies for reduction in mortality from vitamin A compared to placebo had a relative risk (DerSimonian and Laird method, random effects) of 0

  18. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-14

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  19. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  20. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  1. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The complete caries removal of deep/extensive dentin carious lesions with conventional procedures (high- and low-speed bur) may increase the risk of pulp exposure. In children with systemic diseases, such as HIV-infected children, the dental treatment proposed for the primary dentition with pulp involvement is tooth extraction once endodontic therapies cannot be guaranteed successfully. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe 3 cases of alternative techniques for caries removal in extensive and/or deep dentin carious lesions in the primary dentition of HIV-infected children: (1) atraumatic restorative treatment (ART); (2) Carisolv; and (3) Papacarie.

  2. Therapeutic touch with HIV-infected children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ireland, M

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study, 20 HIV-infected children, 6 to 12 years of age, were randomly assigned into therapeutic touch (TT) and mimic TT groups. The effectiveness of TT in reducing anxiety was evaluated. The self-report measure, the A-State Anxiety subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory For Children, was administered before and immediately after interventions. As predicted, the TT intervention resulted in lower overall mean anxiety scores, whereas the mimic TT did not. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of TT in reducing the state anxiety of children with HIV infection.

  3. The interaction between malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection in severely anaemic Malawian children: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kyeyune, Francis X; Calis, Job C J; Phiri, Kamija S; Faragher, Brian; Kachala, David; Brabin, Bernard J; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele

    2014-06-01

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are co-prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and cause severe anaemia in children. Interactions between these infections occur in adults, although these are less clear in children. The aim of study was to determine their interaction in a cohort of severely anaemic children. Severely anaemic Malawian children were enrolled, tested for HIV and malaria, transfused and followed for 18 months for malaria incidence. Antiretrovirals were not widely available in Malawi during the study period. Of 381 children (haemoglobin <5 g/dl), 357 consented for HIV testing, 12.6% were HIV-infected, and 59.5% had malaria parasitaemia. At enrolment, HIV-infected children had similar malaria parasitaemia prevalence (59.1% vs. 58.7%; P = 0.96) and parasite density (geometric mean [parasites/μl] 6903 vs. 12417; P = 0.18) as HIV-negative children. There were no differences in mean CD4%, or prevalence of severe immunosuppression, between those with and without malaria parasitaemia. Plasma viral load correlated negatively with log parasitaemia (r = -0.78; P = 0.01). During follow-up, HIV-infected children did not experience more frequent parasitaemias or symptomatic malaria episodes. Adjusted risk estimates (95% CI) for malaria parasitaemia in HIV-infected children at 6 and 18 months follow-up were 0.39 (0.13-1.14) and 0.40 (0.11-1.51), respectively. Severely anaemic HIV-infected children showed no increased susceptibility to asymptomatic or symptomatic malaria during or following their anaemic episode, although all experienced lower parasite prevalence during follow-up. This contrasts with data in adults and may relate to the malaria immunity of young children which is insufficiently developed to be impaired by HIV. The negative correlation between viral load and malaria parasitaemia remains unexplained. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210

  5. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Brittany E; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Jones, Cheron E; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  6. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  7. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  8. Barriers to Antiretroviral Medication Adherence in Young HIV-Infected Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine, from the perspectives of both HIV-infected children and such children's primary guardians, the barriers children face in adhering to combination antiretroviral therapies. Nine HIV-infected young children and 14 guardians of HIV-positive children were interviewed about what the children's lives…

  9. Barriers to Antiretroviral Medication Adherence in Young HIV-Infected Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine, from the perspectives of both HIV-infected children and such children's primary guardians, the barriers children face in adhering to combination antiretroviral therapies. Nine HIV-infected young children and 14 guardians of HIV-positive children were interviewed about what the children's lives…

  10. Intestinal and hepatobiliary diseases in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J D; Winter, H S

    1995-03-01

    Children with HIV disease and gastrointestinal disease should be evaluated for enteric pathogens. Bacterial, protozoal, and viral agents can cause chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and contribute to growth retardation. This article presents an approach to the evaluation of the HIV-infected child with gastrointestinal symptoms. Therapeutic and nutritional interventions are discussed with emphasis on the multidisciplinary approach required to initiate successful management.

  11. Cardiac manifestations in HIV-infected Thai children.

    PubMed

    Pongprot, Yupada; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Silvilairat, Suchaya; Sirisanthana, Virat

    2004-06-01

    Cardiac complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. There have been few reports of cardiac manifestations in HIV-infected children in developing countries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical manifestations and echocardiographic findings in Thai children with HIV infection and determine the clinical predictors of left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 infants infected with HIV perinatally who presented with cardiovascular problems at a tertiary care hospital between 1995 and 2000. The mean age at initial cardiac evaluation was 36 months (range 8-65). Signs and symptoms included dyspnoea in all cases, oedema in 12 (44%), finger clubbing in 11 (41%), cyanosis in 6 (22%) and S(3) gallop in 8 (30%). Echocardiographic abnormalities included pericardial effusion in 12 (44 %), right ventricular dilatation in 12 (44%), pulmonary hypertension in 11 (41%), diminished left ventricular fractional shortening in 10 (37%), left ventricular dilatation in 9 (33%) and combined ventricular dilatation in 2 (7%). Left ventricular dysfunction did not correlate with HIV CDC classification, age, nutritional status or clinical signs and symptoms.

  12. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  13. The evidence for using conjugate vaccines to protect HIV-infected children against pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Sandra J; O'Brien, Katherine L; Janoff, Edward N; Cotton, Mark F; Musoke, Philippa; Coovadia, Hoosen; Levine, Orin S

    2008-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are a potentially useful complement to existing treatment strategies in HIV-infected children, for whom pneumococcal infections are common and serious. This Review summarises available data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the safety and efficacy of PCVs in HIV-infected children. The data demonstrate that children with HIV have significantly increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with uninfected children; the serotypes included in currently licensed or near-licensure conjugate vaccines include most serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in HIV-infected children and adults; PCVs provide substantial protection against IPD and clinical pneumonia when given to HIV-infected infants; and HIV-infected adults gain an indirect benefit when children in the community are vaccinated. PCV should be considered as an important intervention for improving the lives of HIV-infected children.

  14. Dual Method Use among Postpartum HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Malawian Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Dawn M; Tang, Jennifer H; Stuart, Gretchen S; Miller, William C; O'Shea, Michele S; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bonongwe, Phylos; Mwale, Mwawi; Rosenberg, Nora E

    2017-01-01

    Dual method use, use of condoms plus another effective contraceptive method, is important in settings with high rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection. We evaluated the association of HIV status with dual method use in a cohort of postpartum women. Women completed baseline surveys in the postpartum ward and telephone surveys about contraceptive use 3, 6, and 12 months later. Nonpregnant women who completed at least one follow-up survey were eligible for this secondary analysis. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Of the 511 sexually active women who completed a follow-up survey, condom use increased from 17.6% to 27.7% and nonbarrier contraceptive use increased from 73.8% to 87.6% from 3 to 12 months after delivery. Dual method use increased from 1.0% to 18.9% at 3 to 12 months after delivery. Dual method use was negligible and comparable between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women at 3 months but significantly higher among HIV-infected women at 6 months (APR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.2, 7.1) and 12 months (APR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.7, 4.3). Dual method use was low but largely driven by condom use among HIV-infected women at 6 and 12 months after delivery.

  15. HSV oropharyngeal shedding among HIV-infected children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Richard; Manji, Karim; Matee, Mecky; Naburi, Helga; Bisimba, Jema; Martinez, Raquel; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Kim, Faith; von Reyn, C Fordham; Palumbo, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oral shedding has not been studied among HIV-positive children in Africa. We sought to evaluate longitudinal oral HSV reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative children. Twenty HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive and 10 HIV-negative children aged 3-12 years in Tanzania were followed prospectively for 14 days. Oral swabs were collected daily and submitted for HSV DNA PCR analysis. Clinical data were collected via chart review and daily diaries. HSV DNA was detected in 10 (50%) of HIV-positive and 4 (40%) of HIV-negative children. Children who shed HSV had virus detected in a median of 21.4% of samples; shedding was intermittent. Median CD4 count among HIV-infected children was 667 cells/µL in those with positive HSV DNA and 886 cells/µL in those who were negative (p = 0.6). Of the HIV-positive children reporting prior sores, five (83%) had positive HSV swabs, whereas the one HIV-negative child with prior sores did not have a PCR-positive swab. HSV is detected frequently in children with and without HIV. HIV-infected children reporting oral sores have a high rate of HSV detection. Given the proven strong interactions between HIV and HSV, further study of co-infection with these viruses is warranted in children.

  16. Use of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements by HIV-Infected Malawian Women during Lactation Has No Effect on Infant Growth from 0 to 24 Weeks1234

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Chasela, Charles S.; Kayira, Dumbani; Hudgens, Michael G.; Knight, Rodney J.; Soko, Alice; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Adair, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study evaluated the effect of daily consumption of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) by 2121 lactating, HIV-infected mothers on the growth of their exclusively breast-fed, HIV-uninfected infants from 0 to 24 wk. The study had a 2 × 3 factorial design. Malawian mothers with CD4+ ≥250 cells/mm3, hemoglobin ≥70 g/L, and BMI ≥17 kg/m2 were randomized within 36 h of delivery to receive either no LNS or 140 g/d of LNS to meet lactation energy and protein needs, and mother-infant pairs were assigned to maternal antiretroviral drugs (ARV), infant ARV, or no ARV. Sex-stratified, longitudinal, random effects models were used to estimate the effect of the 6 study arms on infant weight, length, and BMI. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of growth faltering [decline in weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) or length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) >0.67] using the control arm as the reference. Although some differences between study arms emerged with increasing infant age in boys, there were no consistent effects of the maternal supplement across the 3 growth outcomes in longitudinal models. At the ages where differences were observed, the effects on weight and BMI were quite small (≤200 g and ≤0.4 kg/m2) and unlikely to be of clinical importance. Overall, 21 and 34% of infants faltered in WAZ and LAZ, respectively. Maternal supplementation did not reduce the odds of infant weight or length faltering from 0 to 24 wk in any arm. These results indicate that blanket supplementation of HIV-infected lactating women may have little impact on infant growth. PMID:22649265

  17. [Incidence of cancer in Chilean HIV-infected children].

    PubMed

    Vlllarroel, Julia; Álvarez, Ana M; Chávez, Ana; Cofré, José; Galaz, M Isabel; Ledesma, Patricio; Peña, Anamaría; Vizueta, Eloisa; Wu, Elba

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric HIV (+) patients have a 100 times greater risk of cancer than HIV (-) children. To describe in Chilean HIV (+) children, cancer types, its appearance in relation to the stages of HIV disease and mortality. A protocol was created to know some characteristics of these patients from the point of view of their HIV infection and cancer pathology. Of 360 HIV (+) children confirmed by the Institute of Public Health to May 2014, 9 patients with neoplastic disease (2.5%) were diagnosed. All the children were on ART, had more than three years of evolution of HIV infection and were in moderate to severe clinical/immunological stages. Lymphoma was the most common cancer. Five children, has received therapy according to Programa Infantil Nacional de Drogas Antineoplásicas (PINDA). There was no interaction between cancer treatment and antiretroviral therapy. Mortality was 13.8 x 1000 (5 cases). The incidence and type of neoplasia is consistent with the international literature, with less survival than HIV (+) children without tumors. The occurrence of cancer was observed in children with moderate to severe clinical and immunological compromise.

  18. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: -27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: -12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: -12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (-18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. The association of HAART with lower folate, iron deficiency, and higher RBP plus the attenuation of LNS effects on

  19. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. Objective: We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. Results: We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: −27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: −12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: −12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (−18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. Conclusion: The association of HAART with lower folate, iron

  20. Protease inhibitor therapy in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Rutstein, R M; Feingold, A; Meislich, D; Word, B; Rudy, B

    1997-10-01

    To review the short-term response and safety of protease inhibitor therapy in HIV-infected children. Retrospective chart review of open-label protease inhibitor-containing combination therapy. Two urban pediatric HIV centers. Twenty-eight HIV-infected children were prescribed 30 protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy combinations. The median age at initiation of protease inhibitor antiretroviral therapy was 79 months. Patients had been on previous antiretroviral therapy for a mean of 45.5 months. Of the 28 children who completed at least 1 month of therapy, 26 experienced marked virologic and immunologic improvement (mean maximal decrease in viral load 1.90 log10 copies/ml; SD, 0.8; mean maximal rise in CD4+ lymphocytes of 279 x 10(6)/l; SD, 300 x 10(6)/l). Eleven patients achieved a viral nadir of < 400 copies/ml, and seven sustained this level of viral suppression for a mean of 6 months. Indinavir use was associated with a high incidence of renal side-effects, including two patients who developed interstitial nephritis. Two patients on ritonavir experienced a significant elevation of liver enzymes. Protease inhibitor therapy was associated with substantial short-term virologic and immunologic improvement in this primarily heavily pretreated cohort, with 25% maintaining a viral load of < 400 copies/ml after 6 months of therapy. There was a significant rate of adverse events. Pharmacokinetic and safety data are needed to guide aggressive antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children, and further treatment options are required for those failing or intolerant to the available protease inhibitors.

  1. Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Diseases in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Perazzo, Sofia; Soler-García, Ángel A.; Hathout, Yetrib; Das, Jharna R.; Ray, Patricio E.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of children infected with the HIV-1 virus all over the world are at risk of developing renal diseases that could have a significant impact on their treatment and quality of life. It is necessary to identify children undergoing the early stages of these renal diseases, as well as the potential renal toxicity that could be caused by antiretroviral drugs, in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications and chronic renal failure. This article describes the most common renal diseases seen in HIV-infected children, as well as the value and limitations of the clinical markers that are currently being used to monitor their renal function and histological damage in a non-invasive manner. In addition, we discuss the progress made during the last 10 years in the discovery and validation of new renal biomarkers for HIV-infected children and young adults. Although significant progress has been made during the early phases of the biomarkers discovery, more work remains to be done to validate the new biomarkers in a large number of patients. The future looks promising, however, the new knowledge needs to be integrated and validated in the context of the clinical environment where these children are living. PMID:25764519

  2. Urinary biomarkers of kidney diseases in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Perazzo, Sofia; Soler-García, Ángel A; Hathout, Yetrib; Das, Jharna R; Ray, Patricio E

    2015-06-01

    A significant number of children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virus all over the world are at risk of developing renal diseases that could have a significant impact on their treatment and quality of life. It is necessary to identify children undergoing the early stages of these renal diseases, as well as the potential renal toxicity that could be caused by antiretroviral drugs, in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications and chronic renal failure. This article describes the most common renal diseases seen in HIV-infected children, as well as the value and limitations of the clinical markers that are currently being used to monitor their renal function and histological damage in a noninvasive manner. In addition, we discuss the progress made during the last 10 years in the discovery and validation of new renal biomarkers for HIV-infected children and young adults. Although significant progress has been made during the early phases of the biomarkers discovery, more work remains to be done to validate the new biomarkers in a large number of patients. The future looks promising, however, the new knowledge needs to be integrated and validated in the context of the clinical environment where these children are living.

  3. Developmental Services for Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Allen C.

    1989-01-01

    The special developmental needs of young children with congenital HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection require evaluation, training, therapy, and other supports. Such services should be guided by developmentalists in a child study center in close alliance with medical, educational, and community service providers. Concerns about the…

  4. Severe anaemia is not associated with HIV-1 env gene characteristics in Malawian children

    PubMed Central

    Calis, Job CJ; Rotteveel, Hellen P; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Kachala, David; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele; Cornelissen, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Background Anaemia is the most common haematological complication of HIV and associated with a high morbidity and a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated anaemia is poorly understood and may include a direct effect of HIV on erythropoiesis. In vitro studies have suggested that specific HIV strains, like X4 that uses the CXCR4 co-receptor present on erythroid precursors, are associated with diminished erythropoiesis. This co-receptor affinity is determined by changes in the hypervariable loop of the HIV-1 envelope genome. In a previous case-control study we observed an association between HIV and severe anaemia in Malawian children that could not be fully explained by secondary infections and micronutrient deficiencies alone. We therefore explored the possibility that alterations in the V1-V2-V3 fragment of HIV-1 were associated with severe anaemia. Methods Using peripheral blood nucleic acid isolates of HIV-infected children identified in the previous studied we assessed if variability of the V1-V2-V3 region of HIV and the occurrence of X4 strains were more common in HIV-infected children with (cases, n = 29) and without severe anaemia (controls, n = 30). For 15 cases bone marrow isolates were available to compare against peripheral blood. All children were followed for 18 months after recruitment. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that HIV-1 subtype C was present in all but one child. All V1-V2-V3 characteristics tested: V3 charge, V1-V2 length and potential glycosylation sites, were not found to be different between cases and controls. Using a computer model (C-PSSM) four children (7.8%) were identified to have an X4 strain. This prevalence was not different between study groups (p = 1.00). The V3 loop characteristics for bone marrow and peripheral blood isolates in the case group were identical. None of the children identified as having an X4 strain developed a (new) episode of severe anaemia during follow up. Conclusion The prevalence of X4

  5. HIV-Infected African Parents Living in Stockholm, Sweden: Disclosure and Planning for Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…

  6. HIV-Infected African Parents Living in Stockholm, Sweden: Disclosure and Planning for Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…

  7. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; McHenry, Megan S; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2015-01-01

    As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological challenges, including higher rates of mental health and behavioural

  8. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; McHenry, Megan S; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological challenges, including

  9. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South African children.

    PubMed

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; MacIntyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2011-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritional status of HIV-infected children with that of uninfected children. A cross-sectional study was performed on children (2-24 months) admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia to the university hospital. Children were tested for HIV, and the duration of hospitalization was noted for 189 children. Follow-up for blood analysis (n=154) and appetite measurement (n=48) was performed 4-8 weeks after discharge. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial infant cereal using highly standardized procedures. Hospitalization (in days) was significantly longer in HIV-infected children; among children admitted with diarrhoea (5.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.8 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation) and with pneumonia (9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 5.9 ± 1.9). Serum zinc, iron and transferrin concentrations, and haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected children compared with uninfected children. Appetites [amounts eaten (g) per kg body weight] of HIV-infected children were significantly poorer than those of HIV-uninfected children (18.6 ± 5.8 vs. 25.2 ± 7.4). The eating rates (g min(-1) ) of HIV-infected children were also slower (17.6 ± 6.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.7) Mean Z-scores for length-for-age were significantly lower among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Weight-for-length Z-scores were not significantly different. In summary, HIV-infected children had a 55% longer duration of hospitalization and a 21% lower appetite.

  10. Liver pathology in Malawian children with fatal encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Richard; Milner, Danny A.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kamiza, Steve; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical presentation of Plasmodium falciparum is parasitemia complicated by an encephalopathy for which other explanations cannot be found, termed cerebral malaria—an important cause of death in young children in endemic areas. Our objective was to study hepatic histopathology in Malawian children with fatal encephalopathy, with and without P falciparum parasitaemia, in order to assess the contributions of severe malaria. We report autopsy results from a series of 87 Malawian children who died between 1996 and 2008. Among 75 cases with P falciparum parasitaemia, 51 had intracerebral sequestered parasites, while 24 without sequestered parasites had other causes of death revealed by autopsy including 4 patients with clinicopathological findings which may represent Reye’s Syndrome. Hepatic histology in parasitaemic cases revealed very limited sequestration of parasites in hepatic sinusoids, even in cases with extensive sequestration elsewhere, but increased numbers of hemozoin-laden Kupffer cells were invariably present with a strong association with histological evidence of cerebral malaria by quantitative analysis. Of 12 patients who were consistently aparasitaemic during their fatal illness, 5 had clinicopathological findings which may represent Reye’s Syndrome. Hepatic sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes is not a feature of fatal malaria in Malawian children, and there is no structural damage in the liver. Reye’s syndrome may be an important cause of fatal encephalopathy in children in Malawi with and without peripheral parasitemia and warrants close scrutiny of aspirin use in malaria endemic areas. PMID:21396681

  11. Neurodevelopmental Exam Recommendations for Children With HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kathryn; Dipman, Madison; Nelson, Erin; Allen, Megan; Clarke-Steffen, Laura; Edmonds, Amy; Aurora, Kiran; Piatt, Janice

    Multiple and complex health, social, and environmental factors threaten the school success of children living with HIV. Little is known about interventions to overcome these threats to school success. We aimed to identify the number and types of recommendations from hospital-generated neurodevelopmental exams and school-generated evaluations, Individual Education Plans (IEP), and 504 Plans for adaptations in the classroom for students with HIV infection. We also compared recommendations suggested by both neurodevelopmental exams and IEPs or 504 Plans. Data were derived from the clinic records of 31 school-age children. Content analysis yielded 358 recommendations in 11 categories. Findings highlighted a lack of communication between the clinic and schools. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Guidelines for the management of patients with HIV infection. II. Pregnant women and children. Liege Working Group on HIV Infection].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, V; Nkoghe, D; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F

    2000-05-01

    The management of the HIV infected child is nearly identical to the adult. Nevertheless, there are many clinical, immunological and virological details. Difficulties evoked for the adult have an even bigger importance, in view of the foreseeable longevity of these children under treatment. The reduction of the mother to child transmission, thanks to the AZT-caesarean association, must be continued. The use of anti-retroviral drugs during pregnancy requires a sustained attention because of the potential risks and benefits for the foetus and mother. The long-term impact of these drugs, in children exposed during pregnancy, remains unknown. The follow-up of these children therefore remains important.

  13. Directly Observed Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Infected Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Patricia; Pugatch, David; Brady, Mark F.; Many, Phok; Harwell, Joseph I.; Lurie, Mark; Tucker, John

    2007-01-01

    Antiretroviral medications are becoming available for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Maryknoll, an international Catholic charity, provided directly observed antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Child care workers administered generic antiretroviral drugs twice daily to children, ensuring adherence. Treatment began with 117 late-stage HIV-infected children; 22 died of AIDS during the first 6 months. The rest were treated for at least 6 months and showed CD4 count increases comparable to those achieved in US and European children. Staffing cost for this program was approximately US $5 per child per month, or 15% more than the price of the medications. Drug toxicities were uncommon and easily managed. Directly observed antiretroviral therapy appears to be a promising, low-cost strategy for ensuring adherent treatment for HIV-infected children in a resource-limited setting. PMID:17463375

  14. Enteric pathogens associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Soriano, A G; Saavedra, J M; Wu, T C; Livingston, R A; Henderson, R A; Perman, J A; Yolken, R H

    1996-04-01

    Infants and young children with HIV infection commonly suffer from gastrointestinal manifestations of their disease. Many HIV infected children have evidence of persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption, malnutrition or growth failure. The aetiology and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal dysfunction in HIV infected children have not been well defined. We performed immunocytochemical analyses on intestinal tissue from 19 HIV-infected children with gastrointestinal dysfunction or growth failure. None of these 19 children had microbial pathogens identified in faecal samples using standard microbiological methods. Intestinal tissues were obtained from the children by biopsy and were examined for antigens from Pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) using the avidin-biotin-complex immunohistochemical technique and monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. We detected at least one of these pathogens in samples from eight (42%) of 19 HIV infected children. P. carinii was the most prevalent pathogen, found in five of the eight HIV infected children. All of the children with intestinal pneumocystis infection were receiving prophylaxis directed at the prevention of pulmonary disease with this organism and none of them were undergoing active pulmonary infection. We also identified CMV antigens in intestinal tissues from four children and HSV antigens in intestinal tissues from one child. Two children were infected with more than one pathogen. On the other hand, none of these pathogens were found in the tissues obtained from 10 HIV-uninfected patients who had intestinal tissues obtained for chronic non-infectious diarrheal and inflammatory diseases (P < 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Our findings indicate that some children with HIV infection and gastrointestinal dysfunction may be infected with opportunistic pathogens despite negative analyses employing standard microbiological methods. Our study also indicates that HIV infected children can undergo

  15. Human papillomavirus infections in nonsexually active perinatally HIV infected children.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei

    2014-02-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (p<0.001). Of the 23 PHIV+ girls, 30.4% had anogenital and 17% had oral HPV, and of the 27 HEU girls, 2 (7.4%) anogenital and 0 had oral HPV. Of the boys, 4/23 (17.4%) and 1/25 (4%) PHIV+ had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively, and 3/24 (12.5%) and 1/25 (4%) HEU had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively. Rates of HPV did not differ by age among the PHIV+, whereas older HEU were more likely to have HPV than younger HEU (p=0.07). This large age gap precluded statistical comparison by HIV status. The presence of HPV in NSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy.

  16. Effects of HIV Infection on the Metabolic and Hormonal Status of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Christoph P.; Kiyimba, Tonny; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; St. Peter, John V.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Bartlett, John; Freemark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection occurs in 30% of children with severe acute malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Effects of HIV on the pathophysiology and recovery from malnutrition are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 75 severely malnourished Ugandan children. HIV status/CD4 counts were assessed at baseline; auxologic data and blood samples were obtained at admission and after 14 days of inpatient treatment. We utilized metabolomic profiling to characterize effects of HIV infection on metabolic status and subsequent responses to nutritional therapy. Findings At admission, patients (mean age 16.3 mo) had growth failure (mean W/H z-score −4.27 in non-edematous patients) that improved with formula feeding (mean increase 1.00). 24% (18/75) were HIV-infected. Nine children died within the first 14 days of hospitalization; mortality was higher for HIV-infected patients (33% v. 5%, OR = 8.83). HIV-infected and HIV-negative children presented with elevated NEFA, ketones, and even-numbered acylcarnitines and reductions in albumin and amino acids. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and IGF-1 levels were low while growth hormone, cortisol, and ghrelin levels were high. At baseline, HIV-infected patients had higher triglycerides, ketones, and even-chain acylcarnitines and lower leptin and adiponectin levels than HIV-negative patients. Leptin levels rose in all patients following nutritional intervention, but adiponectin levels remained depressed in HIV-infected children. Baseline hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest a critical interplay between HIV infection and adipose tissue storage and function in the adaptation to malnutrition. Hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia may contribute to high mortality rates among malnourished, HIV-infected children. PMID:25050734

  17. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mandala, Wilson L.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Gilchrist, James J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E.; Molyneux, Elizabeth E.; Drayson, Mark T.; Ward, Steven A.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69+ NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4+ lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. PMID:26581890

  18. Increased risk of asthma and atopic dermatitis in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Leister, Erin; Jacobson, Denise; Foster, Samuel B.; Seage, George R.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Paul, Mary E.; Purswani, Murli; Colin, Andrew A.; Scott, Gwendolyn; Shearer, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated in HIV-infected (n=451) compared to HIV-exposed (n=227) but uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents by abstraction from clinical charts. Asthma was more common in HIV-infected compared to HEU children by clinical diagnosis (25% vs. 20%, p = 0.101), by asthma medication use, (31% vs. 22%, p = 0.012), and by clinical diagnosis or both medication use, (34% vs. 25%, p = 0.012). HIV-infected children had a greater risk of asthma compared to HEU children (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.86). AD was more common in HIV-infected than HEU children (20% vs. 12%, p = 0.009)) and children with AD were more likely to have asthma in both cohorts (41% vs. 29%, p = 0.010). HIV-infected children and adolescents in this study had a 30% increased incidence of asthma and AD, a finding critical for millions of HIV-infected children worldwide. PMID:22094294

  19. HIV Infection Is Associated with Decreased Dietary Diversity in South African Children1,2

    PubMed Central

    Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Broeck, Jan Van den; Chhagan, Meera; Luabeya, Kany Kany Angelique; Johnson, Ayesha; Bennish, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about dietary diversity of children residing in areas of high HIV prevalence. This study examined dietary diversity in 381 children ages 6−24 mo in rural South Africa. Twenty-eight (7.3%) children and 170 mothers (44.6%) were HIV infected. Home visits were conducted weekly and a detailed history of dietary intake obtained. A dietary diversity score was computed based on the weekly consumption of 8 food classes. Low dietary diversity was defined as falling within the lowest quartile of the diversity scale. There were 22,772 child weeks of observation: 1369 for HIV-infected children, 8876 for HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 12,527 for HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers. Low dietary diversity was more common in HIV-infected children [crude odds ratio (OR), 2.59; 95% CI, 1.52 to 4.41) compared with children born to HIV-uninfected mothers. In a multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic and health status, HIV-infected children had lower dietary diversity (conditional OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.94) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children consumed less in 6 of 8 food classes compared with HIV-uninfected children, with the 2 exceptions being breast milk and formula milk. In rural South Africa, HIV-infected children's diets are significantly less diverse than those of HIV-uninfected children. This may be a factor contributing to increased morbidity and poorer survival in these children. PMID:18716173

  20. Short Communication: Kidney Dysfunction Among HIV-Infected Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Robert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Hugo; de Abreu, Thalita F.; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Krauss, Margot R.; Hazra, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Renal toxicity is a concern in HIV-infected children receiving antiretrovirals. However, the prevalence [1.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–2.6%] and incidence of kidney dysfunction (0.17 cases/100 person-years; 95% CI: 0.04–0.30) were rare in this multicenter cohort study of 1,032 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American and Caribbean children followed from 2002 to 2011. PMID:24866283

  1. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-04-01

    Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Overall, mean (± SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine effects of more readily incorporated forms of

  2. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  3. Moving forward with treatment options for HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Beghin, Jean-Christophe; Yombi, Jean Cyr; Ruelle, Jean; Van der Linden, Dimitri

    2017-09-07

    Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life. Expert opinion: International guidelines recommend to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as fast as possible in all children diagnosed with HIV-1. The principal goal is to improve survival and reduce mortality as well as rapidly decrease HIV reservoirs. This remains a challenge in resource-limited settings were diagnostic tools and treatment access may be limited. Different new strategies are in the pipeline such as immunotherapy in combination with very early cART initiation to seek remission or functional cure. For the time being and awaiting for long term remission or cure, there is a need for further pharmacokinetics studies, more pediatric formulations with improved palatability and implementation of randomized trials for the newer antiretroviral drugs.

  4. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin levels and associated factors amongst HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Allen, U D; King, S M; Gomez, M P; Lapointe, N; Forbes, J C; Thorne, A; Kirby, M A; Bowker, J; Raboud, J; Singer, J; Mukwaya, G; Tobin, J; Read, S E

    1998-10-01

    To determine the spectrum of serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) levels amongst HIV-infected children aged < 13 years in relation to the levels among healthy children as well as those with renal failure; to examine the relationship between clinical and laboratory parameters and SIE levels. A cross-sectional study with a descriptive non-interventional format. HIV-infected Canadian subjects were recruited through four tertiary Canadian and one Bahamian centre. Children with renal failure and healthy children were recruited from one of the Canadian centres. Study subjects had clinical and laboratory profiles determined at baseline and at each of five follow-up periods over 1 year. SIE levels were measured by radioimmunoassay with a normal range of 12-28 IU/I. Data handling and statistical functions were performed by the Canadian HIV Trials Network. The study enrolled 133 HIV-infected subjects and 38 controls. Of these, 117 HIV-infected subjects, 24 healthy controls, and 11 controls with renal failure were eligible for analysis. The median age of infected subjects was 44 months, whereas that of healthy controls was 56 months, and 95 months for controls with renal failure. The median SIE levels were 14 and 11 IU/I for subjects with renal failure and healthy subjects, respectively. The median SIE level was 61 IU/I among zidovudine (ZDV)-treated subjects and 22 IU/I among ZDV-naive HIV-infected subjects. HIV-infected children almost invariably had SIE levels < 200 IU/I. The median SIE levels amongst HIV-infected subjects whose hemoglobin levels were < 100 g/l were 98 and 31 IU/I for ZDV-treated and ZDV-naive subjects, respectively (P = 0.002). This difference in median SIE levels between ZDV-treated subjects and ZDV-naive subjects was also observed among subjects whose hemoglobin levels were > 100 g/l (median, 58 and 15 IU/l, respectively; P < 0.001). Hemoglobin level was the most important predictor of log10 SIE (P < 0.01 for ZDV-treated and ZDV-naive subjects

  5. Lower prevalence of Entamoeba species in children with vertically transmitted HIV infection in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Matey, Elizabeth Jemaiyo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Saina, Matilda Chelimo; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Okumu, Paul; Langat, Benard Kibet; Sang, Willie Kipkemboi; Songok, Elijah Maritim; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-03-13

    A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Entamoeba species was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. The prevalence of E. histolytica was low (0.4%). Entamoeba species infection was inversely related with HIV infection [HIV(+): 29.3% vs. 55.0%, P < 0.001]: multiple-species infection was related to higher CD4 T-cell counts. Thus, HIV infection is not a risk factor for amebic infection, and multiple-species infection can be an indicator of better immune status.

  6. Neurodevelopmental trajectory of HIV-infected children accessing care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Van Rie, Annelies; Dow, Anna; Mupuala, Aimee; Stewart, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of HIV care (including HAART if eligible) on neurodevelopment. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Motor and mental development of 35 HIV-infected children (age 18-71 months) was assessed at entry into care, and after 6 and 12 months using age-appropriate tools. Developmental trajectory was compared to 35 HIV-uninfected, affected and 90 control children using linear mixed effects models. Effects of age (≤ or >29 months) and timing of entry into care (before or after HAART eligibility) were explored in secondary analyses. Results At baseline, HIV-infected children had the lowest, control children the highest, and HIV-uninfected affected children intermediate mean developmental scores. After one year of care, HIV-infected children achieved mean motor and cognitive scores that were similar to HIV uninfected, affected children although lower compared to control children. Overall, HIV-infected children experienced accelerated motor development but similar gains in cognitive development compared to control children. Exploratory analyses suggest that younger children and those presenting early may experience accelerated greater gains in development. Conclusions HIV-infected children accessing care experience improved motor development, and may, if care is initiated at a young age or an early stage of the disease, also experience gains in cognitive development. PMID:19730268

  7. Children of HIV-infected parents: custody status in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Cowgill, Burton O; Beckett, Megan K; Corona, Rosalie; Elliott, Marc N; Zhou, Annie J; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the rates and predictors of custody status for children of HIV-infected parents. Data came from interviews of 538 parents with 1017 children (0-17 years old) from a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving health care in the United States. Outcomes were collected at 2 survey waves and included child custody status and who, other than the HIV-infected parent, had custody of the child. Child custody status was categorized as (1) in custody of HIV-infected parent at both survey waves, (2) infected parent had custody at first survey wave but not second survey wave, (3) not in custody of infected parent at either survey wave, and (4) infected parent gained custody between survey waves. Potential custodians included (1) other biological parent, (2) state, foster, or adoptive parent, (3) grandparent, and (4) relative, friend, nonbiological parent, or other. Multinomial logistic regression modeled both outcomes. Forty-seven percent of the children were in the custody of their HIV-infected parent at both survey waves, 4% were in the parent's custody at the first but not second survey wave, 42% were not in custody at either survey wave, and the parent of 7% gained custody between survey waves. Parents cited drug use (62%) and financial hardship (27%) as reasons for losing custody. Children of HIV-infected fathers, older parents, parents living without other adults, parents with low CD4 counts, drug-using parents, and parents with > or = 1 hospital stay were less likely to be in their parent's custody at either survey wave. More than half of the children were not in custody of their HIV-infected parent at some time during the study period. Pediatricians and others taking care of children with HIV-infected parents may be able to offer counseling or referrals to assist parents with child custody issues.

  8. Beyond early infant diagnosis: case finding strategies for identification of HIV-infected infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Kim, Maria H.; Sugandhi, Nandita; Phelps, B. Ryan; Sabelli, Rachael; Diallo, Mamadou O.; Young, Paul; Duncan, Dana; Kellerman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    There are 3.4 million children infected with HIV worldwide, with up to 2.6 million eligible for treatment under current guidelines. However, roughly 70% of infected children are not receiving live-saving HIV care and treatment. Strengthening case finding through improved diagnosis strategies, and actively linking identified HIV-infected children to care and treatment is essential to ensuring that these children benefit from the care and treatment available to them. Without attention or advocacy, the majority of these children will remain undiagnosed and die from complications of HIV. In this article, we summarize the challenges of identifying HIV-infected infants and children, review currently available evidence and guidance, describe promising new strategies for case finding, and make recommendations for future research and interventions to improve identification of HIV-infected infants and children. PMID:24361633

  9. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  10. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  11. Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sharon L; Brummel, Sean S; Smith, Renee A; Garvie, Patricia A; Hunter, Scott J; Malee, Kathleen M; Kammerer, Betsy L; Wilkins, Megan L; Rutstein, Richard; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Chernoff, Miriam C; Mellins, Claude A

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal HIV (PHIV) infection may place youth at risk for impairments in executive functioning (EF). We examined associations of EF with HIV infection, disease severity and other factors among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected youth (PHEU). Within the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, 354 PHIV and 200 PHEU youth completed a standardized EF measure (Children's Color Trails Test, CCTT) and youth and/or caregivers completed a questionnaire measuring everyday EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, BRIEF). Covariates included HIV status, current and historical disease severity, demographic and caregiver variables and other cognitive measures. Analyses used linear and logistic regression and proportional odds models. No significant HIV status group differences were found on CCTT scores. Caregiver BRIEF ratings indicated significantly fewer problems for PHIV than PHEU youth. However, PHIV youth with past encephalopathy self-endorsed significantly greater metacognitive (ie, cognitive regulation) problems on the BRIEF and performed more slowly on the CCTT than PHEU youth. CCTT and caregiver BRIEF scores had significant associations with indicators of past and present disease severity. Both PHIV and PHEU had significantly worse scores than population means on CCTT and BRIEF; scores had significant associations with demographic covariates. Youth with PHIV show EF problems likely associated with risk factors other than HIV. However, cognitive slowing and self-reported metacognitive problems were evident in PHIV youth with a history of encephalopathy. Assessment and treatment of EF impairment may be important to identifying PHIV youth at particular risk for poor health and behavioral outcomes.

  12. Assessment of antioxidants status and superoxide dismutase activity in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Camila; Patin, Rose Vega; Palchetti, Cecilia Zanin; Claudio, Cristiane Chiantelli; Gouvêa, Aída de Fátima Thomé Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the nutritional status of selenium, copper and zinc; and also the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity of HIV-infected children compared to a control group. A cross-sectional study was carried out with prepubertal HIV-infected children (n=51) and their healthy siblings (n=32). All biochemical measurements including plasma selenium, serum copper levels, serum and erythrocyte zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were evaluated according to dietary, clinical and biochemical parameters. Compared to the control group, the HIV-infected children had lower z-score values for height-for-age (p=0.0006), higher prevalence of stunting (11.8%) (p=0.047), lower selenium levels (p=0.0006) and higher copper levels (p=0.019). No difference was found concerning superoxide dismutase activity (p>0.05). The HIV-infected group presented a higher proportion (45.1%) of children with zinc intakes below the estimated average requirement (p=0.014); however, no association with zinc biochemical parameters was found. HIV-infected children have an inadequate selenium and copper nutritional status, which could influence the progression to AIDS. An adequate micronutrient status could improve the clinical conditions in these patients and minimize free radical production and cellular oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. The importance of nutritional care in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Megan S; Apondi, Edith; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2014-12-01

    Renewed efforts to provide proper nutritional care are essential for appropriate pediatric HIV management. Current studies support the use of vitamin A and macronutrients that increase caloric and protein intake. With additional research on key issues such as the needed composition and timing for nutritional supplementation, we can determine the best strategies to support the growth and development of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition among children is common in the resource-limited settings where HIV infection is most prevalent. While malnutrition is associated with higher morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected children, there is only limited evidence to guide the use of nutritional support for HIV-infected children. The best studied is vitamin A, which is associated with improved mortality and clinical outcomes. Zinc and multivitamin supplementation have not consistently been associated with clinical benefits. Limited research suggests macronutrient supplementation, which typically uses enriched formulas or foods, improves key anthropometrics for HIV-infected children, but the optimal composition of nutrients for supplementation has not been determined. More research is needed to understand the most efficient and sustainable ways to ensure adequate nutrition in this vulnerable population.

  14. Education and nutritional status of orphans and children of HIV-infected parents in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-10-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate logistic regression. Results indicate that orphans, fostered children, and children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to attend school than non-orphaned/non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are more likely to be underweight and wasted, and less likely to receive medical care for ARI and diarrhea. Children of HIV-negative single mothers are also disadvantaged on most indicators. The findings highlight the need to expand child welfare programs to include not only orphans but also fostered children, children of single mothers, and children of HIV-infected parents, who tend to be equally, if not more, disadvantaged.

  15. Tuberculosis: opportunities and challenges for the 90-90-90 targets in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Helena; Frigati, Lisa; Hesseling, Anneke C; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS defined the ambitious 90-90-90 targets for 2020, in which 90% of people living with HIV must be diagnosed, 90% of those diagnosed should be on sustained therapy and 90% of those on therapy should have an undetectable viral load. Children are considered to be a key focus population for these targets. This review will highlight key components of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children in the era of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their relation to the 90-90-90 targets. The majority of HIV-infected children live in countries with a high burden of TB. In settings with a high burden of both diseases such as in sub-Saharan Africa, up to 57% of children diagnosed with and treated for TB are HIV-infected. TB results in substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, so preventing TB and optimizing its treatment in HIV-infected children will be important to ensuring good long-term outcomes. Prevention of TB can be achieved by increasing access to ART to both children and adults, and appropriate provision of isoniazid preventative therapy. Co-treatment of HIV and TB is complicated by drug-drug interactions particularly due to the use of rifampicin; these may compromise virologic outcomes if appropriate corrective actions are not taken. There remain substantial operational challenges, and improved integration of paediatric TB and HIV services, including with antenatal and routine under-five care, is an important priority. TB may be an important barrier to achievement of the 90-90-90 targets, but specific attention to TB care in HIV-infected children may provide important opportunities to enhance the care of both TB and HIV in children.

  16. Maintaining love and hope: caregiving for Thai children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Thampanichawat, Wanlaya

    2008-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, the author explored how primary caregivers dealt with problems in caring for children with HIV infection in Thailand. A total of 27 family caregivers of HIV-infected children participated in open-ended interviews. Maintaining love and hope represented a condition for the continuing process of caregiving. Caregivers had to deal with the stigma of AIDS while providing care for children with HIV. They had high anxiety and fear of loss, bore much burden of care, and faced many difficulties because of limited resources. The results suggest that psychosocial care and informational support are needed to enable these caregivers to provide better care for children with HIV infection.

  17. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and the Fecal Microbiota in Malawian Children.

    PubMed

    Ordiz, M Isabel; Stephenson, Kevin; Agapova, Sophia; Wylie, Kristine M; Maleta, Ken; Martin, John; Trehan, Indi; Tarr, Phillip I; Manary, Mark J

    2017-02-08

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is often measured with a dual sugar absorption test and implicated as a causative factor in childhood stunting. Disturbances in the gut microbiota are hypothesized to be a mechanism by which EED is exacerbated, although this supposition lacks support. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples from 81 rural Malawian children with varying degrees of EED to determine which bacterial taxa were associated with EED. At the phyla level, Proteobacteria abundance is reduced with severe EED. Among bacterial genera, Megasphaera, Mitsuokella, and Sutterella were higher in EED and Succinivibrio, Klebsiella, and Clostridium_XI were lower in EED. Bacterial diversity did not vary with the extent of EED. Though EED is a condition that is typically believed to affect the proximal small bowel, and our focus was on stool, our data do suggest that there are intraluminal microbial differences that reflect, or plausibly lead to, EED.

  18. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  19. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  20. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  1. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  2. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  3. Low Prevalence of Parvovirus 4 in HIV-infected Children in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Norja, Päivi; Lindberg, Ellinor; Jensen, Lise; Hedman, Lea; Väisänen, Elina; Li, Xuemeng; Hedman, Klaus; von Linstow, Marie-Louise

    2015-07-01

    Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been associated with HIV infection in adults. We examined plasma samples from 46 HIV-infected 0-year-old to 16-year-old children for the presence of PARV4. Four children (8.7%) had detectable PARV4 IgG and 1 had IgM. The result of PARV4 polymerase chain reaction was found to be negative in all patients. PARV4 seropositivity was associated with low CD4 count but not with HIV viral load.

  4. Molar incisor hypomineralization in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Natália Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; de Sousa Paz, Hélvis Enri; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Lima, Marina de Deus Mourade

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among individuals between 7 and 15 years old infected or noninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study was conducted with 33 HIV-infected individuals (study group; SG) and 66 non-HIV-infected schoolchildren (control group; CG), paired by gender and age. Data collection was based on medical records (SG), a questionnaire for caregivers and oral examination for diagnosis of MIH (European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria) and caries (DMFT index and ICDAS). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression. In SG, MIH (45.5%) and caries (87.9%) had higher prevalence. MIH was associated with use of protease inhibitors in SG (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.77) and incubator need in CG (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.71 to 9.10). HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of MIH and dental caries in the permanent dentition.

  5. The effect of nutritional support on weight gain of HIV-infected children with prolonged diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rollins, N C; van den Broeck, J; Kindra, G; Pent, M; Kasambira, T; Bennish, M L

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect on growth and immunity of enhanced calorie and protein provision to HIV-infected children presenting with prolonged diarrhoea. A total of 169 HIV-infected children aged 6-36 months with diarrhoea for 7 days or more were randomly assigned to either standard nutrition support for children with prolonged diarrhoea or an enhanced diet started during hospitalisation and continued after discharge. The change in weight between enrolment and 8, 14 and 26 weeks and changes in plasma HIV-RNA and CD4 cell count at 8 and 26 weeks were estimated. Children receiving enhanced nutrition achieved significantly more weight gain (p < 0.001) between enrolment and 8 weeks than children on the standard diet (median increase in weight-for-age standard deviation score +1.02 vs. +0.01). After 8 weeks median weight velocity was normal and similar in both groups. The change in median CD4 count was similar in both groups. The 26-week mortality rate was high in both groups (standard support: 22%, enhanced support: 29%). Nutrition support of children with advanced HIV infection and prolonged diarrhoea resulted in significant and sustained weight gain, but did not improve CD4 counts or survival. These results support integrated nutrition interventions for HIV-infected children.

  6. Challenges of malnutrition care among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in Africa.

    PubMed

    Jesson, J; Leroy, V

    2015-05-01

    More than 90% of the estimated 3.2 million children with HIV worldwide, at the end of 2013, were living in sub-Saharan Africa. The management of these children was still difficult in 2014 despite the progress in access to antiretroviral drugs. A great number of HIV-infected children are not diagnosed at 6 weeks and start antiretroviral treatment late, at an advanced stage of HIV disease complicated by other comorbidities such as malnutrition. Malnutrition is a major problem in the sub-Saharan Africa global population; it is an additional burden for HIV-infected children because they do not respond as well as non-infected children to the usual nutritional care. HIV infection and malnutrition interact, creating a vicious circle. It is important to understand the relationship between these 2 conditions and the effect of antiretroviral treatment on this circle to taking them into account for an optimal management of pediatric HIV. An improved monitoring of growth during follow-up and the introduction of a nutritional support among HIV-infected children, especially at antiretroviral treatment initiation, are important factors that could improve response to antiretroviral treatment and optimize the management of pediatric HIV in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tuberculosis in HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Margot R; Harris, D Robert; Abreu, Thalita; Ferreira, Fabiana G; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Worrell, Carol; Hazra, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the occurrence, clinical presentations and diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of HIV-infected infants, children and adolescents from Latin America. Methods A retrospective analysis of children with TB and HIV was performed within a prospective observational cohort study conducted at multiple clinical sites in Latin America. Results Of 1114 HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents followed from 2002-2011, 69 that could be classified as having confirmed or presumed TB were included in this case series; 52.2% (95% CI: 39.8-64.4%) had laboratory-confirmed TB, 15.9% (95% CI: 8.2-26.7%) had clinically-confirmed disease and 31.9% (95% CI: 21.2-44.2%) had presumed TB. Sixty-six were perinatally HIV-infected. Thirty-two (61.5%) children had a history of contact with an adult TB case; however information on exposure to active TB was missing for 17 participants. At the time of TB diagnosis, 39 were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen of these cases may have represented immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the need for adequate contact tracing of adult TB cases and screening for HIV or TB in Latin American children diagnosed with either condition. Preventive strategies in TB-exposed, HIV-infected children should be optimized. PMID:25307683

  8. Neurocognitive and Motor Deficits in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children With High CD4 Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michael J.; Boal, Hannah E.; Bangirana, Paul; Charlebois, Edwin; Havlir, Diane V.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Achan, Jane; Akello, Carolyne; Kamya, Moses R.; Wong, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Wagner and Frenkel, on pages 1010–2.) Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes neurocognitive or motor function deficits in children with advanced disease, but it is unclear whether children with CD4 cell measures above the World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation suffer significant impairment. Methods. The neurocognitive and motor functions of HIV-infected ART-naive Ugandan children aged 6–12 years with CD4 cell counts of >350 cells/μL and CD4 cell percentage of >15% were compared with those of HIV-uninfected children, using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC-2), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results. Ninety-three HIV-infected children (median CD4 cell count, 655 cells/μL; plasma HIV RNA level, 4.7 log10 copies/mL) were compared to 106 HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children performed worse on TOVA visual reaction times (multivariate analysis of covariance; P = .006); KABC-2 sequential processing (P = .005), simultaneous processing (P = .039), planning/reasoning (P = .023), and global performance (P = .024); and BOT-2 total motor proficiency (P = .003). High plasma HIV RNA level was associated with worse performance in 10 cognitive measures and 3 motor measures. In analysis of only WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 HIV-infected children (n = 68), significant differences between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups (P < .05) remained for KABC-2 sequential processing, KABC-2 planning/reasoning, and BOT-2 motor proficiency. Conclusions. Significant motor and cognitive deficits were found in HIV-infected ART-naive Ugandan children with CD4 cell counts of ∼350 cells/μL and percentages of >15%. Study of whether early initiation of ART could prevent or reverse such deficits is needed. PMID

  9. Effectiveness of the First Dose of BCG against Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected, Predominantly Immunodeficient Children.

    PubMed

    Van-Dunem, Joaquim C V D; Rodrigues, Laura C; Alencar, Luiz Claudio Arraes; Militão-Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the protective effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis among (predominantly immunodeficient) HIV-infected children in Angola. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with 230 cases, children coinfected with tuberculosis, and 672 controls, HIV-infected children from the same hospital, aged 18 months to 13 years. The presence of a vaccination scar was taken as a proxy marker for BCG vaccination. The crude effectiveness was 8% (95% CI: -26 to 32) and the adjusted effectiveness was 30% (95% CI: -75 to 72). The present study suggests that BCG does not have a protective effect against tuberculosis among immunodeficient HIV-infected children. Since BCG is no longer given to HIV-infected children, the study may not be replicated. Accepting that these findings should be considered with caution, they are nonetheless likely to be the last estimate of BCG efficacy in a sufficiently powered study.

  10. Children Living with HIV-Infected Adults: Estimates for 23 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Goldberg, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa many children live in extreme poverty and experience a burden of illness and disease that is disproportionately high. The emergence of HIV and AIDS has only exacerbated long-standing challenges to improving children’s health in the region, with recent cohorts experiencing pediatric AIDS and high levels of orphan status, situations which are monitored globally and receive much policy and research attention. Children’s health, however, can be affected also by living with HIV-infected adults, through associated exposure to infectious diseases and the diversion of household resources away from them. While long recognized, far less research has focused on characterizing this distinct and vulnerable population of HIV-affected children. Methods Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 23 countries collected between 2003 and 2011, we estimate the percentage of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult. We assess overlaps with orphan status and investigate the relationship between children and the adults who are infected in their households. Results The population of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult is substantial where HIV prevalence is high; in Southern Africa, the percentage exceeded 10% in all countries and reached as high as 36%. This population is largely distinct from the orphan population. Among children living in households with tested, HIV-infected adults, most live with parents, often mothers, who are infected; nonetheless, in most countries over 20% live in households with at least one infected adult who is not a parent. Conclusion Until new infections contract significantly, improvements in HIV/AIDS treatment suggest that the population of children living with HIV-infected adults will remain substantial. It is vital to on-going efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality to consider whether current care and outreach sufficiently address the distinct

  11. Validity of US norms for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Dube, Queen; Cole, Stephen R; Chirambo, Chawanangwa; Dow, Anna E; Heyderman, Robert S; Van Rie, Annelies

    2014-03-01

    Most psychometric tests originate from Europe and North America and have not been validated in other populations. We assessed the validity of United States (US)-based norms for the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III), a neurodevelopmental tool developed for and commonly used in the US, in Malawian children. We constructed BSID-III norms for cognitive, fine motor (FM), gross motor (GM), expressive communication (EC) and receptive communication (RC) subtests using 5173 tests scores in 167 healthy Malawian children. Norms were generated using Generalized Additive Models for location, scale and shape, with age modeled continuously. Standard z-scores were used to classify neurodevelopmental delay. Weighted kappa statistics were used to compare the classification of neurological development using US-based and Malawian norms. For all subtests, the mean raw scores in Malawian children were higher than the US normative scores at younger ages (approximately <6 months) after which the mean curves crossed and the US normative mean exceeded that of the Malawian sample and the age at which the curves crossed differed by subtest. Weighted kappa statistics for agreement between US and Malawian norms were 0.45 for cognitive, 0.48 for FM, 0.57 for GM, 0.50 for EC, and 0.44 for RC. We demonstrate that population reference curves for the BSID-III differ depending on the origin of the population. Reliance on US norm-based standardized scores resulted in misclassification of the neurological development of Malawian children, with the greatest potential for bias in the measurement of cognitive and language skills. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of US norms for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in Malawian children

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Dube, Queen; Cole, Stephen R; Chirambo, Chawanangwa; Dow, Anna E; Heyderman, Robert S; Rie, Annelies Van

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most psychometric tests originate from Europe and North America and have not been validated in other populations. We assessed the validity of United States (US)-based norms for the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III), a neurodevelopmental tool developed for and commonly used in the US, in Malawian children. Methods We constructed BSID-III norms for cognitive, fine motor (FM), gross motor (GM), expressive communication (EC) and receptive communication (RC) subtests using 5 173 tests scores in 167 healthy Malawian children. Norms were generated using Generalized Additive Models for location, scale and shape, with age modeled continuously. Standard z-scores were used to classify neurodevelopmental delay. Weighted kappa statistics were used to compare the classification of neurological development using US-based and Malawian norms. Results For all subtests, the mean raw scores in Malawian children were higher than the US normative scores at younger ages (approximately <6 months) after which the mean curves crossed and the US normative mean exceeded that of the Malawian sample and the age at which the curves crossed differed by subtest. Weighted kappa statistics for agreement between US and Malawian norms were 0.45 for cognitive, 0.48 for FM, 0.57 for GM, 0.50 for EC, and 0.44 for RC. Conclusion We demonstrate that population reference curves for the BSID-III differ depending on the origin of the population. Reliance on US norm-based standardized scores resulted in misclassification of the neurological development of Malawian children, with the greatest potential for bias in the measurement of cognitive and language skills. PMID:24423629

  13. Factors Associated with the Academic Achievement of Perinatally HIV-Infected Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Walter L.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that perinatally HIV-infected children experience difficulty in learning as well as behavioral and social problems in the school setting. While the research is mixed on the effect of the HIV virus on behavioral and social problems, it is much clearer on the effect of this virus on learning. This exploratory study identifies…

  14. Factors Associated with the Academic Achievement of Perinatally HIV-Infected Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Walter L.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that perinatally HIV-infected children experience difficulty in learning as well as behavioral and social problems in the school setting. While the research is mixed on the effect of the HIV virus on behavioral and social problems, it is much clearer on the effect of this virus on learning. This exploratory study identifies…

  15. Neurometabolite Alterations Associated With Cognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Dalen, Yvonne W.; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Kuhle, Jens; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cognitive impairment is still observed in perinatally HIV-infected children. We aimed to evaluate potential underlying cerebral injury by comparing neurometabolite levels between perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. This cross-sectional study evaluated neurometabolites, as measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), in perinatally HIV-infected children stable on cART (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 36). Participants were included from a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls, matched group-wise for age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), and choline (Cho) levels were studied as ratios over creatine (Cre). Group differences and associations with HIV-related parameters, cognitive functioning, and neuronal damage markers (neurofilament and total Tau proteins) were determined using age-adjusted linear regression analyses. HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter (HIV-infected = 0.29 ± 0.03; controls = 0.27 ± 0.03; P value = 0.045). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell Z-scores were associated with reduced neuronal integrity markers NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C diagnosis was associated with higher glial markers Cho:Cre and mI:Cre. Poorer cognitive performance was mainly associated with higher Cho:Cre in HIV-infected children, and with lower NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre in healthy controls. There were no associations between neurometabolites and neuronal damage markers in blood or CSF. Compared to controls, perinatally HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter, suggestive of ongoing glial proliferation. Levels of several neurometabolites were associated with cognitive performance, suggesting that MRS may be a useful method to assess cerebral changes potentially linked to

  16. Neurometabolite Alterations Associated With Cognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Van Dalen, Yvonne W; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Ter Stege, Jacqueline A; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Kuhle, Jens; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Kuijpers, Taco W; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B L M; Caan, Matthan W A; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-03-01

    Despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cognitive impairment is still observed in perinatally HIV-infected children. We aimed to evaluate potential underlying cerebral injury by comparing neurometabolite levels between perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. This cross-sectional study evaluated neurometabolites, as measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), in perinatally HIV-infected children stable on cART (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 36).Participants were included from a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls, matched group-wise for age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), and choline (Cho) levels were studied as ratios over creatine (Cre). Group differences and associations with HIV-related parameters, cognitive functioning, and neuronal damage markers (neurofilament and total Tau proteins) were determined using age-adjusted linear regression analyses.HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter (HIV-infected = 0.29 ± 0.03; controls = 0.27 ± 0.03; P value = 0.045). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell Z-scores were associated with reduced neuronal integrity markers NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C diagnosis was associated with higher glial markers Cho:Cre and mI:Cre. Poorer cognitive performance was mainly associated with higher Cho:Cre in HIV-infected children, and with lower NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre in healthy controls. There were no associations between neurometabolites and neuronal damage markers in blood or CSF.Compared to controls, perinatally HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter, suggestive of ongoing glial proliferation. Levels of several neurometabolites were associated with cognitive performance, suggesting that MRS may be a useful method to assess cerebral changes potentially linked to cognitive outcomes.

  17. The differences between providing oral health care to HIV-infected children and HIV-infected adults: a general dentist's guide.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Cara B; Smith, Stacey; Galvan, Alicia; Mabry, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    People with HIV and AIDS are living much longer today, thanks to a better understanding of the disease process and the development of effective antiviral drugs and multidrug therapies. Consequently, HIV is now considered a chronic disease, one that affects nearly 40 million people worldwide. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), first instituted in 1996, has led to a dramatic reduction in the number of perinatally infected children; however, in 2004, there were still 640,000 children under the age of 15 living with HIV worldwide.1 This population of patients faces more mature health issues compared to most children their age. For example, rampant dental decay is common among children with HIV and requires advanced treatment planning that needs to be closely coordinated with members of the medical team. Maintaining good oral health in combination with medication compliance leads to sustained overall health in HIV-infected children; however, many of the medications these children take have severe adverse effects on their oral health. Furthermore, these medications may interfere with other medications that are prescribed or administered in connection with oral health care. Lastly, the systemic and oral manifestations of HIV and AIDS are different for children than they are for adults; as a result, the prognosis and treatment options for these manifestations vary, depending on the patient's age. This article will address factors that affect the oral health of HIV-infected children and adults, as well as common oral manifestations of HIV and AIDS. Key differences in treatment planning for HIV-infected children and HIV-infected adults will be outlined.

  18. Impact of Disclosure of HIV Infection on Health-Related Quality of Life Among Children and Adolescents With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Anne M.; Williams, Paige L.; Howland, Lois C.; Storm, Deborah; Hutton, Nancy; Seage, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the impact of HIV status disclosure on quality of life, leaving clinicians and families to rely on research of children with other terminal illnesses. Objectives The purpose of this work was to examine the impact of HIV disclosure on pediatric quality of life and to describe the distribution of age at disclosure in a perinatally infected pediatric population. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted of perinatally HIV-infected youth ≥5 years of age enrolled in a prospective cohort study, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C, with ≥1 study visit before and after HIV disclosure. Age-specific quality-of-life instruments were completed by primary caregivers at routine study visits. The distribution of age at disclosure was summarized. Six quality-of-life domains were assessed, including general health perception, symptom distress, psychological status, health care utilization, physical functioning, and social/role functioning. For each domain, mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the effect of disclosure on quality of life. Results A total of 395 children with 2423 study visits were analyzed (1317 predisclosure visits and 1106 postdisclosure visits). The median age at disclosure was estimated to be 11 years. Older age at disclosure was associated with earlier year of birth. Mean domain scores were not significantly different at the last undisclosed visit compared with the first disclosed visit, with the exception of general health perception. When all of the visits were considered, 5 of 6 mean domain scores were lower after disclosure, although the differences were not significant. In mixed-effects models, disclosure did not significantly impact quality of life for any domain. Conclusions Age at disclosure decreased significantly over time. There were no statistically significant differences between predisclosure and postdisclosure quality of life; therefore, disclosure should be encouraged at an appropriate time

  19. Neurodevelopmental delay among HIV-infected preschool children receiving antiretroviral therapy and healthy preschool children in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lowick, Sarah; Sawry, Shobna; Meyers, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been documented in up to 97.5% of HIV-infected children in Soweto who were not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). With growing numbers of children in South Africa being successfully treated with ART, the effects of ART on neurocognitive functioning in children require investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of neurodevelopmental delay in stable HIV-infected preschool children (aged five to six years) receiving ART and compare it to an apparently healthy (unconfirmed HIV-status) group of preschool children. Thirty HIV-infected preschool children (virologically and immunologically stable on ART for more than one year) were conveniently sampled from 350 eligible children on ART at the Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic in Soweto, Johannesburg. The comparison group comprised 30 well-nourished preschool children attending the Lilian Ngoyi Primary Health Care Clinic in Soweto for routine immunizations. Each child was assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised Version (GMDS-ER), at a single point in time. The overall developmental z-scores on GMDS-ER were <-2 (indicating severe delay) in 27 (90%) children in the HIV-infected group compared to 23 (76%) in the comparison group (p = 0.166). Mental handicap (overall GQ < 70) was evident in 46.7% of children in the HIV-infected group compared to 10% in the comparison group (p = 0.002). There was a 7.88-fold increased likelihood of severe delay in the HIV infected group. The HIV-infected group and comparison group had significantly different (p = 0.001) mean overall GQ scores of 70 (95% CI: 66.0-74.0) and 78 (95% CI: 75.6-80.5), respectively, with lower mean scores in the HIV-infected group in all individual domains. Early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants may improve cognitive functioning among this group; however, intervention strategies which optimize early cognitive development for all children in the area need to be

  20. Anaemia in HIV-infected children: severity, types and effect on response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Nyesigire Ruhinda, Eunice; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kiwanuka, Julius

    2012-10-31

    HIV and anaemia are major health challenges in Africa. Anaemia in HIV-infected individuals is associated with more rapid disease progression and a poorer prognosis if not addressed appropriately. This study aimed at determining the severity and types of anaemia among HIV infected children and its effect on short term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). At baseline, clinical and haematological parameters of 257 HIV-infected ART-naïve children aged 3 months to 18 years were assessed to determine the prevalence, severity and types of anaemia. ART eligible patients were started on therapy according to WHO criteria, enrolled (n=88) into an observational cohort and followed up for 6 months. Anaemia was present in 148/257 (57.6%) of children, including (93/148) 62.2% with mild anaemia, 47/148 (32.0%) moderate anaemia, and 7/148 (4.8%) with severe anaemia. The mean haemoglobin (hb) was lower among children with more advanced HIV disease (p<0.0001). Microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (44.9%) was the commonest type of anaemia. Anaemia was independently associated with young age (p <0.0001), advanced HIV WHO disease stage (p = 0.034) and low CD4 percentage (p = 0.048). The proportion of children who had attained viral suppression (viral load <400 copies/ml) at 3 months was significantly lower among the anaemic children, 31/58 (53.4%) compared to the non-anaemic children 26/30 (86.7%) (p=0.002). However, the difference in clinical and immunological response between the anaemic and non-anaemic patients did not reach statistical significance. Anaemia is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children in a rural Ugandan clinic and is associated with poorer virological suppression. However, the anaemia did not impact clinical and immunological response to ART among these children.

  1. Anaemia in HIV-infected children: severity, types and effect on response to HAART

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV and anaemia are major health challenges in Africa. Anaemia in HIV-infected individuals is associated with more rapid disease progression and a poorer prognosis if not addressed appropriately. This study aimed at determining the severity and types of anaemia among HIV infected children and its effect on short term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods At baseline, clinical and haematological parameters of 257 HIV-infected ART-naïve children aged 3 months to 18 years were assessed to determine the prevalence, severity and types of anaemia. ART eligible patients were started on therapy according to WHO criteria, enrolled (n=88) into an observational cohort and followed up for 6 months. Results Anaemia was present in 148/257 (57.6%) of children, including (93/148) 62.2% with mild anaemia, 47/148 (32.0%) moderate anaemia, and 7/148 (4.8%) with severe anaemia. The mean haemoglobin (hb) was lower among children with more advanced HIV disease (p<0.0001). Microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (44.9%) was the commonest type of anaemia. Anaemia was independently associated with young age (p <0.0001), advanced HIV WHO disease stage (p = 0.034) and low CD4 percentage (p = 0.048). The proportion of children who had attained viral suppression (viral load <400 copies/ml) at 3 months was significantly lower among the anaemic children, 31/58 (53.4%) compared to the non-anaemic children 26/30 (86.7%) (p=0.002). However, the difference in clinical and immunological response between the anaemic and non-anaemic patients did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Anaemia is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children in a rural Ugandan clinic and is associated with poorer virological suppression. However, the anaemia did not impact clinical and immunological response to ART among these children. PMID:23114115

  2. Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Assay Among HIV-infected Children with Active Tuberculosis in France.

    PubMed

    Hormi, Myriam; Khourouj, Valérie Guérin-El; Pommelet, Virginie; Jeljeli, Mohamed; Pédron, Béatrice; Diana, Jean-Sébastien; Faye, Albert; Sterkers, Ghislaine

    2017-09-05

    Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests. Thirty-four (54%) were born in sub-Saharan Africa. Vertical HIV transmission was documented for 50/52 (96%) and stage III HIV-infection for 30/50 children (60%).Over the study period, active TB was diagnosed in 7/63 HIV-infected children (3 culture-confirmed). Additional ongoing or previous opportunistic infections were present in 4/7.QuantiFERON results were positive in 2/7 HIV-infected children with active TB (sensitivity: 29%) and 16/17 HIV-uninfected children with active TB (sensitivity 94%).At initial QuantiFERON testing of the 63 HIV-infected children, 8 (13%) had positive results (1, active TB; 5, latent TB; 2, previous TB) and 51 (81%) had negative results. Of 33 children with repeat testing after an initially positive or negative result, the only change was one conversion from a negative to a positive result at the onset of active TB.The four children (6%) with indeterminate quantiFERON results had a concomitant opportunistic infection, Results of repeat testing after clinical stabilization was negative in all four. QuantiFERON testing performed poorly for active TB diagnosis in this series of children with advanced HIV infection.

  3. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Accuracy of Five Markers of Serious Bacterial Infection in Malawian Children with Signs of Severe Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, Enitan D.; Mankhambo, Limangeni A.; Jeffers, Graham; Parker, Deborah; Guiver, Malcolm; Newland, Paul; Banda, Daniel L.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Heyderman, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early recognition and prompt and appropriate antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce mortality from serious bacterial infections (SBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of five markers of infection: C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), CD163 and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), as markers of SBI in severely ill Malawian children. Methodology and Principal Findings Children presenting with a signs of meningitis (n = 282) or pneumonia (n = 95), were prospectively recruited. Plasma samples were taken on admission for CRP, PCT, sTREM-1 CD163 and HMGB1 and the performance characteristics of each test to diagnose SBI and to predict mortality were determined. Of 377 children, 279 (74%) had SBI and 83 (22%) died. Plasma CRP, PCT, CD163 and HMGB1 and were higher in HIV-infected children than in HIV-uninfected children (p<0.01). In HIV-infected children, CRP and PCT were higher in children with SBI compared to those with no detectable bacterial infection (p<0.0005), and PCT and CD163 were higher in non-survivors (p = 0.001, p = 0.05 respectively). In HIV-uninfected children, CRP and PCT were also higher in children with SBI compared to those with no detectable bacterial infection (p<0.0005), and CD163 was higher in non-survivors (p = 0.05). The best predictors of SBI were CRP and PCT, and areas under the curve (AUCs) were 0.81 (95% CI 0.73–0.89) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.79–0.92) respectively. The best marker for predicting death was PCT, AUC 0.61 (95% CI 0.50–0.71). Conclusions Admission PCT and CRP are useful markers of invasive bacterial infection in severely ill African children. The study of these markers using rapid tests in a less selected cohort would be important in this setting. PMID:19675669

  4. Clinical correlates of tuberculosis co-infection in HIV-infected children hospitalized in Peru.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Cardich, María E; Kawai, Vivian; Oberhelman, Richard A; Bautista, Christian T; Castillo, María E; Gilman, Robert H

    2006-07-01

    In developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for almost 250,000 deaths among children yearly. Active TB in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is difficult to diagnose and progresses rapidly to death. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of TB-related illness among HIV-infected children admitted to an infectious diseases ward in Peru, a country where TB is highly endemic. Forty-seven HIV-infected children admitted for a suspected infectious process in a Peruvian hospital were investigated for evidence of clinical tuberculosis by auramine stain, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of clinical specimens. Eight children (17%) had evidence of tuberculosis, including five with positive cultures and three with positive PCR tests only. Weight loss was the only feature associated with a positive test for tuberculosis. Radiological changes were very common in both TB-positive and TB-negative groups and these changes were not useful to identify TB-positive cases. Weight loss may be used to identify high-risk HIV positive children who require more aggressive evaluation for tuberculosis. Radiological changes were common in both TB-positive and TB-negative groups.

  5. Higher subcortical and white matter cerebral blood flow in perinatally HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Charlotte; Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J; Caan, Matthan W A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Kuijpers, Taco W; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus. We used linear regression analysis to evaluate group differences and associations with HIV disease and treatment characteristics, macrostructural (volume loss, WM lesions) or microstructural injury (increased WM diffusivity, neurometabolite alterations), or poorer cognitive performance.HIV-infected children had higher CBF in WM (+10.2%; P = 0.042), caudate nucleus (+4.8%; P = 0.002), putamen (+3.6%; P = 0.017), nucleus accumbens (+3.9%; P = 0.031), and thalamus (+5.5%; P = 0.032). Thalamus CBF was highest in children with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B (Coef. = 6.45; P = 0.005) or C (Coef. = 8.52; P = 0.001) diagnosis. Lower GM CBF was associated with higher WM lesion volume in HIV-infected children (Coef. = -0.053; P = 0.001). No further associations with HIV-related cognitive impairment or cerebral injury were found.CBF was higher in WM, basal ganglia, and thalamus in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected children, but this was not associated with cerebral injury or cognitive impairment. HIV-infected children with lower GM CBF had a higher volume of WM lesions, which could reflect vascular disease as potential contributing factor to white matter injury. Lifelong exposure to HIV and cART in this population warrants longitudinal assessment of CBF and how it relates to (neuro)inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and cerebral injury in

  6. Higher subcortical and white matter cerebral blood flow in perinatally HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Blokhuis, Charlotte; Mutsaerts, Henri J.M.M.; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8–18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus. We used linear regression analysis to evaluate group differences and associations with HIV disease and treatment characteristics, macrostructural (volume loss, WM lesions) or microstructural injury (increased WM diffusivity, neurometabolite alterations), or poorer cognitive performance. HIV-infected children had higher CBF in WM (+10.2%; P = 0.042), caudate nucleus (+4.8%; P = 0.002), putamen (+3.6%; P = 0.017), nucleus accumbens (+3.9%; P = 0.031), and thalamus (+5.5%; P = 0.032). Thalamus CBF was highest in children with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B (Coef. = 6.45; P = 0.005) or C (Coef. = 8.52; P = 0.001) diagnosis. Lower GM CBF was associated with higher WM lesion volume in HIV-infected children (Coef. = −0.053; P = 0.001). No further associations with HIV-related cognitive impairment or cerebral injury were found. CBF was higher in WM, basal ganglia, and thalamus in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected children, but this was not associated with cerebral injury or cognitive impairment. HIV-infected children with lower GM CBF had a higher volume of WM lesions, which could reflect vascular disease as potential contributing factor to white matter injury. Lifelong exposure to HIV and cART in this population warrants longitudinal assessment of CBF and how it relates to (neuro)inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and

  7. Growth in HIV-infected children on long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Ute D; Van Bruwaene, Lore; Becker, Piet J; Kruger, Mariana

    2016-05-01

    To describe growth in HIV-infected children on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to assess social, clinical, immunological and virological factors associated with suboptimal growth. This observational cohort study included all HIV-infected children at an urban ART site in South Africa who were younger than 5 years at ART initiation and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Growth was assessed using weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores (BAZ). Children were stratified according to pre-treatment anthropometry and age. Univariate and mixed linear analysis were used to determine associations between independent variables and weight and height outcomes. The majority of the 159 children presented with advanced clinical disease (90%) and immunosuppression (89%). Before treatment underweight, stunting and wasting were common (WAZ<-2 = 50%, HAZ<-2 = 73%, BAZ<-2 = 19%). Weight and BMI improved during the initial 12 months, while height improved over the entire 5-year period. Height at study exit was significantly worse for children with growth impairment at ART initiation (P < 0.001), and infants (<1 year) demonstrated superior improvement in terms of BMI (P = 0.04). Tuberculosis was an independent risk factor for suboptimal weight (P = 0.01) and height (P = 0.02) improvement. Weight gain was also hindered by lack of electricity (P = 0.04). Immune reconstitution and virological suppression were not associated with being underweight or stunted at study endpoint. Malnutrition was a major clinical concern for this cohort of HIV-infected children. Early ART initiation, tuberculosis co-infection management and nutritional interventions are crucial to ensure optimal growth in HIV-infected children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reconstitution of antimycobacterial immune responses in HIV-infected children receiving HAART.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Beate; Tena-Coki, Gwen N; Nicol, Mark P; Levin, Michael; Eley, Brian

    2006-04-24

    Recent epidemiological studies in adults suggest that HAART can prevent the development of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood and no data exist in children. We investigated whether changes in mycobacterial-specific immune responses can be demonstrated in children after commencing antiretroviral therapy. We measured mycobacterial growth in vitro using a novel whole-blood assay employing reporter-gene tagged bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in a prospective cohort study in the tuberculosis-endemic environment of South Africa. Key cytokines were measured in supernatants collected from the whole-blood assay using cytometric bead array. A cohort of 15 BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected children was evaluated prospectively for in-vitro antimycobacterial immune responses before and during the first year of HAART. All children had advanced HIV disease. Nine children completed all study timepoints. Before HAART, blood from children showed limited ability to restrict the growth of mycobacteria in the functional whole-blood assay. The introduction of HAART was followed by rapid and sustained reconstitution of specific antimycobacterial immune responses, measured as the decreased growth of mycobacteria. IFN-gamma levels in culture supernatants did not reflect this response; however, a decline in TNF-alpha was observed. This is the first study using a functional in-vitro assay to assess the effect of HAART on immune responses to mycobacteria in HIV-infected children. Our in-vitro data mirror the in-vivo observation of decreased susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral agents. This model may be useful for further characterizing immune reconstitution after HAART.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity and oppositional defiance disorder in HIV-infected South African children.

    PubMed

    Zeegers, I; Rabie, H; Swanevelder, S; Edson, C; Cotton, M; van Toorn, R

    2010-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiance disorder (ODD) in HIV-infected South African children. Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) questionnaires were used to determine ADHD and ODD severity and a draw-a-person (DAP) test was used to screen for developmental disorders. Associations between behavioural subtypes, psychological functioning, demographic and health variables were investigated. The SNAP-IV caregiver questionnaires showed a 26% prevalence of ADHD inattentive type; 38% hyperactive type and 24% combined type. The prevalence of ODD was 12% on parent questionnaires and 9.5% on teacher's questionnaires. Parents/caregiver-only SNAP-IV questionnaires indicate a high prevalence of significant ADHD (all subtypes) and ODD in HIV-infected children. No significant differences were found between the severity of HIV disease and the presence of a behavioural disorder. The SNAP IV questionnaires and DAP test may prove valuable screening tools in HIV children with behavioural problems.

  10. Impact of HIV Infection and Anti-Retroviral Therapy on the Immune Profile of and Microbial Translocation in HIV-Infected Children in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiuqiong; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Lam Van; Matsuda, Kazunori; Pham, Hung Viet; Phan, Chung Thi Thu; Ogata, Kiyohito; Giang, Thuy Thi Thanh; Phung, Thuy Thi Bich; Nguyen, Tuyen Thi; Tokoro, Masaharu; Pham, An Nhat; Khu, Dung Thi Khanh; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T-lymphocyte destruction, microbial translocation, and systemic immune activation are the main mechanisms of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. To investigate the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the immune profile of and microbial translocation in HIV-infected children, 60 HIV vertically infected children (31 without ART: HIV(+) and 29 with ART: ART(+)) and 20 HIV-uninfected children (HIV(−)) aged 2–12 years were recruited in Vietnam, and their blood samples were immunologically and bacteriologically analyzed. Among the HIV(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and their subset (type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)/Th2/Th17) counts were inversely correlated with age (all p < 0.05), whereas regulatory T-cell (Treg) counts and CD4/CD8 ratios had become lower, and the CD38+HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-DR+CD8+- (activated CD8+) cell percentage and plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14, a monocyte activation marker) levels had become higher than those of HIV(−) children by the age of 2 years; the CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely correlated with the plasma HIV RNA load and CD8+-cell activation status. Among the ART(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and Th2/Th17/Treg-subset counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio gradually increased, with estimated ART periods of normalization being 4.8–8.3 years, whereas Th1 counts and the CD8+-cell activation status normalized within 1 year of ART initiation. sCD14 levels remained high even after ART initiation. The detection frequency of bacterial 16S/23S ribosomal DNA/RNA in blood did not differ between HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Thus, in children, HIV infection caused a rapid decrease in Treg counts and the early activation of CD8+ cells and monocytes, and ART induced rapid Th1 recovery and early CD8+-cell activation normalization but had little effect on monocyte activation. The CD4/CD8 ratio could therefore be an additional marker for ART monitoring. PMID:27490536

  11. Reasons for hospitalization in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dicko, Fatoumata; Desmonde, Sophie; Koumakpai, Sikiratou; Dior-Mbodj, Hélène; Kouéta, Fla; Baeta, Novisi; Koné, Niaboula; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Sy, Haby Signate; Ye, Diarra; Renner, Lorna; Lewden, Charlotte; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current knowledge on morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children comes from data collected in specific research programmes, which may offer a different standard of care compared to routine care. We described hospitalization data within a large observational cohort of HIV-infected children in West Africa (IeDEA West Africa collaboration). Methods We performed a six-month prospective multicentre survey from April to October 2010 in five HIV-specialized paediatric hospital wards in Ouagadougou, Accra, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. Baseline and follow-up data during hospitalization were recorded using a standardized clinical form, and extracted from hospitalization files and local databases. Event validation committees reviewed diagnoses within each centre. HIV-related events were defined according to the WHO definitions. Results From April to October 2010, 155 HIV-infected children were hospitalized; median age was 3 years [1–8]. Among them, 90 (58%) were confirmed for HIV infection during their stay; 138 (89%) were already receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and 64 children (40%) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). The median length of stay was 13 days (IQR: 7–23); 25 children (16%) died during hospitalization and four (3%) were transferred out. The leading causes of hospitalization were WHO stage 3 opportunistic infections (37%), non-AIDS-defining events (28%), cachexia and other WHO stage 4 events (25%). Conclusions Overall, most causes of hospitalizations were HIV related but one hospitalization in three was caused by a non-AIDS-defining event, mostly in children on ART. HIV-related fatality is also high despite the scaling-up of access to ART in resource-limited settings. PMID:24763078

  12. The "moral career" of perinatally HIV-infected children: revisiting Goffman's concept.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Darmont, Mariana; Dickstein, Paulo; Monteiro, Simone

    2015-01-01

    HIV-infected children usually live in vulnerable situations, experiencing discrimination and stigma commonly felt by other people living with HIV/AIDS. The present study aims to analyse primary socialisation of HIV-infected children and adolescents recruited from a public health service in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) as a social process that shapes a new generation of stigmatised and vulnerable persons. Research was informed by an interactionist perspective, focusing on key aspects of HIV-infected children and adolescents life histories under the conceptual frame of Erving Goffman's theories regarding "moral careers". Goffman defines the making of a moral career as the process through which a person learns that she/he possesses a particular attribute, which may lead her/him to be discredited by members of the surrounding society. We have identified aspects of life histories of HIV-vertically infected children and adolescents for each aspect of "moral career" as described by Goffman, relating them to as family structure, the experience of living HIV within the family, and the position and family role of a given subject. The patterns of "moral career" proposed by Goffman in 1963 were useful in identifying components of HIV-related stigma among children and adolescents. These include gender and social disadvantages, difficulty in coping with a child with a potentially severe disease, orphanhood, abandonment, adoption and disclosure of one's HIV serostatus. Primary socialisation of HIV-infected children and adolescents is a key piece of the complex HIV/AIDS-labelling process that could be targeted by interventions aiming to decrease stigma and marginalisation. Health care workers and stakeholders should be committed to ensuring education and guaranteeing the legal rights of this specific population, including the continuous provision of quality health care, full access to school and support to full disclosure of HIV diagnosis.

  13. Post-licensing safety of fosamprenavir in HIV-infected children in Europe†

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Ali; Duong, Trinh; Galli, Luisa; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Ene, Luminita; Julian, Antoni Noguera; Amador, Jose Tomas Ramos; Pimenta, Jeanne Marie; Thorne, Claire; Giaquinto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Fosamprenavir, combined with low-dose ritonavir (FPV/r), is indicated for treatment of HIV-infected children aged ≥6 years in Europe. Our purpose was to assess the safety of licensed use of FPV/r in HIV-infected children reported to six cohorts in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration. Methods Retrospective analysis of individual patient data for all children aged 6–18 years taking the licensed dose of FPV up to 31/12/10. Adverse events (clinical events and absolute neutrophil counts, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and alanine transaminase) were summarised and DAIDS gradings characterised severity. Results Ninety-two HIV-infected children aged 6–18 years took the licensed dose, comprising 3% of the total number of children in follow-up in participating cohorts. Median age at antiretroviral therapy initiation was 6 years (interquartile range 1–11 years), and median age at start of FPV/r was 15 years (12–17 years). Estimated median time on an FPV-containing regimen was 52 months, with a total of 266.9 patient years of exposure overall. Half (54%) were on an FPV-containing regimen at last follow-up. Rates of grade 3/4 events were generally low for all biochemical toxicity markers, and no serious adverse events considered to be causally related to FPV/r were reported. Conclusions Results suggest that long-term licensed dose FPV-containing regimens appear to be generally well tolerated with few reported toxicities in HIV-infected children in Europe, although relatively infrequently prescribed. No serious events were reported. PMID:24741696

  14. Post-licensing safety of fosamprenavir in HIV-infected children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Judd, Ali; Duong, Trinh; Galli, Luisa; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Ene, Luminita; Noguera Julian, Antoni; Ramos Amador, Jose Tomas; Pimenta, Jeanne Marie; Thorne, Claire; Giaquinto, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Fosamprenavir, combined with low-dose ritonavir (FPV/r), is indicated for treatment of HIV-infected children aged ≥ 6 years in Europe. Our purpose was to assess the safety of licensed use of FPV/r in HIV-infected children reported to six cohorts in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration. Retrospective analysis of individual patient data for all children aged 6-18 years taking the licensed dose of FPV up to 31/12/10. Adverse events (clinical events and absolute neutrophil counts, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and alanine transaminase) were summarised and DAIDS gradings characterised severity. Ninety-two HIV-infected children aged 6-18 years took the licensed dose, comprising 3% of the total number of children in follow-up in participating cohorts. Median age at antiretroviral therapy initiation was 6 years (interquartile range 1-11 years), and median age at start of FPV/r was 15 years (12-17 years). Estimated median time on an FPV-containing regimen was 52 months, with a total of 266.9 patient years of exposure overall. Half (54%) were on an FPV-containing regimen at last follow-up. Rates of grade 3/4 events were generally low for all biochemical toxicity markers, and no serious adverse events considered to be causally related to FPV/r were reported. Results suggest that long-term licensed dose FPV-containing regimens appear to be generally well tolerated with few reported toxicities in HIV-infected children in Europe, although relatively infrequently prescribed. No serious events were reported

  15. A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor indinavir in children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B U; Sleasman, J; Nelson, R P; Smith, S; Deutsch, P J; Ju, W; Steinberg, S M; Balis, F M; Jarosinski, P F; Brouwers, P; Mistry, G; Winchell, G; Zwerski, S; Sei, S; Wood, L V; Zeichner, S; Pizzo, P A

    1998-07-01

    Indinavir, an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, is approved for the treatment of HIV infection in adults when antiretroviral therapy is indicated. We evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of the indinavir free-base liquid suspension and the sulfate salt dry-filled capsules in HIV-infected children, and studied its preliminary antiviral and clinical activity in this patient population. In addition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a jet-milled suspension after a single dose. Previously untreated children or patients with progressive HIV disease despite antiretroviral therapy or with treatment-associated toxicity were eligible for this phase I/II study. Three dose levels (250 mg/m2, 350 mg/m2, and 500 mg/m2 per dose given orally every 8 h) were evaluated in 2 age groups (<12 years and >/=12 years). Indinavir was initially administered as monotherapy and then in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine after 16 weeks. Fifty-four HIV-infected children (ages 3.1 to 18.9 years) were enrolled. The indinavir free-base suspension was less bioavailable than the dry-filled capsule formulation, and therapy was changed to capsules in all children. Hematuria was the most common side effect, occurring in 7 (13%) children, and associated with nephrolithiasis in 1 patient. The combination of indinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine was well tolerated. The median CD4 cell count increased after 2 weeks of indinavir monotherapy by 64 cells/mm3, and this was sustained at all dose levels. Plasma ribonucleic acid levels decreased rapidly in a dose-dependent way, but increased toward baseline after a few weeks of indinavir monotherapy. Indinavir dry-filled capsules are relatively well tolerated by children with HIV infection, although hematuria occurs at higher doses. Future studies need to evaluate the efficacy of indinavir when combined de novo with zidovudine and lamivudine.

  16. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in HIV-infected children with fat redistribution syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Dollfus, Catherine; Levine, Martine; Faye, Albert; Deghmoun, Samia; Houang, Muriel; Chevenne, Didier; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Blanche, Stéphane; Lévy-Marchal, Claire

    2006-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy is characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected children are related to alterations in endocrine function of adipose tissue. A multicenter study was conducted in 130 HIV-infected children. Lipodystrophy definition was based on the central to peripheral skinfold ratio. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin concentrations, glycemia, and lipid profile were measured in all children. Fat redistribution syndrome was apparent in 32 children: 14 with atrophic (LPDA) and 18 with hypertrophic lipodystrophy (LPDH). Mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in LPDA and LPDH groups compared with the group with no lipodystrophy (LPD-). Fasting insulin concentration was significantly higher in LPDA and LPDH groups versus LPD-. Mean serum leptin concentration was significantly increased only in LPDH compared with LPDA and LPD- groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration decreased in the LPDA versus LPD- group. Controlling for puberty stage, gender, percentage of total fat mass, serum lipids, HIV treatment, and disease severity, adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with central obesity and insulin/glucose ratio. Fat redistribution had no significant effect on leptin concentration, which was directly related to the percentage of body fat, female gender, and insulin/glucose ratio. In conclusion, HIV-infected children with symptoms of fat redistribution have decreased levels of adiponectin, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  17. An Evaluation of Alternative Markers to Guide Initiation of Anti-retroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children in Settings where CD4 Assays are not Available

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Peter; Maseko, Nelson; Gushu, Montfort B.; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Graham, Steve M.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Calis, Job C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In settings where CD4 testing is not available, alternative markers to start paediatric anti-retroviral therapy (ART) could be used. A comprehensive evaluation of these markers has not been performed. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study of HIV-infected Malawian children not eligible for ART based on clinical criteria. Associations between CD4 and alternative markers [haemoglobin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), serum albumin, thrombocytes and growth parameters] were analysed, and accuracy of existing and new cut-offs were evaluated. Results: In all, 417 children were enrolled. Of 261 children aged ≥5 years, 155 (59%) qualified to start ART using CD4. In this group, only TLC was associated with CD4 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity for TLC was 21% (95% CI: 15–29%), using World Health Organization cut-offs. Improved cut-offs increased sensitivity to 73% (95% CI: 65–80%), specificity 62% (95% CI: 52–72%). Conclusion: Clinical staging alone is an unreliable strategy to start ART in children. TLC is the only alternative marker for CD4, cut-offs need to be revised though. PMID:26491058

  18. An Evaluation of Alternative Markers to Guide Initiation of Anti-retroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children in Settings where CD4 Assays are not Available.

    PubMed

    Huibers, Minke H W; Moons, Peter; Maseko, Nelson; Gushu, Montfort B; Wit, Ferdinand W; Graham, Steve M; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Calis, Job C

    2016-02-01

    In settings where CD4 testing is not available, alternative markers to start paediatric anti-retroviral therapy (ART) could be used. A comprehensive evaluation of these markers has not been performed. Prospective cross-sectional study of HIV-infected Malawian children not eligible for ART based on clinical criteria. Associations between CD4 and alternative markers [haemoglobin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), serum albumin, thrombocytes and growth parameters] were analysed, and accuracy of existing and new cut-offs were evaluated. In all, 417 children were enrolled. Of 261 children aged ≥5 years, 155 (59%) qualified to start ART using CD4. In this group, only TLC was associated with CD4 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity for TLC was 21% (95% CI: 15-29%), using World Health Organization cut-offs. Improved cut-offs increased sensitivity to 73% (95% CI: 65-80%), specificity 62% (95% CI: 52-72%). Clinical staging alone is an unreliable strategy to start ART in children. TLC is the only alternative marker for CD4, cut-offs need to be revised though. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Virus load as a marker of disease progression in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Tetali, S; Abrams, E; Bakshi, S; Paul, M; Oyaizu, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-05-20

    The relationship of virus load to clinical disease progression in HIV-infected children remains to be elucidated. In this study, HIV-1 proviral DNA load was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the quantitative competitive DNA polymerase chain reaction assay (QC-PCR) in 47 HIV-infected children subdivided by age (group I, < or = 2 years; group II, > or = 5 years), who were further categorized to include 12 rapid progressors (RP, age < or = 2 years, Centers for Disease Control [CDC] defined clinical category C and/or immune category 3, or death before age 2 years) and slow progressors (SP, age > or = 5 years, excluding CDC categories C and/or immune category 3). Significantly higher mean proviral copies/10(3) PBMCs were detected in group I versus group II (75.4 +/- 104.3 and 13.0 +/- 17.8 respectively, p < 0.0001) and in RP (158.0 +/- 118.2) as compared to either SP (11.8 +/- 18.8, p < 0.0001) or other age-matched infected children (20.3 +/- 38.8, p < 0.0001). Thus HIV-infected children appear to have a higher cell-associated virus load early in life, especially in association with rapid disease progression.

  20. [Recommendations for initial antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children. Update 2003].

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children has been associated with a dramatic decrease in progression to AIDS and HIV-related deaths, and infected children currently have an excellent quality of life. Antiretroviral drugs cannot eradicate the virus, although they can achieve a situation of latent infection. However, chronic use of these drugs has multiple adverse effects, the most important of which are metabolic complications. The large number of drugs required and patient characteristics such as age, tolerance to drugs, adherence, and social problems make unifying the criteria for initial therapy in HIV-infected children difficult. A balance should be sought between not delaying the start of treatment, to avoid immunologic deterioration, and minimizing the long-term adverse effects of the therapy. The present treatment recommendations are adapted from international guidelines and are based on a literature review and on our own experience. Our group previously published recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected children and the aim of the present article is to provide an update.

  1. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART. PMID:20889625

  2. Dyslipidemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Latin American children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2011-10-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =  2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9-6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.

  3. Immunologic basis for revaccination of HIV-infected children receiving HAART

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Moss, William J

    2011-01-01

    With increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children infected with HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of the development and maintenance of memory T- and B-cell responses to pathogens after immune reconstitution is needed to assess the risk of infection. Knowledge of long-term immune responses after starting HAART is of particular importance for policies on revaccination of HIV-infected children, who may lose protective immunity to prior infections and immunizations. We review normal development of T- and B-cell memory responses to viruses and vaccines against viral pathogens, and contrast the immunological effects of perinatal HIV transmission with HIV infection acquired later in life. We then explore the potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy and revaccination, using measles virus as a model. PMID:21339832

  4. Hospitalization for severe malnutrition among HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsa F; Cook, Adrian D; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Natukunda, Eva; Nahirya Ntege, Patricia; Nathoo, Kusum J; Karungi, Christine; Lutaakome, Joseph; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Gibb, Diana M

    2011-04-24

    To describe early hospitalization for severe malnutrition in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Randomized trial of induction-maintenance and monitoring strategies in HIV-infected children. Three tertiary hospitals in Uganda and one in Zimbabwe. 1207 HIV-infected children, median age 6 years (range, 3 months to 17 years). Abacavir, lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz were given; children in induction-maintenance arms also received zidovudine to week 36. Pre-ART inpatient/outpatient nutritional rehabilitation for children with baseline severe malnutrition. : Hospitalization for severe malnutrition and change in CD4 cell percentage by week 12 after ART. Mortality and change in weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) by week 24 after ART. Thirty-nine of 1207 (3.2%) children were hospitalized for severe malnutrition (20 with oedema), median 28 days [interquartile range (IQR) 14, 36] after ART for marasmus and 26 days (IQR 14, 56) after ART for kwashiorkor. Hospitalized children had lower baseline and greater 24-week rise in WAZ than nonhospitalized children (P < 0.001). Twenty-nine of 39 (74%) children admitted for severe malnutrition had underlying infections. Of 220 children with advanced disease (baseline WAZ and CD4 cell Z-scores both <-3), 7.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8, 10.7] developed kwashiorkor and 3.6% (95% CI 1.2, 6.1) developed marasmus by week 12. CD4 cell percentage rise was similar among groups (P = 0.37). Twenty-four-week mortality was 32, 20 and 1.7% among children hospitalized with marasmus, kwashiorkor and not hospitalized, respectively, (P < 0.001). One in nine children with advanced HIV required early hospitalization for severe malnutrition after ART, with a 15-fold increase in 6-month mortality compared with nonhospitalized children. Integration of HIV/malnutrition services and further research to determine optimal ART timing, role of supplementary feeding and antimicrobial prophylaxis are urgently required.

  5. Iron Status Predicts Malaria Risk in Malawian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Geskus, Ronald B.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in pre-school children in developing countries and an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. A debate exists on the possible protective effect of iron deficiency against malaria and other infections; yet consensus is lacking due to limited data. Recent studies have focused on the risks of iron supplementation but the effect of an individual's iron status on malaria risk remains unclear. Studies of iron status in areas with a high burden of infections often are exposed to bias. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline iron status for malaria risk explicitly taking potential biases into account. Methods and materials We prospectively assessed the relationship between baseline iron deficiency (serum ferritin <30 µg/L) and malaria risk in a cohort of 727 Malawian preschool children during a year of follow-up. Data were analyzed using marginal structural Cox regression models and confounders were selected using causal graph theory. Sensitivity of results to bias resulting from misclassification of iron status by concurrent inflammation and to bias from unmeasured confounding were assessed using modern causal inference methods. Results and Conclusions The overall incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria was 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.0) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.8) events per person-year, respectively. Children with iron deficiency at baseline had a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria during a year of follow-up; adjusted hazard ratio's 0.55 (95%-CI:0.41–0.74) and 0.49 (95%-CI:0.33–0.73), respectively. Our results suggest that iron deficiency protects against malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria in young children. Therefore the clinical importance of treating iron deficiency in a pre-school child should be weighed carefully against potential harms. In malaria endemic areas treatment of iron deficiency in children requires sustained prevention of

  6. Abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in rural Malawian children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of environmental enteropathy, as measured by the dual sugar absorption test, to linear growth faltering in 2- to 5-year-old Malawian children. Dietary quality, food insecurity, anthropometry, and site-specific sugar testing were measured i...

  7. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. This was a small controlled clinical trial to dete...

  8. Once-daily antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Montero, Beatriz; Beceiro, José; de José-Gómez, M Isabel; González-Tomé, M Isabel; Gurbindo-Gutierrez, Dolores; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge; Mellado-Peña, M José; Navarro-Gómez, M Luisa; Roa-Francia, Miguel A; Rojo-Conejo, Pablo; Saavedra-Lozano, Jesús; Jiménez de Ory, Santiago; Ramos-Amador, José T

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the evolution over time of once-daily antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and its relationship with adherence. An increase on the prevalence of once-daily antiretroviral therapy was observed over time (from 0.9% in 2002 to 44.2% in 2011). There was no difference in adherence regarding once-daily or BID regimens in 2011. Adherence was related to age and pill burden.

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis in severely-malnourished or HIV-infected children with pneumonia: a review.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A C; Faruque, Abu S G; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K; Hossain, Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-09-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/ very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  10. Positive correlation of HIV infection with Giardia intestinalis assemblage B but not with assemblage A in asymptomatic Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Matey, Elizabeth J; Tokoro, Masaharu; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Matsumura, Takahiro; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Sang, Willie K; Songok, Elijah M; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-09-24

    A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection.

  11. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T

    2008-12-05

    For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.

  12. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension among HIV-Infected Children: Results of a National Survey and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, Arnaud Grégoire; Posfay-Barbe, Klara Maria; Pictet, Hiba; Beghetti, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-related mortality has decreased dramatically. As a consequence, patients are living longer, and HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Patients and caretakers have to deal with chronic complications of infection and treatment, such as cardiovascular diseases, which now represent an important health issue, even in the pediatric population. Prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the adult HIV population is around 0.4-0.6%, which is around 1000- to 2500-fold more prevalent than in the general population. In recent adult PAH registries, HIV has been identified as the fourth cause of PAH, accounting for approximately 6-7% of cases. Therefore, regular screening is recommended in HIV-infected adults by many experts. If HIV-associated PAH is mainly reported in HIV-infected adults, pediatric cases have also been, albeit rarely, described. This scarcity may be due to a very low PAH prevalence, or due to the lack of systematic cardiovascular screening in pediatric patients. As PAH may manifest only years or decades after infection, a systematic screening should perhaps also be recommended to HIV-infected children. In this context, we retrospectively looked for PAH screening in children included in our national Swiss Mother and Child HIV cohort study. A questionnaire was sent to all pediatric infectious disease specialists taking care of HIV-infected children in the cohort. The questions tried to identify symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular risk factors and asked which screening test was performed. In the 71 HIV-infected children for which we obtained an answer, no child was known for PAH. However, only two had been screened for PAH, and the diagnosis was not confirmed. In conclusion, PAH in HIV-infected children is possibly underestimated due to lack of screening. Systematic echocardiographic evaluation should be performed in HIV-infected children.

  13. Chronic lung disease in HIV-infected children established on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rylance, Jamie; Mchugh, Grace; Metcalfe, John; Mujuru, Hilda; Nathoo, Kusum; Wilmore, Stephanie; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), children suffer chronic symptoms. We investigated symptom prevalence, lung function and exercise capacity among older children established on ART and an age-matched HIV-uninfected group. Design: A cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe of HIV-infected children aged 6–16 years receiving ART for over 6 months and HIV-uninfected children attending primary health clinics from the same area. Methods: Standardized questionnaire, spirometry, incremental shuttle walk testing, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load and sputum culture for tuberculosis were performed. Results: A total of 202 HIV-infected and 150 uninfected participants (median age 11.1 years in each group) were recruited. Median age at HIV diagnosis and ART initiation was 5.5 (interquartile range 2.8–7.5) and 6.1 (interquartile range 3.6–8.4) years, respectively. Median CD4+ cell count was 726 cells/μl, and 79% had HIV viral load less than 400 copies/ml. Chronic respiratory symptoms were rare in HIV-uninfected children [n = 1 (0.7%)], but common in HIV-infected participants [51 (25%)], especially cough [30 (15%)] and dyspnoea [30 (15%)]. HIV-infected participants were more commonly previously treated for tuberculosis [76 (38%) vs 1 (0.7%), P < 0.001], had lower exercise capacity (mean incremental shuttle walk testing distance 771 vs 889 m, respectively, P < 0.001) and more frequently abnormal spirometry [43 (24.3%) vs 15 (11.5%), P = 0.003] compared with HIV-uninfected participants. HIV diagnosis at an older age was associated with lung function abnormality (P = 0.025). No participant tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion: In children, despite ART, HIV is associated with significant respiratory symptoms and functional impairment. Understanding pathogenesis is key, as new treatment strategies are urgently required. PMID:27662546

  14. Increased lipodystrophy is associated with increased exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Alessandra; Mora, Stefano; Testolin, Corrado; Beccio, Sabrina; Schneider, Laura; Bricalli, Dorella; Vanzulli, Angelo; Manzoni, Paola; Brambilla, Paolo

    2003-04-15

    To assess body composition changes in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-seven HIV-positive children were enrolled. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in all HIV-infected children at baseline and after an additional 12 months of HAART and in 54 matched (for sex, age, body mass index [BMI], and pubertal stage) healthy controls. Abdominal MRI was performed in 14 of 37 HIV-positive children at baseline and in 28 of 37 HIV-positive children after additional 12 months of HAART. During the study period, mean HAART exposure increased from 39.3 to 50.9 months and the number of HIV-infected children with clinical lipodystrophy (LD) increased from 6 to 8, whereas mean BMI, CD4 percentage, and percentage of HIV-infected children with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL did not change. DXA scans showed an increase in lean mass, peripheral fat loss, and central fat accumulation in all HIV-infected children. As compared with controls, 70% and 84% of HIV-infected children showed DXA-detectable LD at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up, respectively. Mixed LD and central fat accumulation were the most common LD phenotype. At baseline and at 12 months of follow-up, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) was greater than in controls in 33% and 35% of HIV-infected children, and it was greater in those with LD than in those without. Peripheral fat loss and IAT content were associated with duration of HAART and were independent of immunologic stage of disease and immunologic response. Changes in body composition related to LD in HAART-treated children are frequent, precocious, and progressive. Duration of HAART negatively influences visceral adiposity and peripheral fat loss.

  15. The EPIICAL project: an emerging global collaboration to investigate immunotherapeutic strategies in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Palma, P; Foster, C; Rojo, P; Zangari, P; Yates, A; Cotugno, N; Klein, N; Luzuriaga, K; Pahwa, S; Nastouli, E; Gibb, D M; Borkowsky, W; Bernardi, S; Calvez, V; Manno, E; Mora, Nadia; Compagnucci, A; Wahren, B; Muñoz-Fernández, Má; De Rossi, A; Ananworanich, J; Pillay, D; Giaquinto, C; Rossi, P

    The EPIICAL (Early-treated Perinatally HIV-infected Individuals: Improving Children's Actual Life with Novel Immunotherapeutic Strategies) project arises from the firm belief that perinatally infected children treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) from early infancy represent the optimal population model in which to study novel immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at achieving ART-free remission. This is because HIV-infected infants treated within 2-3 months of life have a much reduced viral reservoir size, and rarely show HIV-specific immunity but preserve normal immune development. The goal of EPIICAL is the establishment of an international collaboration to develop a predictive platform using this model to select promising HIV therapeutic vaccine candidates, leading to prioritisation or deprioritisation of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. To establish this platform, the EPIICAL Consortium aims to: develop predictive models of virological and immunological dynamics associated with response to early ART and to treatment interruption using available data from existing cohorts/studies of early-treated perinatally HIV-infected children; optimise methodologies to better characterise immunological, virological and genomic correlates/profiles associated with viral control; test novel immunotherapeutic strategies using in vivo proof-of-concept (PoC) studies with the aim of inducing virological, immunological and transcriptomic correlates/profiles equivalent to those defined by the predictive model. This approach will strengthen the capacity for discovery, development and initial testing of new therapeutic vaccine strategies through the integrated efforts of leading international scientific groups, with the aim of improving the health of HIV-infected individuals.

  16. Renal manifestations of HIV infected highly active antiretroviral therapy naive children in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ira; Gupta, Shradha; Shah, Dhaval M; Dhabe, Harshal; Lala, Mamatha

    2012-08-01

    There are several studies on renal manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children from American and African regions, but similar studies from India are lacking. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 28 HIV infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve children coming to the pediatric HIV clinic. Demographic data of the children, clinical presentations including blood pressure, detailed laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate), urine analysis (urine morphology, urine albumin, pus cells, and red blood cells), and CD4 counts were collected. Of the 28 children, 15 (53.6%) had renal manifestations with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. The most common renal manifestation in our study was abnormal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 11 (44.0%) of 25 children. This was followed by pus cells in urine in 6 (21.4%) of the 28 children while 3 (10.7%) of them had proteinuria. The mean age of children with renal manifestations was 5.04±2.75 years as compared to those without renal manifestations who had a mean age of 7.38±2.95 years (P=0.0390). CDC class and sex were not associated with renal manifestations. Our study suggests that reduced GFR is the common renal manifestation, particularly in younger children. Other renal manifestations are related to proteinuria. The lack of correlation of CDC classification with renal manifestations mandates screening of children with HIV for renal disease. A more detailed study of renal manifestations in HIV-infected children is needed.

  17. Outcomes among HIV-infected children initiating HIV care and antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Zenebe; Lulseged, Sileshi; Wang, Chunhui; Lamb, Matthew R; Gutema, Yoseph; Teasdale, Chloe A; Ahmed, Solomon; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Habtamu, Zelalem; Bedri, Abubaker; Fayorsey, Ruby; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-04-01

    To describe pediatric ART scale-up in Ethiopia, one of the 21 global priority countries for elimination of pediatric HIV infection. A descriptive analysis of routinely collected HIV care and treatment data on HIV-infected children (<15 years) enrolled at 70 health facilities in four regions in Ethiopia, January 2006-September 2013. Characteristics at enrollment and ART initiation are described along with outcomes at 1 year after enrollment. Among children who initiated ART, cumulative incidence of death and loss to follow-up (LTF) were estimated using survival analysis. 11 695 children 0-14 years were enrolled in HIV care and 6815 (58.3%) initiated ART. At enrollment, 31.2% were WHO stage III and 6.3% stage IV. The majority (87.9%) were enrolled in secondary or tertiary facilities. At 1 year after enrollment, 17.9% of children were LTF prior to ART initiation. Among children initiating ART, cumulative incidence of death was 3.4%, 4.1% and 4.8%, and cumulative incidence of LTF was 7.7%, 11.8% and 16.6% at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Children <2 years had higher risk of LTF and death than older children (P < 0.0001). Children with more advanced disease and those enrolled in rural settings were more likely to die. Children enrolled in more recent years were less likely to die but more likely to be LTF. Over the last decade large numbers of HIV-infected children have been successfully enrolled in HIV care and initiated on ART in Ethiopia. Retention prior to and after ART initiation remains a major challenge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Cutaneous and oral manifestations in HIV-infected children and adults--169 cases].

    PubMed

    Mihalache, Doina; Luca, V; Nicolau, Cristina; Teodorescu, Irina; Prisăcariu, L J; Macovei, Simona

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate cutaneous and oral manifestations in infected HIV patients. We retrospectively analyzed 169 cases admitted in Infectiouse Disease Department of Iaşi in 2001-2002 period. Cutaneous and oral manifestations were: candidiasis (99 cases), herpes virus infectious (36 cases), scabies and straphylococcal/streptococcal skin disease (26 cases), prurigo nodularis, psoriasis and verruca vulgaris (9 cases). Children of 0-13 year old group was 75.73 percent. Classification of HIV infection was related with CD4 count for 166 cases. Twelve cases with oral pharyngitis candidiasis, scabies and streptococcal skin diseases was 2-3 recurrent episodes of manifestations. Etiotrop treatment was associated with HAART therapy. Cutaneous and oral manifestations are occurred frequently in HIV infected patients, with a various etiology, but the severity, persistence and its evolution did not evaluate.

  19. Intestinal Parasitoses in HIV Infected Children in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Oninla, Samuel Olorunyomi; Akindele, Abiodum Akeem; Adedokun, Samuel Adeyinka

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitoses are common amongst people living in developing countries. They may impact negatively on the growth and health of immune competent children. There is paucity of information on the association between HIV and intestinal parasitoses in African children. Objective To identify the intestinal infections responsible for infections in HIV infected children and document characteristics of HIV infected children at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods Consecutive children attending a Paediatric anti-retroviral clinic were studied. Information such as socio-demographics and clinical characteristics elicited from clinical examination were recorded in the proforma. Stool samples of the children were obtained and examined for intestinal parasites. Data was analysed with the SPSS 18 software. Results A total 52 children were studied and their age ranged between 6 months and 14 years, with a mean of 6.5 years ± 3.93. The 52 were made up of 27 boys and 25 girls, giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. 10 (19.2%) of the 52 children were infected with cryptosporidium spp, while 1(1.9%) had Ascaris lumbricoides infestation. Anti-helminthics had previously been administered to 86.5% of children studied. Those who previously received anti-helminthics had lower prevalence estimates of cryptosporidium infections. (p<0.01, RR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.20 – 0.90). Children on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis had lower prevalence estimates of cryptosporidium infections. (P<0.01, RR = 0.35, 95%CI = 0.14 – 0.91). Use of highly active antiretroviral drugs was also associated with lower prevalence estimates of intestinal cryptosporidium. (p=0.04, RR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.31 – 1.10). Eight of the 10 children infected with cryptosporidium had recurrent abdominal pain in comparison with the six with recurrent abdominal pain amongst the 42 without cryptosporidial infections. (p<0.01, RR=5.6, 95%CI= 2.51 – 12.1). Conclusion Cryptosporidial infection is the most

  20. Features of whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Y F; Sgarbieri, V C; da Silva, M N; Toro, A A D C; Vilela, M M S

    2006-02-01

    HIV infection is associated with subnormal GSH levels. An increase in glutathione levels has been observed in HIV-infected adults under oral whey protein supplementation. We studied the features associated with a whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive AIDS. A prospective double-blind clinical trial was carried out for 4 months with 18 vertically HIV-infected children (1.98-6.37 years), under antiretroviral therapy, who had received whey protein, maltodextrin (placebo) or none. Erythrocyte glutathione concentration, T lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+) and occurrence of associated co-infections were evaluated. Wilcoxon's and Fischer's Exact tests were used to assess differences between whey protein-supplemented and control (placebo and non-supplemented) groups. A significant median increase of 16.14 mg/dl (p = 0.018) in erythrocyte glutathione levels was observed in the whey protein-supplemented group; the TCD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio showed a non significant increase and lower occurrence of associated co-infections was also observed. In conclusion, whey protein concentrate supplementation can stimulate glutathione synthesis and, possibly, decrease the occurrence of associated co-infections.

  1. Living environment and schooling of children with HIV-infected parents in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Wu, Z; Duan, S; Li, Z; Li, X; Shen, M; Mathur, A; Stanton, B

    2006-10-01

    A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Longchuan County, China, to study the lives of children with HIV-infected parents. Registered HIV-infected drug users and their households were approached and information about the living environment of children < or =15 years of age was collected. Of the 266 households interviewed, there were 213 children < or =15 years old. Forty percent of the children had lost at least one parent. Most of the children resided in a household with low economic status and a high dependency ratio. One-half of the children experienced discordant family relations, family anxiety and shame. Compared to orphans, non-orphans and their families were less likely to receive social support from the community. Orphans and older children were less likely to attend school and more likely to be truant if enrolled in school. Findings in the current study suggest that many children whose parents are infected with HIV or have died from HIV are living in stressful environments with minimal support from the community. Efforts should be taken to provide support and supervision to these children.

  2. Oligosaccharide Composition of Breast Milk Influences Survival of Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Lusaka, Zambia12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. Objective: In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. Methods: In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Results: Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2′-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non–2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. Conclusions: The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. PMID:25527660

  3. Oligosaccharide composition of breast milk influences survival of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2'-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non-2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Oral lesions among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Meless, David; Ba, Boubacar; Faye, Malick; Diby, Jean-Serge; N'zoré, Serge; Datté, Sébastien; Diecket, Lucrèce; N'Diaye, Clémentine; Aka, Edmond Addi; Kouakou, Kouadio; Ba, Abou; Ekouévi, Didier Koumavi; Dabis, François; Shiboski, Caroline; Arrivé, Elise

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of oral mucosal diseases and dental caries among HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in West Africa and to identify the factors associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. Multicentre cross-sectional survey in five paediatric HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Sénégal. A standardised examination was performed by trained dentists on a random sample of HIV-infected children aged 5-15 years receiving ART. The prevalence of oral and dental lesions and mean number of decayed, missing/extracted and filled teeth (DMFdefT) in temporary and permanent dentition were estimated with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We used logistic regression to explore the association between children's characteristics and the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, expressed as prevalence odds ratio (POR). The median age of the 420 children (47% females) enrolled was 10.4 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 8.3-12.6]. The median duration on ART was 4.6 years (IQR = 2.6-6.2); 84 (20.0%) had CD4 count<350 cells/mm(3). A total of 35 children (8.3%; 95% CI: 6.1-11.1) exhibited 42 oral mucosal lesions (24 were candidiasis); 86.0% (95% CI = 82.6-89.3) of children had DMFdefT ≥ 1. The presence of oral mucosal lesions was independently associated with CD4 count < 350 cells/mm(3) (POR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.06-4.36) and poor oral hygiene (POR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.07-6.76). Oral mucosal lesions still occur in HIV-infected African children despite ART, but rarely. However, dental caries were common and severe in this population, reflecting the need to include oral health in the comprehensive care of HIV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Unexpected non-HIV causes of death in children born to HIV-infected mothers. Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection Study Group.

    PubMed

    Starc, T J; Langston, C; Goldfarb, J; Colin, A A; Cooper, E R; Easley, K A; Sunkle, S; Schluchter, M D

    1999-07-01

    A high incidence of sudden, unexplained deaths in infants born to HIV-infected mothers has been noted in several epidemiologic studies. During the course of a prospective study of heart and lung disease in children born to HIV-infected mothers, we noted that of 5 unexpected non-HIV-related deaths, 4 were attributed to traumatic events. The Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P2C2) study is a multicenter, prospective investigation of the incidence of heart and lung disease in HIV-infected children. A total of 805 children were enrolled and followed for 5 to 7 years with serial immunologic, pulmonary and cardiac function studies. During the study, a multidisciplinary committee was formed to review the cause of death for those patients who died. The committee used results of pulmonary, cardiac, and laboratory tests, hospital summaries, as well as autopsy and coroners' reports. The committee formed a consensus about the underlying and contributing causes of death for each subject using the definitions from the 1989 US Standard Certificate of Death. A total of 121 deaths occurred during the course of the P2C2 study. Of the 121 deaths, 5 were traumatic or sudden and unexpected and judged by the Mortality Review Committee to be unrelated to HIV infection. The median age at the time of death was 1.3 months and ranged from 1.2 to 37.8 months. Two infants died of trauma: a skull fracture and subdural hematoma in 1 infant and multiple skeletal fractures consistent with battered child syndrome in the other infant. The third infant died of accidental suffocation at home at 1.2 months of age. The fourth infant died suddenly and unexpectedly at home at 1.3 months of age. The autopsy showed no sign of HIV or other infection and was consistent with sudden unexpected death or SIDS. One non-HIV-related death occurred when a 38-month-old child died together with the mother in an unwitnessed drowning. The cumulative mortality rate

  6. Shedding of Live Vaccine Virus, Comparative Safety, and Influenza-Specific Antibody Responses after Administration of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Trivalent Influenza Vaccines to HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Nachman, Sharon; Patterson, Julie; Walker, Robert; Kemble, George; Allende, Maria; Hultquist, Micki; Yi, Tingting; Nowak, Barbara; Weinberg, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected children (n = 243), ≥5 to <18 years old, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, were stratified by immunologic status and randomly assigned to receive intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or intramuscular trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The safety profile after LAIV or TIV closely resembled the previously reported tolerability to these vaccines in children without HIV infection. Post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses and shedding of LAIV virus were also similar, regardless of immunological stratum, to antibody responses and shedding previously reported for children without HIV infection. LAIV should be further evaluated for a role in immunizing HIV-infected children. PMID:18597900

  7. Social factors related to quality of life among HIV infected children in ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuntawee, Chalermkwan; Fungladda, Wijitr; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Chotpittayasunon, Tawee

    2010-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the social factors and quality of life of HIV infected children attending the Pediatric Infectious Disease Clinic, Sappasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Data were collected during October-November 2008, by interviewing caretakers and their children using a structured questionnaire. The children's families were in need of improved social support (84.5%), since community resources provided limited support, such as clothes, food, financial support, consultation, and information. The HIV infected children's quality of life needed improvement (78.7%). The factors associated with quality of life included having others as main caretakers (OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.45-14.78), parental death (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.55-11.31), age of caregivers above 45 years old (OR 9.52, 95% CI 2.62-34.53), and family income less than THB 5,000 per month (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.14-23.39). However, on multivariate analysis, only age of caregiver was a significant predictor for quality of life of the child. Children who were cared for by caregivers aged 45 years or above had a better quality of life than those whose caregivers were 20-45 years old (OR 6.32, 95% CI 1.12-35.62). Therefore, to improve quality of life among HIV infected children, age of caregiver is an important factor to be considered. Government and non-government organizations should focus on supporting caregivers in terms of food, financial, and emotional support based on resources available in the community.

  8. Parents' disclosure of their HIV infection to their children in the context of the family.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Cowgill, Burton O; Bogart, Laura M; Corona, Rosalie; Ryan, Gery W; Murphy, Debra A; Nguyen, Theresa; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents' disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and children reported unplanned disclosure experiences with positive and negative outcomes. Parents sometimes reported that disclosure was not as negative as they feared. However, within-household analysis showed disagreement between parents and children from the same household regarding disclosure outcomes. These findings suggest that disclosure should be addressed within a family context to facilitate communication and children's coping. Parents should consider negative and positive outcomes, unplanned disclosure and children's capacity to adapt after disclosure when deciding whether to disclose.

  9. Subclinical atherosclerosis and markers of immune activation in HIV-infected children and adolescents: the CaroVIH Study.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Talía; Álvarez-Fuente, María; Navarro, María Luisa; Díaz, Laura; Rojo, Pablo; Blázquez, Daniel; de José, María Isabel; Ramos, José Tomás; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Martínez, Jorge; Medrano, Constancio; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles; Mellado, María José

    2014-01-01

    HIV-infected adults display increased cardiovascular disease, probably driven by inflammation and immune activation. These relationships have not been addressed in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents, a population at very high risk for long-term non-AIDS complications. Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was measured in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents and healthy controls. C-reactive protein and markers of immune activation (CD38⁺HLA-DR⁺) and immune senescence (CD28⁻CD57⁺) were determined. One hundred fifty HIV-infected patients and 150 controls were included, 64.8% female. IMT was thicker in HIV-infected patients (0.434 mm ± 0.025 vs. 0.424 mm ± 0.018, P < 0.001). After adjustment by age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, HIV infection was independently associated with thicker IMT (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 4.13; P = 0.007). Among HIV-related variables, a low CD4 nadir was related to an increased IMT. Although HIV-infected subjects presented higher frequencies of activated CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells (P = 0.002 and P = 0.087, respectively), no relation was found between IMT and inflammation, immune activation, or senescence. Structural changes of the vasculature present early in vertically HIV-infected subjects as well as immune activation and senescence. These patients should be carefully monitored for the prompt detection and early treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  10. High Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in HIV-Infected Peruvian Children

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Christina K.; Czechowicz, Josephine A.; Messner, Anna H.; Alarcón, Jorge; Roca, Lenka Kolevic; Rodriguez, Marsi M. Larragán; Villafuerte, César Gutiérrez; Montano, Silvia M.; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To measure the prevalence and to identify risk factors of hearing impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Peru. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two public hospitals and 1 nonprofit center in Lima, Peru, between August 2009 and April 2010. Subjects A total of 139 HIV-infected children, ages 4 to 19 years. Methods Hearing impairment and otologic health were assessed with pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and otoscopy. The primary outcome was hearing loss, defined as average threshold >25dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, in one or both ears. Historical and socioeconomic information was obtained through parental survey and medical chart review. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Fifty-four (38.8%) of 139 children had hearing impairment. On multivariate analysis, risk factors included: tympanic membrane perforation (odds ratio [OR] 7.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-30.5; P = .01), abnormal tympanometry (OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.09-6.75; P = .03), cerebral infection (OR 11.6; 95% CI, 1.06-126; P = .05), seizures (OR 5.20; 95% CI, 1.21-22.4; P = .03), and CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3 (OR 3.53; 95% CI, 1.18-10.5; P = .02). Conclusions The prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected children in Lima, Peru was 38.8%. Middle ear disease, prior cerebral infection, and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with hearing impairment. The high prevalence of hearing impairment emphasizes the need for periodic hearing assessment in the routine clinical care of HIV-infected children. PMID:22128111

  11. High prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Chao, Christina K; Czechowicz, Josephine A; Messner, Anna H; Alarcón, Jorge; Kolevic Roca, Lenka; Larragán Rodriguez, Marsi M; Gutiérrez Villafuerte, César; Montano, Silvia M; Zunt, Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    To measure the prevalence and to identify risk factors of hearing impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Peru. Cross-sectional observational study. Two public hospitals and 1 nonprofit center in Lima, Peru, between August 2009 and April 2010. A total of 139 HIV-infected children, ages 4 to 19 years. Hearing impairment and otologic health were assessed with pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and otoscopy. The primary outcome was hearing loss, defined as average threshold >25dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, in one or both ears. Historical and socioeconomic information was obtained through parental survey and medical chart review. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-four (38.8%) of 139 children had hearing impairment. On multivariate analysis, risk factors included: tympanic membrane perforation (odds ratio [OR] 7.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-30.5; P = .01), abnormal tympanometry (OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.09-6.75; P = .03), cerebral infection (OR 11.6; 95% CI, 1.06-126; P = .05), seizures (OR 5.20; 95% CI, 1.21-22.4; P = .03), and CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm(3) (OR 3.53; 95% CI, 1.18-10.5; P = .02). The prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected children in Lima, Peru was 38.8%. Middle ear disease, prior cerebral infection, and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with hearing impairment. The high prevalence of hearing impairment emphasizes the need for periodic hearing assessment in the routine clinical care of HIV-infected children.

  12. Maternal HIV infection, drug use, and growth of uninfected children in their first 3 years.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A; Raab, G M; Mok, J; Gilkison, S; Hamilton, B; Johnstone, F D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the separate effects of maternal HIV infection and drug use during pregnancy on growth of uninfected children in their first 3 years. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of measurements from health visitor records made during routine child health surveillance at 6 weeks, 10 months, and 3 years of age. Multilevel analysis allowed for between-infant variation in fitted growth lines, and adjustment for other factors. Growth was described in terms of an intercept (z score at term) and growth slopes (change in z score per year) up to, and from, 4 months. SUBJECTS--290 case babies delivered in Edinburgh hospitals to women who reported injection drug use by either themselves or their HIV infected partner, and 186 community controls. A total of 131 (45%) of the case babies were born to women who used drugs, predominantly opiates, during pregnancy and 93 (32%) to HIV infected women. The eight infected children were excluded from analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age and sex standardised z scores for height, weight, and body mass index. RESULTS--459 (96%) of the 476 records for cases and controls were traced, yielding 1432 weight and 939 height measurements. Maternal HIV infection was not found to affect growth; at 3 years the estimated effect on weight z score was 0.16 with 95% confidence interval (-0.25 to 0.57) and for height 0.18 (-0.19 to 0.55). Drug use during pregnancy was associated with lighter babies at 40 weeks followed by depressed growth in the first four months, these infants remaining just slightly smaller at 3 years with an estimated effect on z scores of -0.5 for weight with 95% confidence interval (-0.89 to -0.11) and -0.37 (-0.72 to -0.02) for height. CONCLUSIONS--Maternal HIV infection does not adversely affect growth in uninfected infants, and the effect of drug use during pregnancy is limited to small decrease in size at 3 years. PMID:8546501

  13. Whole gastrointestinal transit time is associated with clinical severity and nutritional status of HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Issaragraiseel, Patchaya; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Jirapinyo, Pipop

    2009-07-01

    Malnutrition and malabsorption are common consequences in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site affected by HIV Rapid gastrointestinal transit time may contribute to malabsorption. To determine whether the whole gastrointestinal transit time (WGTT) correlates with disease stages or degrees of malnutrition in HIV-infected children. Forty HIV-seropositive children, at various stages of disease, and thirty seronegative age-matched controls, aged between 1 mo and 3 yr, were enrolled in the present study. The body weight, length, or height and the WGTT were assessed Then the WGTT of children in different stages of HIV disease and in different degrees of malnutrition were compared with those of the control group. The mean ages were 15.5 and 14.3 mo in HIV-infected and control groups respectively. A greater degree of malnutrition was found in HIV-infected children with more advances HIV clinical symptoms. Compared to controls, WGTT was most rapid in severely symptomatic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (Category C) (14.32 +/- 3.88 versus 7.22 +/- 3.17 h; p < 0.01) but not in asymptomatic, mildly and moderately symptomatic children. Accelerated WGTT in HIV-infected children was also significantly associated with a higher degree of malnutrition. Malnutrition is clearly related to the progression ofHIV disease. Accelerated WGTT is associated with HIV seropositivity, severe clinical symptoms, and higher degrees of malnutrition.

  14. Development of a diagnosis disclosure model for perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; McConnell, Michelle S; Vanprapar, Nirun; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Prasitsurbsai, Wasana; Durier, Yuitiang; Klumthanom, Kanyarat; Patel, Alpa; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Chotpitayasunond, Tawee

    2013-01-01

    While disclosure of HIV status to perinatally HIV-infected children has become an increasingly important clinical issue, specific disclosure guidelines are lacking. We developed a pediatric HIV diagnosis disclosure model to support caretakers. All HIV-infected children greater than 7-years-old at two participating hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand, and their caretakers, were offered disclosure according to the 4-step protocol: (1) screening; (2) readiness assessment; (3) disclosure; and (4) follow-up. Disclosure occurred after agreement of both providers and caretakers. Among 438 children who were screened, 398 (89%) were eligible. Readiness assessment was completed for 353 (91%) of eligible children and 216 (61%) were determined ready. Disclosure was done for 186 children. The mean age at eligibility screening was 10.5 years (range: 6.8-15.8 years); the mean age at disclosure was 11.7 years (range: 7.6-17.7 years). The mean duration between eligibility screening and disclosure was 15.2 months. There were no significant negative behavioral or emotional outcomes reported in children following disclosure. This HIV diagnosis disclosure model was feasible to implement and had no negative outcomes. As the time for preparation process was over 1 year for most cases, the disclosure process can be initiated as early as age 7 to allow enough time for disclosure to be completed by the age of adolescence.

  15. Disclosure of HIV status and adherence to daily drug regimens among HIV-infected children in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bikaako-Kajura, Winnie; Luyirika, Emmanuel; Purcell, David W; Downing, Julia; Kaharuza, Frank; Mermin, Jonathan; Malamba, Samuel; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2006-07-01

    Pediatric adherence to daily drug regimens has not been widely assessed in Africa where majority of HIV infected children live. Using in-depth interviews of 42 HIV-infected children taking ART and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and 42 primary caregivers, at a comprehensive HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda, we evaluated their adherence experiences for purposes of program improvement. Daily drug regimens provided by the pediatric clinic included cotrimoxazole prophylaxis as well as ART and cotrimoxazole combined. Complete disclosure of HIV status by caregivers to children and strong parental relationships were related to good adherence. Structural factors including poverty and stigma were barriers to adherence even for children who had had complete disclosure and a supportive relationship with a parent. To ensure adherence to life-extending medications, our findings underscore the need for providers to support caregivers to disclose, provide on-going support and maintain open communication with HIV-infected children taking cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and ART.

  16. Background, Epidemiology, and Impact of HIV Infection in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Arye

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews issues of diagnosis and treatment of children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. A spectrum of clinical signs is correlated with serological results. The intense central nervous system involvement typically present in childhood cases is examined. (DB)

  17. Background, Epidemiology, and Impact of HIV Infection in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Arye

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews issues of diagnosis and treatment of children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. A spectrum of clinical signs is correlated with serological results. The intense central nervous system involvement typically present in childhood cases is examined. (DB)

  18. Continuous improvement in the immune system of HIV-infected children on prolonged antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Dickover, Ruth; Britto, Paula; Hu, Chengcheng; Patterson-Bartlett, Julie; Kraimer, Joyce; Gutzman, Howard; Shearer, William T.; Rathore, Mobeen; McKinney, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of HAART is to promote reconstitution of CD4+ T cells and other immune responses. We evaluated the extent and the kinetics of immune reconstitution in HIV-infected children over 144 weeks of successful HAART. Methods Thirty-seven children receiving their first HAART regimen had plasma HIV RNA; T cells and subpopulations; T-cell rearrangement excision circles (TREC) DNA; candida, HIVCD4 and HIVCD8 enzyme-linked immunospot measured at regular intervals. Results Plasma HIV RNA became undetectable in 81% of patients at 24 weeks and remained undetectable in 77% at 144 weeks. In contrast, CD4+% continuously increased. Distribution of T-cell subpopulations changed rapidly during the first 48 weeks of HAART and more slowly thereafter. At 144 weeks, total, naive and activated CD4+% and naive CD8+% of HIV-infected children were not significantly different from those of healthy age-matched controls, whereas total and activated CD8+% remained elevated. CD4+ and CD8+ TREC content increased only during the first 48 weeks of HAART. They positively correlated with each other and with total CD4+%, naive CD4+% and naive CD8+%. Candida and HIVCD4 enzyme-linked immunospot increased over time reaching peak values at 48 weeks and 144 weeks, respectively. HIVCD8 enzyme-linked immunospot decreased in magnitude over 144 weeks of HAART but retained its breadth. Baseline CD4+% positively correlated with CD4+% and with functional immune reconstitution at week 144, whereas baseline TREC correlated with TREC at week 144. Conclusion HIV-infected children acquired normal distribution of CD4+ T cells and other subpopulations and recovered CD4-mediated HIV immunity after 144 weeks of HAART. PMID:18981766

  19. Disclosure of parental HIV infection to children and psychosocial impact on children in China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Kaljee, Linda; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate parental HIV disclosure and psychological impact from the perspectives of their children. In-depth individual interviews with 47 children who had lost one or both parents to AIDS were conducted in China. All transcripts were coded using the software ATLAS.ti 5. Results showed that few of children knew of parental HIV status before the death of their parents. The main disclosers were the children’s current caregivers. Some children knew about their parent’s HIV infection based on their own observations or through overheard conversation, or their interactions with villagers. Both positive and negative psychological outcomes related to parental HIV disclosure were reported. Psychological counseling is needed for both parents and children to dealing with the parental HIV infection. PMID:24761258

  20. Nutritional status changes in HIV-infected children receiving combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D

    2000-11-01

    Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B.

  1. Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS symptomatology in malnourished children--a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Angami, Khriemenuo; Reddy, Sudha V R; Singh, Kh Ibochouba; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, P Ibomacha

    2004-03-01

    One hundred and seventy five malnourished children aged between 1(1/2) and 12 years attending pediatric department of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal from January 2001 to June 2002 were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection along with their biological mothers after pretest counselling and informed consent. The prevalence rate of HIV seropositivity among malnourished children was 21.7%. Children aged between 1(1/2) and 3 years had the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and male to female ratio was 1.5: 1. Underweight children showed the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and children with kwashiorkor showed least seroprevalence (10.5%). Mode of HIV transmission was vertical in 94.7%. The causative agent was HIV-I in all the cases. AIDS defining children features were seen more frequently among HIV seropositive malnourished children as compared to the seronegative children. Prolonged fever (p 0.001), oropharyngeal candidiasis (p<0.001), generalised lymphadenopathy (p<0.001) and disseminated maculopapular dermatitis (p<0.001) were significantly related to HIV infection. Among seronegative children 18.2% fulfilled the clinical criteria for AIDS and among seropositive children 94.7% had AIDS. The total mortality encountered among seropositive children was 34.2%. It is suggested to confirm findings based on larger community based data before recommending mandatory HIV testing in all malnourished children. Specific guidelines on the nutritional management of children with HIV/AIDS is needed in Manipur where HIV is spreading rapidly.

  2. Hearing loss in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A; Williams, Paige L

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these with the percentage with hearing loss in the general population and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any prespecified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥ 20 dB hearing level. The associations of demographic variables, parent/caregiver, HIV disease and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss (adjusted odds ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-4.76, P = 0.07). Among HIV+ children, those with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-5.87, P = 0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III children. Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in children from a US population sample. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children.

  3. Thinking about HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Evelyn P; Siberry, George K; Hutton, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. Evidence-based interventions (routine screening of pregnant women, initiation of antiretroviral drugs for mother's treatment or prevention of MTCT, and avoiding breastfeeding) have reduced transmission rates in the United States from 25% to 30% to less than 2%. Triple-drug combination antiretroviral therapy effectively controls HIV infection and improves survival and quality of life for HIV-infected children and adolescents. Initial regimens use combinations of two NRTIs together with an NNRTI or a ritonavir-boosted PI. These regimens have been shown to increase CD4 counts and achieve virologic suppression. Prevention of serious and opportunistic infections reduces morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents who have HIV infection. Recommendations for immunizations and chemoprophylaxis vary with the patient's CD4 count. Condoms made from latex, polyurethane, or other synthetic materials have been shown to decrease the transmission of STIs, including HIV infection.

  4. Tuberculosis: opportunities and challenges for the 90–90–90 targets in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, Helena; Frigati, Lisa; Hesseling, Anneke C; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS defined the ambitious 90–90–90 targets for 2020, in which 90% of people living with HIV must be diagnosed, 90% of those diagnosed should be on sustained therapy and 90% of those on therapy should have an undetectable viral load. Children are considered to be a key focus population for these targets. This review will highlight key components of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children in the era of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their relation to the 90–90–90 targets. Discussion The majority of HIV-infected children live in countries with a high burden of TB. In settings with a high burden of both diseases such as in sub-Saharan Africa, up to 57% of children diagnosed with and treated for TB are HIV-infected. TB results in substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, so preventing TB and optimizing its treatment in HIV-infected children will be important to ensuring good long-term outcomes. Prevention of TB can be achieved by increasing access to ART to both children and adults, and appropriate provision of isoniazid preventative therapy. Co-treatment of HIV and TB is complicated by drug-drug interactions particularly due to the use of rifampicin; these may compromise virologic outcomes if appropriate corrective actions are not taken. There remain substantial operational challenges, and improved integration of paediatric TB and HIV services, including with antenatal and routine under-five care, is an important priority. Conclusions TB may be an important barrier to achievement of the 90–90–90 targets, but specific attention to TB care in HIV-infected children may provide important opportunities to enhance the care of both TB and HIV in children. PMID:26639110

  5. Colonisation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in a cohort of HIV infected children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sampane-Donkor, Eric; Badoe, Ebenezer Vincent; Annan, Jennifer Adoley; Nii-Trebi, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic use not only selects for resistance in pathogenic bacteria, but also in commensal flora of exposed individuals. Little is known epidemiologically about antibiotic resistance in relation to people with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the carriage of antibiotic resistant bacteria among HIV infected children at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. One hundred and eighteen HIV positive children were recruited at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from them. The specimens were cultured for bacteria, and the isolates were identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on selected bacterial organisms by the Kirby Bauer method. Bacteria isolated from the study subjects included Moraxella catarrhalis (39.8%), coagulase negative staphylococci (33.1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (30.5%), diptheroids (29.7%), viridian streptococci (27.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0%), Citrobacter spp. (4.2%) and Neisseria meningitidis (0.9%). Prevalence of antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae ranged from 5.6% (ceftriaxone) to 58.3% (cotrimoxazole), M. catarrhalis ranged from 2.1% (gentamicin) to 80.6% (ampicillin), and S. aureus ranged from 7.7% (cefoxitin) to 100% (penicillin). The prevalence of multiple drug resistance was 16.7% for S. pneumoniae, 57.4% for M. catarrhalis and 84.6% for S. aureus. HIV infected children in the study area commonly carry multi-drug resistant isolates of several pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Infections arising in these patients that are caused by S. aureus and S. pneumoniae could be treated with ceftriaxone and cefoxitin respectively.

  6. Pediatric HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Espanol, Teresa; Caragol, Isabel; Soler, Pere; Hernandez, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.

  7. Coinfection with herpesviruses in young children of HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Sever, J L; Rakusan, T A; Ellaurie, M; Frenkel, N; Wyatt, L S; Campos, J M; O'Donnell, R M; Price, M V

    1995-04-01

    Coinfection with herpesviruses in young children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was studied with blood samples from children who were 9-12 months and 15-24 months of age. Three groups of children were included: (I) HIV-uninfected, asymptomatic (HIV-); (II) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or culture-positive and asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (HIV+ asymptomatic); and (III) PCR and/or culture-positive and symptomatic (HIV+ symptomatic). Significantly more of the HIV+ symptomatic patients had cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody than the HIV patients. In addition, CMV antibody levels were significantly higher in the HIV+ symptomatic patients than in either of the other two groups. Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) antibody titers were significantly different among the three groups of patients; however, no pairwise comparisons were significant. No differences were found for HHV-6 or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody frequencies or titers. These findings suggest that infection with CMV is a cofactor or an opportunistic infection causing symptomatic HIV infections in young children.

  8. Disclosure of parental HIV infection to children: a systematic review of global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the global empirical literature regarding disclosure of parental HIV infection to children. Thirty-eight articles published in English-language journals prior to 2011 were retrieved and reviewed regarding disclosure process, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and impacts of disclosure/non-disclosure. Disclosure rate was relatively low worldwide. The decision making of disclosure or non-disclosure was mainly affected by children's development level, stigma, consideration of children's benefits, and parenting practices. Unintentional and forced disclosures were common. Findings regarding the impacts of disclosure/non-disclosure were mixed but disclosure tended to have long-term positive impacts on the well-being of children, parents and family in general. This review underscores the importance of developing evidence-informed developmentally and culturally appropriate interventions to assist HIV-positive parents to disclose their HIV status to children, particularly in low-resource settings.

  9. Trends in Diagnoses Among Hospitalizations of HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in the United States: 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Stacey A; Ewing, Alexander C; Ellington, Sascha R; Kourtis, Athena P

    2017-10-01

    Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the United States. We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses. We also examined trends in the prevalence of select discharge diagnoses and procedures using multivariable logistic regression models. During 2003-2012, the number of hospitalizations for HIV-infected children declined 58% versus 17% for uninfected, but the odds of having discharge codes for most of the diagnoses and procedures studied, including death during hospitalization, remained higher among HIV-infected compared with uninfected children. Among HIV-infected children, the prevalence of discharge diagnoses for pneumonia, pneumococcal disease and varicella/herpes zoster infections and odds of death during hospitalization decreased over time, while bacterial infections/sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased. Among HIV-uninfected children, there was no increase in diagnoses of bacterial infection/sepsis, but otherwise trends were similar. The number of hospitalizations for HIV-infected children declined from 2003 to 2012. The decreased prevalence of several discharge diagnoses and lower risk of death during hospitalization likely reflect improvements in HIV therapies and increased uptake of other preventive strategies. However, the increasing prevalence of discharge diagnoses for bacterial infections/sepsis warrants further attention and monitoring.

  10. High-Risk Enteric Pathogens Associated with HIV-Infection and HIV-Exposure in Kenyan Children with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    PAVLINAC, PB; JOHN-STEWART, GC; NAULIKHA, JM; ONCHIRI, FM; DENNO, DM; ODUNDO, EA; SINGA, BO; RICHARDSON, BA; WALSON, JL

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-infection is an established risk for diarrheal severity, less is known about specific enteric pathogens associated with HIV status. We determined associations of selected enteric pathogens with HIV-infection and HIV-exposure among Kenyan children. Design Cross-sectional study among 6 months to 15 year olds presenting to two Western Kenya District hospitals with acute diarrhea between 2011–2013. Methods Stool was tested using standard bacterial culture and microscopy for ova and parasites. HIV testing was obtained on children and mothers. Enteric pathogen prevalence was compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for selected pathogens by HIV-status were estimated using relative risk (RR) regression and P-values. Age, site, income, household crowding, water source/treatment, anthropometrics, cotrimoxazole use, and breastfeeding history were accounted for in multivariable models. Results Among 1,076 children, median age was 22 months (interquartile range: 11–42), 56 (5.2%) were HIV-infected, and 10.3%(105/1020) of HIV-uninfected children were HIV-exposed. The following organisms were most frequently isolated from stool: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (13.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%) Campylobacter (6.3%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (6.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (3.7%). Accounting for age, HIV-infection was associated with EPEC infection (PR: 3.70, P=0.002) while HIV-exposure was associated with Cryptosporidium among HIV-uninfected children (PR: 2.81, P=0.005). Conclusion EPEC and Cryptosporidium infections were more common in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, respectively. This could explain the increased mortality attributed to these pathogens in other studies. Interventions targeting EPEC and Cryptosporidium may reduce morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings. PMID:25028987

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Ayesha; Wells, Saran; Gayton, Tabitha; Smotherman, Carmen; Rathore, Azeem; Kraemer, Dale; Rathore, Mobeen

    2016-11-01

    Improvement in life expectancy with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy has come with the recognition of the complications associated with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Vitamin D has been of particular interest because of its effect on bone health and immune functions. The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin D status in children in relation to the duration and severity of their human immunodeficiency virus infection and nutritional status, as well as to determine whether there was any effect of seasonality. The study design was cross-sectional and all children 0 to 21 years of age were eligible to participate. A total of 59 participants provided informed consent, with 54 subjects completing all study activities. Thirteen (24.1%) had sufficient vitamin D levels, 13 (24.1%) had insufficient levels, and 28 (51.9%) had deficient levels per the guidelines of the Endocrine Society. In our univariate analysis, younger age was associated with higher vitamin D levels (P = 0.030). Higher CD4 counts were associated with higher vitamin D levels (P = 0.018). A significant association between the vitamin D intake per day and vitamin D level was seen (P = 0.013). In the multivariate analysis, the best ordinal logistic regression model had the CD4 count as predictor (P < 0.005), higher CD4 counts were associated with decreased odds of vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.80). Vitamin D deficiency was common among the patients included in this study.

  12. Characterization of cytomegalovirus lung infection in non-HIV infected children.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Gualteros, Sonia M; Jaramillo-Barberi, Lina E; Gonzalez-Santos, Monica; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Perez, Geovanny F; Gutierrez, Maria J; Nino, Gustavo

    2014-05-07

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a prevalent pathogen in the immunocompromised host and invasive pneumonia is a feared complication of the virus in this population. In this pediatric case series we characterized CMV lung infection in 15 non-HIV infected children (median age 3 years; IQR 0.2-4.9 years), using current molecular and imaging diagnostic modalities, in combination with respiratory signs and symptoms. The most prominent clinical and laboratory findings included cough (100%), hypoxemia (100%), diffuse adventitious breath sounds (100%) and increased respiratory effort (93%). All patients had abnormal lung images characterized by ground glass opacity/consolidation in 80% of cases. CMV was detected in the lung either by CMV PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (82% detection rate) or histology/immunohistochemistry in lung biopsy (100% detection rate). CMV caused respiratory failure in 47% of children infected and the overall mortality rate was 13.3%. CMV pneumonia is a potential lethal disease in non-HIV infected children that requires a high-index of suspicion. Common clinical and radiological patterns such as hypoxemia, diffuse adventitious lung sounds and ground-glass pulmonary opacities may allow early identification of CMV lung infection in the pediatric population, which may lead to prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and better clinical outcomes.

  13. Projections of diagnosed HIV infection in children and adolescents in New York State.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel E; Ghazaryan, Lusine R; Maslak, Julia; Anderson, Bridget J; Brousseau, Kathleen S; Carrascal, Alvaro F; Smith, Lou C

    2012-03-01

    Decreasing mother-to-child transmission is changing the population of children and adolescents with HIV. This project used recent epidemiological data to develop short-term projections of children and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection in New York State. A population simulation model was created to project prevalence of diagnosed HIV cases aged 0-19 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity and risk for years 2007-2014. Using 2006 data as the baseline population and 2001-2006 diagnosis and death data, annual diagnoses and deaths were calculated for each age/sex/race/risk category and known cases were 'aged' into the next year. The model produced annual estimates until 2014. The model predicts a decline in the number of persons aged 0-19 years living with diagnosed HIV in New York from 2810 in 2006 to 1431 in 2014, a net decrease of 49%. Living cases with paediatric risk continue to decrease. Cases aged 13-19 with non-paediatric risk increase slowly, leading to a shift in the risk composition of the population. The dominant effect seen in the model is the ageing out of perinatally infected children born before measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission were broadly implemented in the mid- to late 1990s. Changing trends in the young HIV-infected population should be considered in developing public health programmes for HIV prevention and care in New York State for the coming years.

  14. Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Data in Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Peter; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Zeldow, Bret; Williams, Paige; Hoffman, Howard J.; Siberry, George K.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of perinatal HIV infection and exposure on sub-clinical auditory function can be measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). DPOAEs were obtained at four frequency bins (1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz) and categorized by a signal-to-noise ratio. HIV infection was not associated with poorer DPOAEs. Among HIV-infected children, HIV viral load ≥400 copies/mL had significantly lower odds of better DPOAEs. PMID:25742077

  15. Distortion product otoacoustic emission data in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Torre, Peter; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Zeldow, Bret; Williams, Paige; Hoffman, Howard J; Siberry, George K

    2015-03-01

    The effect of perinatal HIV infection and exposure on sub-clinical auditory function can be measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). DPOAEs were obtained at 4 frequency bins (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and categorized by a signal-to-noise ratio. HIV infection was not associated with poorer DPOAEs. Among HIV-infected children, HIV viral load≥400 copies/mL had significantly lower odds of better DPOAEs.

  16. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely-malnourished or HIV-infected Children with Pneumonia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  17. Effect of HIV diagnosis disclosure on psychosocial outcomes in Thai children with perinatal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Boon-Yasidhi, V; Naiwatanakul, T; Chokephaibulkit, K; Lolekha, R; Leowsrisook, P; Chotpitayasunond, T; Wolfe, M

    2016-03-01

    A provider-assisted, counselling-based, paediatric HIV disclosure model was developed and implemented at two tertiary-care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. All undisclosed perinatally acquired HIV-infected children, aged 7-18 years, and their caretakers were offered the four-step disclosure service, including: screening, readiness assessments and preparation, disclosure sessions, and follow-up evaluations. To assess psychosocial outcomes of disclosure, we compared the scores of the Children Depression Inventory and the PedsQL 4.0™ at baseline and at two-month and six-month follow-up visits, and compared the scores of the Child Behavioral Checklist at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Disclosure was made to 186 children, 160 of whom completed post-disclosure assessments. The median Children's Depression Inventory score in 135 children decreased significantly from 11 at baseline to 8 at two-month and six-month follow-up (p < 0.01). The median PedsQL 4.0™ scores in 126 children increased significantly from 78 at baseline to 80 at two-month and 84 at six-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The median Child Behavioral Checklist scores were not significantly changed. In conclusion, paediatric HIV diagnosis disclosure using this model was found to have positive effect on the children's mood and quality of life, and no negative effect on children's behaviours. This disclosure programme should be expanded to improve the psychosocial health of HIV-infected children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. HIV-infected parents and their children in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, M A; Kanouse, D E; Morton, S C; Bozzette, S A; Miu, A; Scott, G B; Shapiro, M F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the number, characteristics, and living situations of children of HIV-infected adults. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in 1996 and early 1997 with a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 adults receiving health care for HIV within the contiguous United States. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of infected adults in care had children. Women were more likely than men to have children (60% vs 18%) and to live with them (76% vs 34%). Twenty-one percent of parents had been hospitalized during the previous 6 months, and 10% had probably been drug dependent in the previous year. Parents continued to have children after being diagnosed with HIV: 12% of all women conceived and bore their youngest child after diagnosis, and another 10% conceived before but gave birth after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and support services for people affected by the HIV epidemic should have a family focus. PMID:10897185

  19. Associations of low vitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations with bone mineral density in perinatally HIV-infected children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. ...

  20. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women.

    PubMed Central

    Coutsoudis, A; Bobat, R A; Coovadia, H M; Kuhn, L; Tsai, W Y; Stein, Z A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women were evaluated in a population where vitamin A deficiency is not endemic. METHODS. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation was carried out in 118 offspring of HIV-infected women in Durban, South Africa. Those assigned to receive a supplement were given 50,000 IU of vitamin A at 1 and 3 months of age; 100,000 IU at 6 and 9 months; and 200,000 IU at 12 and 15 months. Morbidity in the past month was then recalled at each follow-up visit. Analysis was based on 806 child-months. RESULTS. Among all children, the supplemented group had lower overall morbidity than the placebo group (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48, 0.99). Among the 85 children of known HIV status (28 infected, 57 uninfected), morbidity associated with diarrhea was significantly reduced in the supplemented infected children (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.27, 0.99), whereas no effect of supplementation on diarrheal morbidity was noted among the uninfected children. CONCLUSION. In a population not generally vitamin A deficient, vitamin A supplementation for children of HIV-infected women appeared to be beneficial, reducing morbidity. The benefit was observed particularly for diarrhea among HIV-infected children. PMID:7625499

  1. Oral lesions among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meless, David; Ba, Boubacar; Faye, Malick; Diby, Jean-Serge; N’zoré, Serge; Datté, Sébastien; Diecket, Lucrèce; N’Diaye, Clémentine; Aka, Edmond Addi; Kouakou, Kouadio; Ba, Abou; Ekouévi, Didier Koumavi; Dabis, François; Shiboski, Caroline; Arrivé, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of oral mucosal diseases and dental caries among HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in West Africa, and to identify factors associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. Methods Multi-center cross-sectional survey in 5 pediatric HIV clinics in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Sénégal. A standardized examination was performed by trained dentists on a random sample of HIV-infected children aged 5 to 15 years receiving ART. The prevalence of oral and dental lesions and mean number of decayed, missing/extracted and filled teeth (DMFdefT) in temporary and permanent dentition were estimated with their 95% confidence interval (95%CI). We used logistic regression to explore the association between children’s characteristics and the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, expressed as prevalence odds ratio (POR). Results The median age of the 420 children (47% females) enrolled was 10.4 years (interquartile range [IQR]=8.3–12.6). The median duration on ART was 4.6 years (IQR=2.6–6.2); 84 (20.0%) had CD4 count<350 cells/mm3. 35 children (8.3%; 95%CI: [6.1–11.1]) exhibited 42 oral mucosal lesions (24 were candidiasis); 86.0% (95%CI=82.6–89.3) of children had DMFdefT≥1. The presence of oral mucosal lesions was independently associated with CD4 count<350 cells/mm3 (POR=2.96, 95% CI=1.06–4.36) and poor oral hygiene (POR=2.69, 95%CI=1.07–6.76). Conclusions Oral mucosal lesions still occur in HIV-infected African children despite ART, but rarely. However, dental caries were common and severe in this population, reflecting the need to include oral health in the comprehensive care of HIV. PMID:24386972

  2. The effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV-infected Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Gertz, Erik; Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Jamieson, Denise J; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-08-29

    We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post-partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant-pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post-partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80-90% of copper and zinc and <50% of iron concentrations met the current adequate intake for infants at 2 weeks and only 1-19% at 24 weeks. Pregnancy haemoglobin was negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = -.18, p < .02 for both). The associations of the milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11-.47, p < .05 for all); none were found with infant biomarkers. At 2 weeks, moderately anaemic women produced milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) ratio as a marker of mitochondrial toxicities of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Malawian patients.

    PubMed

    Kampira, Elizabeth; Dzobo, Kevin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Parker, M Iqbal; Dandara, Collet

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is a major concern related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Common manifestations are peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy. Depletion of mitochondria has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated whether mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) levels in peripheral blood can be used as biomarker of stavudine-associated mitochondrial toxicities. We enrolled 203 HIV-infected Malawian adult patients on stavudine-containing ART and 64 healthy controls of Bantu origin in a cross-sectional study. Total DNA was extracted from whole blood.The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was used to estimate nuclear DNA (nDNA) levels and the ATP synthase-8 mitochondrial DNA gene to estimate mtDNA levels, from which mtDNA/nDNA ratios were determined. MtDNA subhaplogroups were established by sequencing. Among patients, peripheral neuropathy was present in 21% (43/203), lipodystrophy in 18% (20/112), elevated lactate level (>2.5 mmol/L) in 17% (19/113). Healthy controls had a higher median mtDNA/nDNA ratio when compared to HIV/AIDS patients (6.64 vs. 5.08; p=0.05), patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy (6.64 vs. 3.40, p=0.039), and patients with high lactate levels (6.64 vs. 0.68, p=0.024), respectively. Significant differences in median mtDNA/nDNA ratios were observed between patients with high and normal lactate levels (5.88 vs. 0.68, p=0.018). The median mtDNA/nDNA ratio of patients in subhaplogroup L0a2 was much lower (0.62 vs. 8.50, p=0.01) than that of those in subhaplogroup L2a. Our data indicate that peripheral blood mtDNA/nDNA ratio is a marker of mitochondrial toxicities of stavudine and is associated with elevated lactate levels and mtDNA subhaplogroups. This could open the prospect to select a substantial group of patients who will not have problematic side effects from stavudine, an affordable and effective antiretroviral drug that is being phased out in Africa due to its toxicity.

  4. Cardiac function in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Talía; Álvarez-Fuente, María; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; González-Tomé, María Isabel; de José, María Isabel; Ramos, José Tomás; Navarro, María Luisa; Martínez, Jorge; García-Hortelano, Milagros; Medrano, Constancio; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles; Mellado, María José

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated increased risk of adverse cardiac outcomes in adults with HIV infection. However, few studies have addressed this problem in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents, and the long-term cardiac health of this unique population in the antiretroviral therapy era is still unknown. Ventricular function was evaluated cross-sectionally in a group of HIV-infected children and adolescents and healthy controls, using conventional echocardiography along with tissue Doppler imaging and strain analysis by speckle tracking. Simultaneously, measurements of carotid intima-media thickness were performed. A total of 64 cases and 58 controls were included, mean age was 13.6 ± 5.4 years and 64% were females. All but 2 patients were on antiretroviral treatment, and 64% had undetectable viral load. HIV-infected patients showed higher intima-media thickness (0.425 ± 0.019 vs. 0.415 ± 0.019 mm, P = 0.003). Statistically significant differences were found between groups in ejection fraction and fractional shortening (66.1% and 36.2% in the HIV-infected group vs. 71.5% and 40.8% in the control group, respectively, P = 0.001), although individual values fell within or near normal ranges. There were no significant differences in diastolic function, tissue Doppler imaging or cardiac strain (longitudinal and rotational) between both groups. No associations were identified between echocardiographic parameters and current CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadir, HIV viral load, duration or type of antiretroviral treatment regimens. In a context of highly effective antiretroviral treatment, no differences were found regarding cardiac abnormalities using conventional and advanced ultrasound imaging techniques in this cohort of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents, when compared with healthy controls.

  5. Delayed motor learning and psychomotor slowing in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    von Giesen, H J; Niehues, T; Reumel, J; Haslinger, B A; Ndagijimana, J; Arendt, G

    2003-08-01

    To find out whether HIV-associated subclinical psychomotor slowing is present in HIV-infected children despite effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). An electrophysiological motor test battery shown to sensitively describe HIV-associated CNS disease in adults (tremor peak frequency []TPF], most rapid alternating movements [MRAM], reaction time [RT] and contraction time [CT]) was performed in 17 HIV seropositive (+) right-handed children. Results were compared to 16 HIV seronegative (-) children. HIV (-) children showed slower frequencies (TPF, MRAM) and longer RT and CT than (-) adults. They showed a significant correlation (p = 0.0263) between RT (right = dominant hand) and age. HIV (+) children showed significant prolongations of RT (right hand) and CT (both hands) compared to HIV (-) children. RT right hand did not accelerate with age in HIV (+) children. CT were significantly prolonged in 10 children with detectable HIV plasma viral burden and normal in 7 children with no detectable HIV plasma viral load. There was no correlation between CT and CD 4 cell counts. Despite effective HAART, electrophysiological motor testing in HIV (+) children reveals significant subclinical CNS dysfunction, especially in children with insufficient viral load suppression.

  6. Epidemiology of HIV infection in women and children: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Avinash K

    2013-03-01

    The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS is rapidly evolving in low and middle income countries. Women and adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa are at risk of HIV acquisition due to a myriad of complex biological, behavioral and structural factors. Primary HIV infection among women primarily drives the pediatric HIV epidemic. Postnatal transmission of HIV during breastfeeding is a major concern in LMIC, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where breastfeeding remains the only feasible, safe and culturally acceptable infant feeding choice. Given the remarkable discoveries in biomedical interventions to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and MTCT during breastfeeding, there is now a unique opportunity to rapidly implement combination HIV prevention packages, provide quality prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services, and improve maternal and infant survival. Although rapid scale-up of PMTCT interventions has occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa in the past five years, significant challenges remain towards reaching the ambitious goal of virtual elimination of new HIV infections among children on a global scale by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive. Rapid translation of scientific discoveries into policy and practice in conjunction with strong commitment from national leadership and global partners is crucial to end the pediatric AIDS and achieve a HIV-free generation.

  7. Current status of herpesvirus identification in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Raquel dos Santos; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Nóbrega, Flávia; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Some viruses of the Herpesviridae family are frequently the etiologic agents of oral lesions associated with HIV. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus type 6, type 7 and type 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8) in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children/adolescents and verify the association between viral subtypes and clinical factors. The cells of oral mucosa were collected from 50 HIV infected children/adolescents, 3-13 years old (mean age 8.66). The majority (66%) of selected were girls, and they were all outpatients at the pediatric AIDS clinic of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Nested-PCR was used to identify the viral types. Absence of immunosuppression was observed in 66% of the children. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was used by 72.1% of selected and moderate viral load was observed in 56% of the children/adolescents. Viral types were found in 86% of the children and the subtypes were: HSV-1 (4%), HSV-2 (2%), VZV (4%), EBV (0%), HCMV (24%), HHV6 (18%), HHV-7 (68%), HHV8 (0%). The use of HAART has helped to reduce oral lesions, especially with herpes virus infections. The health professionals who work with these patients should be aware of such lesions because of their predictive value and the herpes virus can be found circulating in the oral cavity without causing lesions.

  8. Positive association between dietary iron intake and iron status in HIV-infected children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Herculina S; Balk, Lisanne J; Viljoen, Michelle; Meyers, Tammy M

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection and is associated with suboptimal cognitive performance and growth failure. Routine iron supplementation is not provided to South African HIV-infected children. We hypothesized that dietary iron intake without supplementation is sufficient to protect against iron deficiency (ID) in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this prospective study, the difference between dietary intakes of iron-deficient children (soluble transferrin receptor >9.4 mg/L) and iron-sufficient children after 18 months on highly active antiretroviral therapy was examined. The association between iron intake and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was also assessed. Longitudinal data collected for 18 months from 58 HIV-infected African children were assessed by generalized estimation equations, with adjustment for demographic information, dietary intakes, growth parameters, and CD4%. After adjustment for covariates, the longitudinal association between dietary iron intake and Hb concentration remained significant. This association shows that for every 1-mg increase in iron intake per day, Hb increases by 1.1 g/L (P < .001). Mean Hb increased significantly after 18 months of follow-up (106 ± 14 to 129 ± 14 g/L, P < .01), but soluble transferrin receptor also increased (7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.9 ± 3.0 mg/L, P < .01). The incidence of ID increased from 15.2% at baseline to 37.2% after 18 months. Children with animal protein intakes greater than >20 g/d had significantly lower odds for ID at 18 months than did children with lower intakes (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.77). Dietary iron intake was insufficient to protect against ID, pointing to a need for low-dose iron supplementation for iron-deficient HIV-infected children and interventions to increase the consumption of animal protein.

  9. Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D.; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed. Methodology/Principal Findings A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child's HIV infection status and timing of HIV infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0), maternal CD4<350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3). Conclusions/Results These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children. PMID:22383946

  10. Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed. A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child's HIV infection status and timing of HIV infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6-3.0), maternal CD4<350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1-1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1-4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1-15.3). These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

  11. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index in perinatally HIV-infected children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siberry, George K; Patel, Kunjal; Pinto, Jorge A; Puga, Ana; Mirza, Ayesha; Miller, Tracie L; Van Dyke, Russell B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index may signal liver fibrosis. Among 397 US children with perinatal HIV infection, at baseline was >1.5 in 0.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-2.2%) and >0.5 in 6.5% (95% CI, 4.3-9.4%); incidence on study was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2-1.2) and 6.4 (95% CI, 4.8-8.3) per 100 person-years, respectively. Long-term liver outcomes after perinatal HIV infection warrant further study.

  12. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fortuny, Clàudia; Deyà-Martínez, Ángela; Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the benefits of combined antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in morbidity and mortality due to perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection are beyond question and outweigh the toxicity these drugs have been associated with in HIV-infected children and adolescents to date. In puberty, abnormal body fat distribution is stigmatizating and leads to low adherence to ARV treatment. The other metabolic comorbidities (mitochondrial toxicity, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance and low bone mineral density) and renal toxicity, albeit nonsymptomatic in most children, are increasingly being reported and potentially put this population at risk for early cardiovascular or cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, pathologic fractures or premature renal failure in the third and fourth decades of life. Evidence from available studies is limited because of methodological limitations and also because of several HIV-unrelated factors influencing, to some degree, the development of these conditions. Current recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of metabolic and renal adverse effects in HIV-children and adolescents are based on adult studies, observational pediatric studies and experts' consensus. Healthy lifestyle habits (regarding diet, exercise and refraining from toxic substances) and wise use of ARV options are the only preventive tools for the majority of patients. Should abnormal findings arise, switches in one or more ARV drugs have proved useful. Specific therapies are also available for some of these comorbidities, although the experience in the pediatric age is still very scarce. We aim to summarize the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of metabolic and renal adverse effects in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents.

  13. [Failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, F; Yé, D; Zoungrana, A; Sacko, A; Ouédraogo-Traoré, R; Kafando, E; Ouédraogo, S

    2010-12-01

    Approximately one-fourth of the estimated 10,000 HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso are undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. At the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Support for ARV therapy began in July 2003 and a total of 250 children were undergoing treatment in late 2007. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study conducted over a period of 54 months from July 2003 to December 2007 was to investigate cases involving failure of first-line ARV therapy in particular with regard to cause. All patients (n = 32) showing poor virological, immunological, and/or clinical response to ARV therapy were considered as failures and thus included in the case group. The control group (n = 160) consisted of patients with good responses to treatment. Cases and controls were compared using the Chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) technique with a confidence interval at 95%. The failure rate was 12.8%. Failure was significantly correlated with low socioeconomic level (OR = 3), orphan status (OR = 4), age over 10 years (OR = 5), male gender (OR = 3), baseline viral load > or = 1,000,000 copies/mL (OR = 9), and poor compliance (OR = 37). Mortality in children who failed to respond to first-line ARV therapy was 25% due to the unavailability of a national second-line ARV therapy program. This study underlines the need for patient education to promote compliance and for creation of reference centers to prescribe ARV therapy to HIV-infected children including second-line ARV and genotyping.

  14. Chronic Morbidity Among Older Children and Adolescents at Diagnosis of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rylance, Jamie; Mujuru, Hilda; Nathoo, Kusum; Chonzi, Prosper; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Simms, Victoria; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substantial numbers of children with HIV present to health care services in older childhood and adolescence, previously undiagnosed. These “slow-progressors” may experience considerable chronic ill health, which is not well characterized. We investigated the prevalence of chronic morbidity among children aged 6–15 years at diagnosis of HIV infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at 7 primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Children aged 6–15 years who tested HIV positive following provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were recruited. A detailed clinical history and standardized clinical examination was undertaken. The association between chronic disease and CD4 count was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 385 participants recruited [52% female, median age 11 years (interquartile range 8–13)], 95% were perinatally HIV infected. The median CD4 count was 375 (interquartile range 215–599) cells per cubic millimeter. Although 78% had previous contact with health care services, HIV testing had not been performed. There was a high burden of chronic morbidity: 23% were stunted, 21% had pubertal delay, 25% had chronic skin disease, 54% had a chronic cough of more than 1 month-duration, 28% had abnormal lung function, and 12% reported hearing impairment. There was no association between CD4 count of <500 cells per cubic millimeter or <350 cells per cubic millimeter with WHO stage or these chronic conditions. Conclusions: In children with slow-progressing HIV, there is a substantial burden of chronic morbidity even when CD4 count is relatively preserved. Timely HIV testing and prompt antiretroviral therapy initiation are urgently needed to prevent development of chronic complications. PMID:27171738

  15. Antiretroviral use in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection over a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Gabiano, Clara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Giacomet, Vania; Bernardi, Stefania; Esposito, Susanna; Rosso, Raffaella; Giaquinto, Carlo; Badolato, Raffaele; Guarino, Alfredo; Maccabruni, Anna; Masi, Massimo; Cellini, Monica; Salvini, Filippo; Di Bari, Cesare; Dedoni, Maurizio; Dodi, Icilio; de Martino, Maurizio

    2012-07-01

    Information on the use of new antiretroviral drugs in children in the real setting of clinical fields is largely unknown. Data from 2554 combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens administered to 911 children enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV infection in children, between 1996 and 2009, were analysed. Factors potentially associated with undetectable viral load and immunological response to cART were explored by Cox regression analysis. Proportion of protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens significantly decreased from 88.0% to 51.2% and 54.9%, while proportion on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens increased from 4.5% to 38.8% and 40.2% in 1996-1999, 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, respectively (p < 0.0001). Significant change in the use of each antiretroviral drug occurred over the time periods (p < 0.0001). Factors independently associated with virological and immunological success were as follows: later calendar periods, younger age at regimen (only for virological success) and higher CD4(+) T-lymphocyte percentage at baseline. Use of unboosted PI was associated with lower adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of virological or immunological success with respect to NNRTI- and boosted PI-based regimens, with no difference among these two latter types. Use of new generation antiretroviral drugs in Italian HIV-infected children is increasing. No different viro-immunological outcomes between NNRTI- and boosted PI-based cART were observed. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index in Latin American Perinatally HIV-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Harris, D. Robert; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Peixoto, Mario F.; Cervi, Maria Celia; Hazra, Rohan; Pinto, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic liver disease has emerged as an important problem in adults with longstanding HIV infection, but data are lacking for children. We characterized elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI ), a marker of possible liver fibrosis, in perinatally HIV-infected children. Methods NISDI [NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) International Site Development Initiative] enrolled HIV-infected children (ages 0.1-20.1 years) from five Latin American countries in an observational cohort from 2002–2009. Twice yearly visits included medical history, physical examination and laboratory evaluations. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of APRI>1.5 was calculated and associations with demographic, HIV-related and liver-related variables were investigated in bivariate analyses. Results APRI was available for 1012 of 1032 children. APRI was >1.5 in 32 (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.2%-4.4%) including 2 of 4 participants with hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Factors significantly associated with APRI>1.5 (p<0.01 compared to APRI≤1.5) included country, younger age, past or current HBV, higher alanine aminotransferase, lower total cholesterol, higher log10 current viral load, lower current CD4 count, lower nadir CD4 count, use of hepatotoxic non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications, and no prior ARV use. Rates of APRI>1.5 varied significantly by current ARV regimen (p=0.0002), from 8.0% for no ARV to 3.2% for non-protease inhibitor (PI) regimens to 1.5% for PI-based regimens. Conclusions Elevated APRI occurred in approximately 3% of perinatally HIV-infected children. PI-based ARVs appeared protective while inadequate HIV control appeared to increase risk of elevated APRI. Additional investigations are needed to better assess potential subclinical, chronic liver disease in HIV-infected children. PMID:23799515

  17. HIV infection in hospitalized children with endemic diseases in Abakaliki, Nigeria: the role of clinically directed selective screening in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ojukwu, J U; Ogbu, C N

    2007-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of HIV infection in Nigeria, its similar manifestations with endemic diseases and limited facilities for screening calls for judicious HIV testing. Children aged one month to 15 years admitted into the paediatric ward of the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital between January 2000 and September 2001 for various endemic diseases were reviewed retrospectively. Eight clinical risk factors commonly associated with HIV infection and endemic diseases present either singly or in combination, were reviewed to determine whether they could help to predict HIV infection and at what level and finally help formulate criteria for selective screening of HIV infection. Children above 18 months of age were diagnosed as being infected with HIV if they tested positive by two different HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In children less than 18 months of age the diagnosis of HIV infection was made if they were ELISA positive and also fulfilled the WHO criteria for symptomatic HIV infection. Of the 282 children reviewed 31 (11.0%) were HIV positive giving a sero-prevalence rate of 4.1% of total admission. The HIV seropositive rate was highest in oral candidiasis (OC) (38.2%), followed by severe malnutrition (SM) (33.8%) then generalized lymphadenopathy (GLN) (31.4%). The presence of SM, GLN, OC and chronic dermatitis were highly significant independent risk factors for predicting HIV seropositivity (p<0.05). A marked shift towards the likelihood of HIV sero-positivity in the presence of at least two of the eight risk factors was documented. Children with two risk factors present had a 9.1 times more risk of being HIV sero-positive compared with those who had only one risk factor present (chi(2)=11.6, p=0.0007, OR = 9.1, 95% Cl = 2.5-32.8). Thirteen children (41.9%) representing a vast majority of HIV-positive children showed evidence of at least two of the eight clinical risk factors. As the number of risk factors concomitantly present

  18. Association of hypercholesterolemia incidence with antiretroviral treatment, including protease inhibitors, among perinatally HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L; Seage, George R; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John

    2008-04-15

    Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >or=220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs.

  19. Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Trois, Lívia; Cardoso, Edmundo Machado; Miura, Ernani

    2008-02-01

    HIV/AIDS is an infection characterized by immune cell dysfunction and subsequent immunodeficiency, as well as intestinal disorder. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance and promoting health benefits. The goals of this study were to determine whether the use of probiotics could improve the immune response determined by CD4 cells mm(-3) counts and reduce liquid stool episodes. A randomized double-blind controlled trial with 77 HIV-infected children (2-12 years), divided into two groups: one receiving probiotics (formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum with Streptococcus thermophilus -2.5 x 10(10) colony forming units) and the other, a standard formula (control group), for 2 months. The CD4 counts (cells mm(-3)) were collected at the beginning and end of the study. The quality and number of stools were assessed by a questionnaire (watery to normal stool consistency). There was an increase in the mean CD4 count in the probiotics group (791 cells mm(-3)) and a small decrease in the control group (538 cells mm(-3)). The change from baseline in mean CD4 cell count was +118 cells mm(-3) vs. -42 cells mm(-3) for children receiving the probiotic formula and control formula, respectively (p = 0.049). A similar reduction in liquid stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.06), with a slight enhancement in the probiotics group, was observed, but without significant difference (p < 0.522). The incidence of loose-soft stools showed a small decrease in both groups (p < 0.955) and there was an increase in the incidence of normal stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.01). Our study showed that probiotics have immunostimulatory properties and might be helpful in the treatment of HIV-infected children.

  20. Bacterial infections in HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archary, Moherndran; Adler, Hugh; La Russa, Philip; Mahabeer, Prasha; Bobat, Raziya A

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial infections in HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) contribute to higher mortality and poorer outcomes. This study describes the spectrum of bacterial infections in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve, HIV-infected children admitted with SAM. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 82 children were prospectively enrolled in the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. Specimens obtained on and during admission for microbiological evaluation, if clinically indicated, included blood, urine (obtained by catheterisation or suprapubic aspiration), induced sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. All positive bacterial cultures between admission and 30 days after enrollment were documented and characterised into samples taken either within 2 days of admission (infections on admission) or within 2-30 days of admission (hospital-acquired infections, HAIs). On admission, 67% of patients had abnormal white blood cell counts (WBCC) (>12 or <4 × 10(9)/L) and 70% had elevated CRP; 65% were classified as severely immunosuppressed according to the WHO immunological classification.(1) A pathogen was isolated on the admission blood culture in four patients (6%) and in 27% of urine specimens. HAIs were predominately Gram-negative (39/43), and 39.5% were extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive. Mortality was not significantly associated with isolation of a bacterial pathogen. Routine pre-hospital administration of antibiotics as per the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines may be responsible for the low rates of positive admission blood cultures. HAIs with drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms are an area of concern and strategies to improve the prevention of HAIs in this vulnerable population are urgently needed.

  1. Association of Hypercholesterolemia Incidence With Antiretroviral Treatment, Including Protease Inhibitors, Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John

    2011-01-01

    Context Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. Objective To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Design Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). Participants A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Outcome Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Results Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs. ≤400 copies/mL; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.90). Self-reported adherent subjects had higher risk. Conclusions PIs were significant risk factors for hypercholesterolemia. Higher viral load was protective and may reflect non-adherence. Further follow-up is critical to evaluate long-term consequences of chronic PI exposure and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18209684

  2. Pharmacokinetics of zidovudine dosed twice daily according to World Health Organization weight bands in Ugandan HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Fillekes, Quirine; Kendall, Lindsay; Kitaka, Sabrina; Mugyenyi, Peter; Musoke, Philippa; Ndigendawani, Milly; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsa; Gibb, Diana M; Burger, David; Walker, Ann Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Data on zidovudine pharmacokinetics in children dosed using World Health Organization weight bands are limited. About 45 HIV-infected, Ugandan children, 3.4 (2.6-6.2) years, had intensive pharmacokinetic sampling. Geometric mean zidovudine AUC0-12h was 3.0 h.mg/L, which is higher than previously observed in adults, and was independently higher in those receiving higher doses, younger and underweight children. Higher exposure was also marginally associated with lower hemoglobin.

  3. [Impediments to HIV testing in HIV-infected children and teenagers in Africa: look for them where they are!].

    PubMed

    Msellati, P; Ateba Ndongo, F; Hejoaka, F; Nacro, B

    2016-01-01

    A huge number of HIV-infected children and teenagers have no access to care or receive it very late. Of the 3.2 million infected children, 2.8 million should be receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) but only around 700,000 actually are. The first reason for this failure is the lack of HIV testing among HIV-exposed infants and thus early diagnosis or, even more frequently, the lack of testing among older children and teenagers. The objectives of this article are twofold: to review the current situation and to advocate routine offers of HIV testing to HIV-exposed children and teenagers (exposed either through mother-to-child transmission or repeated transfusions) and those suspected to be HIV-infected (because of malnutrition, tuberculosis, or other associated diseases). Finally, adults living with HIV should be made aware of the need for routine HIV screening of their children, even when asymptomatic.

  4. Abnormalities in body composition and nutritional status in HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, L C de Barros; Gonçalves, E M; de Carvalho, W R G; Guerra-Junior, G; Centeville, M; Aoki, F H; Morcillo, A M; dos Santos Vilela, M M; da Silva, M T N

    2011-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare growth, nutritional status and body composition outcomes between a group of 94 HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 364 healthy controls, and to evaluate their association with clinical and lifestyle variables within the HIV-infected group. When compared with the control group, HIV patients had higher risk of stunting (odds ratio [OR] 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83-10.04) and thinness (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 2.44-9.06), higher waist-to-hip ratios (medians 0.89 versus 0.82 for boys and 0.90 versus 0.77 for girls, P < 0.001), and lower prevalence of overweight or obesity (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.78). Protease inhibitor usage was associated with thinness (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.07-11.44) and lipoatrophy (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.37-8.95). HIV-infected children on ART showed significant nutritional status and body composition abnormalities, consistent with the severity of vertical HIV infection and the consequences of prolonged ART.

  5. Plasma and breastmilk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementations: Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Low dietary selenium (Se) intake coupled with low plasma Se concentrations in HIV infection could result in inadequate breastmilk Se intake by exclusively breastfed infants of HIV-infected women. Objective: To test the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing 1.3 R...

  6. Plasma and breastmilk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers is positively associated with infant selenium status at 2 or 6 and 24 weeks post-partum but is not associated with supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se) levels are typically low in HIV-infected individuals, but have been increased by supplementation in previous studies. In HIV-infected populations, the effect of Se supplementation on breastmilk Se and, consequently, plasma Se levels in exclusively breastfed infants is unknown. HIV-inf...

  7. The Role of Cognitive Functioning in Medication Adherence of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. Methods Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence. Conclusion Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence. PMID:18647794

  8. Proportions of circulating follicular helper T cells are reduced and correlate with memory B cells in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Muema, Daniel M; Macharia, Gladys N; Olusola, Babatunde A; Hassan, Amin S; Fegan, Greg W; Berkley, James A; Urban, Britta C; Nduati, Eunice W

    2017-01-01

    HIV causes defects in memory B cells in children, but the mechanisms of those defects have not been fully elucidated. One possible mechanism is the lack of T-cell help to B cells during immune reactions. However, few studies have assessed the effect of HIV on follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) in children. In this study, follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were assessed in HIV-infected children and compared with children from the community. CXCR5 and CD45RO were used as markers of follicular-homing T cells and memory T cells, respectively. Memory TFH cells were identified as CD3+CD8-CD4+CXCR5+CD45RO+PD1+. Central memory T cells were identified based on CCR7 expression. Relationship between the proportions of follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were determined in multivariable regression models. Highly viremic HIV-infected children had lower proportions of memory TFH cells when compared with community control children. In multivariable analyses, high proportions of memory TFH cells were associated with increased percentages of resting memory B cells after adjusting for other covariates. The impact of HIV on follicular helper T cells could influence the accumulation of memory B cells in HIV-infected children.

  9. Proportions of circulating follicular helper T cells are reduced and correlate with memory B cells in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Gladys N.; Olusola, Babatunde A.; Hassan, Amin S.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.; Nduati, Eunice W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV causes defects in memory B cells in children, but the mechanisms of those defects have not been fully elucidated. One possible mechanism is the lack of T-cell help to B cells during immune reactions. However, few studies have assessed the effect of HIV on follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) in children. Methods In this study, follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were assessed in HIV-infected children and compared with children from the community. CXCR5 and CD45RO were used as markers of follicular-homing T cells and memory T cells, respectively. Memory TFH cells were identified as CD3+CD8-CD4+CXCR5+CD45RO+PD1+. Central memory T cells were identified based on CCR7 expression. Relationship between the proportions of follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were determined in multivariable regression models. Results Highly viremic HIV-infected children had lower proportions of memory TFH cells when compared with community control children. In multivariable analyses, high proportions of memory TFH cells were associated with increased percentages of resting memory B cells after adjusting for other covariates. Conclusion The impact of HIV on follicular helper T cells could influence the accumulation of memory B cells in HIV-infected children. PMID:28445512

  10. Pubertal onset in children with perinatal HIV infection in the era of combination antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paige L; Abzug, Mark J; Jacobson, Denise L; Wang, Jiajia; Van Dyke, Russell B; Hazra, Rohan; Patel, Kunjal; Dimeglio, Linda A; McFarland, Elizabeth J; Silio, Margarita; Borkowsky, William; Seage, George R; Oleske, James M; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2013-07-31

    To evaluate associations of perinatal HIV infection, HIV disease severity, and combination antiretroviral treatment with age at pubertal onset. Analysis of data from two US longitudinal cohort studies (IMPAACT 219C and PHACS AMP), conducted during 2000-2012, including perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) youth. Tanner stage assessments of pubertal status (breast and pubic hair in girls; genitalia and pubic hair in boys) were conducted annually. We compared the timing of pubertal onset (Tanner stage ≥2) between PHIV and HEU youth using interval-censored models. For PHIV youth, we evaluated associations of HIV disease severity and combination antiretroviral treatment with age at pubertal onset, adjusting for race/ethnicity and birth cohort. The mean age at pubertal onset was significantly later for the 2086 PHIV youth compared to the 453 HEU children (10.3 vs. 9.6, 10.5 vs. 10.0, 11.3 vs. 10.4, and 11.5 vs. 10.7 years according to female breast, female pubic hair, male genitalia, and male pubic hair staging, respectively, all P < 0.001). PHIV youth with HIV-1 RNA viral load above 10, 000 copies/ml (vs. ≤10, 000 copies/ml) or CD4% below 15% (vs. ≥15%) had significantly later pubertal onset (by 4-13 months). Each additional year of combination antiretroviral treatment was associated with a 0.6-1.2-month earlier mean age at pubertal onset, but this trend did not persist after adjustment for birth cohort. Pubertal onset occurs significantly later in PHIV than in HEU youth, especially among those with more severe HIV disease. However, in the current era, combination antiretroviral treatment may result in more normal timing of pubertal onset.

  11. Severe malnutrition and metabolic complications of HIV-infected children in the antiretroviral era: clinical care and management in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Musoke, Philippa M; Fergusson, Pamela

    2011-12-01

    More than 2 million children globally are living with HIV infection and >90% of these reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a major problem for HIV-infected children who live in resource-limited settings (RLS), and SAM is an important risk factor for mortality. SAM in HIV-infected children is associated with complications including electrolyte disorders, micronutrient deficiencies, and severe infections, which contribute to the high mortality. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the survival of HIV-infected children, although the response to ART of children with SAM remains undocumented in the literature. Immune and virologic responses to ART in RLS are similar to those of infected children in resource-rich settings, but delays in initiation of therapy have led to a high early mortality. Antiretroviral drug toxicities have been described in children who receive therapy and may affect their quality of life and long-term survival. Metabolic complications of ART include lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, lactic acidosis, insulin resistance, and osteopenia. These complications have been well described in adults and children from developed countries, but data from RLS are limited, and these complications may be compounded by SAM. In this article we review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications of SAM in HIV-infected children and the metabolic complications of HIV-infected children in the era of ART, and discuss future research priorities for RLS.

  12. Changes in cellular immune activation and memory T-cell subsets in HIV-infected Zambian children receiving HAART.

    PubMed

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Moore, Carolyn B; Margolick, Joseph; Moss, William J

    2014-12-15

    Increased exposure to a broad array of pathogens in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa may lead to heightened immune activation and increased proportions of memory T cells. Changes in the size of these cellular subsets have implications for restoration of normal immune function after treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and are not well characterized in young sub-Saharan African children. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 157 HIV-infected Zambian children before and at 3-month intervals during HAART for up to 30 months and in 34 control children at a single study visit. Before HAART, HIV-infected children had higher levels of activated and effector memory (EM) CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells, and lower levels of naive T cells and CD8⁺ T cells expressing IL-7Rα, compared with control children. The median duration of follow-up was 14.9 months (interquartile range, 6.4-23.2) among 120 HIV-infected children with at least 1 study follow-up visit. Levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells declined within 6 months of HAART, but the percentages of EM CD4 T cells and effector CD8⁺ T cells remained elevated through 30 months of HAART. IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells increased with HAART, suggesting expansion of memory capacity. HAART significantly reduced levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells, and promoted reconstitution of naive T cells and IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells. However, persistently high levels of EM CD4⁺ T cells in HIV-infected children may reflect chronic perturbations in T-cell subset composition.

  13. A Controlled Study of Tuberculosis Diagnosis in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children in Peru.

    PubMed

    Oberhelman, Richard A; Soto-Castellares, Giselle; Gilman, Robert H; Castillo, Maria E; Kolevic, Lenka; Delpino, Trinidad; Saito, Mayuko; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo; Negron, Eduardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Maurtua-Neumann, Paola; Datta, Sumona; Evans, Carlton A

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing tuberculosis in children is challenging because specimens are difficult to obtain and contain low tuberculosis concentrations, especially with HIV-coinfection. Few studies included well-controls so test specificities are poorly defined. We studied tuberculosis diagnosis in 525 children with and without HIV-infection. 'Cases' were children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 209 HIV-negative; n = 81 HIV-positive) and asymptomatic 'well-control' children (n = 200 HIV-negative; n = 35 HIV-positive). Specimens (n = 2422) were gastric aspirates, nasopharyngeal aspirates and stools analyzed by a total of 9688 tests. All specimens were tested with an in-house hemi-nested IS6110 PCR that took <24 hours. False-positive PCR in well-controls were more frequent in HIV-infection (P≤0.01): 17% (6/35) HIV-positive well-controls versus 5.5% (11/200) HIV-negative well-controls; caused by 6.7% (7/104) versus 1.8% (11/599) of their specimens, respectively. 6.7% (116/1719) specimens from 25% (72/290) cases were PCR-positive, similar (P>0.2) for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative cases. All specimens were also tested with auramine acid-fast microscopy, microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) liquid culture, and Lowenstein-Jensen solid culture that took ≤6 weeks and had 100% specificity (all 2112 tests on 704 specimens from 235 well-controls were negative). Microscopy-positivity was rare (0.21%, 5/2422 specimens) and all microscopy-positive specimens were culture-positive. Culture-positivity was less frequent (P≤0.01) in HIV-infection: 1.2% (1/81) HIV-positive cases versus 11% (22/209) HIV-negative cases; caused by 0.42% (2/481) versus 4.7% (58/1235) of their specimens, respectively. In HIV-positive children with suspected tuberculosis, diagnostic yield was so low that 1458 microscopy and culture tests were done per case confirmed and even in children with culture-proven tuberculosis most tests and specimens were false-negative; whereas PCR was so prone

  14. A comparison of tuberculosis diagnostic systems in a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    David, Solange Gonçalves; Lovero, Kathryn L; Pombo March, Maria de Fátima B; Abreu, Thalita G; Ruffino Netto, Antonio; Kritski, Afranio L; Sant'Anna, Clemax C

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) presents many challenges, and is further complicated in HIV-infected patients. While many diagnostic systems have been proposed, there is no pediatric TB diagnosis gold standard. The outcomes of four TB diagnostic systems in HIV-infected children were compared in this study. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a TB/HIV reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro. HIV-infected pediatric patients evaluated for TB from 1998 to 2010 were reassessed using four diagnostic systems: Kenneth Jones, 1969; Tidjani, 1986; Ben Marais, 2006; Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2010. Results were compared to standardized diagnoses made by an expert panel of physicians. Of the 121 patients in the study cohort, the expert panel diagnosed 64 as TB and 57 as not TB cases. The Tidjani system showed the highest diagnostic accuracy, with and without the inclusion of microbiological data. The Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems produced fewer false-positives, and the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health fewer false-negatives. Across systems, there was little agreement between TB diagnoses. In HIV-infected pediatric patients, the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health systems are useful for TB diagnostic screening, whereas the Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems are best used in a reference center setting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and pattern of disclosure of HIV status in HIV-infected children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kallem, Stacey; Renner, Lorna; Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) HIV-infected children are surviving into adulthood. Despite, emerging evidence of the benefits of disclosure, when and how to disclose the diagnosis of HIV to children remain a clinical dilemma. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of HIV disclosure in a cross-sectional study of 71 caregiver-child dyads from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Care Program at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (Accra, Ghana). The children were from 8 to 14 years with median age of 10.39 years. The prevalence of disclosure was 21%. Age (p<0.01), the level of education (p<0.01), deceased biologic father (p=0.02), administration of own HIV medications (p=0.02), and longer duration on HIV medication (p=0.02) were significantly associated with disclosure. The low prevalence of disclosure underscores the need for a systematic and a staged approach in disclosing HIV status to infected children in resource limited countries. PMID:20607381

  16. Explaining Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Success Among HIV-Infected Children in Rural Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Peter K.; Kiwanuka, Julius P.; Ware, Norma C.; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    High adherence is critical for achieving clinical benefits of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly challenging for children. We conducted 35 qualitative interviews with caregivers of HIV-infected Ugandan children who were followed in a longitudinal study of real-time ART adherence monitoring; 18 participants had undetectable HIV RNA, while 17 had detectable virus. Interviews blinded to viral suppression status elicited information on adherence experiences, barriers and facilitators to adherence, and social support. Using an inductive content analytic approach, we identified ‘lack of resources,’ ‘Lazarus effect,’ ‘caregiver's sense of obligation and commitment,’ and ‘child's personal responsibility’ as categories of influence on adherence, and defined types of caregiver social support. Among children with viral suppression, high hopes for the child's future and ready access to private instrumental support appeared particularly important. These findings suggest clinical counseling should explore caregivers' views of their children's futures and ability to access support in overcoming adherence barriers. PMID:25323679

  17. Patterns of diagnosis disclosure and its correlates in HIV-Infected North Indian children.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Malobika; Dubey, Anand Prakash; Sharma, Mahesh

    2011-12-01

    This facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of disclosure of HIV positive serostatus among 145 Indian children aged >5 years. Only 60 (41.4%) children were aware of their HIV-positive status. Disclosure was most frequently done by parents [51/60 (85%)] at a mean age of 9.1 ± 1.4 years. The rate of inaccurate disclosure was high [64/85 (75.3%)]. No information regarding their illness was given to 21/85 (24.7%) children. The most common reason for non-disclosure was that the child is too young [79/85 (92.9%)]. The factors favoring disclosure were increasing duration since diagnosis of HIV infection [odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.93], non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 6.14; 95% CI 2.01-15.80), ART initiation (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.33-7.01), school enrolment (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.44-7.57) and caregiver educated beyond fifth grade (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.21-5.96). Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.

  18. Characteristics and prognosis of B-cell lymphoma in HIV-infected children in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Godot, Cécile; Patte, Catherine; Blanche, Stéphane; Rohrlich, Pierre; Dollfus, Catherine; Tabone, Marie-Dominique

    2012-10-01

    Chronic HIV infection leads to increased risk of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. However, only few recent data are available about their current management and prognosis in HIV-infected children since the advent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This multicenter retrospective study describes the 12 cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in HIV-infected children in France between 1996 and 2009. All children had moderate to severe immunosuppression and high viral load at the time of diagnosis. Nine children had extracerebral primary sites and 3 had a primary central nervous system lymphoma. Eight patients had Burkitt lymphoma; 4 had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Concomitantly with HAART, all children with extracerebral lymphoma received intensive chemotherapy according to LMB protocol, those with primary central nervous system lymphoma received high-dose methotrexate. No toxicity-related deaths occurred. Ten patients entered complete remission (CR), 2 died of tumor progression despite a second line of therapy. No relapses occurred after CR (median follow-up, 72 mo). Thus, prognosis of patients unresponsive to first-line lymphoma treatment remains poor, but relapse seems to be rare when CR is achieved. Children without severe comorbidities can tolerate intensive chemotherapy with a mandatory HAART treatment, taking into account drug interactions.

  19. Extent of disclosure: what perinatally HIV-infected children have been told about their own HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Murnane, Pamela M.; Sigamoney, Stacy-Lee; Pinillos, Francoise; Shiau, Stephanie; Strehlau, Renate; Patel, Faeezah; Liberty, Afaaf; Abrams, Elaine J.; Arpadi, Stephen; Coovadia, Ashraf; Violari, Avy; Kuhn, Louise

    2017-01-01

    How and when to disclose a positive HIV diagnosis to an infected child is a complex challenge for caregivers and healthcare workers. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, pediatric HIV infection has transitioned from a fatal disease to a lifelong chronic illness, thus increasing the need to address the disclosure process. As HIV-infected children mature, begin to take part in management of their own health care, and potentially initiate HIV-risk behaviors, understanding the nature of their infection becomes essential. Guidelines recommend developmentally-appropriate incremental disclosure, and emphasize full disclosure to school-age children. However, studies from sub-Saharan Africa report that disclosure to HIV-infected children is often delayed. Between 2013-2014, 553 perinatally HIV-infected children aged 4-9 years were enrolled into a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. We assessed the extent of disclosure among these children and evaluated characteristics associated with disclosure. No children 4 years of age had been told their status, while 4% of those aged 5 years, and 8%, 13%, 16%, and 15% of those aged 6, 7, 8, and 9 years, respectively, had been told their status. Age was the strongest predictor of full disclosure (odds ratio 1.6 per year, p=0.001). An adult living in the household who was unaware of the child's status was associated with a reduced probability of disclosure, and knowing that someone at the child's school was aware of child's status was associated with an increased probability of disclosure. Among caregivers that had not disclosed, 42% reported ever discussing illness in general with the child, and 17% reported on-going conversations about illness or HIV. In conclusion, a small minority of school age children had received full disclosure. Caregivers and healthcare workers require additional support to address disclosure. A broader public health strategy integrating the disclosure process into pediatric HIV treatment

  20. Prognostic value of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Gaddi, E; Laucella, S; Balbaryski, J; Cantisano, C; Barboni, G; Candi, M; Giraudi, V

    2000-12-01

    Central events in the host defence system and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Sera from 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected children divided into groups according to disease severity, six seroreverting (SR) children and 25 healthy controls were studied to detect the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1). Soluble ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-infected children in comparison with SR children or healthy controls. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-infection than in those with a milder form of the disease. Significant differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between SR children and HIV-infected children with mild disease or healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between s-ICAM-1 levels and the concentrations of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) and, to a lesser extend, immunoglobulin A levels (IgA). Soluble ICAM-1 levels didn't change considerably in HIV-infected children in stable clinical conditions, independently of their clinical stage of the disease, during a follow-up period of 9-12 months. Conversely, s-ICAM-1 levels increased simultaneously with the appearance of new well-defined clinical disorders or decreased during the improvement of clinical conditions. A significant negative correlation was recorded between the titers of the s-ICAM-1 and the CD4(+) T-cell levels. These results suggest that the s-ICAM-1 might be another useful tool to evaluate disease progression.

  1. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccines on Nasopharyngeal Carriage in HIV-infected Children and Their Parents From West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Kumar Niyogi, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Hemram, Sunil; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Saurav Das, Ranjan; Mandal, Sutapa; Robert, Dennis; Ray, Pampa

    2016-11-01

    In addition to reducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in vaccinated individuals, the Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) has indirect effects; it reduces Hib disease in unvaccinated individuals by decreasing carriage. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk for Hib disease and live in families where multiple members may have HIV. The aim of this study is to look at the impact of 2 doses of the HibCV on nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib in HIV-infected Indian children (2-15 years) and the indirect impact on carriage in their parents. This prospective cohort study was conducted in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected families. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children and parents before and after vaccination. HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age got two doses of HibCV and were followed up for 20 months. Uninfected children 2-5 years of age got 1 dose of HibCV as catch-up. 123 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected children participated. Baseline colonization in HIV-infected children was 13.8% and dropped to 1.8% (P = 0.002) at 20 months. Baseline carriage in HIV-uninfected children was 4.5% and dropped to 2.3% after vaccination (P = 0.3). HIV-infected parents had 12.3 times increased risk of Hib carriage if their child was colonized (P = 0.04) and had 9.3 times increased risk if their child had persistent colonization postvaccine (P = 0.05). No parent of HIV-uninfected children had Hib colonization at any point. Pneumococcal colonization was associated with increased Hib colonization. Making the HibCV available to HIV-infected children could interrupt Hib carriage in high-risk families.

  2. Impaired cellular immune response to tetanus toxoid but not to cytomegalovirus in effectively HAART-treated HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Laia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Fortuny, Clàudia

    2013-05-07

    Despite of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the response to vaccines in HIV-infected children is poor and short-lived, probably due to a defect in cellular immune responses. We compared the cellular immune response (assessed in terms of IFN-γ production) to tetanus toxoid and to cytomegalovirus in a series of 13 HIV-perinatally-infected children and adolescents with optimal immunovirological response to first line antiretroviral therapy, implemented during chronic infection. A stronger cellular response to cytomegalovirus (11 out of 13 patients) was observed, as compared to tetanus toxoid (1 out of 13; p=0.003). These results suggest that the repeated exposition to CMV, as opposed to the past exposition to TT, is able to maintain an effective antigen-specific immune response in stable HIV-infected pediatric patients and strengthen current recommendations on immunization practices in these children.

  3. Pharmacogenetics of plasma efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected adults and children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Z; Leger, Paul D; McIlleron, Helen M; Smith, Peter J; Dave, Joel A; Levitt, Naomi S; Maartens, Gary; Haas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Aims Genetic factors, notably CYP2B6 516G→T [rs3745274] and 983T→C [rs28399499], explain much of the interindividual variability in efavirenz pharmacokinetics, but data from Africa are limited. We characterized relationships between genetic polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children. Methods Steady-state mid-dosing interval efavirenz concentrations were measured. We genotyped 241 polymorphisms in genes potentially relevant to efavirenz metabolism and transport, including ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2 and NR1I3. Results Among 113 participants (59 adults and 54 children), minor allele frequencies for CYP2B6 516G→T, 983T→C, and 15582C→T [rs4803419] were 0.36, 0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Based on composite CYP2B6 15582/516/983 genotype, there were 33 extensive metabolizer, 62 intermediate metabolizer and 18 slow metabolizer genotypes. Median (IQR) mid-dose efavirenz concentrations were 1.44 (1.21–1.93) µg ml–1, 2.08 (1.68–2.94) µg ml–1 and 7.26 (4.82–8.34) µg ml–1 for extensive, intermediate and slow metabolizers, respectively. In univariate analyses, a model that included composite genotype best predicted efavirenz concentrations (β = 0.28, 95% CI 0.21, 0.35, P = 2.4 × 10–11). Among individual CYP2B6 polymorphisms, 516G→T best predicted efavirenz concentrations (β = 0.22, 95% CI 0.13, 0.30, P = 1.27 × 10−6). There was also associations with 983T→C (β = 0.27, 95% CI 0.10, 0.44, P = 0.002) and 15582C→T (β = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01, 0.22, P = 0.04). Associations were consistent in adults and children. No other polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz concentrations. Conclusions Composite CYP2B6 genotype based on CYP2B6 516G→T, 983T→C, and 15582C→T best described efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children. PMID:25611810

  4. Functional characterization of IgA-targeted bacterial taxa from undernourished Malawian children that produce diet-dependent enteropathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain insights into the interrelationships among childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and gut mucosal immune/barrier function, we purified bacterial strains targeted by immunoglobulin A (IgA) from the fecal microbiota of two cohorts of Malawian infants and children. IgA responses to sever...

  5. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  6. Impact of oral problems on daily activities of HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Raymundo de Andrade, L H; de Souza Rocha, B; Castro, G F; Ribeiro de Souza, I P

    2011-06-01

    Oral manifestations are common in HIV+ children, but the impact of these diseases on their daily life is unknown. So the aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral problems on the daily activities of HIV+ children. The Child-OIDP-B was used with 59 10-12 year-old HIV+ children, who were outpatients at two public hospitals for HIV treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding indexes were recorded. The Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests as well as the Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Statistical evaluation: Replies were analysed using the Statgraphics ® Plus Version 5.0 statistics software system, in order to obtain comparative diagrams and graphs using the ANOVA multifactorial system. The Child-OIDP-B scores ranged from 0 to 30, (mean=6.09) and 71.2% of the children were affected by oral problems. Association was found between oral impact and number of caries (p=0.009). Children receiving HAART therapy had a Child-OIDP-B score (4.87), much lower than those who were not (8.87) (p=0.038). The most reported oral impact of the disease was eating (55.6%), but oral wounds were the most prevalent type of lesions (76.3%). As regards the level of intensity of the impact, moderate severity was prevalent in all 59 children and 66.1% reported that oral impacts affected 1-4 daily activities, 50.8% of all children were not satisfied with their appearance and oral health; 23.7% perceived the impact of HIV-infection on general health. Most children suffered the impact of oral problems on their daily activities, mainly functional impacts.

  7. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Charone, Senda; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Martins, Karol de Oliveira; Soares, Rosangela Maria; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  8. Abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in rural Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Ariana J; Manary, Micah J; Stephenson, Kevin; Agapova, Sophia; Manary, Faith G; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Shulman, Robert J; Manary, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of environmental enteropathy, as measured by the dual sugar absorption test, to linear growth faltering in 2- to 5-year-old Malawian children. Dietary quality, food insecurity, anthropometry, and site-specific sugar testing were measured in 418 children, and anthropometry was reassessed 3 months later. A linear regression model predicting linear growth was created. Better growth was associated with less urinary lactulose excretion, more clean water usage, not sleeping with animals, and no previous history of malnutrition. Eighty-seven percent of children studied demonstrated evidence of environmental enteropathy. In conclusion, abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in a population of rural African preschool-age children.

  9. Effect of HIV status on fertility desire and knowledge of long-acting reversible contraception of postpartum Malawian women.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Michele S; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Stuart, Gretchen S; Miller, William C; Kaliti, Stephen M; Mwale, Mwawi; Bonongwe, Phylos P; Tang, Jennifer H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the most recent pregnancy intentions and family planning preferences of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected postpartum Malawian women, and to assess whether HIV status is associated with fertility desire and knowledge of intrauterine contraception (IUC) and the subdermal contraceptive implant. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline characteristics of Malawian women enrolled in a prospective cohort study assessing postpartum contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women at a government hospital completed a baseline survey assessing reproductive history, family planning preferences, and knowledge of IUC and the implant. We used Pearson's chi-square tests to compare these parameters between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between HIV status and fertility desire and knowledge about IUC and the implant. Of 634 postpartum women surveyed, HIV-infected women were more likely to report their most recent pregnancy was unintended (49% vs. 37%, p = 0.004). Nearly all women (97%) did not want a child in the next 2 years, but HIV-infected women were more likely to desire no more children (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 1.89). HIV-infected women were also less likely to know that IUC (adjusted PR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84) and the implant (adjusted PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) are safe during breast-feeding. Postpartum women strongly desire family spacing and many HIV-infected postpartum women desire no more children, suggesting an important role for these long-acting methods. Education about the efficacy and safety of IUC and the implant particularly during breast-feeding may facilitate postpartum use.

  10. Subnormal and waning immunity to tetanus toxoid in previously vaccinated HIV-infected children and response to booster doses of the vaccine.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shahana A; Matin, Fazle

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding waning immunity to tetanus toxoid (TT) in HIV-infected children and the need for booster doses before the recommended interval of 5-10 years. Anti-tetanus antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 24 HIV-infected and 24 control children. A protective level (>0.1 IU/ml) of TT antibodies was observed in 62% of HIV-infected children and in 100% of controls. HIV-infected children with five doses had a significantly (p=0.01) lower prevalence of protective immunity compared to controls. Follow-up anti-TT antibody levels in nine HIV-infected children declined from 1.27 to 0.26 IU/ml, but levels did not decline in the seven controls; five of the seven (71%) children with a non-protective level of antibodies responded with a level>0.16 IU/ml following one booster dose of the vaccine. HIV-infected children may need TT boosters before the recommended 5-10 years.

  11. Immunogenicity of Licensed Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines in HIV-Infected Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Pass, Robert F.; Nachman, Sharon; Flynn, Patricia M.; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Borkowsky, William; McAuley, James B.; Spector, Stephen A.; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K.; Handelsman, Ed; Utech, L. Jill; Weinberg, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background With the emergence of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in 2009, children and youth infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were vulnerable because of immunologic impairment and the greater virulence of this infection in young persons. Methods A multicenter study of the immunogenicity of 3 licensed influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccines (1 live attenuated and 2 inactivated) was conducted in children and youth with perinatal HIV infection, most of whom were receiving ≥3 antiretroviral drugs, had CD4% ≥15, and plasma HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HAI) antibody levels were measured and correlated with baseline demographic and clinical variables. Results One hundred forty-nine subjects were enrolled at 26 sites in the United States and Puerto Rico. Over 40% had baseline HAI titers ≥40. For subjects aged 6 months to <10 years, 79% and 68%, respectively, achieved a ≥40- and ≥4-fold rise in HAI titers after the second dose of vaccine. Three weeks after a single immunization with an inactivated vaccine, similar immunogenicity results were achieved in youth aged 10–24 years. With multivariable analysis, only Hispanic ethnicity and CD4% ≥15 were associated with achieving both HAI titer ≥40- and ≥4-fold rise in titer. Conclusions Although licensed pH1N1 vaccines produced HAI titers that were considered to be protective in the majority of HIV-infected children and youth, the proportion with titers ≥40- and ≥4-fold rise in titer was lower than expected for children without HIV infection. Vaccine immunogenicity was lower in HIV-infected children and youth with evidence of immune suppression. PMID:24363932

  12. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children.

    PubMed

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; Macintyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.

  13. Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Wilkinson, James D; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Somarriba, Gabriel; Cochran, Thomas R; Fisher, Stacy D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a primary cause of acquired heart disease, particularly of accelerated atherosclerosis, symptomatic heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiac complications often occur in late-stage HIV infections as prolonged viral infection is becoming more relevant as longevity improves. Thus, multi-agent HIV therapies that help sustain life may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events and accelerated atherosclerosis. Discussion Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the two-to-five-year incidence of symptomatic heart failure ranged from 4 to 28% in HIV patients. Patients both before and after HAART also frequently have asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiovascular structure. Echocardiographic measurements indicate left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in 18%, LV hypertrophy in 6.5%, and left atrial dilation in 40% of patients followed on HAART therapy. Diastolic dysfunction is also common in long-term survivors of HIV infection. Accelerated atherosclerosis has been found in HIV-infected young adults and children without traditional coronary risk factors. Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, has high mortality in late-stage AIDS patients with poor nutritional status and severely compromised immune systems. Although lymphomas have been found in HIV-infected children, the incidence is low and cardiac malignancy is rare. Rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations range from 5.6 to 8.9% in cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children with HIV-infected mothers. In non-HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers, foetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV dimension, LV mass, and septal wall thickness and with higher LV fractional shortening and contractility during the first two years of life. Conclusions Routine, systematic, and comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including a thorough history and directed laboratory assays, is essential for

  14. Poor health-related quality of life and abnormal psychosocial adjustment in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Monica; Nacinovich, Renata; Oggiano, Silvia; Cassani, Morena; Baushi, Liliana; Bertulli, Cristina; Longhi, Daniela; Coppini, Simonetta; Parrinello, Giovanni; Plebani, Alessandro; Badolato, Raffaele

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL), social competence, and behavioral problems in children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Brescia. We evaluated HRQL, social competence, and behavioral problems in 27 HIV-infected children compared with age and sex-matched control subjects using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), respectively. On the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale, HIV-infected subjects displayed significantly reduced physical (p=0.043) and psychosocial health (p=0.021) functioning, particularly at school (p=0.000), compared with healthy subjects, resulting in a significantly reduced total score (p=0.013). Assessment of social competence and the behavioral features of HIV-infected children by means of the CBCL revealed severe limitations of functioning in HIV-infected children who had impaired social ability. Children with HIV-RNA above the threshold level of 50 had higher scores on the CBCL delinquent behavior (p=0.021) and school competence (p=0.025) subsets. Although the introduction of HAART regimens has prolonged the survival of HIV-infected children, other factors, including disease morbidity and familial and environmental conditions, negatively affect their quality of life, thereby contributing to increased risk for behavioral problems.

  15. Pediatric HIV Disclosure Intervention Improves Knowledge and Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Uusiku, James; John-Stewart, Grace C.; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Using routinely collected data, we evaluated a nationally implemented intervention to assist health care workers and caregivers with HIV disclosure to children. We assessed the impact of the intervention on child's knowledge and health outcomes. Methods: Data were abstracted from national databases and patient charts for HIV-infected children aged 7–15 years attending 4 high-volume HIV clinics in Namibia. Disclosure rates, time to disclosure, and HIV knowledge in 314 children participating in the intervention were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of partial vs. full disclosure. Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to compare adherence and viral load (VL) before versus after intervention enrollment. Results: Among children who participated in the disclosure intervention, 11% knew their HIV status at enrollment and an additional 38% reached full disclosure after enrollment. The average time to full disclosure was 2.5 years (interquartile range: 1.2–3 years). Children who achieved full disclosure were more likely to be older, have lower VLs, and have been enrolled in the intervention longer. Among children who reported incorrect knowledge regarding why they take their medicine, 83% showed improved knowledge after the intervention, defined as knowledge of HIV status or adopting intervention-specific language. On comparing 0–12 months before vs. 12–24 months after enrollment in the intervention, VL decreased by 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter (N = 42, P = 0.004), whereas mean adherence scores increased by 10% (N = 88, P value < 0.001). Conclusions: This HIV disclosure intervention demonstrated improved viral suppression, adherence, and HIV knowledge and should be considered for translation to other settings. PMID:28114186

  16. Pediatric HIV Disclosure Intervention Improves Knowledge and Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Brandt, Laura; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Uusiku, James; John-Stewart, Grace C; OʼMalley, Gabrielle

    2017-05-01

    Using routinely collected data, we evaluated a nationally implemented intervention to assist health care workers and caregivers with HIV disclosure to children. We assessed the impact of the intervention on child's knowledge and health outcomes. Data were abstracted from national databases and patient charts for HIV-infected children aged 7-15 years attending 4 high-volume HIV clinics in Namibia. Disclosure rates, time to disclosure, and HIV knowledge in 314 children participating in the intervention were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of partial vs. full disclosure. Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to compare adherence and viral load (VL) before versus after intervention enrollment. Among children who participated in the disclosure intervention, 11% knew their HIV status at enrollment and an additional 38% reached full disclosure after enrollment. The average time to full disclosure was 2.5 years (interquartile range: 1.2-3 years). Children who achieved full disclosure were more likely to be older, have lower VLs, and have been enrolled in the intervention longer. Among children who reported incorrect knowledge regarding why they take their medicine, 83% showed improved knowledge after the intervention, defined as knowledge of HIV status or adopting intervention-specific language. On comparing 0-12 months before vs. 12-24 months after enrollment in the intervention, VL decreased by 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter (N = 42, P = 0.004), whereas mean adherence scores increased by 10% (N = 88, P value < 0.001). This HIV disclosure intervention demonstrated improved viral suppression, adherence, and HIV knowledge and should be considered for translation to other settings.

  17. Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS to children born of HIV-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Lee, C L; Johann-Liang, R

    1999-01-01

    HIV disease in perinatally infected patients is now treated as a chronic illness of childhood. The effective use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy has contributed to the improvements in the prognosis of this illness. As this population matures, the issue of disclosure of diagnosis becomes more significant and part of their comprehensive medical care. The importance of disclosure relates directly to medication adherence, treatment compliance, sexual exploration, fears associated with premature death, and the child's developing autonomy. disclosure of HIV disease to an infected child poses complex issues, such as transmissibility, maternal guilt, more than one family member with the virus, and the potential for social stigma and isolation, among others. A change in perspectives is currently taking place regarding the process of disclosure, whereby it may be approached as a gradual discussion process over the life of the child. A method of gradual and partial disclosure to the child with consistent support by a multi-disciplinary team of providers has been a successful strategy for many children cared for at the New York Hospital-Cornell University Medical Center. Of 73 perinatally HIV-infected children who are 6 years of age or older, 41% have had complete disclosure and another 19% are partially disclosed. Continuous communication and negotiation among the members of the team, which includes the parents and caregivers, are vital to the gradual process leading to complete disclosure.

  18. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

    2013-07-01

    We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings.

  19. Primary varicella and herpes zoster among HIV-infected children from 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sarah M; Shah, Samir S; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Rutstein, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes zoster in perinatally HIV-infected children. Secondary objectives included assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and varicella zoster virus immunization on primary varicella and herpes zoster incidence and identifying risk factors for herpes zoster. We hypothesized that the incidence of herpes zoster has decreased in this population as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy and routine varicella zoster virus immunization. This retrospective cohort study included HIV-infected children at a pediatric HIV clinic from 1989 to 2006. Incidence rates for 3 intervals (1989-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006) were compared on the basis of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1996) and varicella zoster virus vaccination (1999). A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was developed for the time to herpes zoster among the subset of patients with primary varicella infection. In 356 patients followed for 1721 person-years, the incidence of herpes zoster according to period was 30.0 per 1000 person-years in 1989-1996, 31.9 per 1000 person-years in 1997-1999, and 6.5 per 1000 person-years in 2000-2006. There was no difference in incidence-rate ratio between 1989-1996 and 1997-1999. However, there was a significant difference in herpes zoster incidence when comparing 1989-1999 with 2000-2006. The incidence of primary varicella zoster virus infection and herpes zoster in the 57 patients who received the varicella zoster virus vaccine was 22.3 per 1000 and 4.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Highly active antiretroviral therapy at the time of primary varicella zoster virus infection was protective against herpes zoster and increased herpes zoster-free survival. The incidence of herpes zoster has decreased since 1989. The decline occurred after 2000, likely representing the combined effect of immunization and highly active antiretroviral therapy. The use

  20. A model of associative stigma on depression and anxiety among children of HIV-infected parents in China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Gu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carries a high level of stigma to the HIV-infected individuals and their family members. Children of HIV-infected parents in China are particularly affected. The present study examined the relationship between associative stigma, self-esteem, optimism, anxiety and depression among 195 children of HIV-infected parents in rural China. Findings showed that more than one-third (35.4 %) of the participants scored higher than cut-off for depression; and 23.6-67.7 % of them scored higher than cut-off for different types of anxiety disorders. Structural equation modelling revealed that associative stigma had a significant negative relationship on self-esteem and optimism, which were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. The indirect effects of associative stigma on depression and anxiety were significant. The overall model showed a satisfactory fit. Findings suggest that associative stigma has a significant negative impact on mental health of children affected by HIV. Interventions to reduce their associative stigma are warranted.

  1. Immunogenicity and immunologic memory after hepatitis B virus booster vaccination in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Mark J; Warshaw, Meredith; Rosenblatt, Howard M; Levin, Myron J; Nachman, Sharon A; Pelton, Stephen I; Borkowsky, William; Fenton, Terence

    2009-09-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccination in children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was investigated. HIV-infected children receiving HAART who had low to moderate HIV loads and who had previously received 3 doses of HBV vaccine were given an HBV vaccine booster. Concentrations of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were determined before vaccination and at weeks 8, 48, and 96. A subset of subjects was administered a subsequent dose, and anti-HBs was measured before and 1 and 4 weeks later. At entry, 24% of 204 subjects were seropositive. Vaccine response occurred in 46% on the basis of seropositivity 8 weeks after vaccination and in 37% on the basis of a 4-fold rise in antibody concentration. Of 69 subjects given another vaccination 4-5 years later, immunologic memory was exhibited by 45% on the basis of seropositivity 1 week after vaccination and by 29% on the basis of a 4-fold rise in antibody concentration at 1 week. Predictors of response and memory included higher nadir and current CD4 cell percentage, higher CD19 cell percentage, and undetectable HIV load. HIV-infected children frequently lack protective levels of anti-HBs after previous HBV vaccination, and a significant proportion of them do not respond to booster vaccination or demonstrate memory despite receiving HAART, leaving this population insufficiently protected from infection with HBV.

  2. Necessity for and control of dental treatment in HIV infected children. Inter-professional relationship between dentist and paediatrician.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Munoz, L; Marin-Castro, I; Aznar-Martin, T; Dominguez-Reyes, A

    2002-01-01

    HIV infected children frequently suffer from buccal-dental lesions needing dental treatment. This treatment should improve their systemic affection, localised pathology, psychological and affective state and their general quality of life. Hardly any of these children are ever treated; sometimes because of lack of family motivation (the most frequent cause) and others because of the lack of a Paediatric Dental Unit in the hospitals they attend. For this reason we present here two cases of HIV infected children, with HIV infected mothers, who, thanks to the relationship between the Paediatric and Dental Units of the hospital, have had access to dental treatment for multiple caries and candidiasis. An anatopathological diagnosis of gingival inflammation, which was also infected by candida, was also carried out. The treatment included extraction of teeth, pulpotomy, pulpectomy and the fitting of prostheses. It should be made clear that a good inter-professional relationship is needed and it must also be taken into account the great difficulty that is encountered when trying to make this group of patients understand the need for, and benefits of, dental treatment.

  3. Cardiac findings in children admitted to a hospital general ward in South Africa: a comparison of HIV-infected and uninfected children.

    PubMed

    Brown, S C; Schoeman, C J; Bester, C J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the presence of cardiac abnormalities in HIV infected versus uninfected children who were admitted to a general paediatric ward during a two-month period. HIV status was determined by antibody and p24 antigen testing. Clinical information, echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed for all children. There were 90 HIV-infected and 118 uninfected children. The median age was 9.6 and 11.8 months for infected and uninfected children, respectively. Baseline left ventricular dysfunction, defined as a shortening fraction < or = 25%, was found in 13 (17%) of the HIV-infected children compared to 5 (8%) uninfected children (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end-diastolic enlargement above the 98th percentile for age was found in 24% of the infected and 20% of uninfected children. Pericardial effusions, although common, were sub-clinical and not different in the groups. ECG findings and resting heart rates were also similar. Left ventricular dysfunction was the most significant cardiac abnormality present in hospitalised HIV-infected children. Other abnormalities, although common, were mostly asymptomatic and found with the same frequency in uninfected children. Further studies are indicated.

  4. Plasma virus load evaluation in relation to disease progression in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Tetali, S; Bakshi, S; Than, S; Pahwa, S; Abrams, E; Romano, J; Pahwa, S G

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma HIV RNA load with survival and disease progression in HIV-infected children and to determine its correlation with cellular HIV DNA. Virus load (VL, HIV RNA copies/ml) was determined retrospectively by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay in 144 stored plasma samples between birth and 48 months in 50 children of whom 40 are alive (age range, 2-13 years). On the basis of clinical and immunologic status children were classified as rapid progressors (RPs), or nonrapid progressors (NRPs). Proviral HIV DNA quantitated by QC-PCR (quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction) in 24 children was compared with plasma HIV RNA. At age <3 months, plasma VL <750,000 copies/ml was associated with significantly higher survival to age >2 years (p < or =0.01) compared with a VL of > or =750,000 copies/ml. Increasing mortality was observed with increasing plasma HIV RNA levels at ages 3-24 months and baseline VL of infants who died before age 24 months was significantly higher (p = 0.004) than baseline VL of those who survived beyond 24 months. Although baseline VL in infants classified as RPs was higher than that of NRPs, the difference was not statistically significant. Among surviving children 2-13 years of age, the baseline VL obtained at <24 months of age was not predictive of disease severity. Although no significant correlation was noted between plasma HIV RNA and proviral DNA, the concurrence of positive and negative results was >80%. We conclude that high plasma HIV RNA in infancy is associated with increased mortality.

  5. Early viral suppression improves neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Claudia S; Huo, Yanling; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen M; Yogev, Ram; Hazra, Rohan; Rutstein, Richard M; Nichols, Sharon L; Smith, Renee A; Williams, Paige L; Oleske, James; Muller, William J

    2015-01-28

    To estimate the association of age of viral suppression and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) score with neurocognitive functioning among school-age children with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV+). We analyzed data from two US-based multisite prospective cohort studies. Multivariable general linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of age at viral suppression and CPE scores (of initial antiretroviral therapy regimen and weighted average) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third or Fourth Edition neurocognitive assessments [Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ); Performance IQ/Perceptual Reasoning Index (PIQ/PRI); and Verbal IQ/Verbal Comprehension Index (VIQ/VCI)], adjusted for demographic and clinical covariates. Sensitivity analyses were stratified by birth cohort (before versus after 1996). A total of 396 PHIV+ children were included. Estimated differences in mean FSIQ (comparing virally suppressed versus unsuppressed children) by each age cutoff were 3.7, 2.2, 3.2, 4.4, and 3.9 points at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. For PIQ/PRI, estimated mean differences were 3.7, 2.4, 2.2, 4.6, and 4.5 at ages 1 through 5, respectively. In both cases, these differences were significant only at the age 4 and 5 thresholds. After stratifying by birth cohort, the association between age at suppression and cognitive function persisted only among those born after 1996. Age at viral suppression was not associated with VIQ/VCI; CPE score was not associated with FSIQ, verbal comprehension, or perceptual reasoning indices. Virologic suppression during infancy or early childhood is associated with improved neurocognitive outcomes in school-aged PHIV+ children. In contrast, CPE scores showed no association with neurocognitive outcomes.

  6. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukwah, Boniface Nwofoke; Ezeonu, Ifeoma Maureen; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua

    2017-02-28

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Twenty-five (6.3%) specimens yielded four Cryptosporidium species, including C. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis, and C. viatorum. C. hominis was the most dominant species with 48.0% occurrence and three identified subtype families: Ia (six specimens), Ib (three specimens), Ie (two specimens), and one un-subtyped species. C. parvum had 44.0% occurrence and two subtype families: IIc (eight specimens) and IIe (three specimens), while C. felis and C. viatorum each had 4.0% occurrence. There were significant differences in Cryptosporidium species distribution between age groups in children and HIV-infected persons, between suburban and urban areas, and between low and high CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected patients. There were no significant differences in infection rate and species distribution between HIV-infected patients on HAART and those not on HAART. The results from this study show that there is a high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria, and that all the C. parvum subtypes identified are most likely anthroponotic in origin.

  7. Use of antiretrovirals in HIV-infected children in a tuberculosis prevention trial: IMPAACT P1041.

    PubMed

    Zeldow, B; Kim, S; McSherry, G; Cotton, M F; Jean-Philippe, P; Violari, A; Bobat, R; Nachman, S; Mofenson, L M; Madhi, S A; Mitchell, C

    2017-01-01

    International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT). TB diagnoses were definite, probable, or possible, and mortality all-cause. Testing was at the 5% significance level. In 539 children (aged 3-4 months) followed up for a median of 74 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 48-116), incidence/100 person-years (py) was 10.67 (95%CI 8.47-13.26) for any TB and 2.89 (95%CI 1.85-4.31) for definite/probable TB. Any TB incidence was respectively 9.39, 13.59, and 9.83/100 py before, <180 days after, and 180 days after ART initiation. Adjusted analysis showed a non-significant increase in any TB (HR 1.32, 95%CI 0.71-2.52, P = 0.38) and a significant reduction in mortality (HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.17-0.82, P = 0.017) following ART initiation. ART reduced mortality but not TB incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children in IMPAACT P1041, possibly attributable to active screening for TB exposure and symptoms with post-exposure IPT. Research into this as a strategy for TB prevention in high HIV-TB burden settings may be warranted.

  8. Early Viral Suppression Improves Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    CROWELL, Claudia S.; HUO, Yanling; TASSIOPOULOS, Katherine; MALEE, Kathleen M.; YOGEV, Ram; HAZRA, Rohan; RUTSTEIN, Richard M.; NICHOLS, Sharon L.; SMITH, Renee A.; WILLIAMS, Paige L.; OLESKE, James; MULLER, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of age of viral suppression and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) score with neurocognitive functioning among school-age children with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV+). Design We analyzed data from two U.S.-based multisite prospective cohort studies. Methods Multivariable general linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of age at viral suppression and CPE scores [of initial ART regimen and weighted average] with WISC-III or WISC-IV neurocognitive assessments [full scale IQ (FSIQ); performance IQ/ perceptual reasoning index (PIQ/PRI); and verbal IQ/ verbal comprehension index (VIQ/VCI)], adjusted for demographic and clinical covariates. Sensitivity analyses were stratified by birth cohort (before vs after 1996). Results 396 PHIV+ children were included. Estimated differences in mean FSIQ (comparing virally suppressed vs. unsuppressed children) by each age cutoff were 3.7, 2.2, 3.2, 4.4, and 3.9 points at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. For PIQ/PRI, estimated mean differences were 3.7, 2.4, 2.2, 4.6, and 4.5 at ages 1 through 5 respectively. In both cases, these differences were significant only at the age 4 and 5 thresholds. After stratifying by birth cohort the association between age at suppression and cognitive function persisted only among those born after 1996. Age at viral suppression was not associated with VIQ/VCI; CPE score was not associated with FSIQ, verbal comprehension or perceptual reasoning indices. Conclusions Virologic suppression during infancy or early childhood is associated with improved neurocognitive outcomes in school-aged PHIV+ children. In contrast, CPE scores showed no association with neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:25686678

  9. Intravenous immunoglobulin in symptomatic and asymptomatic children with perinatal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Olopoenia, L; Young, M; White, D; Barnes, S; Rahbar, F; Fomufod, A

    1997-08-01

    One hundred thirty-five children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers were selected randomly to receive immunoglobulin (Gamimune-N, Miles Pharmaceutical Co) 200 mg/kg monthly for 1 year. All patients were seropositive by ELISA and Western blot at birth. At the time of the study, 15 symptomatic (P2) and 57 asymptomatic (P1) patients with evidence of viral infection (positive HIV culture or P24 antigen) received the immunoglobulin. Sixty-three indeterminate (PO) patients with no evidence of infection served as the control. Mean age for infants in group P2 was 32 months, 26 months for group P1, and 11 months for group PO. Significant reduction in the frequency of bacterial infections (ie, otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and acute gastroenteritis) was seen in the symptomatic group compared with both the asymptomatic and the control groups. Growth as measured by weight and height > 50th percentile was also markedly better in the symptomatic group than either asymptomatic or control patients. There was no significant difference in head circumference in all three groups. These results indicate that monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusion (IVIG) appears to be beneficial to both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV patients in reducing the frequency of bacterial infection and also enhancement of the immune response. However, symptomatic patients responded much better than the asymptomatic patients.

  10. Antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected infants and young children: novel issues raised by the Mississippi baby

    PubMed Central

    Shiau, Stephanie; Kuhn, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The recent case report of an HIV-infected child in Mississippi with viral control post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption has sparked interest in the possibility of “functional cure” in infants if they initiate ART very soon after birth. The “Mississippi baby” also raises many new questions around clinical care of HIV-infected infants and young children, including when treatment should be initiated, why treatment should be initiated, what treatment should be initiated, and how to identify infants early enough to treat them adequately. Here, we review research conducted before the report of the “Mississippi baby” highlighting the important new issues that now need to be taken into consideration. PMID:24506199

  11. Perceptions of Malawian nurses about nursing interventions for malnourished children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Magdalena; Nyirenda, John L Z; Johansson, AnnaKarin; Lorefält, Birgitta

    2011-12-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition among children is a major public-health issue. The aim of the study was to describe perceptions of Malawian nurses about nursing interventions for malnourished children and their parents. A qualitative method was used. Data were collected and analyzed according to the phenomenographic research approach. Twelve interviews were performed with 12 nurses at a rural hospital in northern Malawi, Southeast Africa. Through the analysis, two major concepts, comprising four categories of description, emerged: managing malnutrition today and promotion of a favourable nutritional status. The categories of description involved identification and treatment of malnutrition, education during treatment, education during prevention, and assurance of food security. The participating nurses perceived education to be the most important intervention, incorporated in all areas of prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Identification and treatment of malnutrition, education during treatment, education to prevent malnutrition, and assurance of food security were regarded as the most important areas of intervention.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine Dosed Twice Daily According to World Health Organization Weight Bands in Ugandan HIV-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Data on zidovudine pharmacokinetics in children dosed using World Health Organization weight bands are limited. About 45 HIV-infected, Ugandan children, 3.4 (2.6–6.2) years, had intensive pharmacokinetic sampling. Geometric mean zidovudine AUC0–12h was 3.0 h.mg/L, which is higher than previously observed in adults, and was independently higher in those receiving higher doses, younger and underweight children. Higher exposure was also marginally associated with lower hemoglobin. PMID:24736440

  13. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Stages of HIV Infection How Does HIV Progress in Your Body? Without treatment, HIV advances ... are the three stages of HIV infection: Acute HIV Infection Stage Within 2-4 weeks after HIV ...

  14. Pubertal development in HIV-infected African children on first-line antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Szubert, Alexander J.; Musiime, Victor; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Gibb, Diana M.; Nathoo, Kusum; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Walker, A. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate age at attaining Tanner stages in Ugandan/Zimbabwean HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older childhood and investigate predictors of delayed puberty, particularly age at ART initiation. Design: Observational analysis within a randomized trial. Methods: Tanner staging was assessed every 24 weeks from 10 years of age, menarche every 12 weeks and height every 4–6 weeks. Age at attaining different Tanner stages was estimated using normal interval regression, considering predictors using multivariable regression. Growth was estimated using multilevel models with child-specific intercepts and trajectories. Results: Median age at ART initiation was 9.4 years (inter-quartile range 7.8, 11.3) (n = 582). At the first assessment, the majority (80.2%) were in Tanner stage 1; median follow-up with staging was 2.8 years. There was a strong delaying effect of older age at ART initiation on age at attaining all Tanner stages (P < 0.05) and menarche (P = 0.02); in boys the delaying effect generally weakened with older age. There were additional significant delays associated with greater impairments in pre-ART height-for-age Z-score (P < 0.05) in both sexes and pre-ART BMI-for-age in girls (P < 0.05). There was no evidence that pre-ART immuno-suppression independently delayed puberty or menarche. However, older children/adolescents had significant growth spurts in intermediate Tanner stages, and were still significantly increasing their height when in Tanner stage 5 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Delaying ART initiation until older childhood substantially delays pubertal development and menarche, independently of immuno-suppression. This highlights that factors other than CD4+, such as pubertal development, need consideration when making decisions about timing of ART initiation in older children. PMID:25710288

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dimeglio, Linda A.; Wang, JiaJia; Siberry, George K.; Miller, Tracie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Hazra, Rohan; Borkowsky, William; Chen, Janet S.; Dooley, Laurie; Patel, Kunjal; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gurmu, Yared; Jacobson, Denise L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in perinatally HIV infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and to determine predictors of BMD in HIV+. Design Cross-sectional analysis within a 15-site United States and Puerto Rico cohort study. Methods Total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were measured using dual energy-xray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores accounted for bone age and sex. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate differences in Z-scores by HIV status and for predictors of BMD in HIV+. Results 350 HIV+ and 160 HEU were enrolled. Mean age was 12.6 and 10.7 years for HIV+ and HEU, respectively. Most (87%) HIV+ were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). More HIV+ than HEU had TB and LS Z-scores < -2.0 (TB: 7% vs. 1%, p=0.008; LS: 4% vs. 1%, p=0.08). Average differences in Z-scores between HIV+ and HEU were attenuated after height and/or weight adjustment. Among HIV+, TB Z-scores were lower in those with higher CD4% and in those who ever used boosted protease inhibitors or lamivudine. LS Z-scores were lower with higher peak viral load and CD4%, more years on HAART, and ever use of indinavir. Conclusions Rates of low BMD in HIV+ children were greater than expected based on normal population distributions. These differences were partially explained by delays in growth. Since most HIV+ children in this study had not entered their pubertal growth spurt, prepubertal factors associated with BMD, magnified or carried forward, may result in sub-optimal peak BMD in adulthood. PMID:23032412

  16. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    DiMeglio, Linda A; Wang, JiaJia; Siberry, George K; Miller, Tracie L; Geffner, Mitchell E; Hazra, Rohan; Borkowsky, William; Chen, Janet S; Dooley, Laurie; Patel, Kunjal; van Dyke, Russell B; Fielding, Roger A; Gurmu, Yared; Jacobson, Denise L

    2013-01-14

    To estimate prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in perinatally HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and to determine predictors of BMD in HIV+. Cross-sectional analysis within a 15-site United States and Puerto Rico cohort study. Total body and lumbar spine BMD were measured using dual energy-X-ray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores accounted for bone age and sex. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate differences in Z-scores by HIV status and for predictors of BMD in HIV+. 350 HIV+ and 160 HEU were enrolled. Mean age was 12.6 and 10.7 years for HIV+ and HEU, respectively. Most (87%) HIV+ were receiving HAART. More HIV+ than HEU had total body and lumbar spine Z-scores less than -2.0 (total body: 7 vs. 1%, P = 0.008; lumbar spine: 4 vs. 1%, P = 0.08). Average differences in Z-scores between HIV+ and HEU were attenuated after height and/or weight adjustment. Among HIV+, total body Z-scores were lower in those with higher CD4% and in those who ever used boosted protease inhibitors or lamivudine. Lumbar spine Z-scores were lower with higher peak viral load and CD4%, more years on HAART, and ever use of indinavir. Rates of low BMD in HIV+ children were greater than expected based on normal population distributions. These differences were partially explained by delays in growth. As most HIV+ children in this study had not entered their pubertal growth spurt, prepubertal factors associated with BMD, magnified or carried forward, may result in sub-optimal peak BMD in adulthood.

  17. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  18. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) protects against malaria, but efficacy may be diminished as anti-folate resistance increases. This study assessed the incidence of falciparum malaria and the prevalence of resistance-conferring Plasmodium falciparum mutations in HIV-infected children receiving daily TS and HIV-uninfected children not taking TS. Materials and methods Subjects were 292 HIV-infected and 517 uninfected children from two cohort studies in Kampala, Uganda observed from August 2006 to December 2008. Daily TS was given to HIV-infected, but not HIV-uninfected children and all participants were provided an insecticide-treated bed net. Standardized protocols were used to measure the incidence of malaria and identify markers of antifolate resistance. Results Sixty-five episodes of falciparum malaria occurred in HIV-infected and 491 episodes in uninfected children during the observation period. TS was associated with a protective efficacy of 80% (0.10 vs. 0.45 episodes per person year, p < 0.001), and efficacy did not vary over three consecutive 9.5 month periods (81%, 74%, 80% respectively, p = 0.506). The prevalences of dhfr 51I, 108N, and 59R and dhps 437G and 540E mutations were each over 90% among parasites infecting both HIV-infected and uninfected children. Prevalence of the dhfr 164L mutation, which is associated with high-level resistance, was significantly higher in parasites from HIV-infected compared to uninfected children (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.001). Sequencing of the dhfr and dhps genes identified only one additional polymorphism, dhps 581G, in 2 of 30 samples from HIV-infected and 0 of 54 samples from uninfected children. Conclusion Despite high prevalence of known anti-folate resistance-mediating mutations, TS prophylaxis was highly effective against malaria, but was associated with presence of dhfr 164L mutation. PMID:20573194

  19. T cell anergy and activation are associated with suboptimal humoral responses to measles revaccination in HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Buechler, M B; Newman, L P; Chohan, B H; Njoroge, A; Wamalwa, D; Farquhar, C

    2015-09-01

    HIV-infected children are less capable of mounting and maintaining protective humoral responses to vaccination against measles compared to HIV-uninfected children. This poses a public health challenge in countries with high HIV burdens. Administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and revaccinating children against measles is one approach to increase measles immunity in HIV-infected children, yet it is not effective in all cases. Immune anergy and activation during HIV infection are factors that could influence responses to measles revaccination. We utilized a flow cytometry-based approach to examine whether T cell anergy and activation were associated with the maintenance of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies generated in response to measles revaccination in a cohort of HIV-infected children on ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Children who sustained measles-specific IgG for at least 1 year after revaccination displayed significantly lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) surface expression on CD8(+) T cells on a per-cell basis and exhibited less activated CD4(+) T cells compared to those unable to maintain detectable measles-specific antibodies. Children in both groups were similar in age and sex, CD4(+) T cell frequency, duration of ART treatment and HIV viral load at enrolment. These data suggest that aberrant T cell anergy and activation are associated with the impaired ability to sustain an antibody response to measles revaccination in HIV-infected children on ART.

  20. Challenges faced by elderly guardians in sustaining the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, M; Campbell, C; Madanhire, C; Nyamukapa, C; Gregson, S

    2011-08-01

    Grandparents throughout sub-Saharan Africa have shown immense courage and fortitude in providing care and support for AIDS-affected children. However, growing old comes with a number of challenges which can compromise the quality of care and support they are able to provide, particularly for children infected by HIV and enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. For ART to be effective, and for infected children not to develop drug-resistance, a complex treatment regimen must be followed. Drawing on the perspectives of 25 nurses and eight grandparents of HIV-infected children in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe, we explore some of the challenges faced by grandparents in sustaining children's adherence to ART. These challenges, serving as barriers to paediatric ART, are poverty, immobility, deteriorating memory and poor comprehension of complex treatments. Although older HIV-infected children were found to play an active role in sustaining the adherence to their programme of treatment by contributing to income and food generating activities and reminding their guardians about check-ups and drug administration, such contribution was not available from younger children. There is therefore an urgent need to develop ART services that both take into consideration the needs of elderly guardians and acknowledge and enhance the agency of older children as active and responsible contributors to ART adherence.

  1. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Muema, Daniel M; Macharia, Gladys N; Hassan, Amin S; Mwaringa, Shalton M; Fegan, Greg W; Berkley, James A; Nduati, Eunice W; Urban, Britta C

    2015-08-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Muema, Daniel M.; Macharia, Gladys N.; Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  3. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-08

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age.

  4. Post-natal anaemia and iron deficiency in HIV-infected women and the health and survival of their children.

    PubMed

    Isanaka, Sheila; Spiegelman, Donna; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Msamanga, Gernard I; Willet, Walter C; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal iron supplementation may improve pregnancy outcomes and decrease the risk of child mortality. However, little is known about the importance of post-natal maternal iron status for child health and survival, particularly in the context of HIV infection. We examined the association of maternal anaemia and hypochromic microcytosis, an erythrocyte morphology consistent with iron deficiency, with child health and survival in the first two to five years of life. Repeated measures of maternal anaemia and hypochromic microcytosis from 840 HIV-positive women enrolled in a clinical trial of vitamin supplementation were prospectively related to child mortality, HIV infection and CD4 T-cell count. Median duration of follow-up for the endpoints of child mortality, HIV infection and CD4 cell count was 58, 17 and 23 months, respectively. Maternal anaemia and hypochromic microcytosis were associated with greater risk of child mortality [hazard ratio (HR) for severe anaemia = 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-4.01, P trend < 0.0001; HR for severe hypochromic microcytosis = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.27-4.38, P trend = 0.001]. Maternal anaemia was not significantly associated with greater risk of child HIV infection (HR for severe anaemia = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.33, P trend = 0.08) but predicted lower CD4 T-cell counts among HIV-uninfected children (difference in CD4 T-cell count/µL for severe anaemia: -93, 95% CI: -204-17, P trend = 0.02). The potential child health risks associated with maternal anaemia and iron deficiency may not be limited to the prenatal period. Efforts to reduce maternal anaemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy may need to be expanded to include the post-partum period.

  5. Postnatal anemia and iron deficiency in HIV-infected women and the health and survival of their children

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Spiegelman, Donna; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Msamanga, Gernard I.; Willet, Walter C.; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal iron supplementation may improve pregnancy outcomes and decrease the risk of child mortality. However, little is known about the importance of postnatal maternal iron status for child health and survival, particularly in the context of HIV infection. We examined the association of maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis, an erythrocyte morphology consistent with iron deficiency, with child health and survival in the first two to five years of life. Repeated measures of maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis from 840 HIV-positive women enrolled in a clinical trial of vitamin supplementation were prospectively related to child mortality, HIV infection, and CD4 T-cell count. Median duration of follow-up for the endpoints of child mortality, HIV infection and CD4 cell count was 58, 17 and 23 months, respectively. Maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis were associated with greater risk of child mortality (HR for severe anemia=2.58, 95% CI: 1.66-4.01, P trend<0.0001; HR for severe hypochromic microcytosis=2.36, 95% CI: 1.27-4.38, P trend=0.001). Maternal anemia was not significantly associated with greater risk of child HIV infection (HR for severe anemia=1.46, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.33, P trend=0.08) but predicted lower CD4 T-cell counts among HIV-uninfected children (difference in CD4 T-cell count/μL for severe anemia:-93, 95% CI: -204-17, P trend=0.02). The potential child health risks associated with maternal anemia and iron deficiency may not be limited to the prenatal period. Efforts to reduce maternal anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy may need to be expanded to include the postpartum period. PMID:22236211

  6. Severe manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy before 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Walters, Elisabetta; Duvenhage, Joanie; Draper, Heather R; Hesseling, Anneke C; Van Wyk, Susan S; Cotton, Mark F; Rabie, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected infants reduces mortality and opportunistic infections including tuberculosis (TB). However, young HIV-infected children remain at high risk of TB disease following mycobacterial infection. We document the spectrum of TB disease in HIV-infected children <2 years of age on ART. Retrospective cohort study; records of children <2 years of age initiating routine ART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, January 2003-December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data at ART initiation (baseline) and TB episodes after ART initiation, to June 2012, were recorded. TB immune reconstitution syndrome (TB-IRIS) and incident TB were defined as TB diagnosed within 3 months, and >3 months after, ART initiation respectively. Baseline characteristics were compared in children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB. In 494 children, median follow-up time on ART was 10.7 months. Fifty-five TB treatment episodes occurred after ART initiation: 23 (42%) TB-IRIS (incidence 21.9/100 person years (py)) and 32 (58%) incident TB (incidence 3.9/100 py). Children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB had similar baseline characteristics. Eight of 10 cases of extrapulmonary TB were severe: 4 IRIS (2 meningitis, 1 disseminated, 1 pericarditis) and 4 incident cases (1 each miliary, meningitis, pericarditis and spinal). Fifty-one children (10%) died (mortality rate 5.96/100 py). Starting ART at <1 year of age approached significance as a risk factor for TB-IRIS (adjusted OR (AOR) 8.64, p=0.06); weight-for-age Z score <-2 predicted death (AOR 6.37, p<0.001). Severe TB manifestations were observed among young HIV-infected children on ART. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Psychometric properties of a short version of the HIV stigma scale, adapted for children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Wiklander, Maria; Rydström, Lise-Lott; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Navér, Lars; Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E

    2013-11-14

    HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapted for 8-18 years old children with HIV infection living in Sweden. A Swedish version of the HSS-40 was adapted for children by an expert panel and evaluated by think aloud interviews. A preliminary short version with twelve items covering the four dimensions of stigma in the HSS-40 was tested. The psychometric evaluation included inspection of missing values, principal component analysis (PCA), internal consistency, and correlations with measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fifty-eight children, representing 71% of all children with HIV infection in Sweden meeting the inclusion criteria, completed the 12-item questionnaire. Four items concerning participants' experiences of others' reactions to their HIV had unacceptable rates of missing values and were therefore excluded. The remaining items constituted an 8-item scale, the HIV Stigma Scale for Children (HSSC-8), measuring HIV-related disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes. Evidence for internal validity was supported by a PCA, suggesting a three factor solution with all items loading on the same subscales as in the original HSS-40. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with exception for the disclosure concerns subscale. Evidence for external validity was supported in correlational analyses with measures of HRQoL, where higher levels of stigma correlated with poorer HRQoL. The results suggest feasibility, reliability, as well as internal and external validity of the

  8. Pubertal Onset in HIV-infected Children in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, Paige L.; ABZUG, Mark J.; JACOBSON, Denise L.; WANG, Jiajia; VAN DYKE, Russell B.; HAZRA, Rohan; PATEL, Kunjal; DIMEGLIO, Linda A.; MCFARLAND, Elizabeth J.; SILIO, Margarita; BORKOWSKY, William; SEAGE, George R.; OLESKE, James M.; GEFFNER, Mitchell E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations of perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV disease severity, and combination antiretroviral treatment with age at pubertal onset. Design Analysis of data from two U.S. longitudinal cohort studies [IMPAACT 219C and PHACS AMP], conducted 2000–2012, including PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) youth. Tanner stage assessments of pubertal status (breast and pubic hair in girls; genitalia and pubic hair in boys) were conducted annually. Methods We compared the timing of pubertal onset (Tanner stage ≥2) between PHIV and HEU youth using interval-censored models. For PHIV youth, we evaluated associations of HIV disease severity and combination antiretroviral treatment with age at pubertal onset, adjusting for race/ethnicity and birth cohort. Results The mean age at pubertal onset was significantly later for the 2086 PHIV youth compared to 453 HEU children (10.3 vs 9.6, 10.5 vs 10.0, 11.3 vs 10.4, and 11.5 vs 10.7 years according to female breast, female pubic hair, male genitalia, and male pubic hair staging, respectively, all p<0.001). PHIV youth with HIV-1 RNA viral load >10,000 copies/mL (vs ≤10,000 copies/mL) or CD4% <15% (vs ≥15%) had significantly later pubertal onset (by 4–13 months). Each additional year of combination antiretroviral treatment was associated with a 0.6- to1.2-month earlier mean age at pubertal onset, but this trend did not persist after adjustment for birth cohort. Conclusions Pubertal onset occurs significantly later in PHIV than in HEU youth, especially among those with more severe HIV disease. However, in the current era, combination antiretroviral treatment may result in more normal timing of pubertal onset. PMID:24145244

  9. Medication Adherence in Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection: Associations with Behavioral Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige; Montepiedra, Grace; McCabe, Marie; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000–2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3–17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence. PMID:21323533

  10. Medication adherence in children and adolescents with HIV infection: associations with behavioral impairment.

    PubMed

    Malee, Kathleen; Williams, Paige; Montepiedra, Grace; McCabe, Marie; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

    2011-03-01

    The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000-2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3-17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence.

  11. Early Weaning Increases Diarrhea Morbidity and Mortality Among Uninfected Children Born to HIV-infected Mothers in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Ashraf; Arpadi, Stephen; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Early weaning may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but may have deleterious consequences for uninfected children. Here we evaluate effects of early weaning on diarrhea morbidity and mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers. Methods. HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomly assigned to breastfeeding for 4 months only or to continue breastfeeding until the mother decided to stop. Replacement and complementary foods were provided and all women were counseled around feeding and hygiene. Diarrhea morbidity and mortality were assessed in 618 HIV-uninfected singletons alive and still breastfeeding at 4 months. Intent-to-treat analyses and comparisons based on actual feeding practices were conducted using regression methods. Results. Between 4 and 6 months, diarrheal episodes were 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–2.4) higher in the short compared with long breastfeeding group. Associations were stronger based on actual feeding practices and persisted after adjustment for confounding. At older ages, only more severe outcomes, including diarrhea-related hospitalization or death (relative hazard [RH], 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1–5.1 increase 4–24 months), were increased among weaned children. Conclusions. Continued breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in this low-resource setting despite provision of replacement and complementary food and counseling.  Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00310726. PMID:21459815

  12. Economic evaluation of monitoring virologic responses to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karen; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Kerr, Stephen; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Donovan, Basil; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Sirisanthana, Virat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Ohata, June; Wilson, David P

    2011-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) management for HIV-infected children is critical in many resource-constrained countries. We investigated the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of different frequencies of monitoring plasma viral load among HIV-positive children initiating ART in a resource-limited setting. A stochastic agent-based simulation model was built and directly informed by a cohort of 304 HIV-infected children starting ART in Thailand between 2001 and 2009. The model simulated the expected costs and clinical outcomes over time according to different viral load monitoring frequencies and initiation of second-line therapies when appropriate. The optimal frequency of viral load monitoring was found to be annual, after a single screening at 6 months. Associated costs of viral load monitoring and appropriate ART would approximately triple current treatment costs. Compared with current conditions, a single screening during the first year of ART led to a 58.4% reduction in the total person-years of virological failure with annual monitoring leading to a 76.6% reduction. The incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained from the optimal monitoring frequency was estimated as US$ 68,084 when including costs of ART and US$ 7224 without ART costs. The estimated cost attributed to preventing 1 year of virological failure was US$ 3393 with ART costs and US$ 359 without ART costs. Even infrequent viral load monitoring is likely to provide substantial clinical benefit to HIV-infected children on ART. Viral load monitoring can be considered cost-effective in many resource-limited settings. However, the costs associated with second-line therapies could be a barrier to its economic feasibility.

  13. Caregiver Perceptions and Motivation for Disclosing or Concealing the Diagnosis of HIV Infection to Children Receiving HIV Care in Mbarara, Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiwanuka, Julius; Mulogo, Edgar; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5–15 years) who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. Results Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. Conclusions Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure process deserves further

  14. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kiwanuka, Julius; Mulogo, Edgar; Haberer, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years) who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure process deserves further study.

  15. Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB gold interferon gamma release assay among HIV-infected children in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea T; Marape, Marape; Graviss, Edward A; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are poorly studied in HIV-infected children. The authors prospectively evaluated QuantiFERON-TB Gold results and family-described tuberculosis (TB) risk factors in 100 HIV-infected children in Botswana. Median age was 10.2 years; 58 were girls, 92 had received the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, 98 were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and the median body mass index was 15.8 kg/m(2). Eighty-nine children had undetectable viral loads and the median CD4 count was 962 cells/mm(3). Eighteen children had been treated for TB in the last 3 years. In the last 3 years, 36 (including 9 with TB) had contact with persons with TB (26 within/15 outside the home and 5 had >1 contact). In all, 96 children had negative IGRAs, 3 were indeterminate, and 1 was positive. The positive IGRA was reported in a child treated for TB prior to 3 years. Interferon γ release assay positivity was rare in this pediatric cohort living in an area with a high prevalence of TB. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Acute kidney injury in HIV-infected children: comparison of patients according to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Cavalcante, Malena Gadelha; Ribeiro, Samille Maria Vasconcelos; Leitão, Rayana Café; Vieira, Ana Patrícia Freitas; Pires Neto, Roberto da Justa; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    To assess clinical and laboratory data, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected children using and not using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to admission. A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected pediatric patients (<16 years). Children who were using and not using HAART prior to admission were compared. Sixty-three patients were included. Mean age was 5.3±4.27 years; 55.6% were females. AKI was observed in 33 (52.3%) children. Patients on HAART presented lower levels of potassium (3.9±0.8 vs. 4.5±0.7mEq/L, p=0.019) and bicarbonate (19.1±4.9 vs. 23.5±2.2mEq/L, p=0.013) and had a higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (102.2±36.7 vs. 77.0±32.8mL/min/1.73m(2), p=0.011) than those not on HAART. In the multivariate analysis, the use of HAART prior to the admission was a protective factor for AKI (p=0.036; OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.097-0.926). AKI is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection. Use of HAART prior to the admission preserved glomerular filtration and was a protective factor for AKI, but increased medication side effects, such as hypokalemia and renal metabolic acidosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Makubi, Abel N; Mugus, Ferdinand; Magesa, Pius M; Roberts, David; Quaresh, Amrana

    2012-01-01

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify possible factors associated with anaemia in HIV-infected children. In this study a total of 75 (44%) patients among 167 recruited HIV children aged 6 months to 59 months were found to be anaemic (Hg<11 g/dl). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that not being on HAART (OR 3.40, 95%CI (1.20-9.60), having CD4% <25% (OR 2.30, 95%CI (1.20-34.60), having a history of tuberculosis (TB) (OR 3.23, 95%CI (1.10-9.70) and having hookworm infestation (OR 5.97, 95%CI (1.92-18.4) were independent risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children. The analyses also showed that being HIV positive for ≥ 2.5 years resulted into a low risk of severe anaemia compared to being HIV positive for < 2.5 years. Taking multivitamins (OR 0.07, 95%, CI (0.020-0.30) and antihelminthics (OR 0.27, 95%CI (0.10-0.74) were also protective against anaemia in children. Similar factors (with exception of using antihelmintics) were associated with severe anaemia. In conclusion the factors associated with anaemia in HIV infected children were multifactorial in nature. Efforts to correct anaemia in HIV infected children should include use of HAART and treatment of infections such as TB and hookworms.

  18. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate rinse for treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Dapkute-Marcus, Ingrida; Fine, Daniel H

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.12% rinses on the clinical and microbiologic manifestations of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected children. This was a cross-sectional, clinical intervention study of 38 HIV-positive children. Inclusion in the study was based on oral examination and positive oral culture for Candida. At baseline, subjects with no clinical lesions but who were culture-positive for Candida (N = 9) were placed on preventive therapy of CHX q.d. for 90 days. Subjects with clinical oral candidiasis (N = 9) were placed on therapeutic CHX b.i.d. All 38 subjects received oral exams at monthly intervals. At 90 days oral mucosal samples were again taken for Candida. Colony-forming units (CFU) were determined before and after CHX treatment. Of 18 culture-positive subjects, 12 were included in the CFU analyses. After 3 months of CHX oral rinse therapy, Candida was undetectable in 3 children; another 8 showed an average 2-fold reduction in CFU. In 1 child the number of CFU increased modestly. Overall, the average pre- and posttreatment mean CFU was 6.18 +/- 2.19 and 2.73 +/- 3.15, respectively (P = .009). Five patients with clinical oral candidiasis at baseline, including all 3 who had pseudomembranous candidiasis, were free of signs of disease at the end of the study. This study suggests that the topical disinfectant CHX may be a promising agent for treating and preventing oral candidiasis in HIV-infected children.

  19. Prevalence of oral lesions and percent CD4+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Badner, Victor; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of oral lesions and how it relates to CD4 percentages in vertically infected children with HIV undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy. One hundred two HIV-infected children between the ages of 3 and 15 years attending a specialized pediatric outpatient clinic were examined for oral lesions, and their CD4 percent and viral load extracted from their medical records. Of the 102 HIV-infected children, 69% had evidence of oral pathology and 31% were disease free. The proportion with disease was: 20.6% had conventional gingivitis, 19.6% had dental caries in their primary and permanent teeth combined, 13.7% had depapillated tongue, 3.9% had early childhood caries, 2.9% had oral candidiasis, 2% had bilateral enlarged parotid gland, 1% had median rhomboid glossitis, 1% had enlarged cervical lymph nodes and 2% had other developmental abnormalities. In the group with no evidence of suppression 15% had gingival lesion, 14% tongue lesion, and 1% parotid enlargement, and in the severe suppression group 55% had gingival lesion, 45% had tongue lesion, 9% had enlarged cervical lymph nodes, and another 9% had parotid gland enlargement. The association between conventional gingivitis and low CD4 percent was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Compared to previous studies, overall prevalence estimates of oral lesions in this study was low. Children with low CD4 percent had more oral lesions, consistent with results from other HIV studies.

  20. Retention of HIV-infected and exposed children in a comprehensive HIV clinical care program in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Braitstein, Paula; Katshcke, Adrian; Shen, Changyu; Sang, Edwin; Nyandiko, Winstone; Ochieng, Vincent Ooko; Vreeman, Rachel; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ayaya, Samwel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background To describe incidence rates and risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in a large HIV treatment program in Western Kenya. Methods The USAID-AMPATH Partnership has enrolled > 100,000 patients (20% children) at 23 clinic sites throughout western Kenya. LTFU is defined as being absent from the clinic for >3 months if on combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) and >6 months if not. Included in this analysis were children aged <14 years, HIV-exposed or infected at enrolment, and enrolled between April 2002-March 2009. The incidence rates (IR) for LTFU are presented per 100 child-years (CY) of follow-up. Proportional hazards models with time independent and dependent covariates were used to model factors associated with LTFU. Weight for height Z-scores were calculated using EpiInfo, with severe malnutrition being defined as a Z-score ≤−3.0. Immune suppression was defined as per WHO age-specific categories. Results There were 13,510 children eligible for analysis, comprising 3106 children who at enrolment were HIV-infected, and 10,404 children who were HIV-exposed. The overall IR of LTFU was 18.4 (17.8-18.9) per 100 CY. Among HIV-infected children, 15.2 (13.8-16.7) and 14.1 (13.1-15.8) per 100 CY became LTFU, pre- and post-cART initiation respectively. The only independent risk factor for becoming LTFU among the HIV-infected children was severe immune-suppression (AHR: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.51-3.12). Among the HIV-exposed children, 20.1 per 100 (19.4-20.7) became LTFU. Independent risk factors for LTFU among them were being severely low weight for height (AHR: 1.69, 95%CI: 1.25-2.28), being orphaned at enrolment (AHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.23-1.64), being CDC Class B or C (AHR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.14-1.74), and having received cART (AHR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.23-1.99). Protective against becoming LTFU among the HIV-exposed were testing HIV-positive (AHR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.21-0.32), older age (AHR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0

  1. Enhancing HIV Treatment Access and Outcomes Amongst HIV Infected Children and Adolescents in Resource Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Goga, Ameena Ebrahim; Singh, Yagespari; Singh, Michelle; Noveve, Nobuntu; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Ramraj, Trisha; Abdullah, Fareed; Coovadia, Ashraf H; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Sherman, Gayle G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing access to HIV-related care and treatment for children aged 0-18 years in resource-limited settings is an urgent global priority. In 2011-2012 the percentage increase in children accessing antiretroviral therapy was approximately half that of adults (11 vs. 21 %). We propose a model for increasing access to, and retention in, paediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. Methods Following a rapid appraisal of recent literature seven main challenges in paediatric HIV-related care and treatment were identified: (1) lack of regular, integrated, ongoing HIV-related diagnosis; (2) weak facility-based systems for tracking and retention in care; (3) interrupted availability of dried blood spot cards (expiration/stock outs); (4) poor quality control of rapid HIV testing; (5) supply-related gaps at health facility-laboratory interface; (6) poor uptake of HIV testing, possibly relating to a fatalistic belief about HIV infection; (7) community-associated reasons e.g. non-disclosure and weak systems for social support, resulting in poor retention in care. Results To increase sustained access to paediatric HIV-related care and treatment, regular updating of Policies, review of inter-sectoral Plans (at facility and community levels) and evaluation of Programme implementation and impact (at national, subnational, facility and community levels) are non-negotiable critical elements. Additionally we recommend the intensified implementation of seven main interventions: (1) update or refresher messaging for health care staff and simple messaging for key staff at early childhood development centres and schools; (2) contact tracing, disclosure and retention monitoring; (3) paying particular attention to infant dried blood spot (DBS) stock control; (4) regular quality assurance of rapid HIV testing procedures; (5) workshops/meetings/dialogues between health facilities and laboratories to resolve transport-related gaps and to facilitate return of

  2. Undernutrition and anaemia among HAART-naïve HIV infected children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a case-controlled, hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole

    2014-01-01

    Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Nigeria is very sparse. This will help to formulate nutritional programs among these children. Seventy HAART naive HIV infected children aged 18 months and above were as well as seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were recruited from August 2007 to January 2009 at Paediatric Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their bio data, WHO clinical stage, anthropometric measurements, haematocrit, serum albumin and CD4 counts were taken with other parameters according to a study proforma. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the HIV infected subjects were 48. 6%,58. 6% and 31. 4% respectively which as significantly higher than 28. 1%, 7. 1% and 28. 1% among the HIV negative controls. 20. 1% of the HIV infected children were marasmic compared to 2. 3% of the controls. Triple anthropometric failure was found in 7. 1% of the subjects as compared to none among the controls. Anaemia is significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (70. 0% vs 31. 4%; p<0. 001). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in the HIV infected subjects with undernutrition. Low socioeconomic status, hypoalbuminemia and severe immunosuppression are significantly associated with higher undernutrition prevalence. Several years after availability of HAART, undernutrition and anaemia remain widely prevalent among newly presenting HAART naïve HIV infected Nigerian children. Nutritional supplementation and evaluation for anaemia still need close attention in the management of these children.

  3. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sophie; Innes, Steve; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Smit, Colette; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Scherpbier, Henriette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment. Methods We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA) and the Netherlands (NL), and in healthy controls (SA). Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time. Results In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013). In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001), with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003). Conclusions Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally. PMID:26148119

  4. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberto, Heather; Ciliberto, Michael; Briend, Andreé; Ashorn, Per; Bier, Dennis; Manary, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in preventing kwashiorkor in a population of Malawian children at high risk of developing kwashiorkor. Design Prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial randomised by household. Setting 8 villages in rural southern Malawi. Participants 2372 children in 2156 households aged 1-4 years were enrolled; 2332 completed the trial. Intervention Daily supplementation with an antioxidant powder containing riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine in a dose that provided about three times the recommended dietary allowance of each nutrient or placebo for 20 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of oedema. Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for weight and length and the number of days of infectious symptoms. Results 62 children developed kwashiorkor (defined by the presence of oedema); 39/1184 (3.3%) were in the antioxidant group and 23/1188 (1.9%) were in the placebo group (relative risk 1.70, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.42). The two groups did not differ in rates of weight or height gain. Children who received antioxidant supplementation did not experience less fever, cough, or diarrhoea. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation at the dose provided did not prevent the onset of kwashiorkor. This finding does not support the hypothesis that depletion of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine, or riboflavin has a role in the development of kwashiorkor. PMID:15851401

  5. [The impact of oral health on the quality of life of HIV infected children: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Buczynski, Ana Karla; Castro, Glória Fernanda; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The search for improvement of the health of systemically compromised patients and for a better knowledge about the impact of diseases on their lives has brought great interest for health-related quality of life, mainly in children with chronic diseases. The quality of life related to oral health is thus relevant, not only for being an inseparable component of the general health but also due to the importance of oral problems in the lives of these patients. The evaluation of oral health-related quality of life in HIV infected children can be of great importance seen that these patients show high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases besides the oral manifestations of the virus infection itself. The aim of this article is to present some concepts about quality of life and the use of instruments for its evaluation on the basis of a literature review as well as to analyze the impact of oral health on the quality of life of HIV infected children.

  6. Immunogenicity, immunologic memory, and safety following measles revaccination in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Mark J; Qin, Min; Levin, Myron J; Fenton, Terence; Beeler, Judy A; Bellini, William J; Audet, Susette; Sowers, Sun Bae; Borkowsky, William; Nachman, Sharon A; Pelton, Stephen I; Rosenblatt, Howard M

    2012-08-15

    Response rates and immunologic memory following measles vaccination are reduced in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV-infected children 2 to <19 years old receiving HAART and with HIV loads <30,000 copies/mL, CD4% ≥15, and ≥1 prior measles-mumps-rubella vaccination (MMR) were given another MMR. Measles antibody concentrations before and 8, 32, and 80 weeks postvaccination were determined by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN). A subset was given another MMR 4-5 years later, and PRN antibody was measured before and 7 and 28 days later. At entry, 52% of 193 subjects were seroprotected (PRN ≥120 mIU/mL). Seroprotection increased to 89% 8 weeks postvaccination, and remained at 80% 80 weeks postvaccination. Of 65 subjects revaccinated 4-5 years later, 85% demonstrated memory based on seroprotection before or 7 days after vaccination. HIV load ≤400 copies/mL at initial study vaccination was associated with higher seroprotection rates, greater antibody concentrations, and memory. Grade 3 fever or fatigue occurred in 2% of subjects. Measles revaccination induced high rates of seroprotection and memory in children receiving HAART. Both endpoints were associated with HIV viral load suppression. NCT00013871 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  7. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla; Eboua, Tanoh; Balestre, Eric; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Aka, Edmond A.; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Koumakpai, Siriatou; Renner, Lorna; Sy, Haby Signaté; Valériane, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4+ cell response in West African HIV-infected children. Methods All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4+ cell count measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4+ cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4+ cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. Results Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrol led at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4+ cell gains compared with children less than 2 years, the reference group (P < 0.001). However, by 24 months, we observed higher CD4+cell gain in children who initiated ART between 3 and 4 years compared with those less than 2 years (P < 0.001). The 24-month CD4+ cell gain was also strongest in immunodeficient children at baseline. Among these children, 75% reached immune recovery: 12-month rates were significantly highest in all those aged 2–5 years at ART initiation compared with those less than 2 years. Beyond 12 months on ART, immune recovery was significantly lower in children initiated more than 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.86). Conclusion These results suggest that both the initiation of ART at the earliest age less than 5 years and before any severe immunodeficiency is needed for improving 24-month immune recovery on ART. PMID:24804858

  8. Prevalence of Anemia and Underlying Iron Status in Naive Antiretroviral Therapy HIV-Infected Children with Moderate Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Wiangnon, Surapon; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Sopa, Bunruan; Apornpong, Tanakorn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Cooper, David A.; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Anemia is common in HIV-infected children and iron deficiency is thought to be a common cause. This study investigates the prevalence of anemia, thalassemia, and underlying iron status in Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV disease to determine the necessity of routine iron supplementation. Antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-infected Asian children aged 1–12 years, with CD4 15–24%, CDC A or B, and hemoglobin (Hb) ≥7.5 g/dl were eligible for the study. Iron studies, serum ferritin, Hb typing, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Anemia was defined as Hb <11.0 g/dl in children <5 years of age or <11.5 g/dl in children 5–12 years. We enrolled 299 children; 57.9% were female and the mean (SD) age was 6.3 (2.9) years. The mean (SD) CD4% and HIV-RNA were 20% (4.6) and 4.6 (0.6) log10 copies/ml, respectively. The mean (SD) Hb and serum ferritin were 11.2 (1.1) g/dl and 78.3 (76.4) μg/liter, respectively. The overall iron deficiency anemia (IDA) prevalence was 2.7%. One hundred and forty-eight (50%) children had anemia, mostly of a mild degree. Of these, 69 (46.6%) had the thalassemia trait, 62 (41.8%) had anemia of chronic disease (ACD), 9 (6.1%) had thalassemia diseases, 3 (2.0%) had iron deficiency anemia, and 5 (3.4%) had IDA and the thalassemia trait. The thalassemia trait was not associated with increased serum ferritin levels. Mild anemia is common in ARV-naïve Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV. However, IDA prevalence is low; with the majority of cases caused by ACD. A routine prescription of iron supplement in anemic HIV-infected children without laboratory confirmation of IDA should be discouraged, especially in regions with a high prevalence of thalassemia and low prevalence of IDA. PMID:22734817

  9. Safety of zidovudine/lamivudine scored tablets in children with HIV infection in Europe and Thailand.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Zidovudine (ZDV) has been associated with risk of haematological toxicity. Safety data from clinical trials is generally limited to 48 weeks. We assessed the short- and mid-term toxicity of ZDV/lamivudine (3TC) fixed-dose combination scored tablets in HIV-infected children followed in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) network. Fourteen cohorts provided data on patients <18 years of age taking ZDV/3TC scored tablets between 2008 and 2012. Rates of Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grade ≥3 laboratory adverse events (AEs) for hepatobiliary and haematological disorders were estimated by duration on drug (<12, 12-24, >24 months). Clinical adverse events and reasons for tablet discontinuation were described. Of 541 patients on ZDV/3TC, 388 (72%) had weight and dose data available, of whom 350 (90%) weighed ≥14 kg and were eligible for tablet use; 161 (41%) were aged <10 years on an approved dose, 189 (49%) aged ≥10 years on an approved dose, and 30 (8%) were on an unapproved dose. Median age at ZDV/3TC start was 10 years, and 79% had taken ART previously (60% had prior exposure to ZDV/3TC). Overall rates of grade ≥3 AEs for absolute neutrophil counts, bilirubin, haemoglobin, platelet counts, white blood cell counts (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were ≤2/100 person years (PY) for patients taking approved doses. Two hundred thirty-three (43%) patients were not on ZDV/3TC tablets at most recent follow-up; a small number (17 (7%)) discontinued due to AEs (17 (7%)), and the most common reason for discontinuation was treatment simplification (73 (31%)). Scored ZDV/3TC tablets, both approved and taken off-label, appear to be well tolerated with few side effects. Few patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. As ZDV/3TC tablets are taken with other antiretrovirals, it is difficult to infer association between toxicities and specific agents, highlighting the importance of widening

  10. Global, regional, and national estimates of pneumonia burden in HIV-infected children in 2010: a meta-analysis and modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Theodoratou, Evropi; McAllister, David A; Reed, Craig; Adeloye, Davies O; Rudan, Igor; Muhe, Lulu M; Madhi, Shabir A; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Globally, pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children younger than 5 years. Underlying HIV infection is an important risk factor for pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children. There are, however, no global or country level estimates of pneumonia burden in HIV-infected children. We assessed the role of HIV in pneumonia incidence and mortality and estimated the number of pneumonia cases and deaths in HIV-infected children younger than 5 years in 133 high pneumonia-burden countries in 2010. Methods We estimated the risk of hospital admission and case fatality rate caused by pneumonia in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children from a systematic review of studies published in Medline, Embase, and Global Health between Jan 1, 1980, and Aug 31, 2013. We estimated nationwide pneumonia incidence and mortality with two different models that incorporated several risk factors for paediatric pneumonia hospital admission and mortality (including HIV infection). We then estimated the number of pneumonia episodes and deaths that occurred in HIV-infected children in 2010. Findings The odds ratio (OR) for hospital admission for all-cause pneumonia in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children was 6·5 (95% CI 5·9–7·2). The risk of death was higher in children with pneumonia and HIV compared with those with pneumonia only (OR 5·9, 95% CI 2·7–12·7). In 2010, 1·4 million pneumonia episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 0·6 million to 3·3 million) and 88 000 pneumonia deaths (UR 47 400–153 000) occurred in HIV-infected children in low-income countries. Of these, 1·2 million pneumonia episodes (UR 0·5 million–2·7 million) and 85 400 deaths (UR 46 000–147 300) were directly attributable to HIV. 1·3 million (90%) pneumonia episodes and 82 400 (93%) pneumonia deaths in HIV-infected children aged younger than 5 years occurred in the WHO African region. Interpretation Globally, a

  11. The breast-feeding dilemma and its impact on HIV-infected women and their children.

    PubMed

    Heymann, S J; Vo, P

    1999-07-01

    The rate of HIV transmission via breast-feeding ranges from 14% to 26%, depending on the timing of maternal infection. In settings where infant mortality rates from infectious diseases and malnutrition are low and relatively safe alternatives to breast-feeding are available, HIV-infected mothers should be advised not to breast-feed. Where breast-feeding by HIV-infected mothers and bottle-feeding both present serious risks of mortality, changing the conditions in which families live so that safe feeding alternatives become available must be a top priority. At the same time, these mothers need information about the relative risks and benefits of breast-feeding, early weaning, wet-nursing, and formula feeding. This article reviews the available research data and discusses critical gaps in current knowledge.

  12. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ng'eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W; Rutherford, George W

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible.

  13. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV-infected children diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma in Malawi and Botswana.

    PubMed

    Cox, Carrie M; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kabue, Mark; Kovarik, Carrie; Schutze, Gordon E; Kazembe, Peter N; Mehta, Parth S

    2013-08-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. The presentation and outcomes of pediatric KS are not well understood. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 81 HIV-infected children with KS at the Baylor Children's Clinical Centres of Excellence in Malawi and Botswana from March 2003 to October 2009. Eighty-one children with KS were identified whose median age was 8.0 (inter-quartile range 5.1-11.3) years. KS lesions were presented primarily on the skin (83%), lymph nodes (52%), and oral mucosa (41%). Occasionally disease was limited to the lymph nodes only (10%). Severe immunosuppression (70%), anemia (29%), and thrombocytopenia (17%) were common laboratory findings. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was administered to 94% of children, including 77% who received HAART plus chemotherapy. KS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurred in 22%. Disease status 12 months after KS diagnosis was determined for 69 children: 43% were alive and 57% had died. Severe immunosuppression was independently associated with mortality in multivariate analysis (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 1.3-14.6; P = 0.02). KS occurs in a significant number of HIV infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from KS in adults. Lymph node involvement was a common manifestation of KS in children, and severe immunosuppression was associated with the highest mortality risk. Though overall mortality was high in children with KS, patients did achieve clinical remission in settings with limited diagnostic and therapeutic resources. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The role of polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin in treating HIV-infected children with severe bacterial infections: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lyen C; Myer, Landon; Jaspan, Heather B

    2008-01-01

    Background Mortality among HIV-infected children in developing countries remains high after serious bacterial infections despite the use of antibiotics. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an adjuvant therapy to treat these infections, but little data exists regarding its efficacy, and previous studies have focused on IVIG as a prophylactic agent. We examined the impact of IVIG as an adjuvant therapy in reducing mortality and length of hospital stay in HIV-infected children with serious bacterial infections. Methods This retrospective study focused on pediatric admissions at a large urban hospital between 2002 and 2006. Children between the ages of one month and nine years of age with laboratory confirmed HIV-status, serious bacterial infection, no prior exposure to IVIG, and a hospital length of stay of 5 days or more, were eligible for inclusion. Results A total of 140 children (median age 1.2 years) met inclusion criteria; lower respiratory tract infection was diagnosed in 94 (67%) of the children, while 74 (53%) had bacterial sepsis. Fifty-four (39%) children were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 39 (28%) were receiving tuberculosis treatment. Overall 73 (52%) were treated with IVIG, with the majority (74%) of children receiving a single dose. Thirteen (9%) died during their hospital admission. In crude analysis IVIG was significantly associated with increased mortality was (Odds Ratio (OR): 5.8; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.2–27.1) and this association was weakened by adjustment for other predictors of mortality (OR 4.3, 95% CI 0.7–27.9, p = 0.123). IVIG use was also associated with longer hospital stays. Conclusion Administration of one to three doses of IVIG during the acute phase of illness does not appear to reduce mortality or the length of hospital stays in HIV-infected children with serious bacterial infections. However, the retrospective nature of this study makes confounding by indication difficult to control and further

  15. [Direct cost related to management and care provision for HIV-infected children in the asymptomatic stage in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Djohan, G; Kouakoussui, A; Msellati, P

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct cost of medical and psychological care provided to asymptomatic HIV-infected children in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. For this purpose, a retrospective study was carried out among a group of asymptomatic HIV-infected children in Abidjan who were part of the "projet enfant Yopougon" (ANRS 1244/1278). The study reviewed these childrens' hospital records and files dating between October 2000 and March 2003. The follow up period for a total of 46 children represented a cumulative of 83.4 children years and showed that 8 potentially death-threatening medical events were recorded on average per child per year. The mean annual cost for the management and delivery of medical and psychological care per asymptomatic HIV-infected child was 132, 730 FCFA per year, or rather 11,000 FCFA (16.63 Euros) per month. This relatively low cost should be used to advocate for more financial support from governments and the international community to contribute to more effective management of care and services for HIV-infected children.

  16. An Analysis of the Last Clinical Encounter before Outpatient Mortality among Children with HIV Infection and Exposure in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Chris A.; Flick, Robert J.; Sullivan, David; Bvumbwe, Menard; Mhango, Joseph; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kazembe, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. Methods This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children’s Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi. We compared clinical indicators documented from the final outpatient encounter for patients who died in the outpatient setting versus those who were alive after their penultimate clinical encounter. Results Of the 8,546 patients who were attended to over a 10-year period at the Baylor Center of Excellence, 851 had died (10%). Of children who died, 392 (46%) were directly admitted to the hospital after their last clinical encounter and died as inpatients. Of the remaining 459 who died as outpatients after their last visit, 53.5% had a World Health Organization (WHO) stage IV condition at their last visit, and 25% had a WHO stage III condition. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that poor nutritional status, female gender, shorter time as a patient, more clinical encounters in the prior month, if last visit was an unscheduled sick visit, and if the patient had lost weight since their prior visit independently predicted increased mortality in the outpatient setting after the final clinical encounter. Conclusion Clinical indicators may assist in identifying children with HIV who have increased risk of mortality in the outpatient setting. Recognizing these indicators may aid in identifying HIV-infected children who require a higher level of care or closer follow-up. PMID:28099432

  17. Undervaccination of perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Succi, Regina C M; Krauss, Margot R; Harris, D Robert; Machado, Daisy M; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Pierre, Russell B; Kolevic, Lenka; Joao, Esau; Foradori, Irene; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K

    2013-08-01

    Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children may be at risk of undervaccination. Vaccination coverage rates among PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean were compared. All PHIV and HEU children born from 2002 to 2007 who were enrolled in a multisite observational study conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean were included in this analysis. Children were classified as up to date if they had received the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the appropriate intervals by 12 and 24 months of age. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the data. Covariates potentially associated with a child's HIV status were considered in multivariable logistic regression modeling. Of 1156 eligible children, 768 (66.4%) were HEU and 388 (33.6%) were PHIV. HEU children were significantly (P < 0.01) more likely to be up to date by 12 and 24 months of age for all vaccines examined. Statistically significant differences persisted when the analyses were limited to children enrolled before 12 months of age. Controlling for birth weight, sex, primary caregiver education and any use of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs during pregnancy did not contribute significantly to the logistic regression models. PHIV children were significantly less likely than HEU children to be up to date for their childhood vaccinations at 12 and 24 months of age, even when limited to children enrolled before 12 months of age. Strategies to increase vaccination rates in PHIV are needed.

  18. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  19. Activated Neutrophils Are Associated with Pediatric Cerebral Malaria Vasculopathy in Malawian Children

    PubMed Central

    Feintuch, Catherine Manix; Saidi, Alex; Seydel, Karl; Chen, Grace; Goldman-Yassen, Adam; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; Kim, Ryung S.; Frenette, Paul S.; Taylor, Terrie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most patients with cerebral malaria (CM) sustain cerebral microvascular sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs). Although many young children are infected with P. falciparum, CM remains a rare outcome; thus, we hypothesized that specific host conditions facilitate iRBC cerebral sequestration. To identify these host factors, we compared the peripheral whole-blood transcriptomes of Malawian children with iRBC cerebral sequestration, identified as malarial-retinopathy-positive CM (Ret+CM), to the transcriptomes of children with CM and no cerebral iRBC sequestration, defined as malarial-retinopathy-negative CM (Ret-CM). Ret+CM was associated with upregulation of 103 gene set pathways, including cytokine, blood coagulation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) pathways (P < 0.01; false-discovery rate [FDR] of <0.05). Neutrophil transcripts were the most highly upregulated individual transcripts in Ret+CM patients. Activated neutrophils can modulate diverse host processes, including the ECM, inflammation, and platelet biology to potentially facilitate parasite sequestration. Therefore, we compared plasma neutrophil proteins and neutrophil chemotaxis between Ret+CM and Ret-CM patients. Plasma levels of human neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and proteinase 3, but not lactoferrin or lipocalin, were elevated in Ret+CM patients, and neutrophil chemotaxis was impaired, possibly related to increased plasma heme. Neutrophils were rarely seen in CM brain microvasculature autopsy samples, and no neutrophil extracellular traps were found, suggesting that a putative neutrophil effect on endothelial cell biology results from neutrophil soluble factors rather than direct neutrophil cellular tissue effects. Meanwhile, children with Ret-CM had lower levels of inflammation, higher levels of alpha interferon, and upregulation of Toll-like receptor pathways and other host transcriptional pathways, which may represent responses that do not favor

  20. Relationship of exclusive breast-feeding to infections and growth of Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Peterson, Karen; Liu, Enju; Msamanga, Gernard; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2011-07-01

    We examined the relationships between exclusive breast-feeding and the risks of respiratory, diarrhoea and nutritional morbidities during the first 2 years of life among children born to women infected with HIV-1. We prospectively determined the incidence of respiratory illnesses, diarrhoea, fever, hospitalizations, outpatient visits and nutritional morbidities. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks for morbidity episodes and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the incidence rate ratios of nutritional morbidities. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The sample consisted of 666 children born to HIV-infected women. The 666 children were followed for 2 years. Exclusive breast-feeding was associated with lower risk for cough (rate ratio (RR) = 0·49, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·60, P < 0·0001), cough and fever (RR = 0·44, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·60, P < 0·0001) and cough and difficulty breathing or refusal to feed (RR = 0·31, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·55, P < 0·0001). Exclusive breast-feeding was also associated with lower risk of acute diarrhoea, watery diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and outpatient visits during the first 6 months of life, but showed no effect at 6-24 months of life. Exclusive breast-feeding did not significantly reduce the risks of nutritional morbidities during the first 2 years of life. Exclusive breast-feeding is strongly associated with reductions in the risk of respiratory and diarrhoea morbidities during the first 6 months of life among children born to HIV-infected women.

  1. Relationship of exclusive breast-feeding to infections and growth of Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Peterson, Karen; Liu, Enju; Msamanga, Gernard; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationships between exclusive breast-feeding and the risks of respiratory, diarrhoea and nutritional morbidities during the first 2 years of life among children born to women infected with HIV-1. Design We prospectively determined the incidence of respiratory illnesses, diarrhoea, fever, hospitalizations, outpatient visits and nutritional morbidities. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks for morbidity episodes and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the incidence rate ratios of nutritional morbidities. Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects The sample consisted of 666 children born to HIV-infected women. Results The 666 children were followed for 2 years. Exclusive breast-feeding was associated with lower risk for cough (rate ratio (RR) = 0·49, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·60, P < 0·0001), cough and fever (RR = 0·44, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·60, P < 0·0001) and cough and difficulty breathing or refusal to feed (RR = 0·31, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·55, P < 0·0001). Exclusive breast-feeding was also associated with lower risk of acute diarrhoea, watery diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and outpatient visits during the first 6 months of life, but showed no effect at 6–24 months of life. Exclusive breast-feeding did not significantly reduce the risks of nutritional morbidities during the first 2 years of life. Conclusions Exclusive breast-feeding is strongly associated with reductions in the risk of respiratory and diarrhoea morbidities during the first 6 months of life among children born to HIV-infected women. PMID:21324223

  2. HIV-Infected Children Have Elevated Levels of PD-1+ Memory CD4 T Cells With Low Proliferative Capacity and High Inflammatory Cytokine Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Foldi, Julia; Kozhaya, Lina; McCarty, Bret; Mwamzuka, Mussa; Marshed, Fatma; Ilmet, Tiina; Kilberg, Max; Kravietz, Adam; Ahmed, Aabid; Borkowsky, William; Unutmaz, Derya; Khaitan, Alka

    2017-09-15

    During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation. Second, in vitro CD4 T-cell proliferative and cytokine responses to HIV-specific and -nonspecific stimuli were assessed with and without PD-1 blockade. HIV-infected children have increased frequencies of PD-1+ memory CD4 T cells that fail to normalize with antiretroviral treatment. These cells are comprised of central and effector memory subsets and correlate with HIV disease progression, measured by viral load, CD4 percentage, CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, and immune activation. Last, PD-1+ CD4 T cells predict impaired proliferative potential yet preferentially secrete the Th1 and Th17 cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin 17A, and are unresponsive to in vitro PD-1 blockade. This study highlights differences in PD-1+ CD4 T-cell memory phenotype and response to blockade between HIV-infected children and adults, with implications for potential immune checkpoint therapies.

  3. Immunogenicity and Immunologic Memory after Hepatitis B Virus Booster Vaccination in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abzug, Mark J.; Warshaw, Meredith; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Levin, Myron J.; Nachman, Sharon A.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Borkowsky, William; Fenton, Terence

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccination in children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was investigated. Methods HIV-infected children receiving HAART who had low to moderate HIV loads and who had previously received ≥3 doses of HBV vaccine were given an HBV vaccine booster. Concentrations of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were determined before vaccination and at weeks 8, 48, and 96. A subset of subjects was administered a subsequent dose, and anti-HBs was measured before and 1 and 4 weeks later. Results At entry, 24% of 204 subjects were seropositive. Vaccine response occurred in 46% on the basis of seropositivity 8 weeks after vaccination and in 37% on the basis of a ≥4-fold rise in antibody concentration. Of 69 subjects given another vaccination 4–5 years later, immunologic memory was exhibited by 45% on the basis of seropositivity 1 week after vaccination and by 29% on the basis of a ≥4-fold rise in antibody concentration at 1 week. Predictors of response and memory included higher nadir and current CD4 cell percentage, higher CD19 cell percentage, and undetectable HIV load. Conclusions HIV-infected children frequently lack protective levels of anti-HBs after previous HBV vaccination, and a significant proportion of them do not respond to booster vaccination or demonstrate memory despite receiving HAART, leaving this population insufficiently protected from infection with HBV. PMID:19663708

  4. The Eye as a Window to the Brain: Neuroretinal Thickness Is Associated With Microstructural White Matter Injury in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Charlotte; Demirkaya, Nazli; Cohen, Sophie; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J; Reiss, Peter; Abramoff, Michael D; Caan, Matthan W A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Verbraak, Frank D; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-07-01

    Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatal HIV-infection can cause decreased gray and white matter volume, microstructural white matter injury, and retinal structural abnormalities. As neuroretinal tissue is directly connected to the brain, these deficits may have a shared pathogenesis. We aimed to assess associations between neuroretinal thickness and cerebral injury in cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. This cross-sectional observational study included 29 cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and 35 matched healthy controls. All participants underwent 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), determining gray and white matter volumes from T1-weighted sequences, and white matter diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional individual and total neuroretinal layer thickness was quantified using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. We explored associations between retinal and cerebral parameters using multivariable linear regression analysis. In HIV-infected children, lower foveal and pericentral neuroretinal thickness was associated with damaged white matter microstructure, in terms of lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean and radial diffusivity. In healthy controls only, neuroretinal thickness was associated with gray and white matter volume. Decreased neuroretinal thickness is associated with microstructural white matter injury, but not with lower cerebral volume in HIV-infected children. This suggests that HIV-induced retinal thinning and microstructural white matter injury may share a common pathogenesis, and longitudinal assessment of neuroretinal alterations in parallel with MRI and neuroinflammatory markers may further our insight into the pathogenesis of HIV-induced cerebral injury in children.

  5. Clinical assessment of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peters, Remco P H; Van Ramshorst, Mette S; Struthers, Helen E; McIntyre, James A

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adult patients and is particularly related to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This class of drugs is included in all first-line paediatric ART regimens in Africa, but data on the prevalence of neuropathy in children are scarce. In this cross-sectional study, 182 HIV-infected children on ART in rural South Africa were assessed for peripheral neuropathy using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS). Peripheral neuropathy was defined as NSS ≥ 5 or NDS ≥ 3. Neurological assessment was completed for 174 children (96 %). Symptoms of neuropathy were reported in NSS by 48 children (28 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 21-34 %), and signs were observed in NDS in 25 children (14 %; 95 % CI 12-16 %). A diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy was established in 42 children (24 %; 95 % CI 18-30 %). Independent risk factors for peripheral neuropathy were co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (adjusted odds ratio 0.45; 95 % CI 0.21-0.95, p = 0.036) and didanosine use (adjusted odds ratio 12; 95 % CI 1.3-116, p = 0.030). Peripheral neuropathy as determined by clinical assessment is a common condition in African children on ART.

  6. Clinical and Immunological Features of HIV-Infection in Children Aged 3-5 and 6-14 Years.

    PubMed

    Sizyakina, Ludmila P.; Denisenko, V. B.; Simovanyan, E. N.

    1998-04-01

    Ninety-five HIV-infected children aged 3-5 and 6-14 years were examined. Clinical picture matched primary symptoms of stage IIV (phase of generalized lymphadenopathy by Pokrovsky V.I. classification, 1989) and included basic symptoms associated with HIV cytopathogenic action. Local opportunistic infections, either without damage of vital organs (phase IIIA of the secondary stage), or with damage of these organs (phase IIIB) were observed in patients with pre-AIDS. Generalized opportunistic infections and malignant tumors developed in patients with AIDS (phase IIIB and terminal stage IV). High frequency of bacterial infections, bacterial sepsis, splenomegaly, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cerebral, cardiac, common-infections syndromes, and rapid progression characterized the disease in young children. Local and generalized viral, fungal and protozoal infections were more frequently revealed in older children. Immunological alterations (T cell immunodeficiency, polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes, abnormalities of neutrophil metabolism) were diognosed in all children with phase IIV and were the most pronounced in young children. Progressive B lymphocyte polyclonal activation in young children, T cell immunodeficiency in older children and activation of neutrophil metabolism in those with pre-AIDS were observed. T cell immunodeficiency, B lymphocyte polyclonal activation, decreased neutrophil metabolism progressed steadily in all the patients with AIDS.

  7. Factors associated with HIV-status disclosure to HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mumburi, Livin Peter; Hamel, Bernardus Carolus; Philemon, Rune Nathanael; Kapanda, Gibson Nsokolo; Msuya, Levina January

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of antiretroviral drugs HIV-infected children live longer. Disclosure of HIV diagnosis is increasingly an important and inevitable issue. Both healthcare providers and caregivers face challenges of disclosure to children. The objective of the study was to explore factors associated with HIV-status disclosure to HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC). Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2011 to April 2012. Study population included HIV-infected children aged 5 to 14 years, their caregivers and healthcare providers. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information. Children were asked the reason for hospital visits. Outcome of interest was HIV disclosure status. Data was processed and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Multivariate logistic regression at 5% margin error was used to account for confounders. Results A total of 211 children were enrolled with mean age of 9.7 (SD ± 2.6; range 5-14) years. Only 47 (22.3%) children knew their HIV-status. The mean age of disclosure was 10.6 years. Most of disclosed children were aged above 10 years (p). Conclusion Most of children were not disclosed. Ages, self medication, getting other support and parents/caregivers prior discussion were strong predictors of disclosure status. PMID:25368739

  8. Factors associated with HIV-status disclosure to HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mumburi, Livin Peter; Hamel, Bernardus Carolus; Philemon, Rune Nathanael; Kapanda, Gibson Nsokolo; Msuya, Levina January

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of antiretroviral drugs HIV-infected children live longer. Disclosure of HIV diagnosis is increasingly an important and inevitable issue. Both healthcare providers and caregivers face challenges of disclosure to children. The objective of the study was to explore factors associated with HIV-status disclosure to HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC). A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2011 to April 2012. Study population included HIV-infected children aged 5 to 14 years, their caregivers and healthcare providers. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information. Children were asked the reason for hospital visits. Outcome of interest was HIV disclosure status. Data was processed and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Multivariate logistic regression at 5% margin error was used to account for confounders. A total of 211 children were enrolled with mean age of 9.7 (SD±2.6; range 5-14) years. Only 47 (22.3%) children knew their HIV-status. The mean age of disclosure was 10.6 years. Most of disclosed children were aged above 10 years (p). Most of children were not disclosed. Ages, self medication, getting other support and parents/caregivers prior discussion were strong predictors of disclosure status.

  9. Factors associated with HIV infection among children born to mothers on the prevention of mother to child transmission programme at Chitungwiza Hospital, Zimbabwe, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ngwende, Stella; Gombe, Notion T; Midzi, Stanley; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Shambira, Gerald; Chadambuka, Addmore

    2013-12-14

    Zimbabwe is one of the five countries worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with HIV infection contributing increasingly to childhood morbidity and mortality. Among the children born to HIV positive mothers participating in the PMTCT programme, 25% tested positive to HIV. We investigated factors associated with HIV infection among children born to mothers on the PMTCT programme. A 1:1 unmatched case-control study was conducted at Chitungwiza Hospital, Zimbabwe, 2008. A case was defined as a child who tested HIV positive, born to a mother who had been on PMTCT programme. A control was a HIV negative child born to a mother who had been on PMTCT programme. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, risk factors associated with HIV infection and immunization status. A total of 120 mothers were interviewed. Independent risk factors associated with HIV infection among children included maternal CD4 count of less than 200 during pregnancy [aOR = 7.1, 95% CI (2.6-17)], mixed feeding [aOR = 29, 95% CI (4.2-208)], being hospitalized since birth [aOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.2-4.8)] whilst being exclusively breast fed for less than 6 months [aOR = 0.1 (95% CI 0.03-0.4)] was protective. HIV infection among children increased if the mother's CD4 count was ≤200 cells/μL and if the child was exposed to mixed feeding. Breastfeeding exclusively for less than six months was protective. We recommended exclusive breast feeding period for the first six months and stop breast feeding after 6 months if affordable, sustainable and safe.

  10. Morphine Enhances HIV Infection of Neonatal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Merrill, Jeffrey D.; Mooney, Kathy; Song, Li; Wang, Xu; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Savani, Rashmin C.; Metzger, David S.; Douglas, Steven D.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal transmission of HIV accounts for almost all new HIV infections in children. There is an increased risk of perinatal transmission of HIV with maternal illicit substance abuse. Little is known about neonatal immune system alteration and subsequent susceptibility to HIV infection after morphine exposure. We investigated the effects of morphine on HIV infection of neonatal monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Morphine significantly enhanced HIV infection of neonatal MDM. Morphine-induced HIV replication in neonatal MDM was completely suppressed by naltrexone, the opioid receptor antagonist. Morphine significantly up-regulated CCR5 receptor expression and inhibited the endogenous production of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in neonatal MDM. Thus, morphine, most likely through alteration of β-chemokines and CCR5 receptor expression, enhances the susceptibility of neonatal MDM to HIV infection, and may have a cofactor role in perinatal HIV transmission and infection. PMID:12736382

  11. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with iron deficiency in HIV-infected Malawian women that is mitigated with supplementation, but is not associated with infant iron deficiency during 24 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Objective In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (via fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2004-2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4>200 cells/ul) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal-LNS/maternal-ARV (n=424), maternal-LNS/infant-ARV (n=426), maternal-LNS (n=334), maternal-ARV (n=425), infant-ARV (n=426), or control (n=334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n=537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. Results In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR>8.3 mg/L) (Risk ratio (RR): 3.1, p<0.01), but not in ARV-treated mothers receiving LNS (p=0.17). LNS without ARVs, was not associated with iron deficiency or anemia (p>0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all p-values>0.1). Conclusions Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not appear to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated. PMID:25723140

  12. Antiretroviral Treatment Is Associated With Iron Deficiency in HIV-Infected Malawian Women That Is Mitigated With Supplementation, but Is Not Associated With Infant Iron Deficiency During 24 Weeks of Exclusive Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (through fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, from 2004 to 2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4 >200 cells/μL) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal LNS/maternal ARV (n = 424), maternal LNS/infant ARV (n = 426), maternal LNS (n = 334), maternal ARV (n = 425), infant ARV (n = 426), or control (n = 334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n = 537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR), and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR >8.3 mg/L) (risk ratio: 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in ARV-treated mothers receiving LNS (P = 0.17). LNS without ARVs was not associated with iron deficiency or anemia (P > 0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all P > 0.1). Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not seem to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated.

  13. [Lung disease and HIV infection in children at the Charles de Gaulle university pediatric hospital center in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, Fla; Yé, Diarra; Dao, Lassina; Zoungrana-Kaboré, Alice; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle P; Napon, M; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    To compare the clinical and radiological aspects of lung diseases in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, we conducted a retrospective case control study covering a 3-year period from January 2003 through December 2005 at Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou. HIV-positive patients hospitalised for lung disease were matched to HIV-negative patients controls, hospitalised for the same symptoms, by age and date of hospitalisation. The study included 186 patients (93 HIV-positive and 93 HIV-negative) and collected data on age, sex, clinical signs, radiological signs and short-term course. Of the 93 HIV-positive children suspected to have been contaminated by mother-to-child transmission, 92 had HIV1 and 1 had a double infection of HIV1 and 2. The mean age in both groups was 48 months. Clinically severe lung disease (44%) was more common in HIV-positive children. Radiology showed that interstitial syndrome was significantly more common in HIV-positive children (p=0001) with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 60%. The case-fatality rate was 4.2% among HIV-positive children. This study allows us to remind paediatricians of the importance of lung disease in HIV-infected children. Moreover, the vertical transmission responsible for disease in all our patients shows the need to accelerate the scaling up of the program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in our country.

  14. The influence of nutritional status on the response to HAART in HIV-infected children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Reené; Rennert, Wolfgang; Lung, Audrey; Naidoo, Kimesh; McKerrow, Neil

    2010-06-01

    While the impact of HAART on growth in children is well established, the influence of prior nutritional status on the response to HAART is not well known. A retrospective study was conducted on 120 children in South Africa. Patients were divided into 3 groups (normal, moderately underweight, and severely underweight) based on weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Age, weight, height, CD4 cell percentage, and viral load were recorded at initiation of HAART and after 24 months of therapy. Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi tests, and one-way ANOVA. At baseline, 58% of children were normal weight, 18% moderately underweight, and 23% severely underweight. After 24 months of HAART, WAZ improved significantly in moderately and severely underweight patient groups compared with the normal group. Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) increased in all 3 groups with severely underweight children gaining more height than normal weight counterparts. Weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) normalized in the severely underweight group. Mean CD4 cell percentages increased significantly in all 3 groups while viral loads decreased significantly in all groups with no differences among the groups at the end of 24 months of therapy. Of the entire cohort, 75% achieved undetectable HIV RNA viral loads. Underlying malnutrition does not adversely affect growth, immunologic or virologic response to HAART in HIV-infected children. Underweight children exhibit an equally robust response to treatment as their well-nourished peers.

  15. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV-Infected Children: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Washington, Charles H.; Katanyuwong, Kamornwan; Jittamala, Podjanee

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a perinatally HIV-infected patient aged 9 years, who presented with right-sided hemiplegia. His initial CD4 T-cell was of 0.21% (4 cells/μL) and plasma HIV RNA virus of 185 976 copies/mL (log 5.27). Plasma and CSF samples were subsequently positive for JCV. Twelve days after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the MRI showed progressive white matter lesions with asymmetrical deep and subcortical white matter lesions over the left frontotemporoparietal region and the right frontal lobe. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) was suspected, and the patient was treated with methylprednisolone. His clinical symptoms worsened and despite therapy the patient deteriorated. PMID:20041004

  16. Characteristics of HIV-Infected Children at Enrollment into Care and at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sinayobye, Jean d’Amour; Nduwimana, Martin; Lelo, Patricia; Nash, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. Materials and Methods Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0–15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda. Measures include CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, age, and weight-for-age Z score (WAZ), each at enrollment into HIV care and at ART initiation. Changes in the medians or proportions of each measure by year of enrollment and year of ART initiation were assessed to capture potential impacts of changing ART guidelines. Results Median age at care enrollment decreased from 77.2 months in 2004–05 to 30.3 months in 2012–13. The median age at ART initiation (n = 2058) decreased from 83.0 months in 2004–05 to 66.9 months in 2012–13. The proportion of children ≤24 months of age at enrollment increased from 12.7% in 2004–05 to 46.7% in 2012–13, and from 9.6% in 2004–05 to 24.2% in 2012–13 for ART initiation. The median CD4 count at enrollment into care increased from 563 (IQR: 275, 901) in 2004–05 to 660 (IQR: 339, 1071) cells/μl in 2012–13, and the median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 310 (IQR:167, 600) in 2004–05 to 589 (IQR: 315, 1113) cells/μl in 2012–13. From 2004–05 to 2012–13, median WAZ improved from -2 (IQR: -3.4, -1.1) to -1 (IQR: -2.5, -0.2) at enrollment in care and from -2 (IQR: -3.8, -1.6) to -1 (IQR: -2.6, -0.4) at ART initiation. Discussion and Conclusion Although HIV-infected children ≤24 months of age accounted for half of all children enrolling in care in our cohort during 2012–13, they

  17. Public Policy Affirmations Affecting the Planning and Implementation of Developmental Services for Children and Adults with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Allen C., Comp.; And Others

    The increasing number of individuals infected with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has created a need to examine public policy issues and to further efforts in planning, implementing, and evaluating services for individuals with HIV infection and their families. A working conference was convened, which identified several…

  18. Predictors and consequences of anaemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bosch, Ronald J; Kupka, Roland; Hunter, David J; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2013-01-01

    Objective Predictors and consequences of childhood anaemia in settings with high HIV prevalence are not well known. The aims of the present study were to identify maternal and child predictors of anaemia among children born to HIV-infected women and to study the association between childhood anaemia and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and Hb measurements at 3-month intervals from birth were available for children. Information was also collected on malaria and HIV infection in the children, who were followed up for survival status until 24 months after birth. Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects The study sample consisted of 829 children born to HIV-positive women. Results Advanced maternal clinical HIV disease (relative risk (RR) for stage ≥2 v. stage 1: 1.31, 95% CI 1.14, 1.51) and low CD4 cell counts during pregnancy (RR for <350 cells/mm3 v. ≥350 cells/mm3: 1.58, 95% CI 1.05, 2.37) were associated with increased risk of anaemia among children. Birth weight <2500 g, preterm birth (<34 weeks), malaria parasitaemia and HIV infection in the children also increased the risk of anaemia. Fe-deficiency anaemia in children was an independent predictor of mortality in the first two years of life (hazard ratio 1.99, 95 % CI 1.06, 3.72). Conclusions Comprehensive care including highly active antiretroviral therapy to eligible HIV-infected women during pregnancy could reduce the burden of anaemia in children. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antimalarial treatment to children could improve child survival in settings with high HIV prevalence. PMID:19650963

  19. Predictors and consequences of anaemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bosch, Ronald J; Kupka, Roland; Hunter, David J; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-02-01

    Predictors and consequences of childhood anaemia in settings with high HIV prevalence are not well known. The aims of the present study were to identify maternal and child predictors of anaemia among children born to HIV-infected women and to study the association between childhood anaemia and mortality. Prospective cohort study. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and Hb measurements at 3-month intervals from birth were available for children. Information was also collected on malaria and HIV infection in the children, who were followed up for survival status until 24 months after birth. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study sample consisted of 829 children born to HIV-positive women. Advanced maternal clinical HIV disease (relative risk (RR) for stage > or =2 v. stage 1: 1.31, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.51) and low CD4 cell counts during pregnancy (RR for <350 cells/mm3 v. > or =350 cells/mm3: 1.58, 95 % CI 1.05, 2.37) were associated with increased risk of anaemia among children. Birth weight <2500 g, preterm birth (<34 weeks), malaria parasitaemia and HIV infection in the children also increased the risk of anaemia. Fe-deficiency anaemia in children was an independent predictor of mortality in the first two years of life (hazard ratio 1.99, 95 % CI 1.06, 3.72). Comprehensive care including highly active antiretroviral therapy to eligible HIV-infected women during pregnancy could reduce the burden of anaemia in children. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antimalarial treatment to children could improve child survival in settings with high HIV prevalence.

  20. Efficacy of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in Thai HIV-infected children aged two years or less.

    PubMed

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Aurpibul, Linda; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sirisanthana, Virat

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-six Thai HIV-infected children, aged 2 years or less were prospectively enrolled to receive non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-two children (85%) had World Health Organization clinical stage 3 or 4. The median baseline CD4 cell percentage and plasma HIV RNA were 17% and 5.9 log 10 copies/mL, respectively. The median age at HAART initiation was 9.8 months (range, 1.5-24.0). One child died. The mean CD4 cell percentages at 24, 48, and 96 weeks of treatment were 26%, 31%, and 37%, respectively. The proportions of children with virologic suppression (<400 copies/mL) at week 24 and 48 were 14/26 (54%) and 19/26 (73%), respectively. Non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor-based HAART is safe and effective in HIV-infected young children in a resource-limited setting.

  1. The role of social support on resilience, posttraumatic growth, hopelessness, and depression among children of HIV-infected parents in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Lau, Joseph Tak Fai; Yu, Xiaonan; Gu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has a profound impact not only on the infected individuals, but also on their families. Children of the HIV-infected parents are particularly affected. The present study examined the relationship between social support, resilience, posttraumatic growth (PTG), hopelessness, and depression among 195 children of HIV-infected parents in mainland China. Results showed that 35.4% of the sample scored above the cutoff of the Children's Depression Inventory. Results from structural equation modeling reported that social support had a significant positive relationship with resilience and PTG. Higher levels of resilience and PTG were associated with lower level of hopelessness which in turn, was associated with lower level of depression. The overall model achieved satisfactory fit. Interventions are needed to improve social support of the children affected by HIV so as to improve their mental health.

  2. [Adherence to an oral health program for HIV infected children and adolescents and the attitudes of their caretakers].

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Castro, Glória Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adherence to an Oral Health Program (OHP) for HIV infected children and adolescents, as well as the attitudes of their caretakers regarding oral care. A total of 58 caretakers that accompany the children in medical appointments at an AIDS ambulatory were interviewed for collecting personal data and data regarding adherence to the OHP or other odontological treatment and attitudes related to oral care. Approximately 70% of the caretakers stated that their children participated in the OHAP, however 20% of them did not return to the recall appointments; such visits were even less frequent when the caretakers were not the parents themselves (p= 0.036). The adherence of this population to dental treatment outside the OHP was small, 48% of the caretakers stated that the child did not conclude the treatment when referred to another place for treatment. The attitude of the caretakers regarding dental care of HIV+ children was not considered satisfactory. Furthermore, it is very important to have pediatric dentists in the multi-professional teams that attend HIV+ children and adolescents and to promote this program among the parents and all medical teams involved with such patients.

  3. Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Stanzi M; Cotton, Mark F; Golub, Jonathan E; le Roux, David M; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children. Methods We investigated adherence to study medication in a two centre, randomized trial comparing daily to three times a week dosing of isoniazid. The study was conducted at two tertiary paediatric care centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Over a 5 year period, we followed 324 HIV-infected children aged ≥ 8 weeks. Adherence information based on pill counts was available for 276 children. Percentage adherence was calculated by counting the number of pills returned. Adherence ≥ 90% was considered to be optimal. Analysis was done using summary and repeated measures, comparing adherence to the two dosing schedules. Mean percentage adherence (per child during follow-up time) was used to compare the mean of each group as well as the proportion of children achieving an adherence of ≥ 90% in each group. For repeated measures, percentage adherence (per child per visit) was dichotomized at 90%. A logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations, to account for within-individual correlation, was used to evaluate the impact of the dosing schedule. Adjustments were made for potential confounders and we assessed potential baseline and time-varying adherence determinants. Results The overall adherence to isoniazid was excellent, with a mean adherence of 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.5-95.9); similar mean adherence was achieved by the group taking daily medication (93.8%; 95% CI 92.1-95.6) and by the three times a week group (95.5%; 95% CI 93.8-97.2). Two-hundred and seventeen (78.6%) children achieved a

  4. Changes in Measles Serostatus Among HIV-Infected Zambian Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy Before and After the 2010 Measles Outbreak and Supplemental Immunization Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope C.; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Moss, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In 2010, Zambia had a large measles outbreak, providing an opportunity to measure changes in measles serostatus following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), exposure to measles virus, and revaccination among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods. A prospective cohort study of 169 HIV-infected Zambian children aged 9–60 months with a history of measles vaccination was conducted to characterize the effects of HAART and revaccination on measles immunoglobulin G (IgG) serostatus by enzyme immunoassay. Results. Prior to the measles outbreak, only 23% of HIV-infected children were measles IgG seropositive at HAART initiation. After adjusting for 6-month changes in baseline age and 5% changes in nadir CD4+ T-cell percentage, HAART was not associated with measles IgG seroconversion. However, 18 of 19 children seroconverted after revaccination. Eight children seroconverted during the outbreak without revaccination and were likely exposed to wild-type measles virus, but none were reported to have had clinical measles. Conclusions. Immune reconstitution after HAART initiation did not restore protective levels of measles IgG antibodies, but almost all children developed protective antibody levels after revaccination. Some previously vaccinated HIV-infected children had serological evidence of exposure to wild-type measles virus without a reported history of measles. PMID:23911708

  5. Recovery from lipodystrophy in HIV-infected children after substitution of stavudine with zidovudine in a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Aurpibul, Linda; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Taejaroenkul, Sineenart; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sirisanthana, Virat

    2012-04-01

    Substitution of stavudine with zidovudine may lead to recovery from lipodystrophy (LD) in HIV-infected children. We prospectively followed HIV-infected children enrolled in an earlier LD study conducted between 2002 and 2004 at Chiang Mai University Hospital in northern Thailand. In 2006, stavudine was substituted with zidovudine. All children were evaluated by a clinical LD checklist modified from that of the European Pediatric LD study group together with waist/hip measurement at baseline and 24, 48, 72, and 96 weeks after substitution. The waist-to-hip ratios were converted to age- and sex-adjusted z scores based on normal ranges in healthy Thai children. Forty-five lipodystrophic children with 36 episodes of lipohypertrophy and 22 episodes of lipoatrophy were enrolled. By weeks 48 and 96 after substitution, 40% and 47% of lipohypertrophy resolved, whereas 59% and 73% of lipoatrophy resolved, respectively. The rate of resolution of lipoatrophy was higher than that of lipohypertrophy at 48 weeks after substitution and thereafter. Ninety-six weeks after changing to zidovudine therapy, 8 children still had LD (1 with both lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, 7 with lipohypertrophy). No clinically significant hematologic adverse event was observed. Substitution of stavudine with zidovudine resulted in decreased severity or resolution of LD among HIV-infected children and adolescents.

  6. The Use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities in the Identification of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Chernoff, Miriam; Ford-Chatterton, Heather; Crain, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the utility of a medical terminology-based method for identifying cases of possible mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) in a large cohort of youths with perinatal HIV infection and to describe the scoring algorithms. Methods Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)® version 6 terminology was used to query clinical criteria for mitochondrial dysfunction by two published classifications, the Enquête Périnatale Française (EPF) and the Mitochondrial Disease Classification (MDC). Data from 2,931 participants with perinatal HIV infection on PACTG 219/219C were analyzed. Data were qualified for severity and persistence, after which clinical reviews of MedDRA-coded and other study data were performed. Results Of 14,000 data records captured by the EPF MedDRA query, there were 3,331 singular events. Of 18,000 captured by the MDC query, there were 3,841 events. Ten clinicians blindly reviewed non MedDRA-coded supporting data for 15 separate clinical conditions. We used the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) language to code scoring algorithms. 768 participants (26%) met the EPF case definition of possible MD; 694 (24%) met the MDC case definition, and 480 (16%) met both definitions. Limitations Subjective application of codes could have affected our results. MedDRA terminology does not include indicators of severity or persistence. Version 6.0 of MedDRA did not include Standard MedDRA Queries, which would have reduced the time needed to map MedDRA terms to EPF and MDC criteria. Conclusion Together with a computer-coded scoring algorithm, MedDRA terminology enabled identification of potential MD based on clinical data from almost 3000 children with substantially less effort than a case by case review. The article is accessible to readers with a background in statistical hypothesis testing. An exposure to public health issues is useful but not strictly necessary. PMID:23797349

  7. The impact of perinatal HIV infection on older school-aged children's and adolescents' receptive language and word recognition skills.

    PubMed

    Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Kang, Ezer; Dolezal, Curtis; Abrams, Elaine J; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-06-01

    Perinatally HIV-infected youths are reaching adolescence in large numbers. Little is known about their cognitive functioning. This study aims to describe and compare the receptive language ability, word recognition skills, and school functioning of older school-aged children and adolescents perinatally HIV infected (HIV-positive) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (seroreverters; HIV-negative). Participants included 340 youths (206 HIV-positive, 134 HIV-negative), 9-16 years old, and their caregivers. Youths completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) and the Reading Subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, Third Edition (WRAT-3). Caregivers were interviewed regarding demographic characteristics and school placement of youths. Medical information was abstracted from medical charts. Both groups of youths scored poorly on the PPVT-III and WRAT-3 with about one third of youths scoring in less than the 10th percentile. The HIV-positive youths scored lower than the seroreverters (M = 83.8 versus 87.6, t = 2.21, p = 0.028) on the PPVT-III and on the WRAT-3 (M = 88.2 versus 93.8, t = 2.69, p = 0.008). Among the HIV-positive youths, neither CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA viral load or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification were significantly associated with either PPVT-III or WRAT-3 scores. However, youths who were taking antiretroviral medication had lower WRAT-3 scores than youths not taking medication (M = 95.03 versus 86.89, t = 2.38, p = 0.018). HIV status remained significantly associated with PPVT-III and WRAT-3 standard scores after adjusting for demographic variables. Many youths had been retained in school and attended special education classes. Findings highlight poor language ability among youths infected with and affected by HIV, and the importance of educational interventions that address this emerging need.

  8. Immunogenicity of a Booster Dose of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Previously Immunized HIV-Infected Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Meredith G; Siberry, George K; Williams, Paige; Decker, Michael D; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) after initial immunization for patients at high risk for meningococcal infection. The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1065 trial evaluated the use of MCV4 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and youth. The final step of this trial was an open-label study of an MCV4 booster dose 3.5 years after primary MCV4 immunization. Antibody titers were evaluated at the time of the booster vaccine and 1, 4, and 24 weeks after the booster. Immunogenicity was measured by rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) against each meningococcal serogroup. Immunologic memory was defined as either seroprotection (rSBA titer ≥1:128) or a ≥4-fold increase 1 week after the booster dose. Primary response was defined as either a ≥4-fold response or seropositivity 4 weeks after the booster in the absence of immunologic memory. Adverse events were assessed for 4 weeks after the booster dose. Of 174 participants with serology results at entry and 1 and 4 weeks later, the percentage with protective antibody levels at entry varied according to serogroup, ranging from a low of 26% for serogroup C to a high of 68% for serogroup A. A memory response to at least 1 serogroup occurred in 98% of the participants: 93% each for serogroups A and Y, 88% for serogroup C, and 94% for serogroup W-135; 83% had a memory response to all 4 serogroups. Overall, rates of any memory or primary response were ≥90% for all serogroups. No serious adverse events were encountered. A booster dose of MCV4 elicited a memory response in 88% to 94% of previously immunized HIV-infected participants depending on serogroup, including those who lacked a protective titer level for that serogroup before booster vaccination.

  9. Net survival of perinatally and postnatally HIV-infected children: a pooled analysis of individual data from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Milly; Becquet, Renaud; Zaba, Basia; Moulton, Lawrence H; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Dabis, François; Newell, Marie-Louise; Ghys, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously, HIV epidemic models have used a double Weibull curve to represent high initial and late mortality of HIV-infected children, without distinguishing timing of infection (peri- or post-natally). With more data on timing of infection, which may be associated with disease progression, a separate representation of children infected early and late was proposed. Methods Paediatric survival post-HIV infection without anti-retroviral treatment was calculated using pooled data from 12 studies with known timing of HIV infection. Children were grouped into perinatally or post-natally infected. Net mortality was calculated using cause-deleted life tables to give survival as if HIV was the only competing cause of death. To extend the curve beyond the available data, children surviving beyond 2.5 years post infection were assumed to have the same survival as young adults. Double Weibull curves were fitted to both extended survival curves to represent survival of children infected perinatally or through breastfeeding. Results Those children infected perinatally had a much higher risk of dying than those infected through breastfeeding, even allowing for background mortality. The final-fitted double Weibull curves gave 75% survival at 5 months after infection for perinatally infected, and 1.1 years for post-natally infected children. An estimated 25% of the early infected children would still be alive at 10.6 years compared with 16.9 years for those infected through breastfeeding. Conclusions The increase in available data has enabled separation of child mortality patterns by timing of infection allowing improvement and more flexibility in modelling of paediatric HIV infection and survival. PMID:21247884

  10. Undervaccination of Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Succi, Regina C. M.; Krauss, Margot R.; Harris, D. Robert; Machado, Daisy M.; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Pierre, Russell B.; Kolevic, Lenka; Joao, Esau; Foradori, Irene; Hazra, Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Background Perinatally HIV-infected children (PHIV) may be at risk of undervaccination. Vaccination coverage rates among PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected children (HEU) in Latin America and the Caribbean were compared. Methods All PHIV and HEU children born from 2002–2007 that were enrolled in a multi-site observational study conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean were included in this analysis. Children were classified as up to date (UTD) if they had received the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the appropriate intervals by 12 and 24 months of age. Fisher’s exact test was used to analyze the data. Covariates potentially associated with a child’s HIV status were considered in multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results Of 1156 eligible children, 768 (66.4%) were HEU and 388 (33.6%) were PHIV. HEU children were significantly (p<0.01) more likely to be UTD by 12 and 24 months of age for all vaccines examined. Statistically significant differences persisted when the analyses were limited to children enrolled prior to 12 months of age. Controlling for birth weight, sex, primary caregiver education and any use of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs during pregnancy did not contribute significantly to the logistic regression models. Conclusions PHIV children were significantly less likely than HEU children to be UTD for their childhood vaccinations at 12 and 24 months of age, even when limited to children enrolled before 12 months of age. Strategies to increase vaccination rates in PHIV are needed. PMID:23860480

  11. Magnitude of cytopenias among HIV-infected children in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia: a comparison of HAART-naïve and HAART-experienced children

    PubMed Central

    Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Tadele, Agerie; Addis, Zelalem; Alemu, Agersew; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Background AIDS, caused by HIV, is a multisystem disease that affects hematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to assess cytopenias among HIV-infected children who had a follow-up at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2013. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test as well as chi-square and logistic regression were used for analysis. A p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results A total of 224 children (112 highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]-naïve and 112 HAART-experienced) participated in the study. The magnitude of anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia among HAART-naïve HIV-infected children were 30.4%, 9.8%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia were 29.5%, 8.9%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Cluster of differentiation-4 percentage and mean corpuscular volume were significantly different between HAART-experienced and HAART-naïve children. Being of younger age and severely immunosuppressed were risk factors of anemia. Conclusion Anemia was the most common cytopenia, followed by neutropenia. Severe immunosuppression and younger age were significantly associated with anemia. Therefore, emphasis should be given for investigation and management of cytopenias in HIV-infected children, particularly for those who are immunosuppressed and of younger age. PMID:28260948

  12. Treatment Failure in HIV-Infected Children on Second-line Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Suaysod, Rapeepan; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Salvadori, Nicolas; Cressey, Tim R; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Techakunakorn, Pornchai; Krikajornkitti, Sawitree; Srirojana, Sakulrat; Laomanit, Laddawan; Chalermpantmetagul, Suwalai; Lallemant, Marc; Le Cœur, Sophie; McIntosh, Kenneth; Traisathit, Patrinee; Jourdain, Gonzague

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children failing second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) have no access to third-line antiretroviral drugs in many resource-limited settings. It is important to identify risk factors for second-line regimen failure. HIV-infected children initiating protease inhibitor (PI)-containing second-line ART within the Program for HIV Prevention and Treatment observational cohort study in Thailand between 2002 and 2010 were included. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed HIV type 1 RNA load >400 copies/mL after at least 6 months on second-line regimen or death. Adherence was assessed by drug plasma levels and patient self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for failure. A total of 111 children started a PI-based second-line regimen, including 59 girls (53%). Median first-line ART duration was 1.9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.4-3.3 years), and median age at second-line initiation was 10.7 years (IQR, 6.3-13.4 years). Fifty-four children (49%) experienced virologic failure, and 2 (2%) died. The risk of treatment failure 24 months after second-line initiation was 41%. In multivariate analyses, failure was independently associated with exposure to first-line ART for >2 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.8; P = .03), age >13 years (aHR, 2.9; P < .001), body mass index-for-age z score < -2 standard deviations at second-line initiation (aHR, 2.8; P = .03), and undetectable drug levels within 6 months following second-line initiation (aHR, 4.5; P < .001). Children with longer exposure to first-line ART, entry to adolescence, underweight, and/or undetectable drug levels were at higher risk of failing second-line ART and thus should be closely monitored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rate of candidiasis among HIV-infected children in Spain in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of our study was to estimate the candidiasis rate and evaluate its trend in HIV-infected children in Spain during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared to HIV-uninfected children. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were obtained from the records of the Minimum Basic Data Set from hospitals in Spain. All HIV-infected children were under 17 years of age, and a group of HIV-uninfected children with hospital admissions matching the study group by gender and age were randomly selected. The follow-up period (1997–2008) was divided into three calendar periods: a) From 1997 to 1999 for early-period HAART; b) from 2000 to 2002 for mid-period HAART; and c) from 2003 to 2008 for late-period HAART. Results Among children with hospital admissions, HIV-infected children had much higher values than HIV-uninfected children during each of the three calendar periods for overall candidiasis rates (150.0 versus 6.1 events per 1,000 child hospital admissions/year (p < 0.001), 90.3 versus 3.1 (p < 0.001), and 79.3 versus 10.7 (p < 0.001), respectively) and for non-invasive Candida mycosis (ICM) rates (118.5 versus 3.8 (p < 0.001), 85.3 versus 2.3 (p < 0.001), and 80.6 versus 6.0 (p < 0.001), respectively). In addition, HIV-infected children also had higher values of ICM rates than HIV-uninfected children, except during the last calendar period when no significant difference was found (32.4 versus 1.2 (p < 0.001), 11.6 versus 0.4 (p < 0.001), and 4.6 versus 2.3 (p = 0.387), respectively). For all children living with HIV/AIDS, the overall candidiasis rate (events per 1,000 HIV-infected children/year) decreased from 1997–1999 to 2000–2002 (18.8 to 10.6; p < 0.001) and from 2000–2002 to 2003–2008 (10.6 to 5.7; p = 0.060). Within each category of candidiasis

  14. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  15. No Differences of Immune Activation and Microbial Translocation Among HIV-infected Children Receiving Combined Antiretroviral Therapy or Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Falcon-Neyra, Lola; Benmarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J.; Madrid, Lola; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Fortuny, Claudia; Neth, Olaf; López-Cortés, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is a cross-sectional study of 15 aviremic chronic HIV-infected children revealing no differences in immune activation (IA; HLA-DR+CD38+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and sCD14) and microbial translocation (MT; lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and 16S rDNA) among HIV-infected patients under combined antiretroviral treatment (cART; n = 10) or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (mtPI/rtv; n = 5). In both cases, IA and MT were lower in healthy control children (n = 32). This observational study suggests that ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (mtPI/rtv) is not associated with an increased state of IA or MT as compared with children receiving cART. PMID:25789946

  16. Food banking for improved nutrition of HIV infected orphans and vulnerable children; emerging evidence from quality improvement teams in high food insecure regions of Kiambu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Akulima, Muhamed; Ikamati, Rudia; Mungai, Margaret; Samuel, Muhula; Ndirangu, Meshack; Muga, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Estimated 236,548 People Living with HIV (PLHIV) were in Central-Eastern Kenya in 2013. Kiambu County had 46,656 PLHIV with 42,400 (91%) adults and 4,200(9%) children (1-14yrs). Amref Health Africa in Kenya, supported through USAID-APHIAplus KAMILI project, initiated two food banks to respond to poor nutritional status of the HIV infected children. Quality Improvement Teams were used to facilitate food-banking initiatives. The study aimed at assessing and demonstrating roles of community food-banking in improving nutrition status of HIV-infected children in food insecure regions. A pre and post-test study lasting 12 months (Oct 2013 to September 2014) conducted in Kiambu County, Kenya covering 103 HIV infected children. Two assessments were conducted before and after the food banking initiative and results compared. Child Status Index (CSI) and the Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tools were used in data collection at households. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon test were applied for analysing MUAC and CSI scores respectively using the SPSS. There was a significant improvement in the children's nutrition status from a rating of 'bad' in CSI Median (IQR) score 2(2-1) before food banking to a rating of 'fair' in CSI Median (IQR) score 3(4-3) after food banking intervention (p=<0.001) while MUAC increased from Mean (SD) of 5.6(2.6) before intervention to 7.2(2.8) after food banking (p=<0.001). Food banking is a community-based nutritional intervention that can address factors of food access, affordability and availability. Food banking is a sustainable way to contribute to quality nutrition and reduced related deaths among HIV infected children.

  17. HIV Infection and Fertility Preferences in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Although HIV-prevalence and fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, little is known about how HIV infection affects the fertility preferences of men and women in the region. A quasi-experimental design and in-depth interviews conducted in rural Malawi are employed to examine how and through what pathways learning that one is HIV positive alters a person’s childbearing desires. Among rural Malawians, particularly men, the desire to have more children decreases after receiving a positive HIV-test result. The motivations underlying this effect are greatly influenced by gender: women fear the physical health consequences of HIV-positive pregnancies and childbearing, whereas men see childbearing as futile because they anticipate their own early death and the deaths of their future children. Considerable ambivalence remains, nevertheless, particularly among women who strategize to live normal lives in spite of their infection, but whose definitions of “normal” vary. PMID:21151844

  18. Nutritional and Immunological Correlates of Memory and Neurocognitive Development Among HIV-Infected Children Living in Kayunga, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ruiseñor-Escudero, Horacio; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Jambulingam, Nikita; Nakasujja, Noelline; Opoka, Robert; Bass, Judith; Boivin, Michael

    2016-04-15

    To identify the nutritional and immunological correlates of memory and neurocognitive development as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and by the Color Object Association Test (COAT) among children in Uganda. This analysis uses baseline data collected between 2008 and 2010 from 119 HIV-infected children aged 1-6 years, participating in a randomized controlled trial of an interventional parenting program in Kayunga, Uganda. Peripheral blood draws were performed to determine immunological biomarkers. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were used to relate MSEL and COAT scores to sociodemographic characteristics, weight-for-age Z scores (WAZs), antiretroviral therapy status, and immunological biomarkers. In the final analysis, 111 children were included. Lower levels of CD4 CD38 T cells (P = 0.04) were associated to higher immediate and total recall scores (P = 0.04). Higher levels of CD8 HLA-DR T cells were associated with higher total recall score (P = 0.04) of the COAT. Higher CD4 CD38 HLA-DR T cells levels were associated with higher gross motor scores of the MSEL (P = 0.02). WAZ was positively correlated to visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, and composite score of the MSEL. Overall, WAZ was a stronger predictor of neurocognitive outcomes assessed by the MSEL. CD4 CD38 T cells were more specifically associated with memory-related outcomes. Future research should include immunological markers and standardized neurocognitive tests to further understand this relationship.

  19. Immunogenicity, Immunologic Memory, and Safety Following Measles Revaccination in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abzug, Mark J.; Qin, Min; Levin, Myron J.; Fenton, Terence; Beeler, Judy A.; Bellini, William J.; Audet, Susette; Sowers, Sun Bae; Borkowsky, William; Nachman, Sharon A.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Rosenblatt, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Response rates and immunologic memory following measles vaccination are reduced in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children in the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. HIV-infected children 2 to <19 years old receiving HAART and with HIV loads <30 000 copies/mL, CD4% ≥15, and ≥1 prior measles-mumps-rubella vaccination (MMR) were given another MMR. Measles antibody concentrations before and 8, 32, and 80 weeks postvaccination were determined by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN). A subset was given another MMR 4–5 years later, and PRN antibody was measured before and 7 and 28 days later. Results. At entry, 52% of 193 subjects were seroprotected (PRN ≥120 mIU/mL). Seroprotection increased to 89% 8 weeks postvaccination, and remained at 80% 80 weeks postvaccination. Of 65 subjects revaccinated 4–5 years later, 85% demonstrated memory based on seroprotection before or 7 days after vaccination. HIV load ≤400 copies/mL at initial study vaccination was associated with higher seroprotection rates, greater antibody concentrations, and memory. Grade 3 fever or fatigue occurred in 2% of subjects. Conclusions. Measles revaccination induced high rates of seroprotection and memory in children receiving HAART. Both endpoints were associated with HIV viral load suppression. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00013871 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:22693229

  20. Pharmacotherapy of pediatric and adolescent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Schuval, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past two decades. Improved therapy has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcome for HIV-infected children and adults. Sixteen antiretroviral (ART) medications have been approved for use in pediatric HIV infection. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has issued “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection”, which provide detailed information on currently recommended antiretroviral therapies (ART). However, consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended as the current therapy of pediatric HIV therapy is complex and rapidly evolving. PMID:19707256

  1. Nasopharyngeal carriage of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in institutionalized HIV-infected and HIV-negative children in northeastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Leibovitz, E; Dragomir, C; Sfartz, S; Porat, N; Yagupsky, P; Jica, S; Florescu, L; Dagan, R

    1999-01-01

    The study compared nasopharyngeal carriage of resistant pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and -seronegative children. Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated during May 1996 in 162 HIV-negative infants and children (age range, 1-38 mo) and 40 HIV-infected children (age range, 39-106 mo) living in an orphanage in Iasi, northeastern Romania. The HIV-infected children lived separated from the other children and were cared for by a different staff. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 12 of 40 (30%) HIV-infected and from 81 of 160 (50%) HIV-negative children. Antimicrobial susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone was determined by E-test, and to another five antibiotics by disk diffusion. Serotyping was performed by the Quellung method on 81 of 93 (87%) isolates. Serotypes 6A, 6B, 19A, and 23F together represented 98% of all isolates. Ninety-nine percent of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 74% were highly resistant to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] > 1 mg/mL); MIC50 and MIC90 to penicillin of the isolates were 2 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL, respectively. Eighty-nine of ninety-one isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone; 99%, 87%, 87%, 48%, and 21% of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Eighty-two (89%) isolates were multidrug resistant (resistant to =/>3 antibiotic classes); 37 of 92 (40%) isolates were resistant to 5 or more antibiotic classes, and 16 of these 37 (43%) belonged to serotype 19A. All serotype 19 isolates were highly resistant to penicillin. No significant differences were observed in the resistance rates of S. pneumoniae in HIV-infected children compared to HIV-negative children. Multidrug-resistant pneumococci were highly prevalent in this Romanian orphanage in both HIV-negative and older HIV-infected children. The observed high prevalence of

  2. Long-term response to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in the Netherlands registered from 1996 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sophie; Smit, Colette; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Fraaij, Pieter L A; Wolfs, Tom F W; Geelen, Sibyl P M; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H; Warris, Adilia; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2013-10-23

    To describe demographic and treatment characteristics of the Dutch vertically HIV-infected paediatric population from 1996 to 2012, and to investigate the long-term virological and immunological response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with emphasis on the influence of age at cART initiation and initial CD4 cell counts. Descriptive cohort study. From 1996 to 2012, all paediatric HIV clinics in the Netherlands provided data on their HIV-infected population. Descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric comparative tests, and random-effects linear regression models were performed to investigate the different aspects of this cohort. A total of 229 vertically HIV-infected children were included. The majority of all mothers (64%) and almost half of the children (43%) originated from sub-Saharan Africa. Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and efavirenz have replaced indinavir, nelfinavir and nevirapine as preferred first-line cART regimens. Long-term CD4 T-cell reconstitution (with CD4 cell counts corrected for age) was independent of age and CD4 cell count at cART initiation. The decline in HIV viral load after cART introduction occurred faster over the studied time period. The percentage of children with an undetectable viral load rose substantially from 1996 to 2012. Mortality was 0.3 per 100 person-years. A sustained immunological response in the Dutch paediatric HIV-infected population was independent of age as well as CD4 cell count at cART initiation, despite a higher initial HIV viral load in the youngest children. The percentage of children with an undetectable HIV viral load rose substantially over the years and there was a low mortality rate in comparison with reports from other industrialized countries.

  3. Food banking for improved nutrition of HIV infected orphans and vulnerable children; emerging evidence from quality improvement teams in high food insecure regions of Kiambu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Akulima, Muhamed; Ikamati, Rudia; Mungai, Margaret; Samuel, Muhula; Ndirangu, Meshack; Muga, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Estimated 236,548 People Living with HIV (PLHIV) were in Central-Eastern Kenya in 2013. Kiambu County had 46,656 PLHIV with 42,400 (91%) adults and 4,200(9%) children (1-14yrs). Amref Health Africa in Kenya, supported through USAID-APHIAplus KAMILI project, initiated two food banks to respond to poor nutritional status of the HIV infected children. Quality Improvement Teams were used to facilitate food-banking initiatives. The study aimed at assessing and demonstrating roles of community food-banking in improving nutrition status of HIV-infected children in food insecure regions. Methods A pre and post-test study lasting 12 months (Oct 2013 to September 2014) conducted in Kiambu County, Kenya covering 103 HIV infected children. Two assessments were conducted before and after the food banking initiative and results compared. Child Status Index (CSI) and the Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tools were used in data collection at households. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon test were applied for analysing MUAC and CSI scores respectively using the SPSS. Results There was a significant improvement in the children’s nutrition status from a rating of ‘bad’ in CSI Median (IQR) score 2(2-1) before food banking to a rating of ‘fair’ in CSI Median (IQR) score 3(4-3) after food banking intervention (p=<0.001) while MUAC increased from Mean (SD) of 5.6(2.6) before intervention to 7.2(2.8) after food banking (p=<0.001). Conclusion Food banking is a community-based nutritional intervention that can address factors of food access, affordability and availability. Food banking is a sustainable way to contribute to quality nutrition and reduced related deaths among HIV infected children. PMID:28439329

  4. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on nutritional and immunologic status in HIV-infected children in the low-income country of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2016-06-01

    HIV/AIDS and malnutrition combine to undermine the immunity of individuals and are inextricably interrelated. Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on growth in HIV-infected children is well known, the influence of prior nutritional and immunologic status on the response to HAART is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of HAART on nutritional and immunological status in HIV-infected children in the low-income country of Ethiopia. A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Addis Ababa (Black Lion, Zewditu, Yekatit 12 and ALERT hospitals), Ethiopia. Nutritional status was defined as stunting (height-for-age Z score [HAZ] <-2), wasting (weight-for-height Z score [WHZ] <-2), and underweight (weight-for-age Z score [WAZ] <-2). Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with treatment success and to establish whether growth (baseline nutritional status) in children predicts immunologic outcomes. In all, 556 HIV-infected children receiving HAART from January 2008 to December 2009 were included in this study. Over the 24-mo follow-up period, the study showed that the immunologic recovery of stunted and underweight children, regardless of their baseline nutritional status, responded equally to treatment. However, wasted children showed less immunologic recovery at the different follow-up visits. Predictors of positive shift in WHZ after 24 mo of follow-up were advanced disease stage (World Health Organization clinical stages 3 and 4) with odds ratio (OR), 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.99; P = 0.045) and baseline severe underweight OR, 0.19 (95% CI, 0.09-0.56; P = 0.003). The independent predictors of positive shift of growth shift in WAZ over 24 mo were lower baseline age (<36 mo) with OR, 0.21 (95% CI, 0.04-0.90; P = 0.036) and baseline

  5. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins123

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Design: Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93–118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. Results: LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. Conclusions: All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. PMID:26537941

  7. Immunity to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in US Children With Perinatal HIV Infection or Perinatal HIV Exposure Without Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Patel, Kunjal; Bellini, William J.; Karalius, Brad; Purswani, Murli U.; Burchett, Sandra K.; Meyer, William A.; Sowers, Sun Bae; Ellis, Angela; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PHIV) may not be protected against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) because of impaired initial vaccine response or waning immunity. Our objectives were to estimate seroimmunity in PHIV-infected and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and identify predictors of immunity in the PHIV cohort. Methods. PHIV and HEU children were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) at ages 7–15 years from 2007 to 2009. At annual visits, demographic, laboratory, immunization, and clinical data were abstracted and serologic specimens collected. Most recent serologic specimen was used to determine measles seroprotection by plaque reduction neutralization assay and rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity by enzyme immunoassay. Sustained combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was defined as taking cART for at least 3 months. Results. Among 428 PHIV and 221 HEU PHACS participants, the prevalence was significantly lower in PHIV children for measles seroprotection (57% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 52%–62%] vs 99% [95% CI, 96%–100%]), rubella seroprotection (65% [95% CI, 60%–70%] vs 98% [95% CI, 95%–100%]), and mumps seropositivity (59% [95% CI, 55%–64%] vs 97% [95% CI, 94%–99%]). On multivariable analysis, greater number of vaccine doses while receiving sustained cART and higher nadir CD4 percentage between last vaccine dose and serologic testing independently improved the cumulative prediction of measles seroprotection in PHIV. Predictors of rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity were similar. Conclusions. High proportions of PHIV-infected children, but not HEU children, lack serologic evidence of immunity to MMR, despite documented immunization and current cART. Effective cART before immunization is a strong predictor of current seroimmunity. PMID:26060291

  8. Birth defects among children born to HIV-infected women: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    PubMed Central

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods 2,202 HIV-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219C protocols before one year of age were included. Birth defects were classified using the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) coding. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between first trimester in utero ARV exposure and birth defects. Results 117 live-born children had birth defects for a prevalence of 5.3% (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3). Prevalence did not differ by HIV infection status or overall ARV exposure; rates were 4.8% (95% CI: 3.7, 6.1) and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 7.8) in children without and with first trimester ARV exposure, respectively. The defect rate was higher among children with first trimester efavirenz exposure (5/32, 15.6%) versus children without first trimester efavirenz exposure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.31 (95% CI: 1.56, 11.86)]. Protective effects of first trimester zidovudine exposure on musculoskeletal defects were detected [aOR=0.24 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.69)], while a higher risk of heart defects was found [aOR=2.04 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.05)]. Conclusion The prevalence of birth defects was higher in this cohort of HIV-exposed children than in other pediatric cohorts. There was no association with overall ARV exposure, but there were some associations with specific agents including efavirenz. Additional studies are needed to rule out confounding and to evaluate newer ARV agents. PMID:20539252

  9. Immunity to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in US Children With Perinatal HIV Infection or Perinatal HIV Exposure Without Infection.

    PubMed

    Siberry, George K; Patel, Kunjal; Bellini, William J; Karalius, Brad; Purswani, Murli U; Burchett, Sandra K; Meyer, William A; Sowers, Sun Bae; Ellis, Angela; Van Dyke, Russell B

    2015-09-15

    Children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PHIV) may not be protected against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) because of impaired initial vaccine response or waning immunity. Our objectives were to estimate seroimmunity in PHIV-infected and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and identify predictors of immunity in the PHIV cohort. PHIV and HEU children were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) at ages 7-15 years from 2007 to 2009. At annual visits, demographic, laboratory, immunization, and clinical data were abstracted and serologic specimens collected. Most recent serologic specimen was used to determine measles seroprotection by plaque reduction neutralization assay and rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity by enzyme immunoassay. Sustained combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was defined as taking cART for at least 3 months. Among 428 PHIV and 221 HEU PHACS participants, the prevalence was significantly lower in PHIV children for measles seroprotection (57% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 52%-62%] vs 99% [95% CI, 96%-100%]), rubella seroprotection (65% [95% CI, 60%-70%] vs 98% [95% CI, 95%-100%]), and mumps seropositivity (59% [95% CI, 55%-64%] vs 97% [95% CI, 94%-99%]). On multivariable analysis, greater number of vaccine doses while receiving sustained cART and higher nadir CD4 percentage between last vaccine dose and serologic testing independently improved the cumulative prediction of measles seroprotection in PHIV. Predictors of rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity were similar. High proportions of PHIV-infected children, but not HEU children, lack serologic evidence of immunity to MMR, despite documented immunization and current cART. Effective cART before immunization is a strong predictor of current seroimmunity. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee

  10. Therapeutic patient education and disclosure of status of HIV infected children in Yaounde, Cameroon Achievements and competence.

    PubMed

    Njom Nlend, A E; Lyeb, A S; Moyo, S; Nsangou, D

    2016-08-01

    Psychosocial support and therapeutic patient education are recommended practices that are poorly reported. Our objective was to describe the main achievements after a patient therapeutic education program conducted for pre-adolescents and adolescents with HIV infection. This qualitative study of 37 children with a mean age of 11 years assessed the outcome of an educational program of 8 sessions that ended by the disclosure of their HIV status. Semistructured interviews that took place 8 weeks after the last session and lasted 20 minutes evaluated the following areas: knowledge of the disease, its treatment, its prevention, and their skills in managing their treatment and the secret. The level of knowledge was acceptable except about HIV transmission, and specifically, how they had acquired the disease. In all, 33/37 (89%) of the children were able to cite or write the name of their disease; 29/37 (78%) had acquired knowledge of their treatment (name of the drugs, objective, and daily treatment times); they were able to manage treatment intake away from home; and secrecy was the standard for all. However, many were unable to explain how they had acquired the virus. Therapeutic patient education for HIV status disclosure enables adolescents to acquire knowledge about their disease and the ability to manage it. The poor results observed for knowledge of transmission needs to be improved after disclosure in support groups.

  11. High-nutrition biscuits to increase animal protein in diets of HIV-infected Kenyan women and their children: a study in progress.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Judith; Ettyang, Grace; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that improved nutrition early in HIV infection may delay progression to AIDS and delay the initiation or improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral drug therapy. There are few studies that evaluate food-based interventions in drug-naïve, HIV-infected women and their children. Meat provides several nutrients identified as important in maintaining immune function and lean body mass. To design supplemental meat and soybean biscuits for use in a randomized trial examining the effect of meat in the diet of drug-naïve, HIV-infected rural Kenyan women on changes in weight, lean body mass, morbidity, nutritional status, and activities of daily living of the women and growth and development of their children. We designed three supplemental biscuits: one with added dried beef another with added soybean flour, and a wheat biscuit to serve as a control biscuit to be used in a randomized feeding intervention in drug-naïve, HIV-infected rural Kenyan women and their children. The nutritional contents of the different types of biscuit were examined and compared. The three biscuits were isocaloric. Meat biscuits provided more lysine, vitamin B12, and bioavailable zinc. Soybean biscuits provided more total and absorbable iron; however, higher fiber and phytate contents may inhibit nutrient absorption. Data analysis for clinical outcomes of the trial is ongoing. The "biscuit model" is useful for nutrition supplementation studies because it can be provided in a blinded and randomized fashion, safely and privately in a home under directly observed consumption by a highly stigmatized population. It is well received by adults and children, and the biscuits can be produced locally with available, simple, affordable technology.

  12. Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

  13. Opportunistic and other infections in HIV-infected children in Latin America compared to a similar cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Jorge O; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Cardoso, Edmundo; Hazra, Rohan

    2012-03-01

    Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates.

  14. Long-term renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vertically HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults: a 60-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Alessandra; Bedogni, Giorgio; Manfredini, Valeria; Giacomet, Vania; Cerini, Chiara; di Nello, Francesca; Penagini, Francesca; Caprio, Cristiana; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sporadic cases of renal toxicity have been reported in HIV-infected children treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We assessed the long-term renal safety of TDF in a cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults. We evaluated 26 HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults, aged 4.9-17.4 years at baseline, every 6 months for 60 consecutive months. At the baseline visit, they had an undetectable viral load and a good immune reconstitution and were being treated with lamivudine, stavudine and a protease inhibitor (PI). At the same visit, stavudine was replaced with TDF and the PI with efavirenz. Serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine protein to creatinine ratio, serum phosphate, ratio of the maximum rate of tubular phosphate reabsorption to the GFR (TmPO(4)/GFR), urine glucose, and urine α(1)-microglobulin to creatinine ratio were used as markers of renal function. The outcome-time relationships were studied using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). In addition to time (continuous, ten equally spaced intervals), sex, age at baseline and CD4+ T-cell count were used as covariates. A moderate reduction in GFR was observed only once in an underweight female patient. There was no occurrence of proteinuria, hypophosphataemia or glycosuria. Moreover, TmPO(4)/GFR was stable and the urine α(1)-microglobulin to creatinine ratio was always within normal limits. TDF had an excellent renal safety profile in HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults regularly followed up for 60 months.

  15. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Tagliaferri, Laura; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Picciolli, Irene; Tel, Francesca; Prunotto, Giulia; Serra, Domenico; Galeone, Carlotta; Plebani, Anna; Principi, Nicola

    2011-02-11

    In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents, 36 HIV-infected children and adolescents, and 36 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were randomised 1:1 to receive the pandemic vaccine upon enrollment and the seasonal vaccine one month later, or to receive the pandemic and seasonal vaccines simultaneously upon enrollment. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus were 100% two months after vaccine administration in both groups, regardless of the sequence of administration. Geometric mean titres against pandemic and seasonal antigens were significantly higher when the seasonal and pandemic vaccines were administered simultaneously than when the seasonal vaccine was administered alone. Local and systemic reactions were mild and not increased by simultaneous administration. In conclusion, the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is as immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected children and adolescents as in healthy controls. Its simultaneous administration with virosomal-adjuvanted seasonal antigens seems to increase immune response to both pandemic and seasonal viruses with the same safety profile as that of the pandemic vaccine alone. However, because this finding cannot be clearly explained by an immunological viewpoint, further studies are needed to clarify the reasons of its occurrence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine in HIV-infected children 7 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Meyer, William A; Read, Jennifer S; Handelsman, Edward L; Nowak, Barbara; Sattler, Carlos A; Saah, Alfred; Radley, David R; Esser, Mark T; Weinberg, Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (QHPV) is > 95% effective in preventing infection with vaccine-type human papillomavirus. The safety and immunogenicity of QHPV are unknown in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (N = 126)-age > 7 to < 12 years, with a CD4% ≥ 15-and on stable antiretroviral therapy if CD4% was < 25-were blindly assigned to receive a dose of QHPV or placebo (3:1 ratio) at 0, 8, and 24 weeks. Adverse events were evaluated after each dose. Serum antibody against QHPV antigens was measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay 1 month after the third QHPV dose. The safety profile of QHPV was similar in the 2 study arms and to that previously reported for QHPV recipients. QHPV did not alter the CD4% or plasma HIV RNA. Seroconversion to all 4 antigens occurred in > 96% of QHPV recipients and in no placebo recipients. Geometric mean titer was > 27 to 262 times greater than the seropositivity cutoff value, depending on the antigen, but was 30%-50% lower against types 6 and 18 than those of age-similar historical controls. QHPV was safe and immunogenic in this cohort of HIV-infected children. Efficacy trials are warranted.

  17. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children 7 to 12 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Meyer, William A.; Read, Jennifer S.; Handelsman, Edward L.; Nowak, Barbara; Sattler, Carlos A.; Saah, Alfred; Radley, David R.; Esser, Mark T.; Weinberg, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Background Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (QHPV) is >95% effective in preventing infection with vaccine-type human papillomavirus. The safety and immunogenicity of QHPV are unknown in HIV-infected children. Methods HIV-infected children (N = 126)—age >7 to <12 years, with a CD4% ≥15—and on stable antiretroviral therapy if CD4% was <25—were blindly assigned to receive a dose of QHPV or placebo (3:1 ratio) at 0, 8, and 24 weeks. Adverse events were evaluated after each dose. Serum antibody against QHPV antigens was measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay 1 month after the third QHPV dose. Results The safety profile of QHPV was similar in the 2 study arms and to that previously reported for QHPV recipients. QHPV did not alter the CD4% or plasma HIV RNA. Seroconversion to all 4 antigens occurred in >96% of QHPV recipients and in no placebo recipients. Geometric mean titer was >27 to 262 times greater than the seropositivity cutoff value, depending on the antigen, but was 30%–50% lower against types 6 and 18 than those of age-similar historical controls. Conclusions QHPV was safe and immunogenic in this cohort of HIV-infected children. Efficacy trials are warranted. PMID:20574412

  18. Insulin Resistance and Markers of Inflammation in HIV-infected Ugandan Children in the CHAPAS-3 Trial.

    PubMed

    Dirajlal-Fargo, Sahera; Musiime, Victor; Cook, Adrian; Mirembe, Grace; Kenny, Julia; Jiang, Ying; Debanne, Sara; Klein, Nigel; McComsey, Grace A

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have investigated metabolic complications in HIV-infected African children and their relation with inflammation. We compared baseline and changes in insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and in markers of inflammation over 48 weeks, in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive Ugandan children from the Children with HIV in Africa-Pharmacokinetics and Adherence/Acceptability of Simple Antiretroviral Regimens trial randomized to zidovudine-, stavudine- or abacavir (ABC)-based regimen. Nonparametric methods were used to explore between-group and within-group differences, and multivariable analysis to assess associations of HOMA-IR. One-hundred eighteen children were enrolled, and median age (interquartile range) was 2.8 years (1.7-4.3). Baseline median HOMA-IR (interquartile range) was 0.49 (0.38-1.07) and similar between the arms. At week 48, median relative changes in HOMA-IR were 14% (-29% to 97%) in the zidovudine arm, -1% (-30% to 69%) in the stavudine arm and 6% (-34% to 124%) in the ABC arm (P ≤ 0.03 for all the arms compared with baseline, but P = 0.90 for between-group differences). Several inflammation markers significantly decreased in all study arms; soluble CD14 increased on ABC and did not change in the other 2 arms. In multivariate analysis, only changes in soluble CD163 were positively associated with HOMA-IR changes. In ART-naive Ugandan children, HOMA-IR changed significantly after 48 weeks of ART and correlated with monocyte activation.

  19. A model-based approach for the evaluation of once daily dosing of lamivudine in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Piana, Chiara; Zhao, Wei; Adkison, Kimberly; Burger, David; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Aim Little attention has been paid to the effects of compliance and prescription practice on treatment outcome in HIV-infected children. In this context, an evaluation of the role of covariates on pharmacokinetics is required to establish the impact of differences in dosing regimens. Here we investigate whether a once daily dosing regimen of lamivudine provides comparable exposure to the currently approved paediatric regimen. Methods A hypothetical group of 180 patients between 3 months and 12 years old was used to evaluate the impact of body weight on systemic exposure to lamivudine. Simulation scenarios were evaluated using AUC and Cmax as parameters of interest. The analysis was performed using a population pharmacokinetic model previously implemented in nonmem v.6.2. Results The simulations show that once daily dosing of lamivudine yields comparable exposure to historical values observed in children and adults, both for liquid and solid dosage forms. Simulated steady-state AUC(0–24 h) and Cmax values after once daily doses ranged respectively from 9.95 mg l−1 h and 1.9 mg l−1 for children lighter than 14 kg to 13.75 mg l−1 h and 3.0 mg l−1 for children heavier than 30 kg. These values are comparable or higher than historical values observed after once daily dosing in children and adults. Conclusions Our findings illustrate how dosing regimens can be evaluated taking into account the effects of developmental growth on drug disposition. Most importantly, they suggest that the reduction in dosing frequency to once daily leads to comparable lamivudine exposure, as observed after administration of a twice daily dosing regimen. PMID:24118047

  20. Activated Neutrophils Are Associated with Pediatric Cerebral Malaria Vasculopathy in Malawian Children.

    PubMed

    Feintuch, Catherine Manix; Saidi, Alex; Seydel, Karl; Chen, Grace; Goldman-Yassen, Adam; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K; Kim, Ryung S; Frenette, Paul S; Taylor, Terrie; Daily, Johanna P

    2016-02-16

    Most patients with cerebral malaria (CM) sustain cerebral microvascular sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs). Although many young children are infected with P. falciparum, CM remains a rare outcome; thus, we hypothesized that specific host conditions facilitate iRBC cerebral sequestration. To identify these host factors, we compared the peripheral whole-blood transcriptomes of Malawian children with iRBC cerebral sequestration, identified as malarial-retinopathy-positive CM (Ret+CM), to the transcriptomes of children with CM and no cerebral iRBC sequestration, defined as malarial-retinopathy-negative CM (Ret-CM). Ret+CM was associated with upregulation of 103 gene set pathways, including cytokine, blood coagulation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) pathways (P < 0.01; false-discovery rate [FDR] of <0.05). Neutrophil transcripts were the most highly upregulated individual transcripts in Ret+CM patients. Activated neutrophils can modulate diverse host processes, including the ECM, inflammation, and platelet biology to potentially facilitate parasite sequestration. Therefore, we compared plasma neutrophil proteins and neutrophil chemotaxis between Ret+CM and Ret-CM patients. Plasma levels of human neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and proteinase 3, but not lactoferrin or lipocalin, were elevated in Ret+CM patients, and neutrophil chemotaxis was impaired, possibly related to increased plasma heme. Neutrophils were rarely seen in CM brain microvasculature autopsy samples, and no neutrophil extracellular traps were found, suggesting that a putative neutrophil effect on endothelial cell biology results from neutrophil soluble factors rather than direct neutrophil cellular tissue effects. Meanwhile, children with Ret-CM had lower levels of inflammation, higher levels of alpha interferon, and upregulation of Toll-like receptor pathways and other host transcriptional pathways, which may represent responses that do not favor cerebral i

  1. Cognitive Function and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children Older than 1 Year of Age Randomized to Early Versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy: The PREDICT Neurodevelopmental Study

    PubMed Central

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; van der Lugt, Jasper; Kerr, Stephen J.; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Vibol, Ung; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; Suwarnlerk, Tulathip; Apornpong, Tanakorn; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Paul, Robert; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Fox, Lawrence; Valcour, Victor; Brouwers, Pim; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early vs. deferred ART in the PREDICT Study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods 284 HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1–12 years with CD4 counts between 15–24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initiate ART at enrollment (“early”, n=139) or when CD4 count became <15% or a CDC C event developed (“deferred”, n=145). All underwent age-appropriate neurodevelopment testing including Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI), Purdue Pegboard, Color Trails and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n=170) also completed Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford Binet Memory test. We compared week 144 measures by randomized group and to HIV-uninfected children (n=319). Results At week 144, the median age was 9 years and 69 (48%) of the deferred arm children had initiated ART. The early arm had a higher CD4 (33% vs. 24%, p<0.001) and a greater percentage of children with viral suppression (91% vs. 40%, p<0.001). Neurodevelopmental scores did not differ by arm and there were no differences in changes between arms across repeated assessments in time-varying multivariate models. HIV-infected children performed worse than uninfected children on IQ, Beery VMI, Binet memory and CBCL Conclusions In HIV-infected children surviving beyond one year of age without ART, neurodevelopmental outcomes were similar with ART initiation at CD4 15–24% vs. < 15%; but both groups performed worse than HIV-uninfected children. The window of opportunity for a positive effect of ART initiation on neurodevelopment may remain in infancy. PMID:23263176

  2. Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Opportunistic Infections of HIV-Infected Children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Kariminia, Azar; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Moy, Fong Siew; Law, Matthew; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Razali, Kamarul; Sirisanthana, Virat; Sohn, Annette H.; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OI) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia. Methods Retrospective and prospectively collected data from the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database cohort study from March 1993 to March 2009 were analyzed. OIs were defined according to WHO clinical staging criteria, and incidence rates calculated. Factors associated with the incidence of severe OIs were analyzed using random effects Poisson regression modeling. Results Of 2280 children in the cohort, 1752 were ever reported to have received ART, of whom 1480 (84%) started on HAART. Before commencing any ART, OIs occurred at a rate of 89.5 per 100 person-years. The incidence rate was 28.8 infections per 100 person-years during mono- or dual-therapy, and 10.5 infections per 100 person-years during HAART. The most common OIs both before and after ART initiation were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, persistent oral candidiasis, and pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence rates of WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 OIs after HAART were highest among children <18 months of age and those with low weight-for-age z scores, CD4 cell percentage <15%, and WHO stage 3 at HAART initiation. Conclusions Despite dramatic declines in their incidence, OIs remained important causes of morbidity after HAART initiation in this regional cohort of HIV-infected children in Asia. PMID:24378942

  3. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    PubMed

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P <.05). No significant differences were found in BMI, levels of zinc in monocytes, CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes between the two study groups (P >.05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Factors associated with caretaker's readiness for disclosure of HIV diagnosis to HIV-infected children in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Punpanich, W; Lolekha, R; Chokephaibulkit, K; Naiwatanakul, T; Leowsrisook, P; Boon-Yasidhi, V

    2014-11-01

    To determine factors associated with caretaker's readiness to disclose an HIV diagnosis to their child, a prospective study was conducted among caretakers of HIV-infected children aged seven to 16 years who were receiving care at two paediatric HIV treatment centres in Bangkok. Caretakers were offered readiness preparation counselling and their perceptions on disclosure were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among caretakers who had participated in the readiness preparation process for at least one year, 71% (195/273) were ready for disclosure. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that child's age of nine years or older, child's severe immunosuppression, caretakers having prior discussion with their child about the illness, caretaker's perception that their child had the ability to understand the HIV diagnosis and to keep it secret, and caretaker's opinion that the proper age for disclosure is between seven and 12 years old were associated with caretaker's readiness for disclosure. These determinants may be useful for guiding disclosure readiness preparation counselling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response to HIV infection is closely related to the child’s development and creates age specific parameters for the evaluation of therapeutic response to antiretroviral therapy in pediatric HIV disease. In addition to the changes in immunological response to HIV infection, the development and maturation of organ systems involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination determines significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs throughout the childhood. Multiple factors including age-specific adherence barriers, changes in social and economical surroundings, and psychological and sexual maturation affect the choices and outcomes of the treatment of pediatric HIV disease. In this chapter we will review the evolution of antiretroviral treatment from early infancy through adolescence. PMID:23036246

  6. Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Denise L; Stephensen, Charles B; Miller, Tracie L; Patel, Kunjal; Chen, Janet S; Van Dyke, Russell B; Mirza, Ayesha; Schuster, Gertrud U; Hazra, Rohan; Ellis, Angela; Brummel, Sean S; Geffner, Mitchell E; Silio, Margarita; Spector, Stephen A; DiMeglio, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. PHIV and PHEU children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study had total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BMD z-scores (BMDz) were calculated for age and sex. Low 25(OH)D was defined as ≤20 ng/mL and high PTH as >65 pg/mL. We fit linear regression models to estimate the average adjusted differences in BMD/BMC by 25(OH)D and PTH status and log binomial models to determine adjusted prevalence ratios of low 25(OH)D and high PTH in PHIV relative to PHEU children. PHIV children (n = 412) were older (13.0 vs. 10.8 years) and more often black (76% vs. 64%) than PHEU (n = 207). Among PHIV, children with low 25(OH)D had lower TB-BMDz [SD, -0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.60 to -0.16] and TB-BMC (SD, -59.1 g; 95% CI, -108.3 to -9.8); high PTH accompanied by low 25(OH)D was associated with lower TB-BMDz. Among PHEU, children with low 25(OH)D had lower TB-BMDz (SD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.03). Prevalence of low 25(OH)D was similar by HIV status (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.24). High PTH was 3.17 (95% CI, 1.25 to 8.06) times more likely in PHIV children. PHIV and PHEU children with low 25(OH)D may have lower BMD. Vitamin D supplementation trials during critical periods of bone accrual are needed.

  7. Association between efavirenz-based compared with nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimens and virological failure in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ellenberg, Jonas H; Machine, Edwin; Sagdeo, Aditi; Boiditswe, Sefelani; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Rutstein, Richard; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Worldwide, the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine are commonly used in first-line antiretroviral regimens in both adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data on the comparative effectiveness of these medications in children are limited. To investigate whether virological failure is more likely among children who initiated 1 or the other NNRTI-based HIV treatment. Retrospective cohort study of children (aged 3-16 years) who initiated efavirenz-based (n = 421) or nevirapine-based (n = 383) treatment between April 2002 and January 2011 at a large pediatric HIV care setting in Botswana. The primary outcome was time from initiation of therapy to virological failure. Virological failure was defined as lack of plasma HIV RNA suppression to less than 400 copies/mL by 6 months or confirmed HIV RNA of 400 copies/mL or greater after suppression. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis compared time to virological failure by regimen. Multivariable Cox regression controlled for age, sex, baseline immunologic category, baseline clinical category, baseline viral load, nutritional status, NRTIs used, receipt of single-dose nevirapine, and treatment for tuberculosis. With a median follow-up time of 69 months (range, 6-112 months; interquartile range, 23-87 months), 57 children (13.5%; 95% CI, 10.4%-17.2%) initiating treatment with efavirenz and 101 children (26.4%; 95% CI, 22.0%-31.1%) initiating treatment with nevirapine had virological failure. There were 11 children (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.3%-4.6%) receiving efavirenz and 20 children (5.2%; 95% CI, 3.2%-7.9%) receiving nevirapine who never achieved virological suppression. The Cox proportional hazard ratio for the combined virological failure end point was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.4-2.7; log rank P < .001, favoring efavirenz). None of the measured covariates affected the estimated hazard ratio in the multivariable analyses. Among children aged 3 to 16 years

  8. Association Between Efavirenz-Based Compared With Nevirapine-Based Antiretroviral Regimens and Virological Failure in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Elizabeth D.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Machine, Edwin; Sagdeo, Aditi; Boiditswe, Sefelani; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Rutstein, Richard; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Importance Worldwide, the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine are commonly used in first-line antiretroviral regimens in both adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data on the comparative effectiveness of these medications in children are limited. Objective To investigate whether virological failure is more likely among children who initiated 1 or the other NNRTI-based HIV treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study of children (aged 3–16 years) who initiated efavirenz-based (n=421) or nevirapine-based (n=383) treatment between April 2002 and January 2011 at a large pediatric HIV care setting in Botswana. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was time from initiation of therapy to virological failure. Virological failure was defined as lack of plasma HIV RNA suppression to less than 400 copies/mL by 6 months or confirmed HIV RNA of 400 copies/mL or greater after suppression. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis compared time to virological failure by regimen. Multivariable Cox regression controlled for age, sex, baseline immunologic category, baseline clinical category, baseline viral load, nutritional status, NRTIs used, receipt of single-dose nevirapine, and treatment for tuberculosis. Results With a median follow-up time of 69 months (range, 6–112 months; interquartile range, 23–87 months), 57 children (13.5%; 95% CI, 10.4%–17.2%) initiating treatment with efavirenz and 101 children (26.4%; 95% CI, 22.0%–31.1%) initiating treatment with nevirapine had virological failure. There were 11 children (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.3%–4.6%) receiving efavirenz and 20 children (5.2%; 95% CI, 3.2%–7.9%) receiving nevirapine who never achieved virological suppression. The Cox proportional hazard ratio for the combined virological failure end point was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.4–2.7; log rank P<.001, favoring efavirenz). None of the measured covariates

  9. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, Prakash; Thea, Donald M.; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Fox, Matthew P.; Coovadia, H. M.; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites with high HIV prevalence in Durban, South Africa and Ndola, Zambia. Primary outcome measures were clinical treatment failure at day 2 and day 14. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: CT00227331http://www.clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00227331). FINDINGS: Of the 523 children enrolled, HIV status was known for 464 participants; 106 (23%) of these were infected with HIV. By day 2, 57 (12.3%) children had failed treatment and 110 (23.7%) failed by day 14. Twenty (18.9%) HIV-infected children failed by day 2 compared with 37 (10.3%) uninfected children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.00). Thirty-four (32.1%) HIV-infected children failed treatment by day 14 compared with 76 (21.2%) uninfected children (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11-3.17). Analysis stratified by age showed that the greatest differential in treatment failure at day 2 and day 14 occurred in the children aged 3-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children with severe pneumonia fail WHO-standard treatment with parenteral penicillin or amoxicillin at day 2 and day 14 more often than do HIV-uninfected children, especially young infants. Standard case management of acute respiratory infection (ARI) using WHO treatment guidelines is inadequate in areas of high HIV prevalence and reappraisal of empiric antimicrobial therapy is urgently needed for severe pneumonia associated with HIV-1. PMID:16628299

  10. Health care workers’ perspectives about disclosure to HIV-infected children; cross-sectional survey of health facilities in Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2015-01-01

    The perspectives and practices of health care workers (HCWs) regarding disclosure to HIV-infected children have not been adequately investigated ten years after the roll-out of pediatrics antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of HCWs about disclosure to HIV-infected children and determine their role in disclosure to children accessing ART in health centers in South Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire among HCWs in ART centers at three hospitals and 48 primary health facilities in two provinces in South Africa. Of the 206 HCWs, 140 (68.2%) were nurses, 44 (21.5%) were lay counsellors, and 4 (2%) were doctors. The majority (n = 183, 89.3%) felt that disclosure benefits children and they should be told about their HIV status. Over half (n = 93, 51.4%) recommended 11–18 years as the appropriate age to disclose. Half (n = 99, 48.5%) said that caregivers should take the lead to disclose, 87 (42.7%) said that disclosure is a shared responsibility of caregivers and HCWs, and 18 (8.8%) said HCWs should lead disclosure. HCWs perceived their role as that of preparing the caregiver for disclosure and the child to understand the disease. However, the lack of guidelines and training on disclosure counselling for children affects their ability to fully participate in disclosure to children. There is a need to adopt the World Health Organizations’ disclosure guidelines for children and adapt them to the local cultural and community contexts and train HCWs to guide, support, and assist caregivers in their disclosure to HIV-infected children. PMID:25893147

  11. What do we know about children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-ill adults in Sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Rachel E.; Short, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Millions of children in Sub-Saharan Africa live with adults, often parents, who are HIV-infected or ill due to AIDS. These children experience social, emotional, and health vulnerabilities that overlap with, but are not necessarily the same as, those of orphans or other vulnerable children. Despite their distinctive vulnerabilities, research aimed at understanding the situation of these children has been limited until very recently. This review summarizes the state of knowledge based on a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science that identified 47 empirical research articles that examined either the population prevalence of children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-sick adults, or the consequences of adult HIV infection or AIDS illness for child well-being. This review confirms that this population of children is substantial in size, and that the vulnerabilities they experience are multi-faceted, spanning physical and emotional health and schooling. Mechanisms were examined empirically in only a small number of studies, but encompass poverty, transmission of opportunistic infections, care for unwell adults, adult distress, AIDS stigma, lack of social support, maternal breastfeeding issues, and vertical HIV transmission. Some evidence is provided that infants, adolescents, children with infected or ill mothers, and children living with severely ill adults are particularly vulnerable. Future research would benefit from more attention to causal inference and further characterization of processes and circumstances related to vulnerability and resilience. It would also benefit from further study of variation in observed associations between adult HIV/AIDS and child well-being based on characteristics such as age, sex, kinship, severity of illness, TB co-infection, disclosure, and serostatus awareness. Almost one-quarter of the studies reviewed did not investigate variation based on any of these factors. More nuanced understanding of the short- and long

  12. Genetically determined ancestry is more informative than self-reported race in HIV-infected and -exposed children

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Stephen A.; Brummel, Sean S.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Maihofer, Adam X.; Singh, Kumud K.; Purswani, Murli U.; Williams, Paige L.; Hazra, Rohan; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), the largest ongoing longitudinal study of perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) children in the United States, comprises the Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy [ART] Toxicities (SMARTT) Study in PHEU children and the Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) that includes PHIV and PHEU children ≥7 years. Although race/ethnicity is often used to assess health outcomes, this approach remains controversial and may fail to accurately reflect the backgrounds of ancestry-diverse populations as represented in the PHACS participants. In this study, we compared genetically determined ancestry (GDA) and self-reported race/ethnicity (SRR) in the PHACS cohort. GDA was estimated using a highly discriminative panel of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms and compared to SRR. Because SRR was similar between the PHIV and PHEU, and between the AMP and SMARTT cohorts, data for all unique 1958 participants were combined. According to SRR, 63% of study participants identified as Black/African-American, 27% White, and 34% Hispanic. Using the highest percentage of ancestry/ethnicity to identify GDA, 9.5% of subjects were placed in the incorrect superpopulation based on SRR. When ≥50% or ≥75% GDA of a given superpopulation was required, 12% and 25%, respectively, of subjects were placed in the incorrect superpopulation based on SRR, and the percent of subjects classified as multiracial increased. Of 126 participants with unidentified SRR, 71% were genetically identified as Eurasian. GDA provides a more robust assessment of race/ethnicity when compared to self-report, and study participants with unidentified SRR could be assigned GDA using genetic markers. In addition, identification of continental ancestry removes the taxonomic identification of race as a variable when identifying risk for clinical outcomes. PMID:27603370

  13. Genetically determined ancestry is more informative than self-reported race in HIV-infected and -exposed children.

    PubMed

    Spector, Stephen A; Brummel, Sean S; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Maihofer, Adam X; Singh, Kumud K; Purswani, Murli U; Williams, Paige L; Hazra, Rohan; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R

    2016-09-01

    The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), the largest ongoing longitudinal study of perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) children in the United States, comprises the Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy [ART] Toxicities (SMARTT) Study in PHEU children and the Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) that includes PHIV and PHEU children ≥7 years. Although race/ethnicity is often used to assess health outcomes, this approach remains controversial and may fail to accurately reflect the backgrounds of ancestry-diverse populations as represented in the PHACS participants.In this study, we compared genetically determined ancestry (GDA) and self-reported race/ethnicity (SRR) in the PHACS cohort. GDA was estimated using a highly discriminative panel of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms and compared to SRR. Because SRR was similar between the PHIV and PHEU, and between the AMP and SMARTT cohorts, data for all unique 1958 participants were combined.According to SRR, 63% of study participants identified as Black/African-American, 27% White, and 34% Hispanic. Using the highest percentage of ancestry/ethnicity to identify GDA, 9.5% of subjects were placed in the incorrect superpopulation based on SRR. When ≥50% or ≥75% GDA of a given superpopulation was required, 12% and 25%, respectively, of subjects were placed in the incorrect superpopulation based on SRR, and the percent of subjects classified as multiracial increased. Of 126 participants with unidentified SRR, 71% were genetically identified as Eurasian.GDA provides a more robust assessment of race/ethnicity when compared to self-report, and study participants with unidentified SRR could be assigned GDA using genetic markers. In addition, identification of continental ancestry removes the taxonomic identification of race as a variable when identifying risk for clinical outcomes.

  14. Immunologic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Nigerian children and its association with early infant feeding and nutritional status at treatment initiation.

    PubMed

    Omoni, Adetayo O; Christian, Parul S; Sadoh, Wilson E; Okechukwu, Adaora; Olateju, Eyinade; Omoigberale, Austin; Blattner, William; Charurat, Man E

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate immunologic response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV-infected Nigerian children (<36 months old) and to assess its association with early infant feeding pattern and nutritional status at treatment initiation. Mixed prospective and retrospective cohort study. One hundred fifty HIV-infected children were followed for 12 months from initiation of ART. CD4 count/CD4% was assessed at baseline and every 4-6 months. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores using the 2006 World Health Organization growth reference. Children were classified into 4 feeding groups--exclusively breast-fed, predominantly breast-fed, mixed fed and exclusively formula fed. Logistic regression was used to model odds of failure to reach CD4% of ≥ 25% at the 12-month follow-up. Linear random effects models were used to model the longitudinal change in CD4%. There was a significant increase in CD4% for all children from 13.8% at baseline to 28.5% after 12 months (ΔCD4% = 14.7%, 95% confidence interval: 12.1%-17.4%). There was no association of feeding pattern with immunologic outcomes. In adjusted analyses, children who were underweight (weight-for-age < -2.0) or with CD4% <15% at baseline were 4.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 15.87; P < 0.05) times and 3.41 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 10.52; P < 0.05) times, respectively, more likely not to attain CD4% of ≥ 25% at 12 months. Baseline nutritional status and CD4% were independently associated with failure to reach CD4% ≥ 25% at 12 months among HIV-infected Nigerian children on ART. These results emphasize the importance of early screening and initiation of ART among children in resource-poor settings before malnutrition and severe immunosuppression sets in.

  15. Costs of Care of HIV-Infected Children Initiating Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy before the Age of Two in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Desmonde, Sophie; Avit, Divine; Petit, Junie; Amorissani Folquet, Madeleine; Eboua, Francois Tanoh; Amani Bosse, Clarisse; Dainguy, Evelyne; Mea, Véronique; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Ngbeché, Sylvie; Ciaranello, Andrea; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-01-01

    To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity. Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8-18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95-$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61-50.90). ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d'Ivoire.

  16. Costs of Care of HIV-Infected Children Initiating Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy before the Age of Two in Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Avit, Divine; Petit, Junie; Amorissani Folquet, Madeleine; Eboua, Francois Tanoh; Amani Bosse, Clarisse; Dainguy, Evelyne; Mea, Véronique; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Ngbeché, Sylvie; Ciaranello, Andrea; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. Methods We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity. Results Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8–18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95–$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61–50.90). Conclusion ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:27935971

  17. Medical and non-medical expenses for treating babies born to HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Pansatiankul, Boonchian; Bunnag, Thanyanat; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri

    2003-08-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among children under 5 years are transmitted perinatally. These children require more medical attention and hospitalization than non HIV-infected children. The expenses of HIV-infected children are mostly related to opportunistic infections. To compare the medical and non-medical expenses of treating babies born to HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected mothers at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). Consecutive children of HIV-infected and non HIV-infected mothers born at Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, were recruited from 1993 to 1995. All of them were followed at QSNICH for free medical services. The demographic and pregnancy data of mothers and the characteristics of the babies of the two groups were compared as well as the number of the hospital visits and reported medical and non-medical expenses. 58 children of HIV-infected mothers and 119 children of non-HIV-infected mother were recruited during this period. Only 30 (51.7%) children of HIV-infected mothers could complete the 18-month requirement, while 90 (75.6%) of the babies born to non-HIV-infected mothers finished the 18 months follow-up period. The two groups did not differ much in terms of demographic characteristics, except that the infant fathers were younger and serology for syphilis was higher in the HIV-infected mothers. This indicated that the HIV-infected mothers had earlier sexual activity. Babies born to the HIV-infected mothers tended to have a lower birth weight and were small for gestational age (SGA). Nine out of 30 babies (30%) born to the HIV-infected mothers were found to be HIV positive at the 18th month of follow-up. The mean medical, non-medical, and total expenses of the babies of the infected group were 2,525.90 +/- 4,328.75, 1,323.07 +/- 1,452.41, 3,848.97 +/- 5,308.90 baht respectively, or were 2.4, 2.0, and 2.2 times those of the non-infected group. These expenses did not include antiretroviral therapy. The

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically Significant Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese and Malawian Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. Methods: A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5–5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6–9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4–6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3–5.9). Conclusions: We conclude that diverse cultures affect children’s mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures. PMID:25560344

  19. Psychogenic "HIV infection".

    PubMed

    Sno, H N; Storosum, J G; Wortel, C H

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential to prevent patients from harmful diagnostic procedures or surgical treatments. Psychiatric treatment is best focused on management and care rather than cure. Psychogenic "HIV infection" might become more common than acknowledged up to now. Physicians should consider the occurrence of psychogenic "HIV infection," part of the symptomatology may be psychogenically determined, or indeed frankly simulated.

  20. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p < 0.05) for both groups. Phospholipase activity was detected in 32 isolates (40.5%) and it was significantly higher in the HIV group (p = 0.006). Protease activity was detected in 66 isolates (84.8%) and most of them were relatively/very strong producers. No statistical association with medical data was found in the HIV group. Although Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and Alternative Specimen Collection Methods for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Marcy, Olivier; Ung, Vibol; Goyet, Sophie; Borand, Laurence; Msellati, Philippe; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Nguyen Thi, Ngoc Lan; Nacro, Boubacar; Cheng, Sokleaph; Eyangoh, Sara; Pham, Thu Hang; Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Tarantola, Arnaud; Godreuil, Sylvain; Blanche, Stéphane; Delacourt, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children is challenging. We assessed the performance of alternative specimen collection methods for tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children using Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). HIV-infected children aged ≤13 years with suspected intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled in 8 hospitals in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam. Gastric aspirates were taken for children aged <10 years and expectorated sputum samples were taken for children aged ≥10 years (standard samples); nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool were taken for all children, and a string test was performed if the child was aged ≥4 years (alternative samples). All samples were tested with Xpert. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for culture-confirmed tuberculosis was analyzed in intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol approaches. Of 281 children enrolled, 272 (96.8%) had ≥1 specimen tested with Xpert (intention-to-diagnose population), and 179 (63.5%) had all samples tested with Xpert (per-protocol population). Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in 29/272 (10.7%) children. Intention-to-diagnose sensitivities of Xpert performed on all, standard, and alternative samples were 79.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.3-92.0), 72.4% (95% CI, 52.8-87.3), and 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7), respectively. Specificities were ≥97.5%. Xpert combined on nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool had intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol sensitivities of 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7) and 75.0% (95% CI, 47.6-92.7), respectively. The combination of nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool sample is a promising alternative to methods usually recommended by national programs. Xpert performed on respiratory and stools samples enables rapid confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children. The ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida) 12229 PAANTHER (Pediatric Asian African Network for Tuberculosis and HIV Research) 01 study is registered

  2. Early diagnosis is critical to ensure good outcomes in HIV-infected children: outlining barriers to care.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Ute D; Meyer, Anell; Thomas, Winifred N; Forsyth, Brian W C; Kruger, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected children require early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ensure good outcomes. The aim was to investigate missed opportunities in childhood HIV diagnosis leading to delayed ART initiation. Baseline data were reviewed of all children aged <15 years referred over a 1-year period for ART initiation to the Kalafong Hospital HIV services in Gauteng, South Africa. Of the 250 children, one-quarter (24.5%) was of school-going age, 34.5% in the preschool group, 18% between 6 and 12 months old and 23% below 6 months of age (median age = 1.5 years [interquartile range 0.5-4.8]). Most children (82%) presented with advanced/severe HIV disease, particularly those aged 6-12 months (95%). Malnutrition was prominent and referrals were mostly from hospital inpatient services (61%). A structured caregiver interview was conducted in a subgroup, with detailed review of medical records and HIV results. The majority (≥89%) of the 65 interviewed caregivers reported good access to routine healthcare, except for postnatal care (26%). Maternal HIV-testing was mostly done during the second and third pregnancy trimesters (69%). Maternal non-disclosure of HIV status was common (63%) and 83% of mothers reported a lack of psychosocial support. Routine infant HIV-testing was not done in 66%, and inadequate reporting on patient-held records (Road-to-Health Cards/Booklets) occurred frequently (74%). Children with symptomatic HIV disease were not investigated at primary healthcare in 53%, and in 68% of families the siblings were not tested. One-third of children (35%) had a previous HIV diagnosis, with 77% of caregivers aware of these prior results, while 50% acknowledged failing to attend ART services despite referral. In conclusion, a clear strategy on paediatric HIV case finding, especially at primary healthcare, is vital. Multiple barriers need to be overcome in the HIV care pathway to reach high uptake of services, of which especially maternal reasons for not

  3. Predictors of Poor CD4 and Weight Recovery in HIV-Infected Children Initiating ART in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, Brian C.; Phungula, Thuli; Zanoni, Holly M.; France, Holly; Cook, E. Francis; Feeney, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline demographic and clinical risk factors associated with poor CD4 and weight response after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 674 children initiating antiretroviral therapy at McCord and St. Mary's hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from August 2003 to December 2008. We extracted data from paper charts and electronic medical records to assess risk factors associated with CD4 and weight response using logistic regression. Results From the initial cohort of 901 children <10 years old initiating ART between August 2003 and December 2008, we analyzed 674 children with complete baseline data. Viral suppression rates (<400 copies/ml) were 84% after six months of therapy and 88% after 12 months of therapy. Seventy-three percent of children achieved CD4 recovery after six months and 89% after 12 months. Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) improvements were seen in 58% of children after six months of ART and 64% after 12 months. After six months of ART, lower baseline hemoglobin (p = 0.037), presence of chronic diarrhea (p = 0.007), and virologic failure (p = 0.046) were all associated with poor CD4 recovery by multivariate logistic regression. After 12 months of ART, poor CD4 recovery was associated with higher baseline CD4% (p = 0.005), chronic diarrhea (p = 0.02), and virologic failure (p<0.001). Age less than 3 years at ART initiation (p = 0.0003), higher baseline CD4% (p<0.001), and higher baseline WAZ (p<0.001) were all associated with poor WAZ improvements after 6 months by multivariate logistic regression. Conclusion The presence of chronic diarrhea at baseline, independent of nutritional status and viral response, predicts poor CD4 recovery. Age at initiation of ART is an important factor in early WAZ response to ART, while viral suppression strongly

  4. Predictors of poor CD4 and weight recovery in HIV-infected children initiating ART in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Brian C; Phungula, Thuli; Zanoni, Holly M; France, Holly; Cook, E Francis; Feeney, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    To identify baseline demographic and clinical risk factors associated with poor CD4 and weight response after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 674 children initiating antiretroviral therapy at McCord and St. Mary's hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from August 2003 to December 2008. We extracted data from paper charts and electronic medical records to assess risk factors associated with CD4 and weight response using logistic regression. From the initial cohort of 901 children <10 years old initiating ART between August 2003 and December 2008, we analyzed 674 children with complete baseline data. Viral suppression rates (<400 copies/ml) were 84% after six months of therapy and 88% after 12 months of therapy. Seventy-three percent of children achieved CD4 recovery after six months and 89% after 12 months. Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) improvements were seen in 58% of children after six months of ART and 64% after 12 months. After six months of ART, lower baseline hemoglobin (p = 0.037), presence of chronic diarrhea (p = 0.007), and virologic failure (p = 0.046) were all associated with poor CD4 recovery by multivariate logistic regression. After 12 months of ART, poor CD4 recovery was associated with higher baseline CD4% (p = 0.005), chronic diarrhea (p = 0.02), and virologic failure (p<0.001). Age less than 3 years at ART initiation (p = 0.0003), higher baseline CD4% (p<0.001), and higher baseline WAZ (p<0.001) were all associated with poor WAZ improvements after 6 months by multivariate logistic regression. The presence of chronic diarrhea at baseline, independent of nutritional status and viral response, predicts poor CD4 recovery. Age at initiation of ART is an important factor in early WAZ response to ART, while viral suppression strongly predicts CD4 recovery but not WAZ improvement.

  5. The association between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria among young HIV-infected and -uninfected Ugandan children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition and malaria remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. There are conflicting data as to whether malnutrition is associated with an increased or decreased risk of malaria. In addition, data are limited on the potential interaction between HIV infection and the association between malnutrition and the risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 100 HIV-unexposed, 203 HIV-exposed (HIV negative children born to HIV-infected mothers) and 48 HIV-infected children aged 6 weeks to 1 year were recruited from an area of high malaria transmission intensity in rural Uganda and followed until the age of 2.5 years. All children were provided with insecticide-treated bed nets at enrolment and daily trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis (TS) was prescribed for HIV-exposed breastfeeding and HIV-infected children. Monthly routine assessments, including measurement of height and weight, were conducted at the study clinic. Nutritional outcomes including stunting (low height-for-age) and underweight (low weight-for-age), classified as mild (mean z-scores between -1 and -2 during follow-up) and moderate-severe (mean z-scores < -2 during follow-up) were considered. Malaria was diagnosed when a child presented with fever and a positive blood smear. The incidence of malaria was compared using negative binomial regression controlling for potential confounders with measures of association expressed as an incidence rate ratio (IRR). Results The overall incidence of malaria was 3.64 cases per person year. Mild stunting (IRR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46, p = 0.008) and moderate-severe stunting (IRR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.48, p = 0.02) were associated with a similarly increased incidence of malaria compared to non-stunted children. Being mildly underweight (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.25, p = 0.24) and moderate-severe underweight (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.46, p = 0.39) were not associated with a significant difference in the incidence

  6. Prevalence, Characteristics, Management, and Outcome of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Sudjaritruk, Tavitiya; Maleesatharn, Alan; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Fong, Siew Moy; Le, Ngoc Oanh; Le, Thanh Thuy Thi; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Kurniati, Nia; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin Nik; Razali, Kamarul Azahar Mohd; Kariminia, Azar; Sohn, Annette H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted to determine prevalence, characteristics, management, and outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Asian HIV-infected children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD). Data on PTB episodes diagnosed during the period between 12 months before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and December 31, 2009 were extracted. A total of 2678 HIV-infected children were included in TApHOD over a 13-year period; 457 developed PTB, giving a period prevalence of 17.1% (range 5.7–33.0% per country). There were a total of 484 PTB episodes; 27 children had 2 episodes each. There were 21 deaths (4.3%). One third of episodes (n=175/484) occurred after ART initiation at a median of 14.1 months (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5–28.8 months). The median (IQR) CD4+ values were 9.0% (3.0–16.0%) and 183.5 (37.8–525.0) cells/mm3 when PTB was diagnosed. Most episodes (n=424/436, 97.3%) had abnormal radiographic findings compatible with PTB, whereas half (n=267/484, 55.2%) presented with clinical characteristics of PTB. One third of those tested (n=42/122, 34.4%) had bacteriological evidence of PTB. Of the 156 episodes (32.2%) that were accompanied with extrapulmonary TB, pleuritis was the most common manifestation (81.4%). After treatment completion, most episodes (n=396/484, 81.9%) were recorded as having positive outcomes (cured, treatment completed and child well, and improvement). The prevalence of PTB among Asian HIV-infected children in our cohort was high. Children with persistent immunosuppression remain vulnerable to PTB even after ART initiation. PMID:24206012

  7. Safety and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapy has become the standard of care for uncomplicated malaria in most of Africa. However, there is limited data on the safety and tolerability of these drugs, especially in young children and patients co-infected with HIV. Methods A longitudinal, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected children aged 4-22 months in Tororo, Uganda. Participants were randomized to treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) upon diagnosis of their first episode of uncomplicated malaria and received the same regimen for all subsequent episodes. Participants were actively monitored for adverse events for 28 days and then passively for up to 63 days after treatment. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (registration # NCT00527800). Results A total of 122 children were randomized to AL and 124 to DP, resulting in 412 and 425 treatments, respectively. Most adverse events were rare, with only cough, diarrhoea, vomiting, and anaemia occurring in more than 1% of treatments. There were no differences in the risk of these events between treatment groups. Younger age was associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea in both the AL and DP treatment arms. Retreatment for malaria within 17-28 days was associated with an increased risk of vomiting in the DP treatment arm (HR = 6.47, 95% CI 2.31-18.1, p < 0.001). There was no increase in the risk of diarrhoea or vomiting for children who were HIV-infected or on concomitant therapy with antiretrovirals or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis. Conclusion Both AL and DP were safe and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00527800; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00527800 PMID:19948038

  8. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  9. The Dilemmas of Childhood HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudigier, Anne F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Increase in number of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and consequential developmental disabilities of these children are discussed. Families caring for HIV-infected children express four recurrent themes: psychological stress, grief and mourning, guilt and self-blame, and isolation and fear of discrimination. Flexible…

  10. Cohort profile: improving treatment of HIV-infected Ethiopian children through better detection of treatment failure in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Foster, Byron Alexander; Jerene, Degu; Ruff, Andrea

    2017-02-28

    The Ethiopian Paediatric HIV Cohort (EPHIC) was established to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of virological treatment failure to ultimately develop a clinical-immunological prediction rule with area under the curve of >0.80 for detecting first-line antiretroviral therapy failure (ARTF). It will also assess the performance of the current WHO guidelines for detection of first-line ARTF in children. Using a prospective cohort design, HIV-infected children and adolescents below the age of 18 years are followed every 6 months with a set of clinical and laboratory parameters at 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia. For inclusion in the cohort, children should be on or are initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are not on second-line ART. Virological treatment failure is taken as the gold standard for the diagnosis of treatment failure. From October 2015 through April 2016, 628 children have been enrolled from 6 different HIV treatment centres across southern Ethiopia. The mean age at enrolment was 11.1 years and 47.6% were girls. Many of the children (88.6%) were at WHO Clinical stage 1 at time of enrolment. At enrolment, the mean duration on first-line ART was 45 months. Substitution of ART drugs was performed to nearly half (42.6%) of the cohort. Adherence as assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale was high (mean, 94.4%; SD=11.9). The median CD4 count of the cohort at enrolment was 741 with 3.1% having a value consistent with ARTF. Regular data uploads from the 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia enable this cohort to be followed prospectively. The cohort will be completed in September 2017. The successful completion of this study will allow for better targeting of viral-load testing to those at highest risk in resource-poor settings and provide clinicians and policymakers with a practical prediction rule. SNNPR Regional Health Bureau Institutional Review Board. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  11. Cohort profile: improving treatment of HIV-infected Ethiopian children through better detection of treatment failure in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Byron Alexander; Jerene, Degu; Ruff, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Ethiopian Paediatric HIV Cohort (EPHIC) was established to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of virological treatment failure to ultimately develop a clinical–immunological prediction rule with area under the curve of >0.80 for detecting first-line antiretroviral therapy failure (ARTF). It will also assess the performance of the current WHO guidelines for detection of first-line ARTF in children. Participants Using a prospective cohort design, HIV-infected children and adolescents below the age of 18 years are followed every 6 months with a set of clinical and laboratory parameters at 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia. For inclusion in the cohort, children should be on or are initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are not on second-line ART. Virological treatment failure is taken as the gold standard for the diagnosis of treatment failure. Findings to date From October 2015 through April 2016, 628 children have been enrolled from 6 different HIV treatment centres across southern Ethiopia. The mean age at enrolment was 11.1 years and 47.6% were girls. Many of the children (88.6%) were at WHO Clinical stage 1 at time of enrolment. At enrolment, the mean duration on first-line ART was 45 months. Substitution of ART drugs was performed to nearly half (42.6%) of the cohort. Adherence as assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale was high (mean, 94.4%; SD=11.9). The median CD4 count of the cohort at enrolment was 741 with 3.1% having a value consistent with ARTF. Future plans Regular data uploads from the 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia enable this cohort to be followed prospectively. The cohort will be completed in September 2017. The successful completion of this study will allow for better targeting of viral-load testing to those at highest risk in resource-poor settings and provide clinicians and policymakers with a practical prediction rule. Ethics approval SNNPR Regional Health Bureau Institutional Review Board. PMID

  12. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS ... at 888-448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES ...

  13. Sex differences in responses to antiretroviral treatment in South African HIV-infected children on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and nevirapine-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Stephanie; Kuhn, Louise; Strehlau, Renate; Martens, Leigh; McIlleron, Helen; Meredith, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J; Arpadi, Stephen M

    2014-02-12

    While studies of HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral treatment (ART) report no sex differences in immune recovery and virologic response but more ART-associated complications in women, sex differences in disease progression and response to ART among children have not been well assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in response to ART in South African HIV-infected children who were randomized to continue ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based ART or switch to nevirapine-based ART. ART outcomes in HIV-infected boys and girls in Johannesburg, South Africa from 2005-2010 were compared. Children initiated ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based ART before 24 months of age and were randomized to remain on LPV/r or switch to nevirapine-based ART after achieving viral suppression. Children were followed for 76 weeks post-randomization and then long-term follow up continued for a minimum of 99 weeks and maximum of 245 weeks after randomization. Viral load, CD4 count, lipids, anthropometrics, drug concentrations, and adherence were measured at regular intervals. Outcomes were compared between sexes within treatment strata. A total of 323 children (median age 8.8 months, IQR 5.1-13.5), including 168 boys and 155 girls, initiated LPV/r-based ART and 195 children were randomized. No sex differences in risk of virological failure (confirmed viral load >1000 copies/mL) by 156 weeks post-randomization were observed within either treatment group. Girls switched to nevirapine had more robust CD4 count improvement relative to boys in this group through 112 weeks post-randomization. In addition, girls remaining on LPV/r had higher plasma concentrations of ritonavir than boys during post-randomization visits. After a mean of 3.4 years post-randomization, girls remaining on LPV/r also had a higher total cholesterol:HDL ratio and lower mean HDL than boys on LPV/r. Sex differences are noted in treated HIV-infected children even at a young age, and

  14. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. Methods We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0–13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. Results The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. Conclusions The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments. PMID:24885453

  15. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kathleen; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina; Holmes, Charles; Resch, Stephen; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2014-05-02

    Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0-13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments.

  16. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bartelink, Imke H; Savic, Rada M; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Sparse dried blood spot samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from 3 resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Concentrations in 330 dried blood spot from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7-7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5-12 years. Among Ugandan children, 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P=0.045) and 18% (P=0.008), respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (P<0.001) with a trend toward greater bioavailability when malnourished. Children receiving LPV, EFV or NVP had comparable risk of virologic failure. Among children on NVP, low height and weight for age Z scores were associated with reduced risk of virologic failure (P=0.034, P=0.068, respectively). Ugandan children demonstrated lower EFV and LPV and higher NVP exposure compared to children in RRC, perhaps reflecting the consequence of malnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessments, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children.

  17. Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households

    PubMed Central

    Serchuck, Leslie K.; Williams, Paige L.; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6–17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV+ and 256 HIV− children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong–Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV+ increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV+ and uninfected children exposed to HIV+ individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under

  18. Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nokeri, Vusi; Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Moore, David; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A.; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Kularatne, Ranmini; Conklin, Laura; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Klugman, Keith; Whitney, Cynthia G.; von Gottberg, Anne; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian; Nuttall, James; Cooke, Louise; Finlayson, Heather; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew; Perez, Dania; Jooste, Pieter; Naidoo, Dhamiran; Kularatne, Ranmini; Reubenson, Gary; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; du Plessis, Mignon; Govender, Nevashan; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; von Mollendorf, Claire; Fortuin-de Smidt, Melony; Naidoo, Nireshni; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Nokeri, Vusi; Ncha, Relebohile; Lindani, Sonwabo; von Gottberg, Anne; Spies, Barry; Sono, Lino; Maredi, Phasweni; Hamese, Ken; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Nchabeleng, Maphosane; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; van den Heever, Johann; Madhi, Shabir; Conklin, Laura; Verani, Jennifer; Whitney, Cynthia; Zell, Elizabeth; Loo, Jennifer; Nelson, George; Klugman, Keith; O'Brien, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background. South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods. IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results. From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ≥16 weeks. Effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%–91%) among HIV-uninfected and −12% (95% CI, −449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ≥3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%–99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, −371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ≥2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%–99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ≥2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%–100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions. A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24917657

  19. Oral Candida colonization and its relation with predisposing factors in HIV-infected children and their uninfected siblings in Brazil: the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Pomarico, Luciana; de Araújo Soares, Rosangela Maria; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Castro, Glória Fernanda

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate predisposing factors such as orofacial manifestations, immunosuppression status and antiretroviral therapy in relation to oral colonization by Candida spp. in Brazilian HIV-infected children and their uninfected siblings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Whole stimulated saliva was collected from 65 HIV-infected children (HIV+) and 40 uninfected siblings (HIV-), followed by assessment of orofacial manifestation, caries indexes and the number of cavitated dentinal carious teeth (CDT). The salivary samples were cultured and the colonies were counted. After which they were identified by sugar assimilation and fermentation (API 20C). Data was analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Spearman tests and logistic regression. Regarding positive growth, HIV+ presented 80% (52/65) and HIV- 57.5% (23/40) (P = 0.013). Absence of antiretroviral therapy and HAART increased the probability of Candida isolation (P < 0.05). Mean CD4%, immune-status and history of recurrent oral candidiasis (OC) had no influence on Candida isolation. Mixed Candida spp. cultures were observed in HIV+ (40%) and HIV- (52%): C. albicans was more frequently found in both groups, with a higher prevalence in HIV+ (P = 0.05); other non-albicans species were isolated in HIV+ and HIV-. Low prevalence of orofacial manifestations was observed in HIV+ (10.7% of OC). There was an association between means of CDT and Candida growth (P < 0.05) and a positive correlation between number of CDT and Candida cfu-counts in HIV+ and HIV-. Mean CD4% and immune-status had no influence on Candida isolation. Absence of antiretroviral therapy and HAART increased the probability of Candida isolation (P < 0.05). The HIV infected children had a significantly higher prevalence of oral Candida spp. compared to their uninfected siblings. Absence of HAART and presence of dentinal carious teeth increased significantly Candida spp. colonization in these children.

  20. Profile of HIV infected children: A hospital based study at Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Prakash; Pokharel, Rita; Chitlangia, Mohit; Chaudhary, Shipra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical, laboratory, epidemiological profiles and outcome in human immunodeficiency virus infected Nepalese children. Methods This was a hospital based prospective study. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children presenting to pediatric immunology clinic at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled and followed up. Results Median age at diagnosis among 39 enrolled children was 58 months. All children acquired infection vertically. Unsafe sex (74.4%) and intravenous drug use (25.6%) were the major risk behaviors in fathers. At presentation, 20.8% children were asymptomatic, 54.0% were malnourished, 41.0% were in WHO clinical stage 1, 17.9% were in stage 4, 74.4% were anemic, 17.9% had thrombocytopenia and median CD4 count was 543. Fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions and oral lesions were common presenting features (16.2%, 16.2%, 13.5%, 10.8%, and 8.1% respectively out of 74 features). Tuberculosis (16.0%), chronic otitis media (12.0%), scabies (10.7%), bacterial pneumonia (9.3%) and oropharyngeal candidiasis (6.7%) were common opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment was started in 18 (46.2%) cases at median age of 67 months. Median change in CD4 count at follow up was significantly different between the groups receiving and not receiving antiretroviral treatment (+192 vs. -72; P=0.045). Conclusions Infection in children is vertical. Undernutrition, anemia, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions, and ear discharge are common presenting features. Opportunistic infections are common and tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection followed by chronic ear infection, scabies, candidiasis and bacterial pneumonia. Timely antiretroviral treatment improves immune response.

  1. Neurocognitive Effects of HIV Infection on Young Children: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Kris; Smith, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Describes the various direct and indirect effects of HIV and AIDS on children's development and the implications for early intervention assessment. HIV and AIDS effects include disorganization during the neonatal period, failure to thrive, motor difficulties, cognitive dysfunction, expressive language behavior, attention problems, and…

  2. The Mental Health Risk of Mothers and Children: The Role of Maternal HIV Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann; Dolezal, Curtis; Spiegel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Rates of mental health problems in mothers and children in families affected by maternal HIV as compared to those not affected by maternal HIV but living in similar inner-city, low-SES, primarily ethnic-minority neighborhoods were examined. In addition, correspondence between mother and child mental health was explored. Interviews were conducted…

  3. Emerging Patterns of Services and Case Finding for Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Karen M.

    1989-01-01

    Young children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) of perinatal origin often present with increasing medical and developmental problems after the first half year of life. Most eventually require foster care; some are integrated in intervention or preschool services; others are in segregated educational programs. Family supports and specialized…

  4. The Mental Health Risk of Mothers and Children: The Role of Maternal HIV Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann; Dolezal, Curtis; Spiegel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Rates of mental health problems in mothers and children in families affected by maternal HIV as compared to those not affected by maternal HIV but living in similar inner-city, low-SES, primarily ethnic-minority neighborhoods were examined. In addition, correspondence between mother and child mental health was explored. Interviews were conducted…

  5. Emerging Patterns of Services and Case Finding for Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Karen M.

    1989-01-01

    Young children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) of perinatal origin often present with increasing medical and developmental problems after the first half year of life. Most eventually require foster care; some are integrated in intervention or preschool services; others are in segregated educational programs. Family supports and specialized…

  6. Plasma Efavirenz Exposure, Sex, and Age Predict Virological Response in HIV-Infected African Children

    PubMed Central

    Bienczak, Andrzej; Denti, Paolo; Cook, Adrian; Wiesner, Lubbe; Mulenga, Veronica; Kityo, Cissy; Kekitiinwa, Addy; Gibb, Diana M.; Burger, David; Walker, A. Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to insufficient evidence in children, target plasma concentrations of efavirenz are based on studies in adults. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the pediatric therapeutic thresholds and characterize the determinants of virological suppression in African children. Methods: We analyzed data from 128 African children (aged 1.7–13.5 years) treated with efavirenz, lamivudine, and one among abacavir, stavudine, or zidovudine, and followed up to 36 months. Individual pharmacokinetic (PK) measures [plasma concentration 12 hours after dose (C12h), plasma concentration 24 hours after dose (C24h), and area under the curve (AUC0-24)] were estimated using population PK modeling. Cox multiple failure regression and multivariable fractional polynomials were used to investigate the risks of unsuppressed viral load associated with efavirenz exposure and other factors among 106 initially treatment-naive children, and likelihood profiling was used to identify the most predictive PK thresholds. Results: The risk of viral load >100 copies per milliliter decreased by 42% for every 2-fold increase in efavirenz mid-dose concentration [95% confidence interval (CI): 23% to 57%; P < 0.001]. The most predictive PK thresholds for increased risk of unsuppressed viral load were C12h 1.12 mg/L [hazard ratio (HR): 6.14; 95% CI: 2.64 to 14.27], C24h 0.65 mg/L (HR: 6.57; 95% CI: 2.86 to 15.10), and AUC0-24 28 mg·h/L (HR: 5.77; 95% CI: 2.28 to 14.58). Children older than 8 years had a more than 10-fold increased risk of virological nonsuppression (P = 0.005); among children younger than 8 years, boys had a 5.31 times higher risk than girls (P = 0.007). Central nervous system adverse events were infrequently reported. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that the minimum target C24h and AUC0-24 could be lowered in children. Our findings should be confirmed in a prospective pediatric trial. PMID:27116047

  7. Plasma Efavirenz Exposure, Sex, and Age Predict Virological Response in HIV-Infected African Children.

    PubMed

    Bienczak, Andrzej; Denti, Paolo; Cook, Adrian; Wiesner, Lubbe; Mulenga, Veronica; Kityo, Cissy; Kekitiinwa, Addy; Gibb, Diana M; Burger, David; Walker, A Sarah; McIlleron, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Owing to insufficient evidence in children, target plasma concentrations of efavirenz are based on studies in adults. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the pediatric therapeutic thresholds and characterize the determinants of virological suppression in African children. We analyzed data from 128 African chi