Science.gov

Sample records for hog cholera

  1. Hog Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P.; Appel, M.; Bannister, G. L.; Ruckerbauer, Gerda M.; Mori, K.; Gray, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    The complement-fixation test was investigated as a means of detecting hog cholera virus in spleen from experimentally infected swine. Various methods of extracting the tissue for production of antigen are described and emphasis is placed on the necessity of using the modified direct complement-fixation test to obtain reactions. The tissue should be obtained from animals showing advanced clinical manifestations of the disease. Preferably, the tissue should be maintained frozen or at least well refrigerated. The results indicate that tissue from dead animals or from breeding sows should be avoided. The 77 per cent positive reactions obtained suggest the test could be of diagnostic value provided two or three samples are obtained from the same herd. PMID:14318539

  2. Hog Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A.; Greig, A. S.; Appel, M.; Girard, A.; Bannister, G. L.; Boulanger, P.

    1965-01-01

    The fluorescent-antibody technique was employed for detection of hog cholera virus in tissue cultures inoculated with spleens of infected animals. As controls, cultures were also inoculated with material from normal swine and from those infected with other agents. In the first series 71 of 73 infected spleens, or 97 per cent, were detected. There were no false positive reactions among the controls. Results obtained with the second series of pigs showed that spleens collected during advanced stages of the disease were more satisfactory specimens than those collected earlier during the high temperature phase of infection. Findings with the third series of older swine indicated that their spleens were less satisfactory as a source of virus than those from young pigs. Tissues from freshly killed animals provided better specimen material than those from animals which had died. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4221990

  3. Hog Cholera II

    PubMed Central

    Ruckerbauer, Gerda M.; Appel, M.; Gray, D. P.; Bannister, G. L.; Boulanger, P.

    1965-01-01

    The specificity in the agar diffusion precipitation test of the reaction between the antigen of hog cholera virus diffusing from infected tissues and its homologous antibody was verified. Alternate freezing and thawing of infected tissues was found to give optimum release of the antigen from fresh tissue frozen for 18 hours. A study of the effect of the size and age of pigs upon the diffusion of the antigen from tissues showed that tissues from pigs of less than 250 lbs. gave good results provided the tissues were from animals showing gross clinical manifestations. Specimens from infected breeding sows and dead animals usually did not give a reaction. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:14290949

  4. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  5. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  6. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  7. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  8. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  9. An Evaluation of the Amylase and Haemolytic Tests for the Diagnosis of Hog Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. P.; Bannister, G. L.; Boulanger, Paul

    1962-01-01

    The amylase and haemolytic tests recommended for the diagnosis of hog cholera were used on normal swine, hog cholera-infected swine, hog cholera-immune swine and swine with some other virus diseases. The results obtained show that these tests do not appear to be sufficiently reliable for specific laboratory diagnosis. PMID:17649373

  10. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  11. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  12. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  13. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  14. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  15. The Purification and Concentration of Hog Cholera Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, H. R.; Rebers, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Partial purification of hog cholera virus (HCV) using a simple batch-type chromatographic procedure with magnetic ferric oxide (MFO) is described. Infectious HCV was adsorbed from isotonic solutions to MFO and was eluted under conditions of low ionic strength and high pH. Aqueous solutions of 0.01 M sodium cyanide or 0.0003 M ammonium hydroxide effectively dissociated MFO-HCV complexes. The data indicate that 50 to 100% of the original HCV infectivity was recovered concomitant with a 90 to 95% reduction of extraneous organic nitrogen. MFO-purified HCV was concentrated by density gradient type centrifugations in buffered solutions of cesium chloride and sucrose. Prolonged isodensity centrifugations of concentrated MFO-purified HCV indicated a buoyant density of 1.14 to 1.15 gm/ml for the strain of virus used. PMID:15846899

  16. Hog cholera virus: molecular composition of virions from a pestivirus.

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, H J; Stark, R; Weiland, E; Rümenapf, T; Meyers, G

    1991-01-01

    Virions from hog cholera virus (HCV), a member of the genus Pestivirus, were analyzed by using specific antibodies. The nucleocapsid protein was found to be a 14-kDa molecule (HCV p14). An equivalent protein could also be demonstrated for virions from another pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus. The HCV envelope is composed of three glycoproteins, HCV gp44/48, gp33, and gp55. All three exist in the form of disulfide-linked dimers in virus-infected cells and in virions; HCV gp44/48 and gp55 each form homodimers, whereas gp55 is also found dimerized with gp33. Such complex covalent interactions between structural glycoproteins have not been described so far for any RNA virus. Images PMID:1870198

  17. VARIATIONS IN THE PLASMA CHOLESTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL ESTER CONTENT IN HOG CHOLERA

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1930-01-01

    1. The plasma cholesterol and cholesterol ester content of swine, experimentally infected with hog cholera, exhibit a regular succession of changes. During the period of incubation of the disease, for 3 or more days following inoculation with hog cholera virus, hypocholesterolemia prevails. This is followed by a period of hypercholesterolemia which is coincident with the onset of the clinical manifestations of the disease. The hypercholesterolemia after persisting for from 4 to 7 days, gives way to a second period of hypocholesterolemia more marked and more prolonged than that observed immediately after inoculation. In the experiments of the present work this second period lasted 8 and 11 days in the 2 animals surviving long enough for the study of it and was followed by a second period of hypercholesterolemia. In the one animal surviving this period for 8 days a third period of irregular and fluctuating hypocholesterolemia set in. 2. A comparison with the results in other acute infections indicates that hog cholera is unique in showing alternating periods of hypocholesterolemia and hypercholesterolemia. 3. A normal hog inoculated with Bacillus suisepticus rapidly developed the typical marked hypocholesterolemia whereas an animal infected with hog cholera and then inoculated with B. suisepticus failed to show the decrease in plasma cholesterol content. PMID:19869682

  18. Host immune responses against hog cholera virus in pigs treated with an ionized alkali mineral complex.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Kyun; Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Park, Yong-Ho; Koh, Jong-Ho; Seo, KyungSuk

    2002-12-01

    To determine the immune responses in pigs to hog cholera virus after treatment with an ionized alkali mineral complex (IAMC), 40 healthy pigs (28-32 days old) from a commercial swine farm were purchased and housed into 4 groups (n=10 each). All pigs were vaccinated intramuscularly (1 ml) with an attenuated live hog cholera virus (HCV, LOM strain) at 28-32 days old and challenged with a virulent hog cholera virus at 8 weeks after vaccination. Each group was treated with PowerFeel sprayed diet as 0.05% (w/w) in a final concentration (T-1, n=10), a diet mixed with SuperFeed as 3% (w/w) in a final concentration (T-2, n=10), or a diluted PowerFeel solution (1:500, v/v) as drinking water (T-3, n=10), respectively. A group (n=10) served as a non-treated control. Proportions of expressing CD2+ and CD8+ cells increased significantly (p<, 0.05) at 8-week post-application. Mean antibody titers of each group against HCV gradually increased to higher levels after vaccination and with challenge of the virulent virus. In conclusion, the IAMC-treated diets can be helpful for the improvement of growth in pigs with proper vaccination program, while the IAMC-treated diets have no effects on the clinical protection against hog cholera.

  19. Susceptibility of a minipig kidney cell line (MPK) to hog cholera virus.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, C; Falcone, E; Pestalozza, S; Iovane, G; Rivero, V B

    1988-07-01

    A comparitive study on the different susceptibility of MPK cells (Minipig Kidney cell line) and PK15 cells (Pig Kidney cell line) to the Hog Cholera Virus (HCV) was conducted. Higher HCV titres (3 log10) were reached on MPK cells compared with PK15 cells.

  20. Characterization and pathogenicity for pigs of a hog cholera virus strain isolated from wild boars.

    PubMed

    Leforban, Y; Cariolet, R

    1992-01-01

    One hog cholera virus strain isolated from an outbreak of the disease in a wild boar breeding herd in Brittany (France) in 1990 has been characterized with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to hog cholera virus and ruminant pestiviruses: the strain was found to be indistinguishable from that of other domestic pig isolates. The pathogenicity of the strain to domestic pigs was evaluated by infecting intranasally, intramuscularly and by contact 17 specific pathogen-free 6-week- and 12-week-old pigs. Sixteen of the 17 pigs showed symptoms of hog cholera. The virus was detected in the blood of the 16 pigs during all phases of hyperthermia which persisted up to death or the terminal phase, ie between 16 and 29 days post-infection. One animal recovered after presenting a mild form of the disease. This pig was the only one which raised antibodies to the virus. Typical hog cholera lesions were observed in 2 pigs only; the other animal showed very few pathological changes. No relationship between intensity or duration of the disease and pathological changes could be established.

  1. A second envelope glycoprotein mediates neutralization of a pestivirus, hog cholera virus.

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, E; Ahl, R; Stark, R; Weiland, F; Thiel, H J

    1992-01-01

    Several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against hog cholera virus (HCV) reacted with the HCV structural glycoprotein gp44/48 and neutralized the virus. The presence of HCV gp44/48 on the viral surface was directly demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy. Eight anti-HCV gp44/48 MAbs were tested by immunoperoxidase assay against a panel of pestivirus strains. Each MAb showed a distinct pattern of reactivity with HCV strains. It is suggested that the MAbs are well suited for epidemiological investigations of HCV outbreaks. Images PMID:1583727

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND PATHOGENESIS OF BACILLUS X (STERNBERG), BACILLUS ICTEROIDES (SANARELLI), AND THE HOG-CHOLERA BACILLUS (SALMON AND SMITH)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Walter; Carroll, James

    1900-01-01

    1. Bacillus X (Sternberg) belongs to the colon group. 2. Bacillus icteroides (Sanarelli) is a member of the hog-cholera group. 3. The various channels of infection, the duration of the disease and the gross and microscopical lesions in mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits are the same for Bacillus icteroides and the hog-cholera bacillus. 4. The clinical symptoms and the lesions observed in dogs inoculated intravenously with Bacillus icteroides, are reproduced in these animals by infection with the hog-cholera bacillus. 5. Bacillus icteroides when fed to the domestic pig causes fatal infection, accompanied by diphtheritic, necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the digestive tract, such as are seen in hogs when infected with the hog-cholera bacillus. 6. This disease may be acquired by exposing swine in pens already infected with Bacillus icteroides, or by feeding them with the viscera of infected pigs. 7. Guinea-pigs may be immunized with sterilized cultures ofBacillus icteroides from a fatal dose of the hog-cholera bacillus and vice versa. 8. Rabbits may be rendered immune by gradually increasing doses of a living culture of Bacillus icteroides of weak virulence from a fatal dose of a virulent culture of the hog-cholera bacillus 9. The sera of animals immunized with Bacillus icteroides and with the hog-cholera bacillus, respectively, show a marked reciprocal agglutinative reaction. 10. While the blood of yellow fever practically does not exercise an agglutinative reaction upon Bacillus icteroides, the blood of hog-cholera agglutinates this bacillus in a much more marked degree, thus pointing, we think, to the closer etiological relationship of this bacillus to hog-cholera than to yellow fever. PMID:19866945

  3. Estimation of the dynamics and rate of transmission of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hone, J.; Pech, R.; Yip, P.

    1992-01-01

    Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed. PMID:1582476

  4. Protection tests in pigs vaccinated with the lapinized Chinese strain of hog cholera virus (HCV) previously adapted in a minipig kidney (MPK) cell line, to challenge infection with virulent HCV.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, G L; Ferrari, M; Cardeti, G; Boldini, M; Buonavoglia, C

    1991-07-01

    Pigs which had been vaccinated with the Lapinized Chinese strain of Hog Cholera Virus previously adapted in a minipig cell line cultures (MPK-LC-HCV), resultet to be protected when they were subjected to challenge infection with virulent Hog Cholera Virus (HCV) 6 or 11 months later. The challenge virus was never isolated from any of the vaccinated pigs. The MPK-LC-HCV vaccine induced a significant rise of the antibody titer to the HCV in pigs kept under field conditions.

  5. The Effects of in utero Viral Infection on Embryonic, Fetal, and Neonatal Survival: A Comparison of SMEDI (Porcine Picorna) Viruses with Hog Cholera Vaccinal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, H. W.; Wang, J. T.; Clark, C. D.; Hokanson, J. F.; Morimoto, T.; Bubash, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    SMEDI and hog cholera viruses were shown to have marked effects upon the survival of the embryo (from conception to 30 days of gestation), the fetus (from 30 days of gestation until birth), and the neonatal pig (from birth until five days after birth). Embryonic infection was characterized by death and absorption of the embryo and in some instances the return to estrus after an irregular estrous cycle. Embryonic infection also may have been responsible for the development of some abnormal pigs. Fetal infection caused death with mummification of one or more fetuses and occasionally all fetuses in the uterus. Infection established in early gestation produced effects on the fetus which apparently persisted until after birth and varied from a persistent viremia (as in hog cholera infection) to an undefined lack of resistance in the newborn (as in SMEDI virus infection). Hog cholera vaccinal virus was the more virulent of the two virus types and reacted somewhat like rubella virus, in that infection apparently could be established in the fetus even in middle trimester of pregnancy, and possibly later. SMEDI viruses, in contrast, were less virulent and were most pathogenic when the dam was infected during the first 30 days of pregnancy. Immunity against either virus could be established in the nonpregnant gilt and was most effective in preventing intrauterine infections with that virus. However, with as many as 10 enteroviruses (five are known to cause intrauterine infection) it was believed that maintaining a closed breeding herd and introducing new stock into contact with the breeding herd at least 30 days before breeding time might be a safer means of control. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4243029

  6. The lapinized Chinese strain of hog cholera virus (HCV) previously adapted in minipig kidney (MPK) cell line cultures, would also protect pigs to experimental infection with virulent HCV [corrected].

    PubMed

    Rivero, V B; Gualandi, G L; Ferrari, M; Boldini, M; Buonavoglia, C; Mortarino, P

    1990-07-01

    Two-month old piglets previously inoculated with different dilutions of the Lapinized Chinese (LC) strain of Hog Cholera Virus (HCV), adapted in a minipig kidney (MPK) cell line, resisted challenge infection with virulent HCV. All the animals remained healthy and the challenge virus was never recovered from any of them. In contrast, the pigs which served as controls for the challenging virus underwent the clinically lethal form of the disease and HCV was consistently recovered from their tissues.

  7. A study on the susceptibility of minipig kidney (MPK) and rabbit kidney (RK13) cell line cultures to the lapinized Chinese strain of hog cholera virus.

    PubMed

    Rivero, V B; Gualandi, G L; Buonavoglia, C; Mortarino, P

    1988-10-01

    The susceptibility of two established cell lines of pig (MPK = minipig kidney) and rabbit (RK13 = rabbit kidney) origin to the lapinized Chinese (LC) strain of hog cholera virus (HCV) was studied. Spleen cells from rabbits infected with the virus under study were inoculated to cell cultures of either MPK and RK13 cells and subsequent passages were made by culturing the trypsinized infected cells with the normal cells. Only the MPK cell line appeared to be susceptible to virus replication. Since no cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed, the presence of the viral antigen in the inoculated cultures was detected by immunofluorescence tests. The virulence of the virus for rabbits was enhanced after its cultivation in MPK cell cultures. When the MPK cell culture system adapted virus was tested in neutralization trials in the presence of an HCV reference immune serum it was found that the virus did not modify its antigenic structure in any extent. Finally, the culture adapted virus appeared to be more immunogenic for rabbits than the original rabbits adapted virus. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to suggest the use of MPK cell line for the propagation of the LC strain of HCV as an alternative to the use of rabbits for the preparation of HCV vaccine.

  8. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholera occurs in places with a lack of water treatment or sewage treatment, or crowding, war, and famine. Common locations for cholera include: Africa Some parts of Asia India Bangladesh Mexico South and Central America

  9. Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cholera is an acute, secretory diarrhea caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae of the O1 and O139 serogroups. Cholera is endemic in over 50 countries and also causes large epidemics. Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have spread from Asia to much of the world. The 7th pandemic began in 1961 and affects 3–5 million people each year, killing 120,000. Although mild cholera may be indistinguishable from other diarrheal illnesses, the presentation of severe cholera is distinct, with dramatic diarrheal purging. Management of patients with cholera involves aggressive fluid replacement; effective therapy can decrease mortality from over 50% to less than 0.2%. Antibiotics decrease volume and duration of diarrhea by 50% and are recommended for patients with moderate to severe dehydration. Prevention of cholera depends on access to safe water and sanitation. Two oral cholera vaccines are available and the most effective use of these in integrated prevention programs is being actively evaluated. PMID:22748592

  10. Cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Kaper, J B; Morris, J G; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it. PMID:7704895

  11. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Kaper, J B; Morris, J G; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it.

  12. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Sack, David A; Sack, R Bradley; Nair, G Balakrish; Siddique, A K

    2004-01-17

    Intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae results in the loss of large volumes of watery stool, leading to severe and rapidly progressing dehydration and shock. Without adequate and appropriate rehydration therapy, severe cholera kills about half of affected individuals. Cholera toxin, a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase, causes the intestine to secrete watery fluid rich in sodium, bicarbonate, and potassium, in volumes far exceeding the intestinal absorptive capacity. Cholera has spread from the Indian subcontinent where it is endemic to involve nearly the whole world seven times during the past 185 years. V cholerae serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, has moved from Asia to cause pandemic disease in Africa and South America during the past 35 years. A new serogroup, O139, appeared in south Asia in 1992, has become endemic there, and threatens to start the next pandemic. Research on case management of cholera led to the development of rehydration therapy for dehydrating diarrhoea in general, including the proper use of intravenous and oral rehydration solutions. Appropriate case management has reduced deaths from diarrhoeal disease by an estimated 3 million per year compared with 20 years ago. Vaccination was thought to have no role for cholera, but new oral vaccines are showing great promise.

  13. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Caini, Saverio

    2016-08-01

    Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology. The germ responsible for cholera was discovered twice: first by the Italian physician Filippo Pacini during an outbreak in Florence, Italy, in 1854, and then independently by Robert Koch in India in 1883, thus favoring the germ theory over the miasma theory of disease. Unlike many other infectious diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis, cholera persists as a huge public health problem worldwide, even though there are effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The main reasons for its persistence are socioeconomic rather than purely biological; cholera flourishes where there are unsatisfactory hygienic conditions and where a breakdown of already fragile sanitation and health infrastructure occurs because of natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

  14. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The disease is ...

  15. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a comma-shaped, gram-negative rod that produces an enterotoxin, which causes an acute-onset diarrheal disease ranging in severity from mild to life threatening. Worldwide, there are an estimated 3?5 million cases per year, with more than 100,000 deaths. The disease remains a significant cause of death and illness in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia (especially Bangladesh and India), and Haiti, and the infection should be recognized by the Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical provider. 2014.

  16. From pigsties to hog heaven?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D A

    2001-01-01

    In the continuing transformation of U.S. agriculture, North Carolina finds itself on the front edge of change. Between 1989 and 1998, the number of hogs in the state's pork industry quintupled---and so has the amount of hog waste that must be disposed of. Now the state has engaged private and public resources in a rapid search for better ways for handling hog waste. A technology review panel has approved the first round of proposals for a number of novel technologies to be developed through funds from a government-industry agreement. A second batch of proposals is expected to be approved by late summer. PMID:11485887

  17. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Classical Swine Fever in Wild Hog: Report of its Prevalence in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Khatoon, E; Mandal, S; Rakshit, A; Rajbongshi, G; Depner, K; Chakraborty, A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease, hog cholera in pigs. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect the animals from CSFV infection. Wild hogs belong to the species Sus Scrofa Cristatus under the family Suidae are quite susceptible to CSFV infection. The epidemiological role concerning classical swine fever (CSF) in India is largely unknown. We report here the three isolated cases of CSF in wild hogs from three National parks, namely Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and Jaldapara National Park, from north-east part of India. The post-mortem and histopathological findings were clearly indicative for CSFV infection. The presence of CSFV genome was demonstrated in several organs and tissues collected from hogs died due to viral infection. In addition, CSF-specific antibodies were detected in two wild hogs as well as in eighteen feral pigs from the same locations. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial E2 protein gene and 5' untranslated region of CSFV isolates from the wild hog showed identities with genotype 2.2 of the Indian isolates. Occurrence of CSF in wild hogs may pose a potent threat in the epidemiology of the virus in Northeast part of India. To the best of our knowledge, the report presented in the manuscript is the first comprehensive report on CSF in wild hogs form Northeast India. The findings reported would help us to understand the epidemiology and biology of CSFV in wild animals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The "swinish multitude": controversies over hogs in antebellum New York City.

    PubMed

    McNeur, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In the first half of the nineteenth century, New Yorkers fought passionately over the presence of hogs on their streets and in their city. New York’s filthy streets had cultivated an informal economy and a fertile environment for roaming creatures. The battles—both physical and legal—reveal a city rife with class tensions. After decades of arguments, riots, and petitions, cholera and the fear of other public health crises ultimately spelled the end for New York’s hogs. New York struggled during this period to improve municipal services while adapting to a changing economy and rapid population growth. The fights between those for and against hogs shaped New York City’s landscape and resulted in new rules for using public space a new place for nature in the city.

  20. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  1. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  2. Cholera Information for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae is found in water or food contaminated by feces. Cholera causes profuse watery diarrhea ... You can contract cholera by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with feces containing V. cholerae. This same ...

  3. PHACT: Parallel HOG and Correlation Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Waqas; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) based methods for the detection of humans have become one of the most reliable methods of detecting pedestrians with a single passive imaging camera. However, they are not 100 percent reliable. This paper presents an improved tracker for the monitoring of pedestrians within images. The Parallel HOG and Correlation Tracking (PHACT) algorithm utilises self learning to overcome the drifting problem. A detection algorithm that utilises HOG features runs in parallel to an adaptive and stateful correlator. The combination of both acting in a cascade provides a much more robust tracker than the two components separately could produce.

  4. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    Discussing the symptomatology of cholera, the author deals first with the incubation period, the clinical types, choleraic diarrhoea, and cholerine; he then considers in detail the various stages of cholera gravis and the relapses and complications that may be met. This is followed by sections on diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and on prognosis and the various factors influencing it. The author's highly detailed review of the treatment of cholera which concludes this study is divided into three parts, dealing with attempts at specific therapy, with infusion treatment, and with adjuvant treatment. PMID:13426761

  5. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-01-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10706528

  6. Classical swine fever in the pygmy hog.

    PubMed

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Tiwari, A K; Kataria, R S; Desai, G S; Deka, P J

    2012-12-01

    The pygmy hog is a rare, small and highly endangered mammal belonging to the Suidae family, and it is presently found only in the Assam state of India. While investigating the cause of death of pygmy hogs housed at a conservation centre for captive breeding and research at Basistha, Assam, it was confirmed that they were susceptible to and died as a result of contracting classical swine fever (CSF), caused by CSF virus (CSFV), which is a highly infectious endemic disease of domestic pigs in India. The post-mortem findings and serum CSFV-specific antibody titres, along with the isolation of CSFV from two pygmy hogs, and further confirmation by CSFV genomic E2 and 5' untranslated region (UTR) gene amplification in PCR (polymerase chain reaction), clearly established the cause of death of the pygmy hogs. Further, on phylogenetic analysis, the pygmy hog CSFV 5' UTR sequences were grouped in the genotype 1.1 cluster of Indian CSFVs, and hence the strains causing infection were closely related to CSFV isolates circulating in domestic pigs. Therefore, the occurrence of CSF in this endangered species may pose a potent threat to their existence unless properly controlled, and thus it needs urgent attention. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report on CSF in pygmy hogs.

  7. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  8. Lessons from cholera & Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Asoke C

    2011-02-01

    Cholera is an acute form of diarrhoeal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The sudden and explosive onset of the disease in the form of an outbreak or epidemic, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates, had a tragic impact on the personal as well as social life of people living in the affected areas. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae (the causative bacterium of the disease) leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. Finally, the possible impact of the global socio-political scenario on the spread of cholera epidemics (pandemicity of cholera) is briefly discussed.

  9. Lessons from cholera & Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Asoke C.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is an acute form of diarrhoeal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The sudden and explosive onset of the disease in the form of an outbreak or epidemic, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates, had a tragic impact on the personal as well as social life of people living in the affected areas. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae (the causative bacterium of the disease) leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. Finally, the possible impact of the global socio-political scenario on the spread of cholera epidemics (pandemicity of cholera) is briefly discussed. PMID:21415490

  10. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    The first section of this study deals with areas where cholera is endemic and with the conditions normally favouring endemicity. Turning next to epidemics, the author discusses their origin and types, climatic influences on them, their periodicity and the possibility of forecasting them, the role played in them by different serological races of V. cholerae, and the causes of their decline. In a section on the factors governing the local spread of cholera, he considers contact and water-borne infection; the role of contaminated food and drink, of fomites, of flies, and of carriers; and the incidence according to sex, age, race, and occupation. The last part deals with factors governing the spread of cholera over longer distances, and includes discussion of the effect of movements of individuals and groups and of assemblies of the population on pilgrimages or at religious festivals. PMID:13472431

  11. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine in...

  12. 3. LOOKING TOWARD EAST INSIDE HOG RUN; STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING TOWARD EAST INSIDE HOG RUN; STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ABOVE WINDOWS SUPPORTED IMMENSE SCALDING TANK INSTALLED DURING 1960-61 RENOVATION OF RATH'S HOG OPERATIONS - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Hog-ringer speeds seed trap construction

    Treesearch

    D.O. Hall

    1964-01-01

    An upholsterer's hog-ringer, with Hill's No. 1 pig rings, increased production of one-foot-square wire seed traps by 25 percent. A design modification allowed two bottom sections to be cut from a 36-inch roll of wire.

  14. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, figures relating to cholera deaths occurring in individual countries, from 1900 to 1952, are recorded as well as the incidence of the disease from 1923 up to the present time. The mode of spread of cholera from its endemic home in India to outside countries is described in relation to favourable seasons, main routes followed by the infection, and the role played by large religious gatherings. The incidence of the disease in the various seaports infected within recent years is discussed. PMID:14364186

  15. Cholera Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... label> bacterium have mild diarrhea or no symptoms at all. Only a small proportion, about ...

  16. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    After a general consideration of the loss of fluids and salts in evacuations from the gastro-intestinal tract, the author discusses in detail both the physical and the chemical changes in the blood of cholera patients. The author then deals exhaustively with the problems of circulatory and renal failure. PMID:13413649

  17. Efficient eye detection using HOG-PCA descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savakis, Andreas; Sharma, Riti; Kumar, Mrityunjay

    2014-03-01

    Eye detection is becoming increasingly important for mobile interfaces and human computer interaction. In this paper, we present an efficient eye detector based on HOG-PCA features obtained by performing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). The Histogram of Oriented Gradients is a dense descriptor computed on overlapping blocks along a grid of cells over regions of interest. The HOG-PCA offers an efficient feature for eye detection by applying PCA on the HOG vectors extracted from image patches corresponding to a sliding window. The HOG-PCA descriptor significantly reduces feature dimensionality compared to the dimensionality of the original HOG feature or the eye image region. Additionally, we introduce the HOG-RP descriptor by utilizing Random Projections as an alternative to PCA for reducing the dimensionality of HOG features. We develop robust eye detectors by utilizing HOG-PCA and HOG-RP features of image patches to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Testing is performed on eye images extracted from the FERET and BioID databases.

  18. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  19. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  20. Fowl cholera.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

    2000-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida is the most common cause of fowl cholera, although P. multocida subspecies septica and gallicida may also cause fowl cholera-like disease to some extent. However, the virulence properties of the different subspecies for various hosts have not been elucidated. The severity and incidence of P. multocida infections may vary considerably depending on several factors associated with the host (including species and age of infected birds), the environment and the bacterial strain. No single virulence factor has been associated with the observed variation in virulence among strains. Possible virulence factors include the following: the capsule, endotoxin, outer membrane proteins, iron binding systems, heat shock proteins, neuraminidase production and antibody cleaving enzymes. No RTX toxins (repeats in toxin) appear to be produced by P. multocida, but P. multocida exotoxin (PMT) could contribute to virulence in some avian infections. The epidemiology of fowl cholera appears complex. Traditional serotyping systems are only of limited use in epidemiological studies. In recent years, molecular typing methods have been applied to avian strains of P. multocida of different origin. The results obtained using these newer methods indicate that wild birds may be a source of infection to commercial poultry. Documentation suggesting that mammals play a similar role is not as comprehensive, but the possibility cannot be excluded. Carrier birds seem to play a major role in the transmission of cholera. Surviving birds from diseased flocks appear to represent a risk, but more recent investigations indicate that carriers of P. multocida may exist within poultry flocks with no history of previous outbreaks of fowl cholera. The significance of this awaits further investigation. The site of infection for P. multocida is generally believed to be the respiratory tract. The outcome of infections may range from peracute/acute infections to chronic

  1. 2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog sheds to right. View to east. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  2. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  3. 1. GENERAL SETTING; LOOKING WEST INTO RAILROAD CORRIDOR; HOG RUN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL SETTING; LOOKING WEST INTO RAILROAD CORRIDOR; HOG RUN AND BUILDING 149 ARE AT LEFT; BUILDING 92 IS PARTIALLY HIDDEN BEHIND PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE AT CENTER; BUILDING 181 IS AT RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  5. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  6. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  7. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  8. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  9. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing prevention, the author deals first with the provision of permanently safe water, supplied from waterworks or wells, and with other improvements in environmental sanitation. Control of food and drinks, public health propaganda and education, and vaccination are also considered under this heading. The greater part of this study is devoted to suppressive measures, affecting the individual, the environment, and persons in the mass. Discussion of the isolation, detection and management of cholera patients, the management of contacts, and the management and treatment of carriers is followed by sections on, inter alia, disinfection, temporary improvements in water supplies, fly control, and personal prophylaxis. In dealing with mass prophylaxis, the author pays particular attention to vaccination. In the concluding sections he goes into the control of pilgrimages and local and international quarantine measures. PMID:13479774

  10. Cholera Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention ... basics of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I ...

  11. Dry hog fuel to improve effiency, cut emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Various dryers in wood-fired powerplants are described and it is stated that when moisture levels of hog fuel rise above 55%, boilers cannot produce enough heat to sustain combustion. Methods to avoid this problem are suggested and include the burning of a low-moisture fuel in conjunction with the hog fuel and the installation of a dryer to remove some moisture from the fuel before it enter the furnace. It is generally agreed that flue-gas dryers should be considered in the design of hog-fuel-fired steam sytems whenever fuel moisture exceeds about 50%.

  12. A robust HOG-based descriptor for pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    The Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is a popular feature descriptor used in computer vision and image processing. The technique counts occurrences of gradient orientation in localized portions of an image. The descriptor is sensible to the presence in images of noise, nonuniform illumination, and low contrast. In this work, we propose a robust HOG-based descriptor using the local energy model and phase congruency approach. Computer simulation results are presented for recognition of objects in images affected by additive noise, nonuniform illumination, and geometric distortions using the proposed and conventional HOG descriptors.

  13. Two putative MAP kinase genes, ZrHOG1 and ZrHOG2, cloned from the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii are functionally homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, T; Tamai, Y; Watanabe, Y

    1999-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii can adjust its osmotic balance when responding to osmotic shock by accumulating glycerol as the compatible osmolyte. However, the mechanism of glycerol production in Z. rouxii cells and its genetic regulation remain to be elucidated. Two putative mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, ZrHOG1 and ZrHOG2, were cloned from Z. rouxii by their homology with HOG1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequences of ZrHog1p and ZrHog2p indicated close homology to that of Hog1p and contained a TGY motif for phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase. When ZrHOG1 or ZrHOG2 was expressed in an S. cerevisiae hog1delta null mutant, the salt tolerance and osmotic tolerance characteristics of wild-type S. cerevisiae were restored. In addition, the aberrant cell morphology and low glycerol content of the hog1delta null mutant were corrected, indicating that ZrHog1p and ZrHog2p have functions similar to Hog1p. While the transcription of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) of the ZrHOG1-harbouring S. cerevisiae mutant was similar to that of wild-type S. cerevisiae, the ZrHOG2-harbouring strain showed prolonged GPD1 transcription. Both Zrhog1delta and Zrhog2delta Z. rouxii null mutants showed a decrease in salt tolerance compared to the wild-type strain. The present study suggested the presence of a high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway in Z. rouxii similar to that elucidated in S. cerevisiae. Two putative MAP kinase genes in Z. rouxii appeared to be significant in either osmotic regulation or ion homeostasis.

  14. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  15. 22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' FOR REDUCING SCRAPS TO WOOD CHIPS. HOUSING PARTIALLY REMOVED. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 16): Wild Hogs

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson; John J. Mayer; John D. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Wild hogs or swine are medium to large-sized, stout-bodied, and proportionately short-legged hoofed mammals with thick skin covered with sparse to dense coats of coarse bristles. These animals have elongated heads and snouts ending in a disc-like pad through which the external nares open. The only other species in the southern United States that resembles the wild hog...

  18. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. PCA-HOG symmetrical feature based diseased cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Min-jie

    2016-04-01

    A histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature is applied to the field of diseased cell detection, which can detect diseased cells in high resolution tissue images rapidly, accurately and efficiently. Firstly, motivated by symmetrical cellular forms, a new HOG symmetrical feature based on the traditional HOG feature is proposed to meet the condition of cell detection. Secondly, considering the high feature dimension of traditional HOG feature leads to plenty of memory resources and long runtime in practical applications, a classical dimension reduction method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of high-dimensional HOG descriptor. Because of that, computational speed is increased greatly, and the accuracy of detection can be controlled in a proper range at the same time. Thirdly, support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained with PCA-HOG symmetrical features proposed above. At last, practical tissue images is detected and analyzed by SVM classifier. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new algorithm, it is practically applied to conduct diseased cell detection which takes 200 pieces of H&E (hematoxylin & eosin) high resolution staining histopathological images collected from 20 breast cancer patients as a sample. The experiment shows that the average processing rate can be 25 frames per second and the detection accuracy can be 92.1%.

  1. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  2. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  3. Modeling cholera outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dennis L; Longini, Ira M; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.

  4. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  5. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  6. The mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog HOG1 gene controls glycerol accumulation in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    San José, C; Monge, R A; Pérez-Díaz, R; Pla, J; Nombela, C

    1996-01-01

    The Candida albicans HOG1 gene (HOG1CA) was cloned by functional complementation of the osmosensitive phenotype associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae hog1 delta mutants. HOG1CA codes for a 377-amino-acid protein, 78% identical to S. cerevisiae Hog1p. A C. albicans hog1 null mutant was found to be sensitive to osmotic stress and failed to accumulate glycerol on high-osmolarity media. PMID:8824643

  7. Cholera in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Abdominal > Cholera Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  8. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted.

  9. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  10. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  11. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, biochemical properties, and cultural characteristics of V. cholerae are described in great detail in this study. The author also discusses the resistance of the organism to temperature, humidity, sunlight, and various chemicals, as well as the viability of V. cholerae outside the body (in faeces, contaminated material, food, beverages, water, etc.). PMID:14379012

  12. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  13. Environmental Inequity: An Analysis of Large-Scale Hog Operations in 17 States, 1982-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.; Johnston, Janis E.; Arney, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    This study extends ideas of environmental equity to large-scale hog operations. We investigate counties in 17 hog producing states to determine whether large-scale hog operations are more likely to be sited and expanded in areas that have a disproportionate number of Black, Hispanic, and/or economically disadvantaged residents. The data for this…

  14. Classical swine fever (hog cholera): review of aspects relevant to control.

    PubMed

    Penrith, M-L; Vosloo, W; Mather, C

    2011-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) has the ability to spread over large distances when human intervention such as illegal swill feeding facilitates its movement. This was apparent during 2005 when CSF appeared in South Africa (SA) after an absence of 87 years. In this review, various newly published developments in terms of the diagnosis of the disease and vaccination are described and applied to situations similar to SA. The role of wildlife such as feral pigs and European wild boar in the dissemination and maintenance of CSF virus are discussed, and the dearth of knowledge on the potential of other wild pig species prevalent on southern Africa noted. The modes of spread and control measures to prevent introduction as well as during outbreaks are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J.; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A.; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland. PMID:23185212

  16. Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

    2012-08-01

    We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.

  17. 7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER OF LEVEL 2; HAIR WAS TRANSPORTED BY CONVEYOR FROM BUILDING 40, THEN WASHED, DRIED AND BALED IN BUILDING 148 - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    SciTech Connect

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  3. [Cholera and war].

    PubMed

    Ganin, V S

    2009-09-01

    During last centures wars were the main account of spread of cholera. It is caused by movement of great mass of troops and peaceful populace, acute fall of living circumstances, decline of sanitarium conditions of population aggregates, difficultness or impossibility of effectuating of contra-epidemic measures. Cholera casualty was multifold bigger, the weapon casualty in fighting armies. The article presents data of cholera epidemics, were in fighting armies of different states. During the XXth century fight casualty began to overpass the disease casualty. It is caused by grand increasing of damage effects of measures of war, organized using of prophylaxis measures and success in treatment of infectious diseases. The article presents data about cholera falling ill during the Great Patriotic War and about system of contro-epidemic barrier on fronts and rear of state.

  4. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  5. Cholera in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  6. [Cholera--once and nowadays].

    PubMed

    Antić, Ana; Canović, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection which raged in India in the nineteenth century and it broke out in six great pandemics out in Europe. Cholera is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which produce an enterotoxin causing massive diarrhoea. There are two biotypes--classic and El Tor. The source of Vibrio cholerae is a man. Cholera is a typical faecally-oral infection. Ingested by contaminated water and food, Vibrio cholerae comes to the intestinal wall. The tightness is intermediated with toxin-coregulated pilus. There it produces enterotoxin and activates adenilate cyclase which accumulate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The result is isotonic watery diarrhoea. Cholera can occur as asymptomatic infection, then enteritis and deathly classic cholera. Patients suffer from explosive, unremitting, watery diarrhoea (known as "rice water"). DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis is based on clinical features, epidemiological data and laboratory diagnostic methods. The most important is to isolate Vibrion cholerae from the stool. The most important treatment for cholera is fluid containing minerals. The best antibiotics available are tetracycline. The best preventive measures are water supply, sanitation, food safety and community awareness. The importance of vaccines comes second. CHOLERA NOWADAYS: Cholera has been known since ancient times, but it is present even nowadays. It has been developed as a biological weapon. Cholera is a dreadful intestinal disease with severe clinical features. One thing is known for certain: hygienic and sanitary measures are the main prevention.

  7. [Cholera in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Lezama-Basulto, L A; Mota-Hernández, F

    1993-09-01

    Cholerae is a grave and acute bacterial intestine infection which is caused by a bacilo, V. cholerae 01, that produces toxic products. Its clinical symptoms range from abundant liquid diarrhoea combined with vomiting and rapid dehydration. It is highly lethal when right treatment is not applied. There are also cases of cholera where victims do not show any symptoms of it, that is asymptomatic carriers. Any clinical suspicion of cholerae has to be corroborated by epidemiological data and its diagnostic confirmation should be done by isolating the bacteria, V. cholerae. When beginning the treatment, it is not necessary to confirm the diagnostic and this is based on the restitution of the liquids lost through vomiting and facing using any methods that are recommended for any other type of diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment is used only for grave cases. This present revision includes recent knowledge about cholerae emphasising on the effective management of cases through an adequate use of right treatment methods and also using the principal prevention measures against dissemination of this disease.

  8. Assessing landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs and support for control options.

    PubMed

    Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck

    2017-10-01

    Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholera: a great global concern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  10. Exposure to hog barn dust alters airway epithelial ciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, T A; Sisson, J H; Von Essen, S G; Poole, J A; Romberger, D J

    2008-06-01

    Swine confinement workers are at increased risk of airway diseases, including mucus membrane irritation syndrome, chronic rhinosinusitis and chronic bronchitis. Dust extracts from swine confinement facilities stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchial epithelial cells, including interleukin (IL)-8. As IL-8 is capable of blocking beta-agonist-stimulated increases in cilia beating, which impacts on mucociliary clearance, it was hypothesised that hog barn-dust exposure might alter cilia responses to stimulation. To test this hypothesis, ciliated bovine bronchial epithelial cell cultures were exposed to hog barn-dust extract (HDE) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was assayed. An elevation in baseline CBF was observed. This effect appeared to be independent of endotoxin but dependent upon nitric oxide. HDE also stimulated nitric oxide production in bronchial epithelial cells; however, stimulation of cilia beating by a beta-agonist did not occur in cells pre-exposed to HDE. These data demonstrate that hog barn dust can alter normal stimulation of cilia, suggesting a mechanism for the abrogation of stimulated increases in mucociliary clearance in response to inhaled dust exposure.

  11. The global burden of cholera

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  12. The global burden of cholera.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87,000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91,000 people (uncertainty range: 28,000 to 142,000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.

  13. Feral Hogs Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: Analysis of Current Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Arie; Hinkle, C. Ross; Epstein, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This ST1 Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes a two-month project on feral hog management in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). For this project, feral hogs were marked and recaptured, with the help of local trappers, to estimate population size and habitat preferences. Habitat covers included vegetation cover and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data for MINWR. In addition, an analysis was done of hunting records compiled by the Refuge and hog-car accidents compiled by KSC Security.

  14. [Biological characteristics of an Hog1 MAPK homologous gene FoHog1 knock-out mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense].

    PubMed

    Mao, Chao; Chen, Pingya; Dai, Qingdong; Yang, Laying; Huang, Junsheng

    2014-11-04

    This study was aimed to obtain a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene namely FoHog1 from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and to verify its function. We amplified FoHog1 gene by PCR and RT-PCR methods and analyzed it through bioinformatics method. PEG-mediated protoplast transformation was used to create the deletion mutants of FoHog1 gene. We analyzed different biological characteristics between knock-out strain and wild-type strain. FoHog1 gene encoding a putative protein of 357 amino acids and its genetic relationship with different Fusarium' s protein. Compared with the wild-type strain, FoHog1 deletion mutants have loose hyphae colony, less spores production, lower dry weight of hyphae and more sensitive to temperature, pH and osmotic stress. FoHog1 deletion mutants also have reduced colonization ability compared with the wild-type strain. FoHog1 gene participated in mycelial growth, sporulation, catabolism of sodium acetate and ammonium chloride, osmotic stress response and pathogenic process with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4.

  15. Osmostress-Induced Cell Volume Loss Delays Yeast Hog1 Signaling by Limiting Diffusion Processes and by Hog1-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Smedh, Maria; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets. PMID:24278344

  16. Improving immunization approaches to cholera.

    PubMed

    Saha, Amit; Rosewell, Alexander; Hayen, Andrew; MacIntyre, C Raina; Qadri, Firdausi

    2017-03-01

    Cholera's impact is greatest in resource-limited countries. In the last decade several large epidemics have led to a global push to improve and implement the tools for cholera prevention and control. Areas covered: PubMed, Google Scholar and the WHO website were searched to review the literature and summarize the current status of cholera vaccines to make recommendations on improving immunization approaches to cholera. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in endemic, outbreak response and emergency settings, highlighting their potential for wider adoption. While two doses of the currently available OCVs are recommended by manufacturers, a single dose would be easier to implement. Encouragingly, recent studies have shown that cold chain requirements may no longer be essential. The establishment of the global OCV stockpile in 2013 has been a major advance in cholera preparedness. New killed and live-attenuated vaccines are being actively explored as candidate vaccines for endemic settings and/or as a traveller's vaccine. The recent advances in cholera vaccination approaches should be considered in the global cholera control strategy. Expert commentary: The development of affordable cholera vaccines is a major success to improve cholera control. New vaccines and country specific interventions will further reduce the burden of this disease globally.

  17. [Cholera update and vaccination problems].

    PubMed

    Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

    1998-01-01

    Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants.

  18. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  19. Role of CgHOG1 in Stress Responses and Glycerol Overproduction of Candida glycerinogenes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hao; Zhuge, Bin; Zong, Hong; Lu, Xinyao; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Candida glycerinogenes, the glycerol producer with excellent multi-stress tolerances, is considered to be a potential biotechnological host used in the production of glycerol and its derivatives under extreme fermentation conditions. In this study, to evaluate the multiple roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase CgHOG1, we constructed a gene disruption system in the diploid C. glycerinogenes to obtain CgHOG1 null mutant. Pseudohyphae generation of the CgHOG1 mutant under non-inducing condition indicated a repressor role in morphological transitions. Disruption of CgHOG1 resulted in increased sensitivities to osmotic, acetic acid, and oxidative stress but not involved in thermotolerance. In the CgHOG1 mutant, NaCl shock failed to stimulate the accumulation of intracellular glycerol and was fatal. In addition, the CgHOG1 mutant displayed a significant prolonged growth lag phase in YPD medium with no decrease in glycerol production, whereas the mutant cannot grow under hyperosmotic condition with no detectable glycerol in broth. These results suggested that CgHOG1 plays important roles in morphogenesis and multi-stress tolerance. The growth and glycerol overproduction under osmotic stress are heavily dependent on CgHOG1 kinase.

  20. Renal structural flexibility in response to environmental water stress in feral hogs.

    PubMed

    Zervanos, S M; Naveh, S

    1988-09-01

    Several morphological characteristics of the kidney were studied to determine the degree of acclimatization that may occur in three groups of feral hogs raised under different environmental conditions. Two groups of hogs were living in the wild, while another was raised in captivity for three generations and was directly descended from one of the wild-living groups. The two groups of wild hogs were living under two different types of water stress conditions. One group experienced periodic drought, and the other ate a high salt diet. The captive hogs were given food and water ad libitum. The captive-raised hogs had significantly lower relative medullary thickness (RMT) and relative medullary area (RMA) values (RMT of 2.35; RMA of 0.35) than either group of hogs living in the wild (RMT of 2.70 and 2.69; RMA of 0.41 and 0.44). Since the feral hogs living in the wild were exposed to a higher degree of water stress than the captive-raised hogs, it was concluded that the differences in observed kidney structure were due to acclimatization.

  1. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... folliculorum, or erythema may be passed for human food after detaching and condemning the affected skin, if the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans,...

  2. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... folliculorum, or erythema may be passed for human food after detaching and condemning the affected skin, if the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans,...

  3. 9 CFR 311.30 - Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. 311.30 Section 311.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.30 Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. All livestock which have been suffocated...

  4. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus.

  5. Real-time pedestrian detection based on GMM and HOG cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moonyong; Jeong, Kiseon; Yoon, Sook; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human detection methods are using HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients). In the case of fixed camera environment, it is possible to make background model using GMM (Gaussian mixture model) and easily extract motions using background subtraction. However, it is difficult to recognize pedestrians among extracted motions. In this paper, we propose an efficient coarse-to-fine pedestrian detection framework which combines motion detection and HOG cascade to make a faster pedestrian detector. Firstly, motion detection is used as the coarse detection in order to reduce the area of interest to be covered by the pedestrian detector. Then HOG cascade which detects pedestrians is executed only on the blobs or ROIs selected from the coarse detection. The experimental results on PET2009 768X576 dataset show that proposed method of which processing speed is 11.46 fps is 7.5 times faster than HOG and 2.2 times faster than HOG cascade.

  6. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies.

  7. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market hogs...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market hogs...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market hogs...

  10. [Cholera++ epidemic in Kenya].

    PubMed

    Paugam, H

    1999-03-01

    A cholera epidemic in 1997 followed on the heels of the 1992 epidemic that claimed thousands of victims in Kenya. This time, it emerged in the Migori district near the Tanzanian border, when a woman who had married in Tanzania brought her five-month-old baby to visit her parents. The infant, who contracted serious diarrhea and vomiting, died before the mother could reach a dispensary. During the funeral, a perfect opportunity for the disease to spread, those attending observed the traditional ritual of touching the corpse, and then ate and drank with the next of kin. Many developed symptoms of cholera, and several died in the next few days, even before first aid could be administered. At the Public Health Laboratory in Nairobi, analyses confirmed the presence of the Ogawa strain of Vibrio cholerae. Given the global reputation of Médecins Sans Frontières [Doctors Without Borders] in the field of cholera, the head of public health for Homa Bay District issued a call for help in August 1997, asking the team to provide preventive solutions and assess the gravity of the situation. Despite intense logistical, technical and health initiatives, the epidemic spread like wildfire. Five months after the initial outbreak, in February 1998, two Canadian nurses working for MSF in Homa Bay hurriedly surveyed the situation in Nyanza Province, which has a population of three million. The author accompanied one of these nurses, Joceline Roy, a Quebecer in her forties, on a tour that lasted more than 15 hours. Roy worked conscientiously, with great precision and energy. This narrative conveys much more than the fatigue and hazards of travel in the developing world; it tells the story of an important, but little publicized, aspect of nursing.

  11. Dissection of the HOG pathway activated by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; An, Jieun; Lee, Yeji; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, Wonja; Moon, Eunpyo; Kim, Wankee

    2017-02-01

    Cells usually cope with oxidative stress by activating signal transduction pathways. In the budding yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae, the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway has long been implicated in transducing the oxidative stress-induced signal, but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Based on phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1, we reveal that the signal from hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) flows through Ssk1, the response regulator of the two-component system of the HOG pathway. Downstream signal transduction into the HOG MAPK cascade requires the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) Ssk2 but not its paralog Ssk22 or another MAP3K Ste11 of the pathway, culminating in Hog1 phosphorylation via the MAP2K Pbs2. When overexpressed, Ssk2 is also activated in an Ssk1-independent manner. Unlike in mammals, H2 O2 does not cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, which can activate Hog1 through the conventional unfolded protein response. Hog1 activated by H2 O2 is retained in the cytoplasm, but is still able to activate the cAMP- or stress-responsive elements by unknown mechanisms.

  12. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.

  13. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  14. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  15. Fast pedestrian detection based on multiple instance hierarchical HOG matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang; Meng, Long; Lin, Xinggang

    2013-12-01

    Many pedestrian detection research works focused on the improvement of detection performance, without considering the detection speed, making the detection algorithms not applicable for real-world requirement for real-time processing. To explore this problem, we first propose a pre-processing method Hierarchical HOG Matrices to replace the traditional integral histogram of gradients, which stores more data in the pre-processing phase to reduce computation time. A matrix-based detection computation structure is also proposed, which organize the massive data computations in the scanning detection process into matrix operations to optimize the overall speed. We then add multiple instance learning into the fast pedestrian detection algorithm to further enhance its accuracy. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed fast and robust pedestrian detection algorithm based on the multiple instance feature achieves an accuracy comparable to the latest algorithms, with the best speed among the algorithms with an accuracy of the same level.

  16. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-15

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  17. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  18. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990–2006) and former British India (1882–1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks. PMID:24424273

  19. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  20. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  1. The Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain CBS732 contains only one copy of the HOG1 and the SOD2 genes.

    PubMed

    Kinclová, O; Potier, S; Sychrová, H

    2001-06-15

    The osmotolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CBS732 contains only one copy of the ZrHOG1 and ZrSOD2-22 genes. Both genes were cloned and sequenced (Acc. Nos. AJ132606 and AJ252273, respectively) and their sequences were compared to homologous pairs of genes from Z. rouxii ATCC42981 (genes Z-HOG1, Z-HOG2, Z-SOD2, Z-SOD22). The CBS732 ZrHog1p is shorter than its ATCC42981 counterparts (380 aa residues vs. 407 and 420 aa, respectively) and is more similar to ATCC42981 Z-Hog2p than to Z-Hog1p. Also its promoter region corresponds to that one of Z-HOG2. The CBS732 ZrHOG1 promoter region is recognised by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the gene product (MAP kinase ZrHog1p) presence fully complements the osmosensitivity of a S. cerevisiae hog1 mutant strain. The CBS ZrSOD2-22 gene is highly similar to ATCC42981 Z-SOD2 but it contains also a segment of 15 aa residues specific for Z-SOD22. Z. rouxii ZrSod2-22 Na(+)/H(+) antiporter expressed in S. cerevisiae shows better activity toward toxic Na(+) and Li(+) cations than does S. cerevisiae's own Nha1 antiporter, and is efficient in improving the halotolerance of some S. cerevisiae wild types.

  2. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  3. In a time of cholera.

    PubMed

    Grace, P A

    2014-03-01

    Dr. Nathaniel Alcock in his book A treatise on cholera described 22 cases of cholera that he treated in 1832. Blood-letting, either by leeches or venesection, was an essential part of the treatment. The belief was that reducing the blood volume would relieve stress on the heart and lungs allowing for better function. The receipts of the Townsend Street Cholera Hospital where Dr. Alcock worked show how extensive the practice was. Outside Dublin, local Boards of Health dealt with the cholera epidemic. Various public measures such as street cleaning and removal of patients to temporary hospitals were undertaken and various cures were tried. The overall mortality rate from cholera in Ireland during the epidemic was 38 %, but in some areas much higher. Even as cholera was spreading in the 1830s, a number of doctors were showing that intravenous fluids could dramatically alter the course of the disease. Unfortunately, their work was ignored and blood-letting continued to be a major component of the treatment of cholera for another 55 years.

  4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1 Mediates Adaptation to G1 Checkpoint Arrest during Arsenite and Hyperosmotic Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Migdal, Iwona; Ilina, Yulia; Tamás, Markus J.; Wysocki, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Cells slow down cell cycle progression in order to adapt to unfavorable stress conditions. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) responds to osmotic stress by triggering G1 and G2 checkpoint delays that are dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is also activated by arsenite, and the hog1Δ mutant is highly sensitive to arsenite, partly due to increased arsenite influx into hog1Δ cells. Yeast cell cycle regulation in response to arsenite and the role of Hog1 in this process have not yet been analyzed. Here, we found that long-term exposure to arsenite led to transient G1 and G2 delays in wild-type cells, whereas cells that lack the HOG1 gene or are defective in Hog1 kinase activity displayed persistent G1 cell cycle arrest. Elevated levels of intracellular arsenite and “cross talk” between the HOG and pheromone response pathways, observed in arsenite-treated hog1Δ cells, prolonged the G1 delay but did not cause a persistent G1 arrest. In contrast, deletion of the SIC1 gene encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor fully suppressed the observed block of G1 exit in hog1Δ cells. Moreover, the Sic1 protein was stabilized in arsenite-treated hog1Δ cells. Interestingly, Sic1-dependent persistent G1 arrest was also observed in hog1Δ cells during hyperosmotic stress. Taken together, our data point to an important role of the Hog1 kinase in adaptation to stress-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. PMID:18552285

  5. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  6. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  7. Hog1 Targets Whi5 and Msa1 Transcription Factors To Downregulate Cyclin Expression upon Stress

    PubMed Central

    González-Novo, Alberto; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Cavero, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells have developed complex mechanisms to cope with extracellular insults. An increase in external osmolarity leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which is the main regulator of adaptive responses, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression, that are essential for cellular survival. Upon osmostress, the G1-to-S transition is regulated by Hog1 through stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and the downregulation of G1 cyclin expression by an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates components of the core cell cycle transcriptional machinery such as Whi5 and the coregulator Msa1. Phosphorylation of these two transcriptional regulators by Hog1 is essential for inhibition of G1 cyclin expression, for control of cell morphogenesis, and for maximal cell survival upon stress. The control of both Whi5 and Msa1 by Hog1 also revealed the necessity for proper coordination of budding and DNA replication. Thus, Hog1 regulates G1 cyclin transcription upon osmostress to ensure coherent passage through Start. PMID:25733686

  8. Vibrio cholerae in the environment.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Abdul Lateef; Junejo, Nasreen

    2004-08-01

    The emergence of cholera has been a significant public health problem around the world and battle to completely control this deadly disease continues. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) microorganisms in the environment was considered as the most important factor in this regard. Soil, fresh water, sea water, aquatic plants, animals and some birds have been made target for search if they were providing reserve shelter to the causative agent during inter epidemic periods. Multiple environmental factors have been considered to have the aetiological relationship as no single source is found to host the microorganisms in an inter-epidemic period. We have attempted to review the literature from different parts of the world; encompassing experimental and isolation studies of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae in the environment. The non-pathogenic strains were also included due to converting behavior of the agents in the changing environmental scenario to pathogenic forms.

  9. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  10. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  11. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  12. Arabic sign language recognition based on HOG descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Jmaa, Ahmed; Mahdi, Walid; Ben Jemaa, Yousra; Ben Hamadou, Abdelmajid

    2017-02-01

    We present in this paper a new approach for Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet recognition using hand gesture analysis. This analysis consists in extracting a histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features from a hand image and then using them to generate an SVM Models. Which will be used to recognize the ArSL alphabet in real-time from hand gesture using a Microsoft Kinect camera. Our approach involves three steps: (i) Hand detection and localization using a Microsoft Kinect camera, (ii) hand segmentation and (iii) feature extraction using Arabic alphabet recognition. One each input image first obtained by using a depth sensor, we apply our method based on hand anatomy to segment hand and eliminate all the errors pixels. This approach is invariant to scale, to rotation and to translation of the hand. Some experimental results show the effectiveness of our new approach. Experiment revealed that the proposed ArSL system is able to recognize the ArSL with an accuracy of 90.12%.

  13. Rapid Diagnosis of Cholera Caused by Vibrio cholerae O139

    PubMed Central

    Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Srimanote, Potjanee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Kalampaheti, Thareerat; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Moolasart, Pikul; Nair, G. Balakrish; Echeverria, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 were produced. Six monoclones (hybridomas) secreting MAbs specific only to lipopolysaccharide of V. cholerae O139 strains and which did not cross-react to 137 strains of other enteric microorganisms were obtained. These clones were designated 12F5-G11, 12F5-G2, 15F5-H5, 5B9-F8, 14C9-D2, and 6D2-D8. The immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain isotypes secreted by these clones were IgG2b, IgG2b, IgG2b, IgM, IgG2b, and IgG3, respectively. Clone 12F5-G11 was selected for mass production of MAb, which was used as a detection reagent in the antigen detection assay for diagnosis of cholera caused by V. cholerae O139, and this assay was compared to the conventional bacterial isolation method. Five batches of rectal swab cultures in alkaline-peptone water were collected from 6,497 patients with watery diarrhea. These were 6,310 patients admitted to Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Hospital, 16 patients from Krung Thon Hospital, 78 patients from Bangkok Children’s Hospital, 19 patients from Karen refugee camps, and 74 Indian patients from the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Calcutta, India. The V. cholerae O139 isolations from the rectal swab cultures and the antigen detection assays (i.e., the MAb-based dot-blot ELISA) were performed by different persons of different laboratories, and the results were revealed after all specimens had been tested. Of the 6,497 samples tested, the dot-blot ELISA correctly identified 42 of 42 V. cholerae O139-positive samples and gave a result of positive for three samples which were culture negative for V. cholerae O139. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and efficacy of the dot-blot ELISA were 100, 99.95, and 99.26%, respectively. The ELISA is easy to perform and relatively inexpensive. It can test multiple samples at a single time, does not require special equipment, and does not produce great quantities of contaminated waste

  14. Characterization of the Hog1 MAPK pathway in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Sun, Huan-Huan; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2017-01-11

    High-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway required for yeast osmoregulation relies upon the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 cascade that comprise the MAPKKKs Ssk2/Ssk22 and Ste11 converging on the MAPKK Pbs2. Here we show a Hog1 cascade with the unique MAPKKK Ssk2 acting in Beauveria bassiana. Hypersensitivity to high osmolarity and high resistance to fludioxonil fungicide appeared in Δssk2, Δpbs2 and Δhog1 mutants whereas the two hallmark phenotypes were reversed in Δste11. Increased sensitivity to heat shock and decreased sensitivity to cell wall perturbation also occurred in the three mutants but not in Δste11 although antioxidant phenotypes were different in all deletion mutants. Intriguingly, signals of Hog1 phosphorylation induced by osmotic, oxidative and thermal cues were present in Δste11 but absent in Δssk2 and Δpbs2. Moreover, vegetative growth on minimal media with different carbon/nitrogen sources was much more suppressed in Δste11 and Δssk2 than in Δpbs2 and Δhog1 although all mutants suffered similar, but severe, conidiation defects on a standard medium. Normal host infection was abolished in Δste11 while virulence was differentially attenuated in other mutants. Our findings exclude Ste11 from the Hog1 cascade that regulates multiple stress responses and environmental adaptation of B. bassiana and perhaps other filamentous fungi. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  16. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Olukoya, Daniel K.; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions. PMID:27487957

  17. Complementary function of mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1 from Trichosporonoides megachiliensis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under hyper-osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junjiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yosuke; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Shima, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2013-02-01

    A (TmHog1) gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1 (ScHog1) involved in hyper-osmotic stress signaling was isolated from Trichosporonoides megachiliensis SN-124A, an erythritol-producing yeast. Although TmHog1, like other Hog1 homologs, encoded a kinase catalytic domain containing TGY motif, it was 50-60 amino acid residues shorter than the ScHog1. A TmHog1 transgene rescued the osmotic sensitivity and glycerol production defect of S. cerevisiae hog1Δ, a highly osmo-sensitive strain that does not produce glycerol, a compatible solute, during osmotic stress. Functional analyses of chimeric Hog1 proteins constructed from ScHog1 and TmHog1 sequences indicated that the C-terminal region of TmHog1 is more effective for glycerol biosynthesis than ScHog1 under osmotic stress. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  19. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination.

  20. Pheromone-Induced Morphogenesis Improves Osmoadaptation Capacity by Activating the HOG MAPK Pathway**

    PubMed Central

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. Here, we investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell-wall integrity response (CWI). Although these MAPK pathways share components with each and a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity response (HOG), they are normally only activated by distinct stimuli, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity- dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the “shmooing” morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover that improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to enable responses to yeast to multiple stimuli. PMID:23612707

  1. Hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to an aqueous extract of hog barn dust increases macromolecular efflux from the intact hamster cheek pouch and, if so, to begin to determine the mechanism(s) underlying this response. By using intravital microscopy, we found that suffusion of hog barn dust extract onto the intact hamster cheek pouch for 60 min elicited a significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (molecular mass, 70 kDa). This response was significantly attenuated by suffusion of catalase (60 U/ml), but not by heat-inactivated catalase, and by pretreatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg iv) (P < 0.05). Catalase had no significant effects on adenosine-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the cheek pouch. Suffusion of hog barn dust extract had no significant effects on arteriolar diameter in the cheek pouch. Taken together, these data indicate that hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch, in part, through local elaboration of reactive oxygen species that are inactivated by catalase. This response is specific and attenuated by corticosteroids. We suggest that plasma exudation plays an important role in the genesis of upper airway dysfunction evoked by short-term exposure to hog barn dust.

  2. Responses of Florida panthers to recreational deer and hog hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Big Cypress National Preserve constitutes approximately one-third of the range of the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). Because recreational hunting is allowed in Big Cypress National Preserve, we examined 8 response variables (activity rates, movement rates, predation success, home-range size, home-range shifts, proximity to off-road vehicle trails, use of areas with concentrated human activity, and habitat selection) to evaluate how Florida panthers respond to human activity associated with deer and hog hunting. Data consisted of panther radiolocations collected since 1981 by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the National Park Service, which we augmented with radiolocations and activity monitoring from 1994 to 1998. A split-plot (treatment and control) study design with repeated measures of the variables for each panther taken before, during, and after the hunting season was used. We did not detect responses to hunting for variables most directly related to panther energy intake or expenditure (i.e., activity rates, movement rates, predation success of females; P>0.10). However, panthers reduced their use of Bear Island (P=0.021), an area of concentrated human activity, and were found farther from off-road vehicle trails (P≤0.001) during the hunting season, which was indicative of a reaction to human disturbance. Whereas the reaction to human activity on off-road vehicle trails probably has minor biological implications and may be linked to prey behavior, the decreased use of Bear Island is most likely a direct reaction to human activity and resulted in increased use of adjacent private lands. Future habitat loss on those private lands could exacerbate the negative consequences of this response by panthers.

  3. Comparative economic analysis of recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) for the hog-pork industry.

    PubMed

    Halbrendt, C K; Sterling, L G

    1991-05-01

    A multisector model was formulated to simulate the effects of recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) on the U.S. hog-pork industry. A producer sector submodel was specified for nine hog-producing states, and a retail-wholesale sector was specified on a national level. Four pST adoption scenarios were tested; these differed in the extent of feed cost reduction (15 vs 25%) with or without premium pricing ($3 per animal). Simulation results show that, in general, national producer and retail prices will fall and pork consumption and production will increase due to pST use during the 5 yr of adoption. Responses to pST in terms of percentage of sows farrowing among states differed; states that produce more pork responded less than states that produce less. Downward price adjustments occurred and began stabilizing in the 4th yr; hog farmers will need to use pST to remain competitive.

  4. Regulated nucleo/cytoplasmic exchange of HOG1 MAPK requires the importin beta homologs NMD5 and XPO1.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, P; Posas, F; Koepp, D; Saito, H; Silver, P A

    1998-01-01

    MAP kinase signaling modules serve to transduce extracellular signals to the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, but little is known about how signals cross the nuclear envelope. Exposure of yeast cells to increases in extracellular osmolarity activates the HOG1 MAP kinase cascade, which is composed of three tiers of protein kinases, namely the SSK2, SSK22 and STE11 MAPKKKs, the PBS2 MAPKK, and the HOG1 MAPK. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions of these kinases, we found that HOG1, PBS2 and STE11 localize to the cytoplasm of unstressed cells. Following osmotic stress, HOG1, but neither PBS2 nor STE11, translocates into the nucleus. HOG1 translocation occurs very rapidly, is transient, and correlates with the phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinase by its MAPKK. HOG1 phosphorylation is necessary and sufficient for nuclear translocation, because a catalytically inactive kinase when phosphorylated is translocated to the nucleus as efficiently as the wild-type. Nuclear import of the MAPK under stress conditions requires the activity of the small GTP binding protein Ran-GSP1, but not the NLS-binding importin alpha/beta heterodimer. Rather, HOG1 import requires the activity of a gene, NMD5, that encodes a novel importin beta homolog. Similarly, export of dephosphorylated HOG1 from the nucleus requires the activity of the NES receptor XPO1/CRM1. Our findings define the requirements for the regulated nuclear transport of a stress-activated MAP kinase. PMID:9755161

  5. The MAPK Hog1p Modulates Fps1p-dependent Arsenite Uptake and Tolerance in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Michael; Di, Yujun; Tängemo, Carolina; Morillas, Montserrat; Ahmadpour, Doryaneh; Van der Does, Charlotte; Wagner, Annemarie; Johansson, Erik; Boman, Johan; Posas, Francesc; Wysocki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in nature and all organisms possess regulatory mechanisms to evade toxicity and acquire tolerance. Yet, little is known about arsenic sensing and signaling mechanisms or about their impact on tolerance and detoxification systems. Here, we describe a novel role of the S. cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1p in protecting cells during exposure to arsenite and the related metalloid antimonite. Cells impaired in Hog1p function are metalloid hypersensitive, whereas cells with elevated Hog1p activity display improved tolerance. Hog1p is phosphorylated in response to arsenite and this phosphorylation requires Ssk1p and Pbs2p. Arsenite-activated Hog1p remains primarily cytoplasmic and does not mediate a major transcriptional response. Instead, hog1Δ sensitivity is accompanied by elevated cellular arsenic levels and we demonstrate that increased arsenite influx is dependent on the aquaglyceroporin Fps1p. Fps1p is phosphorylated on threonine 231 in vivo and this phosphorylation critically affects Fps1p activity. Moreover, Hog1p is shown to affect Fps1p phosphorylation. Our data are the first to demonstrate Hog1p activation by metalloids and provides a mechanism by which this kinase contributes to tolerance acquisition. Understanding how arsenite/antimonite uptake and toxicity is modulated may prove of value for their use in medical therapy. PMID:16885417

  6. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  8. Widespread epidemic cholera caused by a restricted subset of Vibrio cholerae clones.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Thomson, N; Mutreja, A; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have plagued humankind. As the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous in the aquatic ecosystem and some studies have revealed links between outbreaks and fluctuations in climatic and aquatic conditions, it has been widely assumed that cholera epidemics are triggered by environmental factors that promote the growth of local bacterial reservoirs. However, mounting epidemiological findings and genome sequence analysis of clinical isolates have indicated that epidemics are largely unassociated with most of the V. cholerae strains in aquatic ecosystems. Instead, only a specific subset of V. cholerae El Tor 'types' appears to be responsible for current epidemics. A recent report examining the evolution of a variety of V. cholerae strains indicates that the current pandemic is monophyletic and originated from a single ancestral clone that has spread globally in successive waves. In this review, we examine the clonal nature of the disease, with the example of the recent history of cholera in the Americas. Epidemiological data and genome sequence-based analysis of V. cholerae isolates demonstrate that the cholera epidemics of the 1990s in South America were triggered by the importation of a pathogenic V. cholerae strain that gradually spread throughout the region until local outbreaks ceased in 2001. Latin America remained almost unaffected by the disease until a new toxigenic V. cholerae clone was imported into Haiti in 2010. Overall, cholera appears to be largely caused by a subset of specific V. cholerae clones rather than by the vast diversity of V. cholerae strains in the environment.

  9. Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  10. Environmental signatures associated with cholera epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Murtugudde, Raghu; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Nizam, Azhar; Brown, Christopher W.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Yunus, Mohammad; Nair, G. Balakrish; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Calkins, John; Manna, Byomkesh; Rajendran, Krishnan; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, has been shown to be autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters along with its host, the copepod, a significant member of the zooplankton community. Temperature, salinity, rainfall and plankton have proven to be important factors in the ecology of V. cholerae, influencing the transmission of the disease in those regions of the world where the human population relies on untreated water as a source of drinking water. In this study, the pattern of cholera outbreaks during 1998–2006 in Kolkata, India, and Matlab, Bangladesh, and the earth observation data were analyzed with the objective of developing a prediction model for cholera. Satellite sensors were used to measure chlorophyll a concentration (CHL) and sea surface temperature (SST). In addition, rainfall data were obtained from both satellite and in situ gauge measurements. From the analyses, a statistically significant relationship between the time series for cholera in Kolkata, India, and CHL and rainfall anomalies was determined. A statistically significant one month lag was observed between CHL anomaly and number of cholera cases in Matlab, Bangladesh. From the results of the study, it is concluded that ocean and climate patterns are useful predictors of cholera epidemics, with the dynamics of endemic cholera being related to climate and/or changes in the aquatic ecosystem. When the ecology of V. cholerae is considered in predictive models, a robust early warning system for cholera in endemic regions of the world can be developed for public health planning and decision making. PMID:19001267

  11. Substitution of oil by hogged fuel in a kraft process lime sludge kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, I.G.

    1984-02-01

    Hogged fuel, typically at 55% moisture content, was combusted in a wet-cell burner and the flue gases applied to a lime sludge kiln. Up to 78% oil substitution was achieved, consistent with satisfactory lime quality and availability. Specific energy consumption was high because heat transfer was less efficient. Computer simulation techniques were used to develop parameter profiles throughout the kiln and to predict optimal performance. Optimized kiln conversion was shown to be economically advantageous if hogged fuel is available for $7.00 per cubic meter or less, assuming an oil price of $30/bbl ($0.189/l).

  12. Additional Material from and Notes on the Hog Hollow Site, Grant County, Wisconsin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    k R-AS? 31 DDI TIONL NTERIL FRON ND NOTES ON THE HNO HOLLOW 1E/1I SITE GRANT COUNTY WISC SI (U) WISCONSIN STATEI HISTORICAL SOCIETY NADISON...NOTES ON THE HOG HOLLOW SITE, GRANT COUNTY, WISCONSIN by David C. Lowe Preface by William Green to Prepared for the Rock Island District, Corps of...Request No. NCRPD-4983 Contract/Purchase Order No. DACW25-86-M-0301 1986 APR 3 0 1986 ABSTRACT: Prehistoric artifacts collected from the Hog Hollow site

  13. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation. PMID:25732338

  14. Epidemiology of Cholera in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Macasaet, Lino Y.; Ylade, Michelle; Tayag, Enrique A.; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a cholera-endemic country, data on cholera in the Philippines remain sparse. Knowing the areas where cholera is known to occur and the factors that lead to its occurrence will assist in planning preventive measures and disaster mitigation. Methods Using sentinel surveillance data, PubMed and ProMED searches covering information from 2008–2013 and event-based surveillance reports from 2010–2013, we assessed the epidemiology of cholera in the Philippines. Using spatial log regression, we assessed the role of water, sanitation and population density on the incidence of cholera. Results and Discussion We identified 12 articles from ProMED and none from PubMed that reported on cholera in the Philippines from 2008 to 2013. Data from ProMed and surveillance revealed 42,071 suspected and confirmed cholera cases reported from 2008 to 2013, among which only 5,006 were confirmed. 38 (47%) of 81 provinces and metropolitan regions reported at least one confirmed case of cholera and 32 (40%) reported at least one suspected case. The overall case fatality ratio in sentinel sites was 0.62%, but was 2% in outbreaks. All age groups were affected. Using both confirmed and suspected cholera cases, the average annual incidence in 2010–2013 was 9.1 per 100,000 population. Poor access to improved sanitation was consistently associated with higher cholera incidence. Paradoxically, access to improved water sources was associated with higher cholera incidence using both suspected and confirmed cholera data sources. This finding may have been due to the breakdown in the infrastructure and non-chlorination of water supplies, emphasizing the need to maintain public water systems. Conclusion Our findings confirm that cholera affects a large proportion of the provinces in the country. Identifying areas most at risk for cholera will support the development and implementation of policies to minimize the morbidity and mortality due to this disease. PMID:25569505

  15. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  16. Virulence factors involved in the intraperitoneal infection of adult mice with Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Eubanks, E R; Guentzel, M N; Berry, L J

    1976-01-01

    Nonmotile mutants of Vibrio cholerae isolated from Ogawa, Inaba, and El Tor strains were less virulent than parent wild types when administered to adult mice intraperitoneally. The cells were suspended in 5% hog gastric mucin. Antitoxic immunity did not protect mice against this type of challenge, but a ribosomally derived vaccine did. Intraperitoneal injection of 10 50% lethal doses of enterotoxin (based on intravenous doses) was without toxic manifestations as were 10(10) heat-killed vibrios similarly administered, regardless of strain. Virulent organisms killed with formalin or ultraviolet irradiation were significantly lethal at a dose of 10(10) cells. Mice made tolerant to endotoxin were protected from death caused by an injection of 3 X 10(10) boiled cells, but they did not survive an injection of formalin-killed cells. It is believed that the cause of death in this animal model of cholera is dependent, at least in part, on a toxic heat-labile moiety closely associated with the vibrios. PMID:1262061

  17. Ecological study of Vibrio cholerae in Vellore.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, M V; Balaji, V; Mukundan, U; Thomson, C J

    2000-04-01

    Vellore is endemic for cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. In a previous study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls in a single 2-months period in Vellore, India was determined. In addition water samples from three sites were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. This follow on study has examined how the environmental distribution of V. cholerae at the same sites alters over a 12-month period and the relationship to the clinical pattern of cholera in Vellore. Samples of water were collected from fixed sites at three water bodies each month between April 1997 and March 1998. Bacteria isolated from samples were identified by standard biochemical tests and isolated strains of V. cholerae tested for their ability to agglutinate O1 and O139 antisera. Samples were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. The clinical isolation rate of V. cholerae in Vellore, maximum temperature and rainfall were also studied. The results demonstrate the presence in the environment of viable but non-cultivable (VNC) V. cholerae in 10 of 12 months of the study year as well as their viability. Their prevalence in the environment also correlated with the isolation of these pathogens from clinical samples over the same study period.

  18. Ecological study of Vibrio cholerae in Vellore.

    PubMed Central

    Jesudason, M. V.; Balaji, V.; Mukundan, U.; Thomson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Vellore is endemic for cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. In a previous study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls in a single 2-months period in Vellore, India was determined. In addition water samples from three sites were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. This follow on study has examined how the environmental distribution of V. cholerae at the same sites alters over a 12-month period and the relationship to the clinical pattern of cholera in Vellore. Samples of water were collected from fixed sites at three water bodies each month between April 1997 and March 1998. Bacteria isolated from samples were identified by standard biochemical tests and isolated strains of V. cholerae tested for their ability to agglutinate O1 and O139 antisera. Samples were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. The clinical isolation rate of V. cholerae in Vellore, maximum temperature and rainfall were also studied. The results demonstrate the presence in the environment of viable but non-cultivable (VNC) V. cholerae in 10 of 12 months of the study year as well as their viability. Their prevalence in the environment also correlated with the isolation of these pathogens from clinical samples over the same study period. PMID:10813143

  19. Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  1. [Life cycle of Gongylonema mucronatum Seurat, 1916, parasite of the African hedge-hog (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Quentin, J C; Seguignes, M

    1979-01-01

    The Gongylonematid Nematode parasite of the Tunisian hedge-hog has been identified as Gongylonema mucronatum Seurat, 1916. The infective larva has been obtained from Locusta migratoria as intermediate host. The larval characters of this Gongylonema link it to the species G. pulchrum.

  2. Health effects from breathing air near CAFOs for feeder cattle or hogs.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Susanna G; Auvermann, Brent W

    2005-01-01

    There is concern that livestock operations for fattening cattle and raising hogs known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release substances into the air that have negative effects on the health of persons living nearby. These substances include dust containing endotoxin and other microbial products as well as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and a variety of volatile organic compounds. Odors from these farms are considered offensive by some neighbors. A variety of medical complaints are reported to be more common in those people who live near CAFOs for raising hogs than in people without this exposure. Respiratory health effects, including symptoms of pulmonary disease and lung function test result abnormalities, have been described in workers employed in CAFOs where hogs are raised. Health effects after inhalation exposure of neighbors to substances released into the ambient air from these farms is less well characterized. It must be noted that CAFO workers may differ from neighbors in terms of their exposures and general health status. The presence of dust and other substances from cattle feedlots also causes some neighbors to voice concerns about the impact on their health but this exposure has been studied less extensively than exposure to substances released from CAFOs where hogs are raised. Further research needs to be done to look for measurable health effects attributable to living near all CAFOs in order to better understand the impact of these farms.

  3. 78 FR 45057 - Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena... spectators and vessels from the potential hazards associated with fireworks displays. DATES: This rule is... Guard's ability to protect the public from the potential hazards associated with maritime...

  4. PREVALENCE OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA IN MARKET WEIGHT HOGS IN THE UNITED STATES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs are the major animal reservoir for Y. enterocolitica strains, which are potentially pathogenic for humans. The goals of this study were (1) to estimate the individual animal and on-farm prevalences of Y. enterocolitica in hogs based on tonsil samples collected during National Animal Health Mon...

  5. Hog Island Bank Protection - Lock and Dam 16 and Huron Chute Closing Dam Modification - Pool 18

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    siteG. iTne site is located at Lock and Dam (L/D) 16 between Rock Island County, Illinois, and Muscatine County, Iowa. The site, referred to as Hog Isla ...to fulfill its ,Waic uroe ifno. see Section 2 and Information gathered fo? IA alterative). VIES OD J * ~ ~ ~ b. The activity does not eppear to (1

  6. Relative effects of human and feral hog disturbance on a wet forest in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Bruce D. Maxwell

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 20 months of intensive disturbance by humans, as well as the presence of feral hogs Sus scrofa, was measured on vegetation. Both forms of disturbance have been thought severely to affect Hawaiian rain forests by reduction of plant cover and allowing the proliferation of exotic plants. Despite much human use throughout the stud), area,...

  7. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  8. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  9. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  10. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  11. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  12. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  13. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  14. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. Cholera: something old, something new.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Michael; Luchette, Fred A

    2012-08-01

    In the aftermath of a devastating earthquake in early 2011, Haiti fell victim to an outbreak of cholera that claimed thousands of lives and affected populations in nearby Dominican Republic, Venezuela, and even the United States. This was the first time cholera had been reported in Haiti in more than 100 years. The sudden appearance of cholera, a pathogen with no known non-human host, raised the question of how it was introduced to an island that has long been spared this disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the history of cholera, its pathophysiology and virulence factors, and current recommendations for treatment. Articles published in the past 10 years were identified by a search of the medical literature using PUBMED and reviewed. Bibliographies of each article also were reviewed for additional pertinent articles. The recent epidemic was caused by a strain that has been responsible for disease in South Asia since 1961, the seventh and most recent strain identified since 1900. It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Once infected, the patient develops a rapidly dehydrating diarrheal illness caused by the cholera toxin, which activates cytoplasmic adenylate cyclase of the intestinal epithelial cells by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of the stimulatory G protein. The high cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, causing a dramatic efflux of ions and water from infected enterocytes and leading to watery diarrhea. The first line of therapy is oral hydration with intravenous fluids; antibiotics are reserved for patients with severe dehydration. Spread of cholera is preventable with simple modifications of hygiene and water preparation. Cholera has re-emerged as a major infectious disease in the recent past, with a global increase in its incidence. Vaccination should be considered as an adjunct for controlling the epidemics and also for volunteer

  16. Delayed Turnover of Unphosphorylated Ssk1 during Carbon Stress Activates the Yeast Hog1 Map Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene Carmes; Mayinger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway coordinates the adaptation to osmotic stress and was recently reported to respond to acute changes in glucose levels. Similarly as in osmotic stress, glucose starvation leads to a transient accumulation of Hog1 in the nucleus. However, the kinetics and the mechanism of Hog1 activation are different for these stress conditions. During osmotic shock the activation of Hog1 can be transduced by either the Sho1 or the Sln1/Ypd1/Ssk1 branch. During glucose starvation the phosphorylation of Hog1 is slower and is completely dependent on Ssk1, but independent of Sho1. To characterize the mechanism of activation of Hog1 during carbon stress, we examined the turnover of Ssk1 protein levels upon glucose starvation in the presence of cycloheximide and monitored protein levels by western blotting. Our data demonstrate that unphosphorylated Ssk1 was quickly degraded during exponential growth and after osmotic stress but remained remarkably stable during glucose limitation. We conclude that glucose starvation induces a delay in the turnover of unphosphorylated Ssk1, which is sufficient to activate the Hog1 MAPK pathway. Although unphosphorylated Ssk1 is known to be degraded by the proteasome, its stabilization is apparently not due to changes in cellular localization or decrease in ubiquitination levels during glucose limitation.

  17. Rewiring yeast osmostress signalling through the MAPK network reveals essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 in osmoadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Furukawa, Takako; Hohmann, Stefan; Furukawa, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a number of targets which they regulate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to mediate specific responses. The yeast Hog1 MAPK is essential for cell survival under hyperosmotic conditions and it plays multiple roles in gene expression, metabolic regulation, signal fidelity and cell cycle regulation. Here we describe essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 using engineered yeast cells in which osmoadaptation was reconstituted in a Hog1-independent manner. We rewired Hog1-dependent osmotic stress-induced gene expression under the control of Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs, which are activated upon osmostress via crosstalk in hog1Δ cells. This approach revealed that osmotic up-regulation of only two Hog1-dependent glycerol biosynthesis genes, GPD1 and GPP2, is sufficient for successful osmoadaptation. Moreover, some of the previously described Hog1-dependent mechanisms appeared to be dispensable for osmoadaptation in the engineered cells. These results suggest that the number of essential MAPK functions may be significantly smaller than anticipated and that knockout approaches may lead to over-interpretation of phenotypic data. PMID:24732094

  18. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress. PMID:27849025

  19. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    PubMed Central

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  20. Actions of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Jan

    1981-07-01

    The drastic intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes that is characteristic of cholera is the result of reasonably well understood cellular and biochemical actions of the toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. Based on this understanding it is possible to devise new techniques for the treatment and prophylaxis of cholera to complement those based on fluid replacement therapy and sanitation.

  1. Costs of illness due to endemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Poulos, C; Riewpaiboon, A; Stewart, J F; Clemens, J; Guh, S; Agtini, M; Sur, D; Islam, Z; Lucas, M; Whittington, D

    2012-03-01

    Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were US$32 and US$47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between US$28 and US$206, depending on hospitalization. Patients' cost of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective.

  2. Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all organisms, and generating iron limiting conditions for pathogens is one of the host defense strategies against microbial infections. Excess of iron can be toxic; therefore, iron uptake is tightly controlled. The high affinity iron uptake system of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been shown to be essential for virulence. Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. Gene expression profiling of the Δhog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. However, the function of Hog1p in the response of C. albicans to iron availability was not studied in detail. Thus, we analyzed phenotypic and molecular responses of C. albicans to different iron concentrations particularly with respect to the activity of the Hog1p MAP kinase module. Results We observed flocculation of yeast cells, when the iron ion concentration was equal to or higher than 5 μM. This phenotype was dependent on the MAP kinase Hog1p and the corresponding MAP kinase kinase Pbs2p. Moreover, high extracellular iron ion concentrations led to hyper-phosphorylation of Hog1p. We determined lower amounts of multicopper ferroxidase (MCFO) proteins and lower ferric reductase activity, when the iron ion concentration in the medium was increased. This effect was also observed for the Δhog1 mutant. However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the Δhog1 in comparison to wild type cells. This effect was independent of iron availability in growth media. Conclusions In C. albicans, the MAP kinase Hog1p is part of the network regulating the response of the organism to iron availability. Hog1p was transiently phosphorylated under high iron concentrations and was essential for a flocculent phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of HOG1 led to

  3. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  4. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  5. Cholera: pathophysiology and emerging therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2013-05-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease that remains an important global health problem with several hundreds of thousands of reported cases each year. This disease is caused by intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae, which is a highly motile gram-negative bacterium with a single-sheathed flagellum. In the course of cholera pathogenesis, V. cholerae expresses a transcriptional activator ToxT, which subsequently transactivates expressions of two crucial virulence factors: toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin (CT). These factors are responsible for intestinal colonization of V. cholerae and induction of fluid secretion, respectively. In intestinal epithelial cells, CT binds to GM1 ganglioside receptors on the apical membrane and undergoes retrograde vesicular trafficking to endoplasmic reticulum, where it exploits endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation systems to release a catalytic A1 subunit of CT (CT A1) into cytoplasm. CT A1, in turn, catalyzes ADP ribosylation of α subunits of stimulatory G proteins, leading to a persistent activation of adenylate cyclase and an elevation of intracellular cAMP. Increased intracellular cAMP in human intestinal epithelial cells accounts for pathogenesis of profuse diarrhea and severe fluid loss in cholera. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of cholera diarrhea and discusses emerging drug targets for cholera, which include V. cholerae virulence factors, V. cholerae motility, CT binding to GM1 receptor, CT internalization and intoxication, as well as cAMP metabolism and transport proteins involved in cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion. Future directions and perspectives of research on drug discovery and development for cholera are discussed.

  6. Survival of classic cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Siddique, A K; Baqui, A H; Eusof, A; Haider, K; Hossain, M A; Bashir, I; Zaman, K

    1991-05-11

    During the present cholera pandemic the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae has completely displaced the classic biotype, except in Bangladesh. We studied the distribution of these two biotypes in twenty-four rural districts during epidemics in 1988-89; there was clustering of the classic biotype in the southern region and of the El Tor biotype in all other regions. These findings suggest that the southern coastal region is now (and may always have been) the habitat of classic cholera. The selective distribution of V cholerae O1 biotypes in Bangladesh may have been affected by ecological changes occurring in the country.

  7. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  8. Cholera outbreaks in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, S K

    2014-01-01

    This chapter highlights the cholera situation in South Asia and the Bay of Bengal region, the original 'homeland' of cholera. A detailed discussion of cholera outbreaks in individual countries in South-East Asia follows. The countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) SEARO (South-East Asia Region) region are discussed first, followed by discussions about the other countries in South-East Asia that do not fall within the purview of the WHO SEARO classification of the member countries of the region. Therefore, the chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive yet precise outline of the major cholera outbreaks that have occurred in the region over the years.

  9. Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.

  10. Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics.

    PubMed

    Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.

  11. Understanding the cholera epidemic, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Piarroux, Renaud; Barrais, Robert; Faucher, Benoit; Haus, Rachel; Piarroux, Martine; Gaudart, Jean; Magloire, Roc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-07-01

    After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic's spread, and investigate causes of its rapid expansion in Artibonite Department. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted 5 significant clusters (p<0.001): 1 near Mirebalais (October 16-19) next to a United Nations camp with deficient sanitation, 1 along the Artibonite River (October 20-28), and 3 caused by the centrifugal epidemic spread during November. The regression model indicated that cholera more severely affected communes in the coastal plain (risk ratio 4.91) along the Artibonite River downstream of Mirebalais (risk ratio 4.60). Our findings strongly suggest that contamination of the Artibonite and 1 of its tributaries downstream from a military camp triggered the epidemic.

  12. Oral vaccines for preventing cholera.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, David; Abba, Katharine; Zaman, K; Qadri, Firdausi; Graves, Patricia M

    2011-03-16

    Cholera is a cause of acute watery diarrhoea which can cause dehydration and death if not adequately treated. It usually occurs in epidemics, and is associated with poverty and poor sanitation. Effective, cheap, and easy to administer vaccines could help prevent epidemics. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera and deaths from cholera. In October 2010, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for relevant published and ongoing trials. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of oral cholera vaccines in healthy adults and children. Each trial was assessed for eligibility and risk of bias by two authors working independently. Data was extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed using the Review Manager 5 software. Outcomes are reported as vaccine protective efficacy (VE) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven large efficacy trials, four small artificial challenge studies, and twenty-nine safety trials contributed data to this review.Five variations of a killed whole cell vaccine have been evaluated in large scale efficacy trials (four trials, 249935 participants). The overall vaccine efficacy during the first year was 52% (95% CI 35% to 65%), and during the second year was 62% (95% CI 51% to 62%). Protective efficacy was lower in children aged less than 5 years; 38% (95% CI 20% to 53%) compared to older children and adults; 66% (95% CI 57% to 73%).One trial of a killed whole cell vaccine amongst military recruits demonstrated 86% protective efficacy (95% CI 37% to 97%) in a small epidemic occurring within 4 weeks of the 2-dose schedule (one trial, 1426 participants). Efficacy data is not available beyond two years for the currently available vaccine formulations, but

  13. Fowl Cholera Immunization in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John; Dawe, Donald L.; Davis, Richard B.; Foster, John W.; Srivastava, K. K.

    1970-01-01

    Cell fractions of Pastuerella multocida (P-1059) were tested as vaccines against fowl cholera in turkeys. These fractions were culture filtrate, cell wall, and cytoplasm. A second culture filtrate preparation made from cells grown on blood-agar rather than the standard medium was also tested along with a “combination” preparation made by recombination of the cell fractions. Each preparation was tested in three vehicles: saline, alum (0.5%), and Freund Incomplete Adjuvant (50%). The turkeys vaccinated with these preparations were challenged by exposure to an experimental epornitic of fowl cholera. The combination fraction appeared to be the most promising vaccine when compared to the protective action of the commercial bacterin included in the test as a positive control. PMID:5422310

  14. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure, selected fertilizers, and water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Boron-isotope (δ11B) values may be useful as surrogate tracers of contaminants and indicators of water mixing in agricultural settings. This paper characterizes the B contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure and selected fertilizers, and presents δ11B data for ground and surface water from two agricultural areas. Boron concentrations in dry hog manure averaged 61 mg/kg and in commercial fertilizers ranged from below detection limits in some brands of ammonium nitrate and urea to 382 mg/kg in magnesium sulfate. Values of δ11B of untreated hog manure ranged from 7.2 to 11.2o/oo and of N fertilizers were −2.0 to 0.7o/oo. In 22 groundwater samples from a sand-plain aquifer in east-central Minnesota, B concentrations averaged 0.04 mg/L and δ11B values ranged from 2.3 to 41.5o/oo. Groundwater beneath a hog feedlot and a cultivated field where hog manure was applied had B-isotope compositions consistent with the water containing hog-manure leachate. In a 775-km2 watershed with silty-loam soils in southcentral Minnesota: 18 samples of subsurface drainage from corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) fields had average B concentrations of 0.06 mg/L and δ11B values of 5.3 to 15.1o/oo; 27 stream samples had average B concentrations of 0.05 mg/L and δ11B values of 1.0 to 19.0o/oo; and eight groundwater samples had average B concentrations of 0.09 mg/L and δ11B values of −0.3 to 23.0o/oo. Values of δ11B and B concentrations, when plotted against one another, define a curved mixing trend that suggests subsurface drainage and stream water contain mixtures of B from shallow and deep groundwater.

  15. Molecular cloning and evolutionary analysis of the HOG-signaling pathway genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae rice wine isolates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yudong; Chen, Wei; Shi, Yugang; Liang, Xinle

    2013-04-01

    The high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway is crucial for yeast to cope with high osmolarity. Here, we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae rice wine isolates exhibited higher tolerance to osmotic stress, which was associated with the evolution of HOG pathway genes. Phylogenetic analysis of HOG genes revealed that Chinese rice wine strains were closely related to sake strains, indicating a common origin of rice wine strains. The DNA sequence diversity analysis showed that higher levels of polymorphism tended to accumulate on the osmosensor genes (MSB2 and SLN1), suggesting that most changes in a signaling transduction pathway were concentrated in the receptors. Moreover, the rapid evolution of osmosensors (Sln1/Msb2) and transcription factor (Msn4) might experience positive selection. Our results imply that the evolution of HOG pathway genes in S. cerevisiae rice wine strains is associated with their adaptation to high osmotic environments.

  16. Vibrio cholerae-Induced Inflammation in the Neonatal Mouse Cholera Model

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L.; Patimalla, Bharathi

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the acute diarrheal disease of cholera. Innate immune responses to V. cholerae are not a major cause of cholera pathology, which is characterized by severe, watery diarrhea induced by the action of cholera toxin. Innate responses may, however, contribute to resolution of infection and must be required to initiate adaptive responses after natural infection and oral vaccination. Here we investigated whether a well-established infant mouse model of cholera can be used to observe an innate immune response. We also used a vaccination model in which immunized dams protect their pups from infection through breast milk antibodies to investigate innate immune responses after V. cholerae infection for pups suckled by an immune dam. At the peak of infection, we observed neutrophil recruitment accompanied by induction of KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), NOS-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17a. Pups suckled by an immunized dam did not mount this response. Accessory toxins RtxA and HlyA played no discernible role in neutrophil recruitment in a wild-type background. The innate response to V. cholerae deleted for cholera toxin-encoding phage (CTXϕ) and part of rtxA was significantly reduced, suggesting a role for CTXϕ-carried genes or for RtxA in the absence of cholera toxin (CTX). Two extracellular V. cholerae DNases were not required for neutrophil recruitment, but DNase-deficient V. cholerae caused more clouds of DNA in the intestinal lumen, which appeared to be neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), suggesting that V. cholerae DNases combat NETs. Thus, the infant mouse model has hitherto unrecognized utility for interrogating innate responses to V. cholerae infection. PMID:24686062

  17. Vibrio cholerae-induced inflammation in the neonatal mouse cholera model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Anne L; Patimalla, Bharathi; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the acute diarrheal disease of cholera. Innate immune responses to V. cholerae are not a major cause of cholera pathology, which is characterized by severe, watery diarrhea induced by the action of cholera toxin. Innate responses may, however, contribute to resolution of infection and must be required to initiate adaptive responses after natural infection and oral vaccination. Here we investigated whether a well-established infant mouse model of cholera can be used to observe an innate immune response. We also used a vaccination model in which immunized dams protect their pups from infection through breast milk antibodies to investigate innate immune responses after V. cholerae infection for pups suckled by an immune dam. At the peak of infection, we observed neutrophil recruitment accompanied by induction of KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), NOS-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17a. Pups suckled by an immunized dam did not mount this response. Accessory toxins RtxA and HlyA played no discernible role in neutrophil recruitment in a wild-type background. The innate response to V. cholerae deleted for cholera toxin-encoding phage (CTX) and part of rtxA was significantly reduced, suggesting a role for CTX-carried genes or for RtxA in the absence of cholera toxin (CTX). Two extracellular V. cholerae DNases were not required for neutrophil recruitment, but DNase-deficient V. cholerae caused more clouds of DNA in the intestinal lumen, which appeared to be neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), suggesting that V. cholerae DNases combat NETs. Thus, the infant mouse model has hitherto unrecognized utility for interrogating innate responses to V. cholerae infection.

  18. Comparative analysis of salt-tolerant gene HOG1 in a Zygosaccharomyces rouxii mutant strain and its parent strain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yonghua; Wang, Cong; Wang, Meng; Cao, Xiaohong; Hou, Lihua

    2013-08-30

    A higher-salt-tolerant mutant strain Zygosaccharomyces rouxii 3-2 (strain S3-2) that could be used for improving the flavour of high-salt liquid state soy sauce was previously constructed from parent strain Z. rouxii (strain S) by genome shuffling. However, whether the mutations in this strain affect HOG1 encoding MAPK Hog1p and improve intracellular glycerol production remains to be elucidated. Although two mutations in the ORF and one in the promoter of the HOG1 gene sequence of strain S3-2 occurred compared with that of strain S, there was no significant difference in secondary and tertiary structures between S3-2Hog1p and SHog1p. It was found that the expression level of S3-2HOG1 was higher than that of SHOG1 in YPDN medium with high salt concentration. Furthermore, overexpression of S3-2HOG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A could improve the salt tolerance and osmotolerance of engineered yeast compared with that of SHOG1. Enhancement of the transcription level of HOG1 induced by mutation in the promoter region may be one of the main reasons for the improved salt tolerance of strain S3-2 compared with that of strain S. Considering food security, the conservation of S3-2HOG1 would be beneficial for application of strain S3-2 in the fermentation of soy sauce. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in water and seafood, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Hill, Vincent R; Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M; Jones, Jessica L; Bopp, Cheryl A; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L; Garrett, Nancy M; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples.

  20. The value of cholera vaccination in promoting travel health.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Terry

    Cholera is a diarrhoeal disease caused by intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae bacterium (Health Protection Agency, 2004). Travellers are now able to obtain a cholera vaccine in the UK. Although cholera is rare in travellers from the UK, its potential severity is a cause for concern. Nurses will need to consider the availability of this new vaccine when providing health promotion to travellers.

  1. Cholera in United States associated with epidemic in Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Newton, Anna E; Heiman, Katherine E; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E; Mintz, Eric D

    2011-11-01

    Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio cholerae...

  3. Construction of an Efficient Mutant Strain of Trichosporonoides oedocephalis with HOG1 Gene Deletion for Production of Erythritol.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangzhi; Yang, Tianyi; Guo, Weiqiang; Ju, Xin; Hu, Cuiying; Tang, Bingyu; Fu, Jiaolong; Gu, Jingsheng; Zhang, Haiyang

    2016-04-28

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 (high-osmolarity glycerol response pathway) plays a crucial role in the response of yeast to hyperosmotic shock. Trichosporonoides oedocephalis produces large amounts of polyols (,e.g., erythritol and glycerol) in a culture medium. However, the effects of HOG1 gene knockout and environmental stress on the production of these polyols have not yet been studied. In this study, a To-HOG1 null mutation was constructed in T. oedocephalis using the loxP-Kan-loxP/Cre system as replacement of the targeted genes, and the resultant mutants showed much smaller colonies than the wild-type controls. Interestingly, compared with the wild-type strains, the results of shake-flask culture showed that To-HOG1 null mutation increased erythritol production by 1.44-fold while decreasing glycerol production by 71.23%. In addition, this study investigated the effects of citric acid stress on the T. oedocephalis HOG1 null mutants and the wild-type strain. When the supplementation of citric acid in the fermentation medium was controlled at 0.3% (w/v), the concentration of erythritol produced from the wild-type and To-HOG1 knockout mutant strains improved by 18.21% and 21.65%, respectively.

  4. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers.

  5. Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to granular starches.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Hanan; Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-08-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to <1%. Thus, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an important measure in the treatment of this disease. To further reduce the symptoms associated with cholera, improvements in oral rehydration solution (ORS) by starch incorporation were suggested. Here, we report that V. cholerae adheres to starch granules incorporated in ORS. Adhesion of 98% of the cells was observed within 2 min when cornstarch granules were used. Other starches showed varied adhesion rates, indicating that starch source and composition play an important role in the interaction of V. cholerae and starch granules. Sugars metabolized by V. cholerae showed a repressive effect on the adhesion process. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed. Comparing V. cholerae adhesion with the adhesion of other pathogens suggests the involvement of starch degradation capabilities. This adhesion to granular starch can be used to improve ORT.

  6. Can chatter between microbes prevent cholera?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica A; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Xavier, Karina B

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the global rise in antibiotic resistance requires new therapies against infectious microbes. A recent microbiome study identified commensal gut bacteria that reduce colonisation by the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This antagonistic interaction might be mediated by quorum sensing, suggesting that these natural microbe-microbe interactions can help prevent infectious disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pedestrian detection system based on HOG and a modified version of CSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmo, Daniel L.; Salles, Evandro O. T.; Ciarelli, Patrick M.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a complete pedestrian detection system based on sliding windows. Two feature vector extraction techniques are used: HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradient) and CSS (Color Self Similarities), and to classify windows we use linear SVM (Support Vector Machines). Besides these techniques, we use mean shift and hierarchical clustering, to fuse multiple overlapping detections. The results we obtain on the dataset INRIA Person shows that the proposed system, using only HOG descriptors, achieves better results over similar systems, with a log average miss rate equal to 43%, against 46%, due to the cutting of final detections to better adapt them to the modified annotations. The addition of the modified CSS increases the efficiency of the system, leading to a log average miss rate equal to 39%.

  8. Hydrologic conditions related to the Hog Canyon Riparian Restoration Project, dinosaur national monument. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.; Wagner, J.

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1990, an interdisciplinary team of hydrologists, botanists, soil scientists, and park resource managers met to develop a plan for evaluating riparian conditions and management opportunities for Hog Canyon. At this meeting a set of study objectives was developed to help focus information needs. This report focuses on analysis of hydrologic data collected during the first year of the study. Specifically, the authors discuss seasonal surface and ground water hydrologic conditions, stream channel and ground water relationships, soil moisture conditions, and other aspects of Hog Canyon hydrology relevant to the management objectives. A set of preliminary management/restoration alternatives are also presented as a starting point for continued discussions by the evaluation team.

  9. Impact of odor from industrial hog operations on daily living activities.

    PubMed

    Tajik, M; Muhammad, N; Lowman, A; Thu, K; Wing, S; Grant, G

    2008-01-01

    Intensive industrial animal production systems worldwide require confinement of large numbers of animals in small spaces and concentration of enormous quantities of waste. Industrial hog operations, in particular, have raised public concerns about their adverse impact on public health and sustainable development. Using a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored people's perception of the impact of odor from these industries on daily living activities as they relate to the beneficial use of property and enjoyment of life. Our research indicates that hog odor limits several leisure time activities and social interactions which could have adverse public health consequences. The results of this study can assist the communities and other stakeholders in public policy development that addresses these concerns.

  10. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk.

  11. Sub-critical water hydrolysis of hog hair for amino acid production.

    PubMed

    Esteban, M B; García, A J; Ramos, P; Márquez, M C

    2010-04-01

    A recycling method using sub-critical water hydrolysis to convert hog hair from slaughterhouses into amino acids was developed. The influence of the reaction parameters such as temperature, time of reaction and initial substrate concentration were investigated in a batch reactor. The quality and quantity of amino acids in hydrolysates were determined and 17 kinds of amino acids were obtained. Under the tested conditions, the highest amino acid yield (325 mg/g protein) was reached at an initial substrate concentration of 10 g/l, a temperature of 250 degrees C and a reaction time of 60 min. A large amount of low-molecular weight amino acids, such alanine and glycine, was observed at these operating conditions. Sub-critical water hydrolysis was confirmed as an effective and practical process to recover amino acids from hog hair waste.

  12. Outbreak of invasive listeriosis associated with the consumption of hog head cheese--Louisiana, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-04-08

    During January-June 2010, a total of 14 cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive listeriosis were reported to the Louisiana Office of Public Health (OPH). Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the blood samples of eight patients were identified as serotype 1/2a and had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern combinations that were indistinguishable from one another. The detection of this cluster prompted an investigation in coordination with CDC, the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). In-depth epidemiologic and environmental investigations of the cluster were initiated on July 26, including food history interviews of four patients. Three patients reported eating hog head cheese (a meat jelly made from swine heads and feet); the product was purchased at two grocery stores in Louisiana. A traceback investigation determined that a single brand of hog head cheese was common between the two grocery stores. L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a was cultured from one of three product samples and from two of 16 environmental samples collected by LDAF at the processing establishment; the product and one of the two environmental samples yielded isolates with PFGE pattern combinations that were indistinguishable from the patient isolates. On August 14, LDAF coordinated a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 pounds of hog head cheese and sausage because of possible contamination with L. monocytogenes. This is the first published report of an invasive listeriosis outbreak associated with hog head cheese, which is a ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. USDA-FSIS has a "zero tolerance" policy for L. monocytogenes contamination of RTE food products, requesting recall of such products at any detectable level of L. monocytogenes contamination. LDAF imposes and enforces equivalent requirements in state-inspected establishments.

  13. Implementation of a Cascaded Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG)-Based Pedestrian Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Implementation of a Cascaded Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG)-Based Pedestrian Detector by Christopher Reale, Prudhvi Gurram , Shuowen...Pedestrian Detector Christopher Reale, Prudhvi Gurram , Shuowen Hu, and Alex Chan Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher Reale, Prudhvi Gurram , Shuowen Hu, and Alex Chan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  14. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1989-02-07

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

  15. Risk factors at slaughter associated with presence of Salmonella on hog carcasses in Canada.

    PubMed

    Letellier, Ann; Beauchamp, Guy; Guévremont, Evelyne; D'Allaire, Sylvie; Hurnik, Dan; Quessy, Sylvain

    2009-11-01

    Despite the application of hazard analysis and critical control point systems at slaughter and during processing, Salmonella contamination is still a significant biological hazard associated with pork products. A better understanding of risk factors in slaughterhouses and of contamination sources is therefore critical to improve control of this bacterium in the abattoirs. The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors at slaughter that are associated with the presence of Salmonella on hog carcasses and to assess possible sources of contamination. A questionnaire on potential risk factors was developed. Over 7,400 hogs originating from 312 randomly selected production lots were tested. The lots were from 10 different abattoirs located in five different Canadian provinces. At slaughter, blood was collected for serological analysis, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and carcass swabs were collected for Salmonella analysis. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted to establish the genetic profiles of selected isolates from carcasses and MLN and to compare these profiles with those recovered from the slaughter environment. Multivariate regression analysis results indicated that the cleanliness of the hogs and the status of the scald water were factors significantly associated with the Salmonella status of the carcasses at the end of the slaughter process. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that most isolates from carcasses were similar to those from animals (MLN) or the preevisceration environment.

  16. Effect of trisodium phosphate on slip and textural properties of hog and sheep natural sausage casings.

    PubMed

    Houben, J H; Bakker, W A M; Keizer, G

    2005-02-01

    The defective gliding of certain natural casings during the stuffing of sausages is an important problem in the meat processing industry. The gliding behaviour of (defective) hog and sheep casings was assessed with a newly developed instrument, and by a technologist during the stuffing of sausages. Casings were treated with 0.01 M trisodium phosphate; control casings were untreated. Cooked and smoked sausages were made in hog casings treated or untreated with phosphate and subjected to compression tests. In all cases the treatment with phosphate clearly facilitated the gliding of the casings over the test pipes, as compared to the control casings. The instrument to measure the casing gliding properties did not provide reliable information about the actual stuffing of sausages. The phosphate-treated casings had a lower shear force than the control casings after being used as skins for cooked and smoked sausages. If confirmed, the finding that mild phosphate treatment can diminish the force required to shear a casing will be of interest to the sausage industry because the toughness of certain hog casings is considered a problem.

  17. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:12732548

  18. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera.

    PubMed

    Qadir, M Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-07-16

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity associated with diarrhea.

  19. Household and Individual Risk Factors for Cholera among Cholera Vaccine Recipients in Rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Matias, Wilfredo R; Teng, Jessica E; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-08-01

    Oral cholera vaccination was used as part of cholera control in Haiti, but the vaccine does not provide complete protection. We conducted secondary data analyses of a vaccine effectiveness study in Haiti to evaluate risk factors for cholera among cholera vaccine recipients. Individuals vaccinated against cholera that presented with acute watery diarrhea and had a stool sample positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 were included as cases. Up to four vaccinated individuals who did not present for treatment of diarrhea were included as controls for each case, and matched by location of residence, enrollment time, and age. We evaluated sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cholera. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors for cholera among vaccinees. Thirty-three vaccine recipients with culture-confirmed cholera were included as cases. One-hundred-and-seventeen of their matched controls reported receiving vaccine and were included as controls. In a multivariable analysis, self-reporting use of branded household water disinfection products as a means of treating water (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 44.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.19-468.05, P = 0.002), and reporting having a latrine as the main household toilet (aRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.23-14.43, P = 0.02), were independent risk factors for cholera. Self-reporting always treating water (aRR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01-0.57, P = 0.01) was associated with protection against cholera. The field effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions used in combination with cholera vaccination in cholera control should be measured and monitored over time to identify and remediate shortcomings, and ensure successful impact on disease control.

  20. Natural Cholera Infection–Derived Immunity in an Endemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Emch, Michael; Park, Jin Kyung; Yunus, Mohammad; Clemens, John

    2011-01-01

    Background. Live oral cholera vaccines may protect against cholera in a manner similar to natural cholera infections. However, information on which to base these vaccines is limited. Methods. The study was conducted in a cholera-endemic population in Bangladesh. Patients with cholera (index patients) detected between 1991 and 2000 were age-matched to 4 cholera-free controls and then followed up during the subsequent 3 years. Results. El Tor cholera was associated with a 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%–81%; P < .001) lower risk of a subsequent El Tor episode. Reduction of the risk of subsequent El Tor cholera was similar for children <5 years and for older persons and was sustained during all 3 years of follow-up. Having El Tor Inaba cholera was associated with lower risks of both El Tor Inaba and El Tor Ogawa cholera, but having El Tor Ogawa cholera was associated only with a reduced risk of El Tor Ogawa cholera. O139 cholera was associated with a 63% (95% CI, −61% to 92%; P = .18) lower risk of subsequent O139 cholera, but there was no evidence of cross-protection between the O1 and O139 serogroups. Conclusions. Live oral cholera vaccines designed to protect against the O1 and O139 serogroups should contain at least the Inaba serotype and strains of both serogroups. PMID:21849288

  1. Natural cholera infection-derived immunity in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Emch, Michael; Park, Jin Kyung; Yunus, Mohammad; Clemens, John

    2011-09-15

    Live oral cholera vaccines may protect against cholera in a manner similar to natural cholera infections. However, information on which to base these vaccines is limited. The study was conducted in a cholera-endemic population in Bangladesh. Patients with cholera (index patients) detected between 1991 and 2000 were age-matched to 4 cholera-free controls and then followed up during the subsequent 3 years. El Tor cholera was associated with a 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-81%; P < .001) lower risk of a subsequent El Tor episode. Reduction of the risk of subsequent El Tor cholera was similar for children < 5 years and for older persons and was sustained during all 3 years of follow-up. Having El Tor Inaba cholera was associated with lower risks of both El Tor Inaba and El Tor Ogawa cholera, but having El Tor Ogawa cholera was associated only with a reduced risk of El Tor Ogawa cholera. O139 cholera was associated with a 63% (95% CI, -61% to 92%; P = .18) lower risk of subsequent O139 cholera, but there was no evidence of cross-protection between the O1 and O139 serogroups. Live oral cholera vaccines designed to protect against the O1 and O139 serogroups should contain at least the Inaba serotype and strains of both serogroups.

  2. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion.

  3. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era.

    PubMed

    Siddique, A K; Cash, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian subcontinent description of a disease resembling cholera has been mentioned in Sushruta Samita, estimated to have been written between ~400 and 500 BC. It is however not clear whether the disease known today as cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae O1 is the evolutionary progression of the ancient disease. The modern history of cholera began in 1817 when an explosive epidemic broke out in the Ganges River Delta region of Bengal. This was the first of the seven recorded cholera pandemics cholera pandemics that affected nearly the entire world and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The bacterium responsible for this human disease was first recognised during the fifth pandemic and was named V. cholerae which was grouped as O1, and was further differentiated into Classical and El Tor biotypes. It is now known that the fifth and the sixth pandemics were caused by the V. cholerae O1 of the Classical biotype Classical biotype and the seventh by the El Tor biotype El Tor biotype . The El Tor biotype of V. cholerae, which originated in Indonesia Indonesia and shortly thereafter began to spread in the early 1960s. Within the span of 50 years the El Tor biotype had invaded nearly the entire world, completely displacing the Classical biotype from all the countries except Bangladesh. What prompted the earlier pandemics to begin is not clearly understood, nor do we know how and why they ended. The success of the seventh pandemic clone over the pre-existing sixth pandemic strain remains largely an unsolved mystery. Why classical biotype eventually disappeared from the world remains to be explained. For nearly three decades (1963-1991) during the Seventh cholera pandemic seventh pandemic, cholera in Bangladesh has recorded a unique history of co-existence of Classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae O1 as epidemic and endemic strain. This long co-existence has provided us with great opportunity to improve our understanding of the disease itself

  4. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera.

    PubMed

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-06-19

    Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43.51 to -30.03, 19 trials, 1013 participants, moderate quality evidence). Antimicrobial therapy also

  5. Inapparent infections and cholera dynamics.

    PubMed

    King, Aaron A; Ionides, Edward L; Pascual, Mercedes; Bouma, Menno J

    2008-08-14

    In many infectious diseases, an unknown fraction of infections produce symptoms mild enough to go unrecorded, a fact that can seriously compromise the interpretation of epidemiological records. This is true for cholera, a pandemic bacterial disease, where estimates of the ratio of asymptomatic to symptomatic infections have ranged from 3 to 100 (refs 1-5). In the absence of direct evidence, understanding of fundamental aspects of cholera transmission, immunology and control has been based on assumptions about this ratio and about the immunological consequences of inapparent infections. Here we show that a model incorporating high asymptomatic ratio and rapidly waning immunity, with infection both from human and environmental sources, explains 50 yr of mortality data from 26 districts of Bengal, the pathogen's endemic home. We find that the asymptomatic ratio in cholera is far higher than had been previously supposed and that the immunity derived from mild infections wanes much more rapidly than earlier analyses have indicated. We find, too, that the environmental reservoir (free-living pathogen) is directly responsible for relatively few infections but that it may be critical to the disease's endemicity. Our results demonstrate that inapparent infections can hold the key to interpreting the patterns of disease outbreaks. New statistical methods, which allow rigorous maximum likelihood inference based on dynamical models incorporating multiple sources and outcomes of infection, seasonality, process noise, hidden variables and measurement error, make it possible to test more precise hypotheses and obtain unexpected results. Our experience suggests that the confrontation of time-series data with mechanistic models is likely to revise our understanding of the ecology of many infectious diseases.

  6. Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

    1980-02-01

    Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera.

  7. Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

    1980-01-01

    Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7380543

  8. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.

  9. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006–2015 data for China’s 22 provinces

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a “buy” strategy and speculators adopt a “do not speculate” strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies. PMID:28241024

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of a Highly Effective Hog1 Inhibitor: A Powerful Tool for Analyzing MAP Kinase Signaling in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Migdal, Iwona; Andersson, Terese; Gebbia, Marinella; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hohmann, Stefan; Wysocki, Robert; Tamás, Markus J.; Grøtli, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway is a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction system that often serves as a model to analyze systems level properties of MAPK signaling. Hog1, the MAPK of the HOG-pathway, can be activated by various environmental cues and it controls transcription, translation, transport, and cell cycle adaptations in response to stress conditions. A powerful means to study signaling in living cells is to use kinase inhibitors; however, no inhibitor targeting wild-type Hog1 exists to date. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological application of small molecule inhibitors that are cell-permeable, fast-acting, and highly efficient against wild-type Hog1. These compounds are potent inhibitors of Hog1 kinase activity both in vitro and in vivo. Next, we use these novel inhibitors to pinpoint the time of Hog1 action during recovery from G1 checkpoint arrest, providing further evidence for a specific role of Hog1 in regulating cell cycle resumption during arsenite stress. Hence, we describe a novel tool for chemical genetic analysis of MAPK signaling and provide novel insights into Hog1 action. PMID:21655328

  11. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus. PMID:27379041

  12. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  13. Epidemic risk from cholera introductions into Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean M; Shannon, Kerry L; Zelaya, Carla E; Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin

    2014-02-21

    Stemming from the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, cholera transmission in Hispaniola continues with over 40,000 cases in 2013. The presence of an ongoing cholera outbreak in the region poses substantial risks to countries throughout the Americas, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure. Since September 9, 2013 nearly 200 cholera cases have been reported in Mexico, as a result of introductions from Hispaniola or Cuba. There appear to have been multiple introductions into Mexico resulting in outbreaks of 2 to over 150 people. Using publicly available data, we attempt to estimate the reproductive number (R) of cholera in Mexico, and thereby assess the potential of continued introductions to establish a sustained epidemic. We estimate R for cholera in Mexico to be between 0.8 to 1.1, depending on the number of introductions, with the confidence intervals for the most plausible estimates crossing 1. These results suggest that the efficiency of cholera transmission in some regions of Mexico is near that necessary for a large epidemic. Intensive surveillance, evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure, and planning for rapid response are warranted steps to avoid potential large epidemics in the region.

  14. A De in the life of cholera.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    The 50-year commemoration of S.N. De's seminal 1959 publication in Nature provides an opportunity to reflect on scientific discovery, recognition, and public health. De's paper marked the first major conceptual advance in cholera research since 1884, when Robert Koch definitively identified Der Kommabazillus as the aetiological agent of cholera. Unfortunately, Koch reported that systemic toxinosis and multi-organ failure led to severe dehydrating diarrhoea, thereby mistaking cause for effect. As a consequence, while work on other microbial pathogens advanced into the development of vaccines and therapeutics, cholera research languished as scientists injected animals parenterally in decades of futile effort to develop an animal model of diarrhoea. This fundamental misconception in cholera pathogenesis was swept away when S.N. De used ligated loops of rabbit ileum to demonstrate lumenal fluid accumulation in the presence of Vibrio cholerae culture filtrates. After some delay, De's observation of a diarrhoeagenic exotoxin became the founding principle of modern cholera research, vaccination, and treatment; and a burst of discovery saw V. cholerae transformed into the enteric pathogen best understood at the molecular level. The scientific basis for orally administering vaccines to induce mucosal immunity was established, and the success of oral rehydration, what has been described as one of the 20 th century's most important medical advances, was explained. Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg wrote of De's iconoclastic creativity, experimental skill, and observational mastery, and many other leaders in the field concurred. De was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine more than once. But despite the passage of half a century from De's work, cholera remains a frustrating problem: we are clearly missing something. In reviewing the scientific and programmatic impact of S.N. De on cholera, it is clear that a defining victory against the disease is achievable

  15. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  16. [Isolation of Vibrio cholerae in imported frozen seafood and their cholera-enterotoxin production].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, S; Takeda, K; Taga, K; Hirata, K; Hayashi, K; Honda, T

    1996-02-01

    A survey study for Vibrio cholerae in imported seafood was conducted during January 1991 to December 1994. A total of 7,439 specimens (approximately 20% of all imported food) were randomly picked up and examined for contamination of V. cholerae. Among these, V. cholerae O1 were isolated from 9 specimens, but they were all cholerae enterotoxin (CT)-negative. In terms of V. cholerae non-O1, a total of 2,803 specimens (37.4%) were contaminated with this vibrio. Shrimp, especially the ones still in their shells and imported from Asian countries such as India and Indonesia, were highly contaminated with V. cholerae. Although no strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in this study produced CT, 2 strains of V. cholerae non-O1 were proved to be CT-producers. Taking together the high contamination of V. cholerae in imported seafood and a part of those strains producing CT, we believe that careful survey for the possible contamination of V. choleare in imported seafood is necessary.

  17. Impact of oral cholera vaccines in cholera-endemic countries: A mathematical modeling study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vittal; Burgess, Colleen; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2016-04-19

    Impact evaluation of vaccination programs is necessary for making decisions to introduce oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in cholera-endemic countries. We analyzed data to forecast the future global burden of cholera. We developed a mathematical model of cholera transmission in three countries as examples: Nigeria, Uganda, and Indonesia. After fitting the model, we evaluated the impact of OCVs delivered in four vaccination strategies varying by target age group and frequency of vaccination over the period of 2015-2030. Data suggest that the global annual incidence of cholera will increase from 3046238 in 2015 to 3787385 in 2030 with the highest burden in Asia and Africa where overall population size is large and the proportion of population with access to improved sanitation facilities is low. We estimate that OCV will reduce the cumulative incidence of cholera by half in Indonesia and >80% in Nigeria and Uganda when delivered to 1+ year olds every three years at a coverage rate of 50%, although cholera may persist through higher coverage rates (i.e., >90%). The proportion of person-to-person transmission compared to water-to-person transmission is positively correlated with higher vaccination impact in all three countries. Periodic OCV vaccination every three or five years can significantly reduce the global burden of cholera although cholera may persist even with high OCV coverage. Vaccination impact will likely vary depending on local epidemiological conditions including age distribution of cases and relative contribution of different transmission routes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery. PMID:26504876

  19. Perfusion studies in cholera: methods and procedures.

    PubMed

    van Loon, F P; Gyr, K; Banik, A K

    1992-09-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of perfusion techniques in the study of intestinal functions by specifically examining the methods and procedures of perfusion in patients with diarrhoea due to infection with V. cholerae 01. Because of abundant jejunal secretion of water and electrolytes in cholera, perfusion studies require special approaches with regard to patient preparation, use of tubing material, selection of markers, and rate of perfusion. A discussion on specific problems involved in marker perfusion techniques in cholera and on the interpretation of the results is followed by practical recommendations.

  20. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection.

    PubMed

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery.

  1. Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Barrais, Robert; Faucher, Benoît; Haus, Rachel; Piarroux, Martine; Gaudart, Jean; Magloire, Roc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic’s spread, and investigate causes of its rapid expansion in Artibonite Department. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted 5 significant clusters (p<0.001): 1 near Mirebalais (October 16–19) next to a United Nations camp with deficient sanitation, 1 along the Artibonite River (October 20–28), and 3 caused by the centrifugal epidemic spread during November. The regression model indicated that cholera more severely affected communes in the coastal plain (risk ratio 4.91) along the Artibonite River downstream of Mirebalais (risk ratio 4.60). Our findings strongly suggest that contamination of the Artibonite and 1 of its tributaries downstream from a military camp triggered the epidemic. PMID:21762567

  2. Metabolic respiration induces AMPK- and Ire1p-dependent activation of the p38-Type HOG MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Hema; Cullen, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    Evolutionarily conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate the response to stress as well as cell differentiation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth in non-preferred carbon sources (like galactose) induces differentiation to the filamentous cell type through an extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)-type MAPK pathway. The filamentous growth MAPK pathway shares components with a p38-type High Osmolarity Glycerol response (HOG) pathway, which regulates the response to changes in osmolarity. To determine the extent of functional overlap between the MAPK pathways, comparative RNA sequencing was performed, which uncovered an unexpected role for the HOG pathway in regulating the response to growth in galactose. The HOG pathway was induced during growth in galactose, which required the nutrient regulatory AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) Snf1p, an intact respiratory chain, and a functional tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The unfolded protein response (UPR) kinase Ire1p was also required for HOG pathway activation in this context. Thus, the filamentous growth and HOG pathways are both active during growth in galactose. The two pathways redundantly promoted growth in galactose, but paradoxically, they also inhibited each other's activities. Such cross-modulation was critical to optimize the differentiation response. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans showed a similar regulatory circuit. Thus, an evolutionarily conserved regulatory axis links metabolic respiration and AMPK to Ire1p, which regulates a differentiation response involving the modulated activity of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways.

  3. The HOG MAP kinase pathway is required for the induction of methylglyoxal-responsive genes and determines methylglyoxal resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A

    2005-04-01

    A sudden overaccumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) induces, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of MG-protective genes, including GPD1, GLO1 and GRE3. The response is partially dependent on the transcriptional factors Msn2p/Msn4p, but unrelated with the general stress response mechanism. Here, we show that the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG)-pathway controls the genetic response to MG and determines the yeast growth capacity upon MG exposure. Strains lacking the MAPK Hog1p, the upstream component Ssk1p or the HOG-dependent nuclear factor Msn1p, showed a reduction in the mRNA accumulation of MG-responsive genes after MG addition. Moreover, hyperactivation of Hog1p by deletion of protein phosphatase PTP2 enhanced the response, while blocking the pathway by deletion of the MAPKK PBS2 had a negative effect. In addition, the activity of Hog1p affected the basal level of GPD1 mRNA under non-inducing conditions. These effects had a great influence on MG resistance, as hog1Delta and other HOG-pathway mutants with impaired MG-specific expression displayed MG sensitivity, whereas those with enhanced expression exhibited MG resistance as compared with the wild-type. However, MG does not trigger the overphosphorylation of Hog1p or its nuclear import in the parental strain. Moreover, dual phosphorylation of Hog1p appears to be dispensable in the triggering of the transcriptional response, although a phosphorylable form of Hog1p is fundamental for the transcriptional activity. Overall, our results suggest that the basal activity of the HOG-pathway serves to amplify the expression of MG-responsive genes under non-inducing and inducing conditions, ensuring cell protection against this toxic glycolytic by-product.

  4. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md. Sazzadul I.; Sharif, Mohsena B.; Rahman, Sabita R.; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley; George, Christine M.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city. PMID:27803695

  5. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial).

    PubMed

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md Sazzadul I; Sharif, Mohsena B; Rahman, Sabita R; Sack, David A; Sack, R Bradley; George, Christine M; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.

  6. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number).

  7. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  8. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  9. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). PMID:26119824

  10. Pursuing Justice in Haiti's Cholera Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Weinmeyer, Richard

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, the nation of Haiti was leveled by a shattering earthquake that killed thousands and devastated its already fragile infrastructure. During relief efforts to aid Haiti's suffering population, the United Nations sent troops to Haiti to assist the rebuilding of country's most basic services. But those troops unknowingly carried with them the bacteria that cause cholera, and through the UN's negligent actions, it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic have sought relief in the US federal court system to obtain justice for those killed or sickened by the cholera outbreak. The UN has declared legal immunity for causing the epidemic, yet the litigation on this matter is ongoing. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 2376-6980.

  11. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  12. Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

  13. CREB is activated by UVC through a p38/HOG-1-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Iordanov, M; Bender, K; Ade, T; Schmid, W; Sachsenmaier, C; Engel, K; Gaestel, M; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in environmental conditions such as the addition of growth factors or irradiation of cells in culture first affect immediate response genes. We have shown previously that short wavelength UV irradiation (UVC) elicits massive activation of several growth factor receptor-dependent pathways. At the level of the immediate response gene c-fos, these pathways activate the transcription factor complex serum response factor (SRF)-p62TCF which mediates part of the UV-induced transcriptional response. These studies have, however, suggested that more that one pathway is required for full UV responsiveness of c-fos. Using appropriate promoter mutations and dominant-negative cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB), we now find that UVC-induced transcriptional activation depends also on the CRE at position -60 of the c-fos promoter and on the functionality of a CREB. Upon UV irradiation, CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated at serines 133 and 63, respectively, preceded by and dependent on activation of p38/RK/HOG-1 and of a p38/RK/HOG-1-dependent p108 CREB kinase. Although p90RSK1 and MAPKAP kinase 2 are also activated by UV, p90RSK1 does not, at least not decisively, participate in this signalling pathway to CREB and ATF-1 as it is not p38/RK/HOG-1 dependent, and CREB is a poor substrate for MAPKAP kinase 2 in vitro. On the basis of resistance to the growth factor receptor inhibitor suramin and of several types of cross-refractoriness experiments, the UVC-induced CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation represents an as yet unrecognized route of UVC-induced signal transduction, independent of suramin-inhibitable growth factor receptors and different from the Erk 1,2-p62TCF pathway. PMID:9118940

  14. Invasive Vibrio cholerae Infection Following Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    as asymptomatic col- onization, otitis , gastroenteritis, soft-tissue infection, sepsis, or even cerebritis. In contrast, epidemic V. cholerae (O-1 or...cholerae grows well on common blood agar, with decreased bacterial over- growth on selective media , such as TCBS agar. As noted in our case (Figure 1), it...is possible for both epidemic and nonepidemic strains to have a “rugose” phenotype on nonselective media , and usually a smooth phenotype on TCBS.11

  15. Re-emergence of Cholera Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Berger; Shapiro

    1997-06-01

    Although epidemic cholera was first described in 1817, the disease probably has been common in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times.1 Until recently, a single bacterial type (Vibrio cholerae 01) has been responsible for each of the seven recorded cholera pandemics. The current epidemic began in Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia, in 1961, and is currently raging through all continents.2 During the 1990s, over 1 million cholera cases have been reported from Latin America, 2000 from Ukraine and the Russian Republic during 1994 alone (GIDEON computer software, C.Y. Informatics, Ramat Hasharon, Israel). Of the 208,755 cases of cholera (5034 fatal) officially reported to the World Health Organization in 1995,3 41.1% were from Latin America, 34.0% from Africa, 24.4% from Asia, and 0.5% from Europe and Oceania. Interest in our own country of Israel stems from the popularity of tourism (over 1 million travelers exit Israel yearly) and the presence of disease in neighboring areas. Following an epidemic of 397 cases in Jerusalem during 1970, periodic outbreaks have occurred in Gaza, Judea and Samaria.4 Three tourists returned with the infection to Israel during the 1980s, all from Egypt (which officially claims to have no cholera).5 Despite universal interest in this ancient disease, medical science has long been frustrated in its search for an effective vaccine. The most important 'vaccine' against cholera is common sense, and consists of intelligent eating and drinking while in endemic areas. For example, local raw fish (ceviche) is a common source of the disease in Latin America, while shellfish (particularly oysters) are often implicated along the American Gulf Coast. Virtually all forms of water purification are effective against Vibrio cholerae. Although antibiotic prophylaxis might be considered in some circumstances (doxycycline; or a quinolone in areas of tetracycline resistance), it is not routinely advocated.

  16. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    PubMed

    Deen, Jacqueline; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Luquero, Francisco J; Troeger, Christopher; Reyburn, Rita; Lopez, Anna Lena; Debes, Amanda; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and so prioritisation is needed. We have developed a scenario approach to systematically classify situations in which oral cholera vaccination might be useful. Our scenario approach distinguishes between five types of cholera epidemiology based on experiences from around the world and provides evidence that we hope will spur the development of detailed guidelines on how and where oral cholera vaccines could, and should, be most rationally deployed.

  17. Outbreak of cholera in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and cholera worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Alyson Ann

    2011-10-13

    Cholera is an acute intestinal disease caused by infection of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium.  Often manifested as a constant diarrhoeal disease, Cholera is associated with significant mortality as well as economic loss due to the strain on health care.  Cholera often affects nations with lower economic status.  The recent outbreak of cholera in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo has affected thousands of people.  Here we review the past cholera epidemiology, molecular mechanisms of the bacterium, and the political and environmental aspects that affect the treatment and eradication of this disease.

  18. [The history of cholera epidemics in Israel].

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Eli; Bar-El, Dan; Schur, Natan

    2005-05-01

    During the years 1831-1918 Israel (Palestine at that time) suffered from repeated cholera epidemics. The cholera epidemics were the major cause of severe health crisis among the population. The epidemics were transmitted by returening pilgrims returning from Mecca and, during the first world War, by the Turkish soldiers crossing the country. The disease caused panic amongst the population due to its high mortality rate. Quarantine which was the major measure taken by the government at that time was repeatedly broken by people trying to escape from the affected area. During the epidemic of 1902, patients were even reluctant to be treated by physicians as they were blamed for causing death. On the other hand, cholera was a major trigger for maintaining a better sanitation and establishing social relief systems within the communities. Most of the epidemics occurred in the old cities such as Jerusalem, Tiberia and Jaffa where infrastructure was inadequate. Cholera outbreaks were the trigger to build outside the old cities as in case of Jerusalem in which after the 1865 outbreak the city was expanded outside the walls. Since the end of the Ottoman period in Israel, cholera epidemics ceased, and except for very small occeasional small outbreaks, cholera is not seen here more.

  19. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN BANGLADESH

    PubMed Central

    Koepke, Amanda A.; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Wakefield, Jon; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model. The entire system is treated as a continuous-time hidden Markov model, where the hidden Markov states are the numbers of people who are susceptible, infected, or recovered at each time point, and the observed states are the numbers of cholera cases reported. We use a Bayesian framework to fit this hidden SIRS model, implementing particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to sample from the posterior distribution of the environmental and transmission parameters given the observed data. We test this method using both simulation and data from Mathbaria, Bangladesh. Parameter estimates are used to make short-term predictions that capture the formation and decline of epidemic peaks. We demonstrate that our model can successfully predict an increase in the number of infected individuals in the population weeks before the observed number of cholera cases increases, which could allow for early notification of an epidemic and timely allocation of resources. PMID:27746850

  20. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  1. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, VdHog1, regulates osmotic stress response, microsclerotia formation and virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Longyan; Xiong, Dianguang; Klosterman, Steven J; Xiao, Shuxiao; Tian, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae has gained worldwide notoriety as a destructive plant pathogen, causing vascular wilt diseases on diverse plant species. V. dahliae produces melanized resting bodies, known as microsclerotia, which can survive for 15 years in the soil, and are thus critically important in its disease cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin microsclerotia formation, survival, and germination remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that deletion of VdHog1 (ΔVdHog1), encoding a homolog of a high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response mitogen-activated protein kinase, displayed decreased numbers of melanized microsclerotia in culture, heightened sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and increased resistance to the fungicide fludioxonil. Through RNA-Seq analysis, we identified 221 genes differentially expressed in the ΔVdHog1 strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of genes involved in melanin biosynthesis, as well as the hydrophobin gene VDH1, involved in the early stage of microsclerotia formation, were significantly decreased in the ΔVdHog1 strains relative to the wild-type expression levels. The ΔVdHog1 strains exhibited decreased virulence relative to the wild type strain on smoke tree seedlings. These results indicate that VdHog1 regulates hyperosmotic stress responses in V. dahliae, and establishes the Hog1-mediated pathway as a target to further probe the up- and downstream processes that regulate asexual development in this fungus.

  2. Assessment of swine worker exposures to dust and endotoxin during hog load-out and power washing.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Peters, Thomas; Donham, Kelley; Taylor, Craig; Altmaier, Ralph; Kelly, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    Field measurements of personal and area dust and endotoxin concentrations were obtained while agricultural workers performed two work tasks that have been previously unreported: hog load-out and swine building power washing. Hog load-out involves moving hogs from their pens in finishing buildings into a truck for transport to a meat processor. High pressure power washing is conducted for sanitation purposes after a building has been emptied of hogs to remove surface and floor debris. This debris consists of feed, feces, and hog dander as dust or an encrusted form. The hog load-out process necessarily increases pig activity which is known to increase airborne dust concentrations. An unintended consequence of power washing is that the material covering surfaces is forcibly ejected into the atmosphere, creating the potential for a highly concentrated aerosol exposure to workers. The load-out process resulted in a median personal inhalable mass concentration of 7.14 mg m(-) (3) and median endotoxin concentration of 12 150 endotoxin units (EU) m(-) (3). When converted to an 8-h time-weighted average for a 'total' sampler, one of the 19 samples exceeded a regulatory limit of 15 mg m(-) (3). An impinger was used to sample power washing endotoxin concentrations, which resulted in a median personal concentration of 40 350 EU m(-) (3). These concentrations were among the highest found in the literature for any occupation. With the lack of engineering controls present to reduce airborne contaminant concentrations in swine buildings, either respirator use or a reduction in exposure time is recommended while performing these tasks.

  3. Second-pandemic strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Philadelphia cholera outbreak of 1849.

    PubMed

    Devault, Alison M; Golding, G Brian; Waglechner, Nicholas; Enk, Jacob M; Kuch, Melanie; Tien, Joseph H; Shi, Mang; Fisman, David N; Dhody, Anna N; Forrest, Stephen; Bos, Kirsten I; Earn, David J D; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2014-01-23

    In the 19th century, there were several major cholera pandemics in the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and North America. The causes of these outbreaks and the genomic strain identities remain a mystery. We used targeted high-throughput sequencing to reconstruct the Vibrio cholerae genome from the preserved intestine of a victim of the 1849 cholera outbreak in Philadelphia, part of the second cholera pandemic. This O1 biotype strain has 95 to 97% similarity with the classical O395 genome, differing by 203 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), lacking three genomic islands, and probably having one or more tandem cholera toxin prophage (CTX) arrays, which potentially affected its virulence. This result highlights archived medical remains as a potential resource for investigations into the genomic origins of past pandemics.

  4. Cholera incidence in a population offered cholera vaccination: comparison of cooperative and uncooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Azurin, J C; Alvero, M

    1971-01-01

    From May 1964 to December 1965, a controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines was conducted in Negros Occidental, Philippines. Some people did not volunteer for vaccination, and of those who did some received cholera vaccine and others a control (typhoid) vaccine. After analysing he incidence of cholera among these three groups it was found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly higher in the unvaccinated group than in either the control vaccine group or the cholera vaccine group. This would indicate that the unvaccinated group is basically different from the vaccinated control group. The clinical course of the disease was the same whether the patient had been vaccinated or not. The reasons for non-vaccination were investigated and should be taken into account by public health agencies when immunization programmes are being planned.

  5. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  6. Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David; Young, Jennifer; Carr, Chad; Ryan, Matt; Berg, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport of hogs is a routine practice in the swine industry. Loading pigs onto the trailer, transporting them to the plant, and having them wait in an unfamiliar pen at the plant prior to slaughter are all stressful to the pigs. Seasonal changes in temperatures can also affect the amount of stress a hog is subjected to during transport to market. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transportation and lairage conditions on stress, evaluated by measuring serum cortisol concentrations, and the effect on pork quality. Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage. PMID:26479004

  7. The erratic evolution of cholera therapy: from folklore to science.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C C

    1990-01-01

    Cholera is an exceptionally frightening epidemic disease because it kills its victims so very rapidly. The development of cholera therapy is traced from the early 19th century purges and bloodletting to the current use of oral rehydration solutions.

  8. An outbreak of nosocomial cholera in a rural Bangladesh hospital.

    PubMed

    Ryder, R W; Rahman, A S; Alim, A R; Yunis, M D; Houda, B S

    1986-11-01

    At a time of year when Vibrio cholerae infection accounted for over 50% of admissions to a rural Bangladeshi diarrhoea treatment centre, 29% of 48 patients hospitalized with non-cholera diarrhoea developed nosocomial V. cholerae infection. During an investigation of the 8-week outbreak, only the severity of the non-cholera diarrhoea which prompted hospital admission emerged as an important risk factor for nosocomial infection; food, intravenous solutions, oral rehydration fluid, patient attendants and hospital personnel could not be implicated as transmission sources. Patients receiving antibiotics while hospitalized did not develop nosocomial infection. Antecedent non-cholera diarrhoea may represent an important risk factor in some cases of V. cholerae infection occurring in persons who reside in cholera-endemic areas where rates of non-cholera diarrhoea are also high.

  9. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N′,N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and

  10. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic

  11. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Koepke, Amanda A; Kenah, Eben E; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; LaRocque, Regina C; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Longini, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the

  12. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Allred, Benjamin E; Raymond, Kenneth N; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-09-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N',N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and acquire essential

  13. Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

  14. [A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Shi, C; Li, P; Ma, Q

    1997-01-01

    A promoter sequence, which promotes the transcription of cholera toxin B subunit gene, was found in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. The transcription starts at the adenine Located at +833, that is 456bp upstream to the A of the initiation codon ATG of cholera toxin B gene. Under the control of the promoter, cholera toxin B subunit was over-expressed as high as 200 mg/L at an optimized culture condition. The chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene and beta-galactosidase could also be efficiently expressed under the direction of the promoter. This promoter may be responsible for the 6 fold and 7 fold higher expression level of cholera toxin B subunit than cholera toxin A subunit in V. cholerae and Escheria coli respectively. The over-expression of CTB may be useful in preparing vaccine against cholera and facilitating the construction of peptide-bearing immunogenic hybrid proteins.

  15. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  16. Replication of Vibrio cholerae classical CTX phage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Chun, Jongsik; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-02-28

    The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication. However, the identification of atypical El Tor strains that contain CTX-cla-like phage, CTX-2, indicates that CTX-cla and CTX-2 replicate and can be transmitted to V. cholerae strains. The replication of CTX-cla and CTX-2 phages and the transduction of El Tor biotype strains by various CTX phages under laboratory conditions are demonstrated in this report. We have established a plasmid-based CTX phage replication system that supports the replication of CTX-1, CTX-cla, CTX-2, and CTX-O139. The replication of CTX-2 from the tandem repeat of lysogenic CTX-2 in Wave 2 El Tor strains is also presented. El Tor biotype strains can be transduced by CTX phages in vitro by introducing a point mutation in toxT, the transcriptional activator of the tcp (toxin coregulated pilus) gene cluster and the cholera toxin gene. This mutation also increases the expression of cholera toxin in El Tor strains in a sample single-phase culture. Our results thus constitute experimental evidence of the genetic mechanism of the evolution of V. cholerae.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequences of 26 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Watve, Samit S.; Chande, Aroon T.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae employs several adaptive mechanisms for environmental persistence, including natural transformation and type VI secretion, creating a reservoir for the spread of disease. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of 26 diverse V. cholerae isolates, significantly increasing the sequence diversity of publicly available V. cholerae genomes. PMID:28007852

  18. Back to the Future: Studying Cholera Pathogenesis Using Infant Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Rui, Haopeng; Bronson, Roderick T.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease, caused by Vibrio cholerae, for which there has been no reproducible, nonsurgical animal model. Here, we report that orogastric inoculation of V. cholerae into 3-day-old rabbits pretreated with cimetidine led to lethal, watery diarrhea in virtually all rabbits. The appearance and chemical composition of the rabbit diarrheal fluid were comparable to those of the “rice-water stool” produced by cholera patients. As in humans, V. cholerae mutants that do not produce cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) did not induce cholera-like disease in rabbits. CT induced extensive exocytosis of mucin from intestinal goblet cells, and wild-type V. cholerae was predominantly found in close association with mucin. Large aggregates of mucin-embedded V. cholerae were observed, both attached to the epithelium and floating within the diarrheal fluid. These findings suggest that CT-dependent mucin secretion significantly influences V. cholerae’s association with the host intestine and its exit from the intestinal tract. Our model should facilitate identification and analyses of factors that may govern V. cholerae infection, survival, and transmission, such as mucin. In addition, our results using nontoxigenic V. cholerae suggest that infant rabbits will be useful for study of the reactogenicity of live attenuated-V. cholerae vaccines. PMID:20689747

  19. Seasonal Cholera Caused by Vibrio cholerae Serogroups O1 and O139 in the Coastal Aquatic Environment of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A.; Sadique, Abdus; Bhuiyan, N. A.; Ahmed, Kabir U.; Nusrin, Suraia; Nair, G. Balakrish; Siddique, A. K.; Sack, R. Bradley; Sack, David A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2006-01-01

    Since Vibrio cholerae O139 first appeared in 1992, both O1 El Tor and O139 have been recognized as the epidemic serogroups, although their geographic distribution, endemicity, and reservoir are not fully understood. To address this lack of information, a study of the epidemiology and ecology of V. cholerae O1 and O139 was carried out in two coastal areas, Bakerganj and Mathbaria, Bangladesh, where cholera occurs seasonally. The results of a biweekly clinical study (January 2004 to May 2005), employing culture methods, and of an ecological study (monthly in Bakerganj and biweekly in Mathbaria from March 2004 to May 2005), employing direct and enrichment culture, colony blot hybridization, and direct fluorescent-antibody methods, showed that cholera is endemic in both Bakerganj and Mathbaria and that V. cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 are autochthonous to the aquatic environment. Although V. cholerae O1 and O139 were isolated from both areas, most noteworthy was the isolation of V. cholerae O139 in March, July, and September 2004 in Mathbaria, where seasonal cholera was clinically linked only to V. cholerae O1. In Mathbaria, V. cholerae O139 emerged as the sole cause of a significant outbreak of cholera in March 2005. V. cholerae O1 reemerged clinically in April 2005 and established dominance over V. cholerae O139, continuing to cause cholera in Mathbaria. In conclusion, the epidemic potential and coastal aquatic reservoir for V. cholerae O139 have been demonstrated. Based on the results of this study, the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal is concluded to be a significant reservoir for the epidemic serogroups of V. cholerae. PMID:16751520

  20. Seasonal dynamics of Vibrio cholerae and its phages in riverine ecosystem of Gangetic West Bengal: cholera paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Subham; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Lara, Ruben J; Sarkar, Banwarilal; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Palit, Anup

    2014-10-01

    The Gangetic delta is a century-old cholera endemic belt where the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission has never been elucidated. Seasonality, distribution, and abundance of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and vibriophage in Hooghly riverine-estuarine environment and their correlation with cholera incidence pattern in West Bengal, India, have been analyzed for the first time across summer, monsoon, and winter months. A total of 146 water samples collected from two sites of the Hooghly River (Howrah and Diamond Harbour) were analyzed physicochemically along with cultivable Vibrio count (CVC), V. cholerae O1/O139, and vibriophages. V. cholerae O1 was detected in 56 (38.3%) samples, while 66 (45.2%) were positive for V. cholerae O1 phages. Flood tide, water temperature (31 ± 1.6 °C), and turbidity (≥250 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU)) significantly stimulated V. cholerae and vibriophage abundance in riverine ecosystem. Solitary existence of V. cholerae O1 and phages (p < 0.0001) in aquatic environment divulges the dominance of either of the entity (V. cholerae O1 or V. cholerae O1 Φ) on the other. Significant association (p < 0.05) between Kolkata cholera cases and V. cholerae O1 in aquatic environment implies the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission. A "biomonitoring tool" of physicochemical stimulants, tidal, and climatic variants has been proposed collating V. cholerae and phage dynamics that can forewarn any impending cholera outbreak.

  1. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Young; Rashed, Shah M; Hasan, Nur A; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Eppinger, Mark; Ravel, Jacques; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro; Colwell, Rita R

    2016-03-15

    An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX(-)) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX(+)) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX(+) variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX(-) V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX(+) El Tor, two were CTX(-) El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX(+) classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX(-) isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX(+) V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX(-) isolate joined with CTX(-) non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX(+) isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX(+) El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX(+) El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA) recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity. Sequencing of genomes of V. cholerae is critical if genetic changes occurring over time in the circulating population of an area of endemicity are to be understood. Although cholera outbreaks occurred rarely

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Diarrhea and Cholera following an Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaign in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Eleanor; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ogaoga, Divi; Gaiofa, Jenny; Jilini, Gregory; Halpin, Alison; Dietz, Vance; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Hyde, Terri; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Yen, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to a 2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, the Government of the Solomon Islands initiated a cholera prevention program which included cholera disease prevention and treatment messaging, community meetings, and a pre-emptive cholera vaccination campaign targeting 11,000 children aged 1–15 years in selected communities in Choiseul and Western Provinces. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted a post-vaccination campaign, household-level survey about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera in areas targeted and not targeted for cholera vaccination. Respondents in vaccinated areas were more likely to have received cholera education in the previous 6 months (33% v. 9%; p = 0.04), to know signs and symptoms (64% vs. 22%; p = 0.02) and treatment (96% vs. 50%; p = 0.02) of cholera, and to be aware of cholera vaccine (48% vs. 14%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in water, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Conclusions This pre-emptive OCV campaign in a cholera-naïve community provided a unique opportunity to assess household-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea, cholera, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Our findings suggest that education provided during the vaccination campaign may have reinforced earlier mass messaging about cholera and diarrheal disease in vaccinated communities. PMID:27548678

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Diarrhea and Cholera following an Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaign in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Eleanor; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ogaoga, Divi; Gaiofa, Jenny; Jilini, Gregory; Halpin, Alison; Dietz, Vance; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Hyde, Terri; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Yen, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    In response to a 2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, the Government of the Solomon Islands initiated a cholera prevention program which included cholera disease prevention and treatment messaging, community meetings, and a pre-emptive cholera vaccination campaign targeting 11,000 children aged 1-15 years in selected communities in Choiseul and Western Provinces. We conducted a post-vaccination campaign, household-level survey about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera in areas targeted and not targeted for cholera vaccination. Respondents in vaccinated areas were more likely to have received cholera education in the previous 6 months (33% v. 9%; p = 0.04), to know signs and symptoms (64% vs. 22%; p = 0.02) and treatment (96% vs. 50%; p = 0.02) of cholera, and to be aware of cholera vaccine (48% vs. 14%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in water, sanitation, and hygiene practices. This pre-emptive OCV campaign in a cholera-naïve community provided a unique opportunity to assess household-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea, cholera, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Our findings suggest that education provided during the vaccination campaign may have reinforced earlier mass messaging about cholera and diarrheal disease in vaccinated communities.

  4. Role of Shrimp Chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Shamsun; Sultana, Marzia; Naser, M Niamul; Nair, Gopinath B; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shouji; Endtz, Hubert; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, R Bradley; Hasan, Nur A; Sadique, Abdus; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. V. cholerae within the microenvironments of chitin and chitin-associated biofilms remained metabolically active even in a high acidic environment without losing either viability or virulence. It is concluded that the abundance of chitin that occurs during blooms plays an important role in the aquatic life cycle of V. cholerae and, ultimately, in the seasonal transmission of cholera.

  5. Role of Shrimp Chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Shamsun; Sultana, Marzia; Naser, M. Niamul; Nair, Gopinath B.; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shouji; Endtz, Hubert; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, R. Bradley; Hasan, Nur A.; Sadique, Abdus; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Alam, Munirul

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW–CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. V. cholerae within the microenvironments of chitin and chitin-associated biofilms remained metabolically active even in a high acidic environment without losing either viability or virulence. It is concluded that the abundance of chitin that occurs during blooms plays an important role in the aquatic life cycle of V. cholerae and, ultimately, in the seasonal transmission of cholera. PMID:22319512

  6. Nepalese origin of cholera epidemic in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, R R; Keim, P S; Barrais, R; Piarroux, R

    2012-06-01

    Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500 000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Resurgence of cholera in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. H.; Lai, S. T.; Lai, J. Y.; Leung, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    Cholera is one of the three diseases subject to the International Health Regulations. After a period of over 30 years, the seventh pandemic of cholera, which started in South East Asia in 1961, still shows no sign of a decline. On the contrary, it has increased its severity and invaded many other countries in Africa and Latin America. In the last two years, there has been a recrudescence of the disease in South East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. The discovery of a new strain of Vibrio cholerae 0139 in these regions is causing concern in view of its potential to cause major epidemics and higher mortality. Hong Kong had two intensive outbreaks of cholera in the last two years. The cause of these outbreaks was not clear, but adverse environmental conditions and increasing pollution of coastal waters have been implicated. The spread of cholera knows no geographical boundaries. There is a need for intensified efforts among health authorities in the affected areas to prevent the international spread of the disease. PMID:8760949

  8. Resurgence of cholera in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lai, S T; Lai, J Y; Leung, N K

    1996-08-01

    Cholera is one of the three diseases subject to the International Health Regulations. After a period of over 30 years, the seventh pandemic of cholera, which started in South East Asia in 1961, still shows no sign of a decline. On the contrary, it has increased its severity and invaded many other countries in Africa and Latin America. In the last two years, there has been a recrudescence of the disease in South East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. The discovery of a new strain of Vibrio cholerae 0139 in these regions is causing concern in view of its potential to cause major epidemics and higher mortality. Hong Kong had two intensive outbreaks of cholera in the last two years. The cause of these outbreaks was not clear, but adverse environmental conditions and increasing pollution of coastal waters have been implicated. The spread of cholera knows no geographical boundaries. There is a need for intensified efforts among health authorities in the affected areas to prevent the international spread of the disease.

  9. Transferable quinolone resistance in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Bin; Wang, Minghua; Ahmed, Sabeena; Park, Chi Hye; LaRocque, Regina C; Faruque, Abu S G; Salam, Mohammed A; Khan, Wasif A; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Jacoby, George A; Hooper, David C

    2010-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin was introduced for treatment of patients with cholera in Bangladesh because of resistance to other agents, but its utility has been compromised by the decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae over time. We correlated levels of susceptibility and temporal patterns with the occurrence of mutation in gyrA, which encodes a subunit of DNA gyrase, followed by mutation in parC, which encodes a subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV. We found that ciprofloxacin activity was more recently further compromised in strains containing qnrVC3, which encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein of the Qnr subfamily, members of which protect topoisomerases from quinolone action. We show that qnrVC3 confers transferable low-level quinolone resistance and is present within a member of the SXT integrating conjugative element family found commonly on the chromosomes of multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae and on the chromosomes of Escherichia coli transconjugants constructed in the laboratory. Thus, progressive increases in quinolone resistance in V. cholerae are linked to cumulative mutations in quinolone targets and most recently to a qnr gene on a mobile multidrug resistance element, resulting in further challenges for the antimicrobial therapy of cholera.

  10. Seroepidemiology of cholera in Gulf coastal Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, M D; Woodward, W E; Keswick, B H; Dupont, H L

    1988-01-01

    Single serum samples from 559 volunteers from a Texas Gulf Coast area were examined for vibriocidal antibody to Vibrio cholerae O1 (biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba) by a microtiter method. Elevated levels of vibriocidal antibody were present in 14% of the subjects. Also, 6.8% of the subjects had elevated levels of antibody to the enterotoxin of V. cholerae O1 by the immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recent infection, defined on the basis of elevations in both vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies, had occurred in 1.3% of the subjects. When subjects who reported Brucella infection, travel to a cholera-endemic area, and/or cholera vaccination within a year of the study were removed from the analysis, a prevalence of recent infection of 0.89% was obtained. Significantly higher titers of vibriocidal antibody were found in those with exposure to seawater (fishermen, shrimpers, merchant marines, and dock workers) than in those without such exposure (P less than 0.005). Furthermore, titers of antitoxin antibody were significantly higher in those who consumed shellfish than in nonconsumers. Finally, titers of vibriocidal antibody were significantly higher in Vietnamese subjects than in non-Vietnamese subjects. The results of this study indicate that an endemic focus of infection with V. cholerae occurs in this area. PMID:3415232

  11. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Young; Rashed, Shah M.; Hasan, Nur A.; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Eppinger, Mark; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX−) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX+) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX+ variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX− V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX+ El Tor, two were CTX− El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX+ classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX− isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX+ V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX− isolate joined with CTX− non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX+ isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX+ El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX+ El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA) recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26980836

  12. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  13. Hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, induces Hog1-dependent stress response signaling and causes aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takeki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that phenyl hydroquinone, a hepatic metabolite of the Ames test-negative carcinogen o-phenylphenol, efficiently induced aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M transition as a result of the activation of the Hog1 (p38 MAPK homolog)-Swe1 (Wee1 homolog) pathway. In this experiment, we examined the aneuploidy forming effects of hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, since both phenyl hydroquinone and hydroquinone are Ames-test negative carcinogens and share similar molecular structures. As was seen in phenyl hydroquinone, hydroquinone induced aneuploidy in yeast by delaying the cell cycle at the G2/M transition. Deficiencies in SWE1 and HOG1 abolished the hydroquinone-induced delay at the G2/M transition and aneuploidy formation. Furthermore, Hog1 was phosphorylated by hydroquinone, which may stabilize Swe1. These data indicate that the hydroquinone-induced G2/M transition checkpoint, which is activated by the Hog1-Swe1 pathway, plays a role in the formation of aneuploidy.

  14. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  15. Predicting spacing behavior and mating systems of solitary cervids: a study of hog deer and Indian muntjac.

    PubMed

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of current theory for predicting ecological and allometric effects on space use, social structure and mating systems of poorly known solitary cervids, based on a comparative analysis of radio-telemetry data on hog deer Axis porcinus (N=32) and Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak (N=28). The larger and sexually size-dimorphic hog deer inhabit highly productive alluvial floodplains, where resource distribution is patchy and spatiotemporally unpredictable. As predicted for this species, site fidelity was low and range sizes varied among sex and age groups and among seasons. Hog deer were probably non-territorial, as home range sizes seemed too large to be exclusive when taking into account their high population density. Extensive movements of adult males during the rut implied "roaming" as a mating strategy. The smaller, forest-dwelling and sexually size-monomorphic muntjacs inhabit a more uniform and stable habitat. As predicted, muntjacs exhibited higher site fidelity than hog deer, and no seasonal variations in home range sizes. Adults exhibited relatively large home range overlap, both inter- and intrasexually. Hence, strict territoriality did not occur, but their well-defined home ranges and high site fidelity indicated some form of site-specific dominance. In conclusion, habitat characteristics were appropriate predictors of home range sizes and site fidelity. Body mass appeared to be a suitable predictor of intraspecific patterns in space use but a poor predictor of interspecific patterns, probably due to a confounding effect of habitat productivity.

  16. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

  17. MAPK Hog1 closes the S. cerevisiae glycerol channel Fps1 by phosphorylating and displacing its positive regulators

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongmin; Reiter, Wolfgang; Dohnal, Ilse; Gregori, Christa; Beese-Sims, Sara; Kuchler, Karl; Ammerer, Gustav; Levin, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The aquaglyceroprin Fps1 is responsible for glycerol transport in yeast in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity. Control of Fps1 channel activity in response to hyperosmotic shock involves a redundant pair of regulators, Rgc1 (regulator of the glycerol channel 1) and Rgc2, and the MAPK Hog1 (high-osmolarity glycerol response 1). However, the mechanism by which these factors influence channel activity is unknown. We show that Rgc2 maintains Fps1 in the open channel state in the absence of osmotic stress by binding to its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. This interaction involves a tripartite pleckstrin homology (PH) domain within Rgc2 and a partial PH domain within Fps1. Activation of Hog1 in response to hyperosmotic shock induces the rapid eviction of Rgc2 from Fps1 and consequent channel closure. Hog1 was recruited to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of Fps1, which it uses as a platform from which to multiply phosphorylate Rgc2. Thus, these results reveal the mechanism by which Hog1 regulates Fps1 in response to hyperosmotic shock. PMID:24298058

  18. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  19. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  20. Phylogeny of Vibrio cholerae Based on recA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Stine, O. Colin; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gou, Qing; Zheng, Siqen; Morris, J. Glenn; Johnson, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 113 Vibrio cholerae strains and closely related species. One hundred eighty-seven nucleotides were phylogenetically informative, 55 were phylogenetically uninformative, and 463 were invariant. Not unexpectedly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains formed out-groups; we also identified isolates which resembled V. cholerae biochemically but which did not cluster with V. cholerae. In many instances, V. cholerae serogroup designations did not correlate with phylogeny, as reflected by recA sequence divergence. This observation is consistent with the idea that there is horizontal transfer of O-antigen biosynthesis genes among V. cholerae strains. PMID:11083852

  1. Hybrid Vibrio cholerae El Tor Lacking SXT Identified as the Cause of a Cholera Outbreak in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Klinzing, David C.; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A.; Matias, Ronald R.; Tayag, Enrique; Geronimo, Josefina; Skowronski, Evan; Rashed, Shah M.; Kawashima, Kent; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Gibbons, Henry S.; Torres, Brian C.; Liles, Veni; Alfon, Alicia C.; Juan, Maria Luisa; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera continues to be a global threat, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In 2011, a cholera outbreak occurred in Palawan, Philippines, affecting more than 500 people, and 20 individuals died. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source attribution is critical in cholera outbreaks for proper management of the disease, as well as to control spread. In this study, three V. cholerae O1 isolates from a Philippines cholera outbreak were sequenced and their genomes analyzed to determine phylogenetic relatedness to V. cholerae O1 isolates from recent outbreaks of cholera elsewhere. The Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates were determined to be V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor belonging to the seventh-pandemic clade. They clustered tightly, forming a monophyletic clade closely related to V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor from Asia and Africa. The isolates possess a unique multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotype (12-7-9-18-25 and 12-7-10-14-21) and lack SXT. In addition, they possess a novel 15-kb genomic island (GI-119) containing a predicted type I restriction-modification system. The CTXΦ-RS1 array of the Philippines isolates was similar to that of V. cholerae O1 MG116926, a hybrid El Tor strain isolated in Bangladesh in 1991. Overall, the data indicate that the Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates are unique, differing from recent V. cholerae O1 isolates from Asia, Africa, and Haiti. Furthermore, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the Philippines isolates of V. cholerae O1 are indigenous and exist locally in the aquatic ecosystem of the Philippines. PMID:25900650

  2. Cholera in Thomas Mann's Death in Venice.

    PubMed

    Rütten, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article sets the cholera motif in Thomas Mann's famous novella Death in Venice against the historical context from which it partially originates. It is shown that this motif, while undoubtedly appropriated to serve Mann's own poetic ends, has a solid grounding in historical and autobiographical fact, thus blurring the boundaries between fact and fiction. The article illustrates the verifiable events of the outbreak of the Venetian cholera epidemic in May 1911, which Mann partly witnessed himself, during a holiday trip to Brioni and Venice, and partly heard and read about. It is established that Thomas Mann's account of the cholera in Venice in his novella is characterised by a rare and almost preternatural insightfulness into an otherwise murky affair that was marked by rumours, speculations and denials.

  3. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  4. The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Rudolph, Kara E; Cummings, Derek A T; Lessler, Justin

    2013-05-01

    Recent large cholera outbreaks highlight the need for improved understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of cholera. The incubation period of cholera has important implications for clinical and public health decision-making, yet statements of the incubation period of cholera are often imprecise. Here we characterize the distribution of cholera's incubation period. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for statements of the incubation period of cholera and data that might aid in its estimation. We extracted individual-level data, parametrically estimated the distribution of toxigenic cholera's incubation period, and evaluated evidence for differences between strains. The incubation period did not differ by a clinically significant margin between strains (except O1 El Tor Ogawa). We estimate the median incubation period of toxigenic cholera to be 1.4 days (95% CI, 1.3-1.6). Five percent of cholera cases will develop symptoms by 0.5 days (95% CI 0.4-0.5), and 95% by 4.4 days (95% CI 3.9-5.0) after infection. We recommend that cholera investigations use a recall period of at least five days to capture relevant exposures; significantly longer than recent risk factor studies from the Haitian epidemic. This characterization of cholera's incubation period can help improve clinical and public health practice and advance epidemiologic research. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Drainage Networks on Cholera Outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Cheelo, Meetwell

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between precipitation patterns and cholera outbreaks and the preventative roles of drainage networks against outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods. We collected data on 6542 registered cholera patients in the 2003–2004 outbreak season and on 6045 cholera patients in the 2005–2006 season. Correlations between monthly cholera incidences and amount of precipitation were examined. The distribution pattern of the disease was analyzed by a kriging spatial analysis method. We analyzed cholera case distribution and spatiotemporal cluster by using 2590 cholera cases traced with a global positioning system in the 2005–2006 season. The association between drainage networks and cholera cases was analyzed with regression analysis. Results. Increased precipitation was associated with the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, and insufficient drainage networks were statistically associated with cholera incidences. Conclusions. Insufficient coverage of drainage networks elevated the risk of cholera outbreaks. Integrated development is required to upgrade high-risk areas with sufficient infrastructure for a long-term cholera prevention strategy. PMID:19762668

  6. Discovery of genome-wideSNPs by RAD-seqand the genetic diversity of captive hog deer (Axis porcinus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Huijuan; Yu, Jianqiu; Yi, Jun; Qu, Yu; Fu, Maozhong; Chen, Ang; Tang, Hui; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-01

    The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a small deer whose natural habitat is the wet or moist tall grasslands in South and Southeast Asia. Wild populations have dramatically decreased in recent decades. While wild hog deer were recently acknowledged to be extinct in China, a few captive populations have been maintained. In the present study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) technique to generate a genome-wide profile of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the captive population of hog deer from Chengdu Zoo, China (N = 11). Up to 4.7 million clean reads per sample were sequenced, and 11,155 SNPs and 8,247 haplotypes were simultaneously observed within more than 80% of sequenced individuals. In this population, the mean frequency of major alleles at each polymorphism site was 0.7903±0.0014, and the average nucleotide diversity (π) and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were 0.3031±0.0015 and -0.0302±0.0062, respectively. Additionally, the Euclidean distance-based multidimensional scaling method revealed that the pairwise genetic relatedness was evenly distributed. However, the results of homologous searching by short reads did not provide any meaningful explanation of the phylogenetic relationship of hog deer, which should be further investigated. In conclusion, our results revealed current state of genetic diversity in this captive population of hog deer.Furthermore, these genome-wide SNPs would be useful for guiding the mating schedule to avoid sharp increase of inbreeding coefficient.

  7. The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

  8. Development of a HOG-based real-time PCR method to detect stress response changes in mycotoxigenic moulds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    There is a need to understand the mechanism of adaptation of toxigenic fungal species which are able to colonise highly specialised foods such as cured meats where there is a high osmotic stress due to the presence up to 20-22% NaCl during the ripening process. A new tool able to detect changes in stress related genes would be useful to understand the ecological reasons for the ability of these species to grow in specialised niches. In this work a real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green was developed. Primers were designed from the Hog1 gene involved in osmo-adaptation in fungi. For this, conserved regions resulting from the alignment of 26 published partial sequences of such gene were used. Specificity of primers HogF2/R2 was demonstrated when amplified, producing a unique 131-bp PCR product with a Tm value of 84 °C. The qPCR method showed an efficiency of 98%, R(2) value > 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.7 log Hog1 gene copies. The qPCR method to measure changes in the Hog1 gene expression in relation to growth in ionic and non-ionic stressed environments (using 10-40% NaCl and sorbitol concentrations) was found to be suitable for two mycotoxigenic species (Penicillium nordicum, P. expansum). This assay will be a valuable tool for generating relevant Hog1 expression data from different mould species in relation to different stresses in food habitats. It will also be a good tool for a better understanding of the ability of xerophilic and xerotolerant species to colonise extreme environments.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of swine manure as alternative feedstock for the Del Valle Hog Farm fuel alcohol facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Vinson, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this proejct was to investigate the use of swine manure as a feedstock for fuel alcohol plants. The project was conducted on the Del Valle Hog Farm and made use of the 24 gal/day fuel alcohol plant in operation there. The project involved the determination of the starch content of various samples of hog manure, and if an adequate source of starch was found, to use that manure as feedstock in full scale tests that would lead to a determination of the economic feasibility of such use. A full scale test consists of the conversion and fermentation of about 250 gallon batches of test feedstock. The production yield was determined by measurement of evolved gas during fermentation. The analysis of raw hog manure samples indicate that a good portion, about 19% by weight, of the dry matter is starch. The plant modifications required to operate with hog manure as feedstock appear to be reasonable and inexpensive. Full efficiency of conversion and fermentation was achieved with mash of about 4% solids concentration. However, with solids concentrations of 10% to 15%, the yeast died within a short time. A theory for the yeast deaths is that some yeast poison is present in the manure, and that it can be mitigated by dilution with water. Lab scale experiments confirm the dilution dependent behavior, however, no determination of the nature of the poison has been made. The study concludes that hog manure would be a viable feedstock if the yeast deaths can be prevented. The mash concentration could then be raised to 25% solids, and with screened manure of say 40% starch, the alcohol plant would work at 137% capacity with the same operating costs (acid, lime, yeast, but not heat) as with a batch of milo.

  10. Discovery of genome-wideSNPs by RAD-seqand the genetic diversity of captive hog deer (Axis porcinus)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianqiu; Yi, Jun; Qu, Yu; Fu, Maozhong; Chen, Ang; Tang, Hui; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-01

    The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a small deer whose natural habitat is the wet or moist tall grasslands in South and Southeast Asia. Wild populations have dramatically decreased in recent decades. While wild hog deer were recently acknowledged to be extinct in China, a few captive populations have been maintained. In the present study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) technique to generate a genome-wide profile of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the captive population of hog deer from Chengdu Zoo, China (N = 11). Up to 4.7 million clean reads per sample were sequenced, and 11,155 SNPs and 8,247 haplotypes were simultaneously observed within more than 80% of sequenced individuals. In this population, the mean frequency of major alleles at each polymorphism site was 0.7903±0.0014, and the average nucleotide diversity (π) and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were 0.3031±0.0015 and -0.0302±0.0062, respectively. Additionally, the Euclidean distance-based multidimensional scaling method revealed that the pairwise genetic relatedness was evenly distributed. However, the results of homologous searching by short reads did not provide any meaningful explanation of the phylogenetic relationship of hog deer, which should be further investigated. In conclusion, our results revealed current state of genetic diversity in this captive population of hog deer.Furthermore, these genome-wide SNPs would be useful for guiding the mating schedule to avoid sharp increase of inbreeding coefficient. PMID:28323863

  11. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa.

  12. Local environmental predictors of cholera in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Emch, Michael; Feldacker, Caryl; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim; DinhThiem, Vu; Canh, Do Gia; Ali, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    Environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera and thus might prove useful for prediction. In Bangladesh and Vietnam, temporal cholera distributions are related to satellite-derived and in-situ environmental time series data in order to examine the relationships between cholera and the local environment. Ordered probit models examine associations in Bangladesh; probit models examine associations at 2 sites in Vietnam. Increases in ocean chlorophyll concentration are related to an increased magnitude of cholera in Bangladesh. Increases in sea surface temperature are most influential in Hue, Vietnam, whereas increases in river height have a significant role in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Cholera appearance and epidemic magnitude are related to the local environment. Local environmental parameters have consistent effects when cholera is regular and more prevalent in endemic settings, but in situations where cholera epidemics are rare there are differential environmental effects.

  13. Does Water Hyacinth on East African Lakes Promote Cholera Outbreaks?

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Tabu, Collins W.; Gichuki, John

    2010-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa. PMID:20682884

  14. Cholera in a developing megacity; Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, A.; Khan, A.; Malik, T.; Fisher-Hoch, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Despite rapid urbanization and increasing affluence in Karachi, cases of cholera are frequent. We analysed computerized isolation data from the AKUH Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karachi, from 1990-6 to examine microbiological, temporal and demographic trends in Vibrio cholerae infections. During this period 888 strains of V. cholerae (566 V. cholerae serogroup O1, and 204 V. cholerae serogroup O139) were isolated from specimens from 886 patients; 214/464 were adult inpatients, and 250/464 paediatric inpatients, the remaining 422 outpatients. Isolations peaked between June and August. Overlapping epidemics occurred in 1993 and 1994 of serogroup O1 (May to August), and serogroup O139 (August to October). All ages and social and economic strata were affected. Forty-four percent of all isolates were from children under the age of 5 years. The mean age of all patients with serogroup O1 infections was 19.6 years (+/-0.9) compared with 367 (+/-1.7) for serogroup O139 infections (P < 0.0001, t test). More than a quarter (27%) of all serogroup O1 isolates were from babies under 2 years of age. One patient had a serogroup O1 infection followed by a serogroup O139 infection 1 year later. Another patient was infected with serogroup O1 strains 5 years apart. Emergence of resistant strains was observed, but by 1996 serogroup O139 had disappeared. An aquatic organism, cholera nevertheless continues to take its toll in this city of 11 million situated in a desert. PMID:9440430

  15. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  16. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholera: possible infection from aircraft effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Rondle, C. J.; Ramesh, B.; Krahn, J. B.; Sherriff, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that some cases of cholera might be due to effluent discharge from aircraft. The theoretical case is borne out by inspection of data on the physical conditions pertaining between high altitudes and ground level. A study of the distribution of isolated outbreaks and single cases of disease and their relation to major airline routes showed a reasonable correspondence. Sporadic outbreaks of cholera in Europe between 1970 and 1975 were found to lie within the flight paths of regular airline services from Calcutta, where cholera is endemic, to the Northern Hemisphere. Laboratory studies on the stability of Vibrio cholerae to conditions likely to be encountered in droplets falling from high altitude to the ground suggested that significant numbers of organisms might survive. It should be noted that in this study no account was taken of the effect of ultra-violet light on viability and it is known that at high altitides the ultraviolet light component of solar radiation is much higher than at ground level. Results of experiments where small numbers of organisms were inoculated into relatively poor media showed that rapid growth ensued and that sufficient organisms were produced to give an infective dose of Vibrio cholerae in 1-10 ml/fluid. It could be concluded that human infection could easily occur by ingestion of fluids such as milk or soup which had some time earlier received a fortuitous but slight contamination from the air. Investigation of one disinfectant (chloramine T) showed that it reacted rapidly and in a complex manner with peptone. One effect of this reaction was the elimination of bactericidal activity and it seems likely that, as at present employed, chloramine T is of doubtful value in aeroplane hygiene. One important conclusion that arises from this work is that if cholera can be spread, even only occasionally, by effluent from aircraft then close investigation should be made of the possibility of other bacteria and

  18. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  19. In vitro synthesis of nitroxide free radicals by hog liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Valvis, I.I.; Lischick, D.; Shen, D.; Sofer, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biooxidation of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine (TEMP), 4-hydroxy-2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine (TEMO) and diphenylamine (DPA) by hog liver microsomes to their respective nitroxide free radicals, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), 2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine-1-oxyl (TEMOO), and diphenylnitroxide (DPNO) has been investigated. For extending the life span of the liver microsomes, a calcium alginate immobilization procedure was used. The biooxidation rates of the above amines to their respective nitroxide metabolites were measured by means of oxygen uptake at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. N-octylamine was found to be an activator in the biooxidation of the amines. The formation of the nitroxide radicals was identified by E.S.R. spectroscopy.

  20. Integrating epidemiology, education, and organizing for environmental justice: community health effects of industrial hog operations.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-08-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations' neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities.

  1. Integrating Epidemiology, Education, and Organizing for Environmental Justice: Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R.; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-01-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations’ neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities. PMID:18556620

  2. The Case for Reactive Mass Oral Cholera Vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L.; Grais, Rebecca F.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L.; Jiddawi, Mohamed S.; Clemens, John D.; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. Methods Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity—Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India), and Zanzibar (Tanzania)—were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. Findings The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not prevented. A

  3. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L; Grais, Rebecca F; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L; Jiddawi, Mohamed S; Clemens, John D; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-25

    The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India), and Zanzibar (Tanzania)--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not prevented. A single dose vaccine would be of

  4. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-10-27

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6(th) and 7(th) pandemic lineages, and diverge from "modern" cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532-1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ.

  5. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  6. Alternative Mechanism of Cholera Toxin Acquisition by Vibrio cholerae: Generalized Transduction of CTXΦ by Bacteriophage CP-T1

    PubMed Central

    Fidelma Boyd, E.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    1999-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors has played a central role in the evolution of many pathogenic bacteria. The unexpected discovery that the genes encoding cholera toxin (ctxAB), the main cause of the profuse secretory diarrhea characteristic of cholera, are encoded on a novel filamentous phage named CTXΦ, has resulted in a renewed interest in the potential mechanisms of transfer of virulence genes among Vibrio cholerae. We describe here an alternative mechanism of cholera toxin gene transfer into nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolates, including strains that lack both the CTXΦ receptor, the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), and attRS, the chromosomal attachment site for CTXΦ integration. A temperature-sensitive mutant of the V. cholerae generalized transducing bacteriophage CP-T1 (CP-T1ts) was used to transfer a genetically marked derivative of the CTX prophage into four nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains, including two V. cholerae vaccine strains. We demonstrate that CTXΦ transduced by CP-T1ts can replicate and integrate into these nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains with high efficiency. In fact, CP-T1ts transduces the CTX prophage preferentially when compared with other chromosomal markers. These results reveal a potential mechanism by which CTXΦ+ V. cholerae strains that lack the TCP receptor may have arisen. Finally, these findings indicate an additional pathway for reversion of live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccine strains. PMID:10531246

  7. Role of Zooplankton Diversity in Vibrio cholerae Population Dynamics and in the Incidence of Cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans ▿

    PubMed Central

    de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Mozumder, Pronob K.; Grim, Christopher J.; Hasan, Nur A.; Naser, M. Niamul; Alam, Munirul; Sack, R. Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera, a severe watery, life-threatening diarrheal disease occurring predominantly in developing countries. V. cholerae, including both serogroups O1 and O139, is found in association with crustacean zooplankton, mainly copepods, and notably in ponds, rivers, and estuarine systems globally. The incidence of cholera and occurrence of pathogenic V. cholerae strains with zooplankton were studied in two areas of Bangladesh: Bakerganj and Mathbaria. Chitinous zooplankton communities of several bodies of water were analyzed in order to understand the interaction of the zooplankton population composition with the population dynamics of pathogenic V. cholerae and incidence of cholera. Two dominant zooplankton groups were found to be consistently associated with detection of V. cholerae and/or occurrence of cholera cases, namely, rotifers and cladocerans, in addition to copepods. Local differences indicate there are subtle ecological factors that can influence interactions between V. cholerae, its plankton hosts, and the incidence of cholera. PMID:21764957

  8. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Clemens, John D; Thomson, Nicholas R; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-11-01

    Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs.

  9. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola

    PubMed Central

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291

  10. Environmental bacteriophages active on biofilms and planktonic forms of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae: Potential relevance in cholera epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Hoque, M Mozammel; Abdullah, Ahmed; Bari, S M Nayeemul; Ghosh, Amar N; Faruque, Shah M

    2017-01-01

    Phages isolated from environmental waters in Bangladesh were tested for their host specificity towards V. cholerae O1 and O139, and the ability to disperse V. cholerae biofilms formed in the laboratory. Representative phages were further characterized by electron microscopy and whole genome sequencing. Selected phages were then introduced in various combinations to biofilms of toxigenic V. cholerae added to samples of river water, and the dispersion of biofilms as well as the growth kinetics of V. cholerae and the phages were monitored. A phage cocktail composed of three different phages isolated from surface waters in Bangladesh and designated as JSF7, JSF4, and JSF3 could significantly influence the distribution and concentration of the active planktonic form and biofilm associated form of toxigenic V. cholerae in water. While JSF7 showed a biofilm degrading activity and dispersed cells from both V. cholerae O1 and O139 derived biofilms thus increasing the concentration of planktonic V. cholerae in water, JSF4 and JSF3 showed strong bactericidal activity against V. cholerae O1 and O139 respectively. A mixture of all three phages could effectively reduce both biofilm-associated and planktonic V. cholerae in river water microcosms. Besides potential applicability in phage-mediated control of cholera, our results have relevance in appreciating possible intricate role of diverse environmental phages in the epidemiology of the disease, since both biofilms and phages influence the prevalence and infectivity of V. cholerae in a variety of ways.

  11. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:26110870

  12. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J.; McFarland, D. A.; Waldman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent large epidemics of cholera with high incidence and associated mortality among refugees have raised the question of whether oral cholera vaccines should be considered as an additional preventive measure in high-risk populations. The potential impact of oral cholera vaccines on populations prone to seasonal endemic cholera has also been questioned. This article reviews the potential cost-effectiveness of B-subunit, killed whole-cell (BS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population and in a population with endemic cholera. In the population at risk for endemic cholera, mass vaccination with BS-WC vaccine is the least cost-effective intervention compared with the provision of safe drinking-water and sanitation or with treatment of the disease. In a refugee population at risk for epidemic disease, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination is similar to that of providing safe drinking-water and sanitation alone, though less cost-effective than treatment alone or treatment combined with the provision of water and sanitation. The implications of these data for public health decision-makers and programme managers are discussed. There is a need for better information on the feasibility and costs of administering oral cholera vaccine in refugee populations and populations with endemic cholera. PMID:9803585

  14. Antibody-secreting cell responses after Vibrio cholerae O1 infection and oral cholera vaccination in adults in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiqur; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Islam, Kamrul; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T; Wrammert, Jens; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2013-10-01

    Infection with Vibrio cholerae and oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) induce transient circulating plasmablast responses that peak within approximately 7 days after infection or vaccination. We previously demonstrated that plasmablast responses strongly correlate with subsequent levels of V. cholerae-specific duodenal antibodies up to 6 months after V. cholerae infection. Hence, plasmablast responses provide an early window into the immunologic memory at the mucosal surface. In this study, we characterized plasmablast responses following V. cholerae infection using a flow cytometrically defined population and compared V. cholerae-specific responses in adult patients with V. cholerae O1 infection and vaccinees who received the OCV Dukoral (Crucell Vaccines Canada). Among flow cytometrically sorted populations of gut-homing plasmablasts, almost 50% of the cells recognized either cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) or V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT), we found that infection with V. cholerae O1 and OCVs induce similar responses to the protein antigen CtxB, but responses to LPS were diminished after OCV compared to those after natural V. cholerae infection. A second dose of OCV on day 14 failed to boost circulating V. cholerae-specific plasmablast responses in Bangladeshi adults. Our results differ from those in studies from areas where cholera is not endemic, in which a second vaccination on day 14 significantly boosts plasmablast responses. Given these results, it is likely that the optimal boosting strategies for OCVs differ significantly between areas where V. cholerae infection is endemic and those where it is not.

  15. Sensitive and rapid detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Seto, Kazuko; Taguchi, Masumi; Ishibashi, Masanori; Inoue, Kiyoshi

    2008-06-12

    Vibrio cholerae is widely acknowledged as one of the most important waterborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders. Cholera toxin (CT) is a major virulence determinant of V. cholerae. Detection of CT-producing V. cholerae using conventional culture-, biochemical- and immunological-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, requiring more than three days. Thus, we developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of cholera toxin (CT)-producing Vibrio cholerae. The assay provided markedly more sensitive and rapid detection of CT-producing V. cholerae strains than conventional biochemical and PCR assays. The assay correctly identified 34 CT-producing V. cholerae strains, but did not detect 13 CT non-producing V. cholerae and 53 non-V. cholerae strains. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay for direct detection of CT-producing V. cholerae in spiked human feces was 7.8 x 102 CFU per g (1.4 CFU per reaction). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 10-fold more sensitive than that of the conventional PCR assay. The LAMP assay for detection of CT-producing V. cholerae required less than 35 min with a single colony on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar and 70 min with human feces from the beginning of DNA extraction to final determination. The LAMP assay is a sensitive, rapid and simple tool for the detection of CT-producing V. cholerae and will be useful in facilitating the early diagnosis of human V. cholerae infection.

  16. Hybrid Vibrio cholerae El Tor lacking SXT identified as the cause of a cholera outbreak in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Klinzing, David C; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A; Matias, Ronald R; Tayag, Enrique; Geronimo, Josefina; Skowronski, Evan; Rashed, Shah M; Kawashima, Kent; Rosenzweig, C Nicole; Gibbons, Henry S; Torres, Brian C; Liles, Veni; Alfon, Alicia C; Juan, Maria Luisa; Natividad, Filipinas F; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-04-21

    Cholera continues to be a global threat, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In 2011, a cholera outbreak occurred in Palawan, Philippines, affecting more than 500 people, and 20 individuals died. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source attribution is critical in cholera outbreaks for proper management of the disease, as well as to control spread. In this study, three V. cholerae O1 isolates from a Philippines cholera outbreak were sequenced and their genomes analyzed to determine phylogenetic relatedness to V. cholerae O1 isolates from recent outbreaks of cholera elsewhere. The Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates were determined to be V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor belonging to the seventh-pandemic clade. They clustered tightly, forming a monophyletic clade closely related to V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor from Asia and Africa. The isolates possess a unique multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotype (12-7-9-18-25 and 12-7-10-14-21) and lack SXT. In addition, they possess a novel 15-kb genomic island (GI-119) containing a predicted type I restriction-modification system. The CTXΦ-RS1 array of the Philippines isolates was similar to that of V. cholerae O1 MG116926, a hybrid El Tor strain isolated in Bangladesh in 1991. Overall, the data indicate that the Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates are unique, differing from recent V. cholerae O1 isolates from Asia, Africa, and Haiti. Furthermore, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the Philippines isolates of V. cholerae O1 are indigenous and exist locally in the aquatic ecosystem of the Philippines. Genetic characterization and phylogenomics analysis of outbreak strains have proven to be critical for probing clonal relatedness to strains isolated in different geographical regions and over time. Recently, extensive genetic analyses of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in different countries have been done. However, genome sequences of V. cholerae O1

  17. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  18. Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.

  19. Molecular Characterization of the Circulating Strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 Cholera Outbreak in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole S.; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O.; Bamidele, Tajudeen A.; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Brai, Bartholomew I.; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A.; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Adeneye, Adeniyi K.; Ujah, Innocent A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

  20. Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Saka, Hector Alex; Chinen, Isabel; Zoppino, Felipe C. M.; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Bocco, Jose Luis; Colombo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is the unique, regulated mechanism for the degradation of organelles. This intracellular process acts as a prosurvival pathway during cell starvation or stress and is also involved in cellular response against specific bacterial infections. Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen that has been studied extensively as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. V. cholerae illness is produced primarily through the expression of a potent toxin (cholera toxin) within the human intestine. Besides cholera toxin, this bacterium secretes a hemolytic exotoxin termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) that causes extensive vacuolation in epithelial cells. In this work, we explored the relationship between the vacuolation caused by VCC and the autophagic pathway. Treatment of cells with VCC increased the punctate distribution of LC3, a feature indicative of autophagosome formation. Moreover, VCC-induced vacuoles colocalized with LC3 in several cell lines, including human intestinal Caco-2 cells, indicating the interaction of the large vacuoles with autophagic vesicles. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the vacuoles caused by VCC presented hallmarks of autophagosomes. Additionally, biochemical evidence demonstrated the degradative nature of the VCC-generated vacuoles. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition resulted in decreased survival of Caco-2 cells upon VCC intoxication. Also, VCC failed to induce vacuolization in Atg5−/− cells, and the survival response of these cells against the toxin was dramatically impaired. These results demonstrate that autophagy acts as a cellular defense pathway against secreted bacterial toxins. PMID:17267617

  1. Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Hemanta; Ray, Nivedita; Chowdhury, Goutam; Barman, Soumik; Mitra, Soma; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Sarkar, B L; Katyal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep; Panda, Samiran; Ghosh, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cholera struck Bihar, an Indian state, in August 2008 following a massive flood. Here we report the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from patients with diarrhea. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients with diarrhea who were admitted to medical camps or the hospital, and the strains were biochemically and serologically characterized. V. cholerae was isolated from 21 (65.6%) of 32 rectal swabs. Serological studies revealed that all the 21 isolates belonged to V. cholerae O1 Ogawa. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR showed that the isolates belonged to El Tor variant group, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved that these isolates were of a different lineage than the conventional El Tor variant strains. These isolates were resistant to several drugs, including ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. The uniqueness of the current report arises from the fact that records of cholera in Bihar are availiable for the early 1960s but not for the next 4 decades. Moreover, the present study is the first to report a cholera outbreak in Bihar that was caused by an El Tor variant strain.

  2. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria. PMID:27118300

  3. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria.

  4. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Dana L; Miyata, Sarah T; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2010-11-09

    The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52ΔvasK and V52ΔvasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics.

  5. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  6. Cholera: Environmental Reservoirs and Impact on Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    ALMAGRO-MORENO, SALVADOR; TAYLOR, RONALD K.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is widely known to be the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. Cholera remains a major scourge in many developing countries, infecting hundreds of thousands every year. Remarkably, V. cholerae is a natural inhabitant of brackish riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, and only a subset of strains are known to be pathogenic to humans. Recent studies have begun to uncover a very complex network of relationships between V. cholerae and other sea dwellers, and the mechanisms associated with the occurrence of seasonal epidemics in regions where cholera is endemic are beginning to be elucidated. Many of the factors required for the organism’s survival and persistence in its natural environment have been revealed, as well as the ubiquitous presence of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of pathogenic strains of V. cholerae. In this article, we will focus on the environmental stage of pathogenic V. cholerae and the interactions of the microorganism with other inhabitants of aquatic environments. We will discuss the impact that its environmental reservoirs have on disease transmission and the distinction between reservoirs of V. cholerae and the vectors that establish cholera as a zoonosis. PMID:25674360

  7. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions. PMID:21072249

  8. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-08-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions.

  9. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  10. Effect of Dietary Minerals on Virulence Attributes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Varunkumar; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne pathogen responsible for causing a toxin-mediated profuse diarrhea in humans, leading to severe dehydration and death in unattended patients. With increasing reports of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae, there is a need for alternate interventional strategies for controlling cholera. A potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases involves targeting bacterial virulence rather than growth, where a pathogen's specific mechanisms critical for causing infection in hosts are inhibited. Since bacterial motility, intestinal colonization and cholera toxin are critical components in V. cholerae pathogenesis, attenuating these virulence factors could potentially control cholera in humans. In this study, the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC, highest concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth) of essential minerals, zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in reducing V. cholerae motility and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), cholera toxin production, and toxin binding to the ganglioside receptor (GM1) was investigated. Additionally, V. cholerae attachment and toxin production in an ex vivo mouse intestine model was determined. Further, the effect of Zn, Se and Mn on V. cholerae virulence genes, ctxAB (toxin production), fliA (motility), tcpA (intestinal colonization), and toxR (master regulon) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. All three minerals significantly reduced V. cholerae motility, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and cholera toxin production in vitro, and decreased adhesion and toxin production in mouse intestine ex vivo (P < 0.05). In addition, Zn, Se, and Mn down-regulated the transcription of virulence genes, ctxAB, fliA, and toxR. Results suggest that Zn, Se, and Mn could be potentially used to reduce V. cholerae virulence. However, in vivo studies in an animal model are necessary to validate these results.

  11. Preventing maritime transfer of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Slaten, Douglas D; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J; Hill, Vincent R; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V

    2012-10-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer.

  12. Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Joseph, P. R.; Oseasohn, R. O.

    1968-01-01

    Double-blind controlled cholera-vaccine trials were carried out in rural East Pakistan in 1963 and 1964. Pretrial studies indicated that a whole-cell cholera vaccine of high mouse protective potency, at a dose of 0.5 ml, produced an antibody response and reaction pattern consistent with use in such trials. A purified Ogawa antigen, given at a dose of 100 μg, elicited no adverse reactions and evoked both agglutinating and vibriocidal antibodies against both Inaba and Ogawa test suspensions. In the field, adverse reactions to the cholera vaccines occurred primarily among adults and were observed with both the whole-cell preparation and the purified Ogawa antigen. At the dose used in the field trials (0.4 ml), the reactions elicited by the whole-cell vaccine were acceptable to the population and no more marked than those following the locally prepared typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. Delayed reactions to the whole-cell cholera vaccine were observed beginning 4 to 7 days after the vaccine was administered; the bulk of them (60%) did not interfere with work at any time; all resolved promptly; and none developed fluctuation or was associated with abscess formation. PMID:5302328

  13. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  14. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  15. A natural vaccine candidate strain against cholera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Qi, G M; Wang, S X; Yu, Y M; Duan, G C; Zhang, L J; Gao, S Y

    1995-12-01

    E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae (EVC) strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic (EEVC) strains and non-epidemigenic (NEEVC) strains-based on a phage-biotyping system. A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes. One such naturally occurring strains (designated IEM101) has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), accessory cholera enterotoxin (ACE), zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), but possesses RS1 sequences and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (icpA) although icpA is poorly expressed. It expresses type B pili but does not possess type C pili. It is an E1 Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ilcal loop tests. Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V. cholerae O1. Oral administration caused no side effects in 15 human volunteers, colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  16. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  17. Did cholera toxin finally get caught?

    PubMed

    Martinon, Fabio; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2013-05-15

    To orchestrate immune responses, pathogen-recognition receptors have evolved sophisticated strategies to monitor pathogenic processes. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, a study by Cho et al. reveals a mechanism of immune recognition that relies on the sensing of cholera toxin within the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotics resistance in El Tor Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated during cholera outbreaks in Mozambique from 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Dengo-Baloi, Liliana Candida; Semá-Baltazar, Cynthia Amino; Manhique, Lena Vania; Chitio, Jucunu Elias; Inguane, Dorteia Luísa; Langa, José Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics. We analyzed data from samples received in the context of surveillance and response to Cholera outbreaks in the National Reference Laboratory of Microbiology from the National Institute of Health of Mozambique, 159 samples suspected of cholera from cholera treatment centers of, Metangula (09), Memba (01), Tete City (08), Moatize (01), Morrumbala (01) districts, City of Quelimane (01), Lichinga (06) and Nampula (86) districts, from 2012 to 2015. Laboratory culture and standard biochemical tests were employed to isolate and identify Vibrio cholerae; serotypes were determined by antisera agglutination reaction in blade. Biotype and presence of important virulence factors analysis was done by PCR. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern was detected by disk diffusion method Kirby Bauer. Antibiotic susceptibility and results were interpreted by following as per recommendations of CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) 2014. All samples were collected and tested in the context of Africhol Project, approved by the National Bioethics Committee for Health. Among isolates from of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa resistance to Sulphamethoxazole-trimethropim was 100% (53/53) to Trimethoprim-, being 100% (54/54) for Ampicillin, 99% (72/74) for Nalidixic Acid, 97% (64/66) to Chloramphenicol, 95% (42/44) for Nitrofurantoin and (19/20) Cotrimoxazole, 83% (80

  19. Specialized and shared functions of the histidine kinase- and HOG1 MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways in Alternaria alternata, a filamentous fungal pathogen of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2010-10-01

    Signal transduction pathways are critical for the coordination of complex cellular processes in cells. In Alternaria alternata, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of citrus, cloning and characterization of a gene coding a Group III histidine kinase (AaHSK1) and the yeast HOG1 ortholog (AaHOG1) showed the two genes to operate, both uniquely and synergistically, in a number of physiological and pathological functions. Systemic loss-of-function genetics in A. alternata revealed that AaHSK1 is a primary regulator for cellular resistance to sugar osmotic stress and for sensitivity to dicarboximide or phenylpyrrole fungicides. These functions were likely modulated by unknown mechanisms rather than solely by the AaHOG1-mediated pathway. AaHOG1, which conferred cellular resistance to salts and oxidative stress, also bypassed AaHSK1, even though deletion of AaHSK1 affected AaHOG1 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of AaHOG1 was increased when the fungus was treated with osmotic stress, fungicides or H(2)O(2). Fungal mutants impaired in AaHSK1, AaHOG1, AaAP1 (encoding a redox-responsive transcription factor) or AaFUS3 (encoding a MAP kinase) were all hypersensitive to 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP) or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). An AaHOG1::sGFP (synthetic green fluorescent protein) fusion protein became localized in the nucleus in response to H(2)O(2), CHP, TIBA, fungicides, but not glucose. Glucose, however, enhanced AaHOG1 phosphorylation and nuclear localization in the AaHSK1 deficient background. Accumulation of the AaHSK1 gene transcript was negatively regulated by AaHOG1, AaAP1 or AaFUS3. AaHOG1 was necessary for fungal pathogenicity, yet AaHSK1 was completely dispensable for pathogenicity. Our results highlight a dramatic flexibility and uniqueness in the signaling pathways that are involved in responding to diverse environmental stimuli in A. alternata. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  1. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.

  2. Pig-2-Bac as a biomarker of occupational exposure to pigs and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers.

    PubMed

    Pisanic, Nora; Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Stewart, Jill; Wing, Steve; Love, David C; Hall, Devon; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-11-01

    Over 50 million hogs are raised annually in the United States for consumption, mostly on industrial hog operations (IHOs). Workers at IHOs are exposed to airborne particulates, zoonotic pathogens, and other workplace hazards, but lack of access to IHOs can hinder exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. Here, we demonstrate the utility of pig-specific Bacteroidales (Pig-2-Bac) as a biomarker of exposure to pigs and pig waste and to help identify sources of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among IHO workers.

  3. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (107 CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼109 CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6–18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  4. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera.

    PubMed

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-06-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (10(7) CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼10(9) CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6-18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  5. Vibrio cholerae Colonization of Soft-Shelled Turtles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiazheng; Yan, Meiying; Gao, He; Lu, Xin; Kan, Biao

    2017-07-15

    Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored. Preferred colonization sites on the turtle body surfaces, mainly the carapace and calipash of the dorsal side, were observed for the O139 and O1 strains. Intestinal colonization was also found. The colonization factors of V. cholerae played different roles in the colonization of the soft-shelled turtle's body surface and intestine. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of V. cholerae was necessary for body surface colonization, but no roles were found for toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) or N-acetylglucosamine-binding protein A (GBPA). Both TCP and GBPA play important roles for colonization in the intestine, whereas the deletion of MSHA revealed only a minor colonization-promoting role for this factor. Our study demonstrated that V. cholerae can colonize the surfaces and the intestines of soft-shelled turtles and indicated that the soft-shelled turtles played a role in the transmission of cholera. In addition, this study showed that the soft-shelled turtle has potential value as an animal model in studies of the colonization and environmental adaption mechanisms of V. cholerae in aquatic organisms.IMPORTANCE Cholera is transmitted through water and food. Soft-shelled turtles contaminated with Vibrio cholerae (commonly the serogroup O139 strains) have caused many foodborne infections and outbreaks in recent years, and they have become a foodborne disease problem. Except for epidemiological

  6. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  7. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  8. Outer membrane vesicles mediate transport of biologically active Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae strains.

    PubMed

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and induces toxicity on mammalian cells and furthermore can induce

  9. Rugose atypical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor responsible for 2009 cholera outbreak in India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Bhadra, Rupak K; Bag, Satyabrata; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Das, Bhabatosh; Basu, Pallabi; Nagamani, K; Nandy, Ranjan K; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera outbreaks in endemic regions where the water quality and sanitation facilities remain poor. Apart from biotype and serotype changes, V. cholerae undergoes phase variation, which results in the generation of two morphologically different variants termed smooth and rugose. In this study, 12 rugose (R-VC) and 6 smooth (S-VC) V. cholerae O1 Ogawa isolates were identified in a cholera outbreak that occurred in Hyderabad, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. In addition, R-VC isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (92 %), streptomycin (92 %), erythromycin (83 %), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75 %) and tetracycline (75 %). Based on the ctxB gene analysis, all the isolates were identified as El Tor variant with mutation in two positions of ctxB, similar to the classical biotype. The R-VC isolates specifically showed excessive biofilm formation and were comparatively less motile. In addition, the majority of these isolates (~83 %) displayed random mutations in the hapR gene, which encodes haemagglutinin protease regulatory protein. In the PFGE analysis, R-VC and S-VC were placed in distinct clusters but remained clonally related. In the ribotyping analysis, all the R-VC isolates exhibited R-III pattern, which is a prevailing type among the current El Tor isolates. A hapR deletion mutant generated using an S-VC isolate expressed rugose phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of rugose V. cholerae O1 in a large cholera outbreak with extended antimicrobial resistance and random mutations in the haemagglutinin protease regulatory protein encoding gene (hapR).

  10. Evolutionary perspective on the origin of Haitian cholera outbreak strain.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Anirban; Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    Cholera epidemic has not been reported in Haiti for at least 100 years, although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991. Surprisingly, the recent cholera epidemic in Haiti (October 2010) recorded more than 250,000 cases and 4000 deaths in the first 6 months and became one of the most explosive and deadly cholera outbreak in recent history. In the present study, we conducted genomic analyses of pathogenicity islands of three Haitian Vibrio cholerae strains and compared them with nine different V. cholerae O1 El Tor genomes. Although CIRS101 is evolutionarily most similar to the Haitian strains, our study also provides some important differences in the genetic organization of pathogenicity islands of Haitian strains with CIRS101. Evolutionary analysis suggests that unusual functional constraints have been imposed on the Haitian strains and we hypothesize that amino acid substitution is more deleterious in Haitian strains than in nonHaitian strains.

  11. Herald waves of cholera in nineteenth century London.

    PubMed

    Tien, Joseph H; Poinar, Hendrik N; Fisman, David N; Earn, David J D

    2011-05-06

    Deaths from cholera in London, UK, were recorded weekly from 1824 to 1901. Three features of the time series stand out: (i) cholera deaths were strongly seasonal, with peak mortality almost always in the summer, (ii) the only non-summer outbreaks occurred in the spring of 1832, the autumn of 1848 and the winter of 1853, and (iii) extraordinarily severe summer outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849, 1854 and 1866 (the four 'great' cholera years). The non-summer outbreaks of 1832, 1848 and 1853 appear to have been herald waves of newly invading cholera strains. In addition, a simple mathematical model confirms that a non-summer introduction of a new cholera strain can result in an initial herald wave, followed by a severe outbreak the following summer. Through the analysis of the genomes of nineteenth-century specimens, it may be possible to identify the strains that caused these herald waves and the well-known cholera epidemics that followed.

  12. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera

    PubMed Central

    Hatzios, Stavroula K.; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Davis, Brigid M.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human cholera stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, while genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance and binding of an intestinal lectin—intelectin—to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialogue in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  13. The role of Vibrio cholerae genotyping in Africa.

    PubMed

    De, Rituparna; Ghosh, Jayeeta Banerjee; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Nair, G Balakrish

    2013-11-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is prevalent in the African continent from the 1970s when the seventh pandemic spread from Asia to Africa. In the past decade, cholera has caused devastating outbreaks in much of Africa, illustrated by the recent cholera epidemics in Zimbabwe and regions of central Africa. Given the extent of cholera in Africa, a robust and efficient surveillance system should be in place to prevent and control the disease in this continent. Such a surveillance system would be greatly bolstered by use of molecular typing techniques to identify genetic subtypes. In this review, we highlight the role that modern molecular typing techniques can play in tracking and aborting the spread of cholera.

  14. Standards for reporting surveillance information in freedom from infection models by example of Trichinella in Canadian market hogs.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Christensen, Jette; Stryhn, Henrik; Hurnik, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Freedom from infection modeling, using scenario trees, has become an established methodology and is well described in the literature. However, standards for organizing and reporting the surveillance information incorporated into such models are less developed. Canada has been routinely testing for Trichinella spiralis in market hogs in federally inspected slaughter plants since the late 1990s. By way of presenting our work on T. spiralis in Canadian hogs, we propose that information in surveillance models be organized in distinct categories, each with specific parameters and values that are thoroughly described and justified. The proposed categories are: (1) definitions for the objectives, (2) initial time period, (3) inputs, (4) data, (5) model settings, (6) outputs, and (7) validation. Having a standardized manner of reporting such studies will facilitate their validation and expedite their evaluation by experts in the field and their use in trade negotiations.

  15. Dorsal hand vein recognition based on Gabor multi-orientation fusion and multi-scale HOG features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tuo; Wang, Zhiyong; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    Kinds of factors such as illumination and hand gestures would reduce the accuracy of dorsal hand vein recognition. Aiming at single hand vein image with low contrast and simple structure, an algorithm combining Gabor multi-orientation features fusion with Multi-scale Histogram of Oriented Gradient (MS-HOG) is proposed in this paper. With this method, more features will be extracted to improve the recognition accuracy. Firstly, diagrams of multi-scale and multi-orientation are acquired using Gabor transformation, then the Gabor features of the same scale and multi-orientation will be fused, and the features of the correspondent fusion diagrams will be extracted with a HOG operator of a certain scale. Finally the multi-scale cascaded histograms will be obtained for hand vein recognition. The experimental results show that our method not only improve the recognition accuracy but has good robustness in dorsal hand vein recognition.

  16. Fish as Reservoirs and Vectors of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Yigal; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments, but despite intensive efforts its ecology remains an enigma. Recently, it was suggested that copepods and chironomids, both considered as natural reservoirs of V. cholerae, are dispersed by migratory waterbirds, thus possibly distributing the bacteria between water bodies within and between continents. Although fish have been implicated in the scientific literature with cholera cases, as far as we know, no study actually surveyed the presence of the bacteria in the fish. Here we show for the first time that fish of various species and habitats contain V. cholerae in their digestive tract. Fish (n = 110) were randomly sampled from freshwater and marine habitats in Israel. Ten different fish species sampled from freshwater habitats (lake, rivers and fish ponds), and one marine species, were found to carry V. cholerae. The fish intestine of Sarotherodon galilaeus harboured ca. 5×103 V. cholerae cfu per 1 gr intestine content—high rates compared with known V. cholerae cfu numbers in the bacteria's natural reservoirs. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest that fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae. As fish carrying the bacteria swim from one location to another (some fish species move from rivers to lakes or sea and vice versa), they serve as vectors on a small scale. Nevertheless, fish are consumed by waterbirds, which disseminate the bacteria on a global scale. Moreover, V. cholerae isolates had the ability to degrade chitin, indicating a commensal relationship between V. cholerae and fish. Better understanding of V. cholerae ecology can help reduce the times that human beings come into contact with this pathogen and thus minimize the health risk this poses. PMID:20066040

  17. Fish as reservoirs and vectors of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Yigal; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2010-01-06

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments, but despite intensive efforts its ecology remains an enigma. Recently, it was suggested that copepods and chironomids, both considered as natural reservoirs of V. cholerae, are dispersed by migratory waterbirds, thus possibly distributing the bacteria between water bodies within and between continents. Although fish have been implicated in the scientific literature with cholera cases, as far as we know, no study actually surveyed the presence of the bacteria in the fish. Here we show for the first time that fish of various species and habitats contain V. cholerae in their digestive tract. Fish (n = 110) were randomly sampled from freshwater and marine habitats in Israel. Ten different fish species sampled from freshwater habitats (lake, rivers and fish ponds), and one marine species, were found to carry V. cholerae. The fish intestine of Sarotherodon galilaeus harboured ca. 5 x 10(3)V. cholerae cfu per 1 gr intestine content-high rates compared with known V. cholerae cfu numbers in the bacteria's natural reservoirs. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest that fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae. As fish carrying the bacteria swim from one location to another (some fish species move from rivers to lakes or sea and vice versa), they serve as vectors on a small scale. Nevertheless, fish are consumed by waterbirds, which disseminate the bacteria on a global scale. Moreover, V. cholerae isolates had the ability to degrade chitin, indicating a commensal relationship between V. cholerae and fish. Better understanding of V. cholerae ecology can help reduce the times that human beings come into contact with this pathogen and thus minimize the health risk this poses.

  18. Cholera-like diarrhoea due to Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Suleiman Mzee; Yamasaki, Shinji; Lijima, Yoshio; Kariuki, Sam

    2011-02-01

    An unusually high number of sporadic cholera outbreaks have occurred in various parts of Kenya since January 2009. Clinical symptoms of cholera play an important role in the diagnosis and management of the disease, especially in resource-poor settings in most developing countries. We describe a case report of a patient who was treated for cholera according to symptoms at presentation to hospital. Non-typhoid Salmonella was later isolated and the patient's condition improved after administration of ciprofloxacin.

  19. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  20. Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries' reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control.

  1. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  2. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response.

  3. Surveillance methodology for Vibrio cholerae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Akhilesh K; Goel, Ajay K; Kamboj, Dev V; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in environmental water samples by using a series of biochemical tests. A total of 223 V. cholerae-like bacteria were isolated from TCBS agar after spreading the alkaline peptone water enriched sewer (n = 21) and water (n = 16) samples. All oxidase positive isolates were subjected to confirmation for V. cholerae by seven other biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction. Only 74.2% isolates were found to be V. cholerae by PCR using primers against an outer membrane protein (ompW) gene, out of which only 2 isolates were positive for cholera toxin (ctxAB) gene. Among the various biochemical tests studied, arginine hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation and string test showed 92 - 100% sensitivity and 42 - 67% specificity. Eight isolates including the toxigenic ones, showed agglutination with V. cholerae O1 antiserum. The present study showed that no biochemical test is 100% specific for V. cholerae. However, a few tests, if performed in a sequence after growing the alkaline peptone water enriched samples onto TCBS media can be used for screening of V. cholerae from the environmental samples. This study also showed that most of the environmental isolates are non-O1/non-O139 and the chances of presence of toxigenic V. cholerae are very rare in the environment.

  4. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Sarkar, Anirban; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to synopsize and highlight the recent subtle genetic changes in cholera causing toxigenic Vibrio cholerae with special reference to their virulence, integrating and conjugative elements and toxin-antitoxin systems. It is not intended to cover issues on the whole genome sequence and epidemiology of cholera. Analyses have been made using major published works on genetic changes associated with potential virulence, integrating and conjugative elements and toxin-antitoxin systems of toxigenic V. cholerae. During the course of evolution, V. cholerae strains show evidence of genetic selection for the expression of additional virulence, better survival in the environment, colonization ability and antimicrobial resistance. Some of the critical modifications that occurred at the molecular level include CTXϕ genome, cholera toxin B-subunit, integrating and conjugative elements and toxin-antitoxin systems. Frequent changes in the genome of V. cholerae appear to be an ongoing dynamic process that is assisting the pathogen to subtly change during or after epidemics of cholera. Cholera is a reemerging public health problem. Continued basic research is important to understand the changing dynamics of bacterial virulence, survival strategies and disease pathogenesis for efficient therapeutic intervention and to abort transmission of the disease.

  5. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  6. Modern cholera in the Americas: an opportunistic societal infection.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Rodrigo; Lee, Patrick T

    2013-11-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti's structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation.

  7. Modern Cholera in the Americas: An Opportunistic Societal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti’s structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation. PMID:24028256

  8. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Djomassi, L Dempouo; Gessner, Bradford D; Andze, G Ondobo; Mballa, G A Etoundi

    2013-11-01

    Background. The cholera burden in Cameroon has increased during the past 2 decades. During 2010 and 2011, the largest number of cholera cases in Cameroon since February 1971 were reported. This article describes cholera outbreaks during 2010-2011. Methods. Data received from the national surveillance system from 2010 and 2011 were compiled and analyzed. Results. The first suspected cholera cases were reported in the Far North region on 6 May 2010. In 2010, 10 759 cholera cases were reported by 8 of the 10 regions in the country, with 657 deaths (case-fatality ratio [CFR], 6.1%). In 2011, through September 22, 17 121 suspected cholera cases, including 636 deaths (CFR, 3.7%), were reported all over the country. During 2010, the Far North region accounted for 87.6% of cases (9421/10 759) and 91.6% of deaths (602/657) recorded. By contrast, during 2011, 5 regions (Far North, North, Center, Southwest, and Littoral) accounted for 90.6% of cases (15 511/17 121) and 84.0% of deaths recorded. Vibrio cholerae was identified in 525 stool specimens, and all organisms were serogroup O1. Conclusions. The ongoing cholera outbreak in Cameroon increased in intensity and geographic spread from 2010 to 2011. Nevertheless, the overall CFR decreased during this period. Strengthening the early warning system and enhancing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and sensitization should be considered in addressing cholera outbreaks.

  9. Transmission dynamics of cholera: Mathematical modeling and control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Xie, Jun-Hui; Huang, Sheng-He; Jin, Zhen; Li, Ming-Tao; Liu, Liqun

    2017-04-01

    Cholera, as an endemic disease around the world, has generated great threat to human society and caused enormous morbidity and mortality with weak surveillance system. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model to describe the transmission of Cholera. Moreover, basic reproduction number and the global dynamics of the dynamical model are obtained. Then we apply our model to characterize the transmission process of Cholera in China. It was found that, in order to avoid its outbreak in China, it may be better to increase immunization coverage rate and make effort to improve environmental management especially for drinking water. Our results may provide some new insights for elimination of Cholera.

  10. Circulation and Transmission of Clones of Vibrio cholerae During Cholera Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major public health problem. The underlying bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is evolving and some of its mutations have set the stage for outbreaks. After V. cholerae acquired the mobile elements VSP I & II, the El Tor pandemic began and spread across the tropics. The replacement of the O1 serotype encoding genes with the O139 encoding genes triggered an outbreak that swept across the Indian subcontinent. The sxt element generated a third selective sweep and most recently a fourth sweep was associated with the exchange of the El Tor ctx allele for a classical ctx allele in the El Tor background. In Kenya, variants of this fourth selective sweep have differentiated and become endemic residing in and emerging from environmental reservoirs. On a local level, studies in Bangladesh have revealed that outbreaks may arise from a nonrandom subset of the genetic lineages in the environment and as the population of the pathogen expands, many novel mutations may be found increasing the amount of genetic variation, a phenomenon known as a founder flush. In Haiti, after the initial invasion and expansion of V. cholerae in 2010, a second outbreak occurred in the winter of 2011–2012 driven by natural selection of specific mutations. PMID:24407776

  11. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated during cholera outbreaks in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, A; Mortensen, H F; Mølbak, K; Dias, F; Serichantalergs, O; Echeverria, P

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, 19 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolated during outbreaks of cholera in Guinea-Bissau in 1987, 1994, and 1995 were characterized to investigate a possible epidemiological relationship among the isolates. On the basis of ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI, 5 strains isolated in 1987 showed two closely related ribotypes, while 14 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same ribotype that was distinct from the ribotypes of strains isolated in 1987. Southern blot hybridization of BglI-digested genomic DNA with a cholera toxin probe demonstrated that the strains isolated in 1987 showed an identical cholera toxin genotype, whereas O1 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same genotype that was distinct from the genotype of strains isolated in 1987. These results were supported by the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing, in which strains isolated in 1987 showed resistance to polymyxin B only, while each of the strains from 1994 and 1995 showed resistance to polymyxin B, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the vibriostatic agent O/129. Although our results are based on a limited number of V. cholerae O1 strains, they suggest that the epidemic in Guinea-Bissau in 1994 and 1995 was due to the introduction of a new strain to the country. PMID:8727901

  12. Preserved exocrine function in patients with acute cholera and acute non-cholera diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Molla, A; Gyr, K; Molla, A M; Bardhan, P; Patra, F C

    1986-10-01

    Exocrine pancreatic function was assessed by means of the Lundh test in 14 patients with acute cholera and 18 patients with acute infectious non-cholera diarrhoea within the first 24 h of their admission. Mean tryptic activity amounted to 39.8 +/- 4.8 microEq/min/ml in the cholera group and to 64.4 +/- 11.0 microEq/min/ml in the non-cholera group. None of these patients shared a value below the lower limit of normal. In fact, the mean tryptic activity per 2 h was significantly higher than that reported previously in a control group from the Bengal area. It is therefore concluded that the exocrine pancreatic function is preserved and responds to food stimulation in various types of acute infectious diarrhoea, including cholera. These findings provide the pathophysiological background for the recent observation that oral rehydration solutions containing high-molecular-weight nutrients such as rice powder are at least as efficient or even more potent than the WHO-recommended glucose-electrolyte formula in acute diarrhoea.

  13. Circulation and transmission of clones of Vibrio cholerae during cholera outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Stine, O Colin; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major public health problem. The underlying bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is evolving and some of its mutations have set the stage for outbreaks. After V. cholerae acquired the mobile elements VSP I & II, the El Tor pandemic began and spread across the tropics. The replacement of the O1 serotype encoding genes with the O139 encoding genes triggered an outbreak that swept across the Indian subcontinent. The sxt element generated a third selective sweep and most recently a fourth sweep was associated with the exchange of the El Tor ctx allele for a classical ctx allele in the El Tor background. In Kenya, variants of this fourth selective sweep have differentiated and become endemic residing in and emerging from environmental reservoirs. On a local level, studies in Bangladesh have revealed that outbreaks may arise from a nonrandom subset of the genetic lineages in the environment and as the population of the pathogen expands, many novel mutations may be found increasing the amount of genetic variation, a phenomenon known as a founder flush. In Haiti, after the initial invasion and expansion of V. cholerae in 2010, a second outbreak occurred in the winter of 2011-2012 driven by natural selection of specific mutations.

  14. When, how, and where can oral cholera vaccines be used to interrupt cholera outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Clemens, John; Holmgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health problem, at times causing major and prolonged outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic settings in developing countries. While improved water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) will provide the ultimate solution to prevention of this disease burden, this is a far-off goal for most developing countries. Oral cholera vaccines cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been demonstrated to be effective in the control of cholera outbreaks, and constitute useful tools to be used in conjunction with efforts to improve WASH. Two killed OCVs are prequalified by WHO for purchase by UN agencies for international use. Recently, WHO has launched a global stockpile stockpile of killed OCVs for use to control outbreaks. Rational deployment of OCV from this stockpile will require consideration of costs, feasibility, disease epidemiology epidemiology , and the protective characteristics of the vaccine deployed, as well as effective and rapid coordination of processes and logistics logistics used to make decisions on deployment and delivery of the vaccine to the population in need. Despite not having data on all the questions of relevance as to how to use OCVs to control cholera outbreaks in different settings, there is clearly more than enough evidence to initiate their use, as answers to remaining questions and refinement of policies will mainly come with experience.

  15. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Isolates from a US Gulf Coast Cholera Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Christopher J.; Onifade, Tiffiani J.; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, AbdulShakur H.; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N.; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

  16. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Choi, Seon Young; Grim, Christopher J; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Cinar, Hediye N; Tall, Ben D; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Abdullah, Abdulshakur H; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N; Kothary, Mahendra H; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally.

  17. Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. Methods V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal

  18. Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sameer M; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Manandhar, Sulochana; Sadique, Abdus; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Islam, Saiful; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Watanabe, Haruo; Sack, R Bradley; Cravioto, Alejandro; Alam, Munirul

    2014-07-15

    Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498-511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal, and related closely with V. cholerae associated with cholera in

  19. Detection of grapes in natural environment using HOG features in low resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrabánek, Pavel; Majerík, Filip

    2017-07-01

    Detection of grapes in real-life images has importance in various viticulture applications. A grape detector based on an SVM classifier, in combination with a HOG descriptor, has proven to be very efficient in detection of white varieties in high-resolution images. Nevertheless, the high time complexity of such utilization was not suitable for its real-time applications, even when a detector of a simplified structure was used. Thus, we examined possibilities of the simplified version application on images of lower resolutions. For this purpose, we designed a method aimed at search for a detector’s setting which gives the best time complexity vs. performance ratio. In order to provide precise evaluation results, we formed new extended datasets. We discovered that even applied on low-resolution images, the simplified detector, with an appropriate setting of all tuneable parameters, was competitive with other state of the art solutions. We concluded that the detector is qualified for real-time detection of grapes in real-life images.

  20. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (P<0.05). Therefore, a greater metabolic and energy imbalance occurs during exsanguination when pigs recover consciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inferring microbial interactions in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of hog waste

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Grace Tzun-Wen; Liu, An-Chi; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chou, Chu-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a microbiological process that converts organic waste materials into biogas. Because of its high methane content, biogas is a combustible energy source and serves as an important environmental technology commonly used in the management of animal waste generated on large animal farms. Much work has been done on hardware design and process engineering for the generation of biogas. However, little is known about the complexity of the microbiology in this process. In particular, how microbes interact in the digester and eventually breakdown and convert organic matter into biogas is still regarded as a “black box.” We used 16S rRNA sequencing as a tool to study the microbial community in laboratory hog waste digesters under tightly controlled conditions, and systematically unraveled the distinct interaction networks of two microbial communities from mesophilic (MAnD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAnD). Under thermophilic conditions, the well-known association between hydrogen-producing bacteria, e.g., Ruminococcaceae and Prevotellaceae, and hydrotrophic methanogens, Methanomicrobiaceae, was reverse engineered by their interactive topological niches. The inferred interaction network provides a sketch enabling the determination of microbial interactive relationships that conventional strategy of finding differential taxa was hard to achieve. This research is still in its infancy, but it can help to depict the dynamics of microbial ecosystems and to lay the groundwork for understanding how microorganisms cohabit in the anaerobic digester. PMID:28732056

  2. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y.K.; Kim, K.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  3. Object tracking with adaptive HOG detector and adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Stefano; Paleari, Marco; Ariano, Paolo; Bona, Basilio

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios for a manned mission to the Moon or Mars call for astronaut teams to be accompanied by semiautonomous robots. A prerequisite for human-robot interaction is the capability of successfully tracking humans and objects in the environment. In this paper we present a system for real-time visual object tracking in 2D images for mobile robotic systems. The proposed algorithm is able to specialize to individual objects and to adapt to substantial changes in illumination and object appearance during tracking. The algorithm is composed by two main blocks: a detector based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors and linear Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a tracker which is implemented by an adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF). The SVM is re-trained online on new samples taken from previous predicted positions. We use the effective sample size to decide when the classifier needs to be re-trained. Position hypotheses for the tracked object are the result of a clustering procedure applied on the set of particles. The algorithm has been tested on challenging video sequences presenting strong changes in object appearance, illumination, and occlusion. Experimental tests show that the presented method is able to achieve near real-time performances with a precision of about 7 pixels on standard video sequences of dimensions 320 × 240.

  4. Location of the carbohydrates present in the HK-ATPase vesicles isolated from hog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.; Perez, G.; Anderson, D.; Gutierrez, C.; Munson, K.; Hersey, S.J.; Kaplan, J.H.; Sachs, G. )

    1990-01-23

    The glycosylation of H+K(+)-ATPase vesicles isolated from hog gastric mucosa was investigated by various methods. Following protein separation on sodium dodecyl sulfate reducing gels and transfer to poly(vinyl difluoride) membranes, binding of concanavalin A was confined to the 94-kDa band which corresponds to the catalytic subunit. In contrast, wheat germ agglutinin binding occurred in a region below the 94-kDa subunit, corresponding to the 60-85-kDa region, and also to protein just above the catalytic subunit. Treatment with glycopeptidase F removed most of the concanavalin A staining and also the wheat germ agglutinin staining found below the 94-kDa region, but spared the higher molecular weight wheat germ agglutinin reactive material. During the deglycosylation experiments a protein of 35-kDa was produced. Sequencing analysis of V8 protease generated peptide fragments of the 35-kDa protein show at least 30% homology with the Na+K(+)-ATPase beta-subunits. Labeling of the carbohydrates by galactosyltransferase and (3H)uridine diphosphate-galactose showed that the sites of labeling were extracellular and were confined to the wheat germ agglutinin staining regions. Two molecular weight regions, below the 94-kDa region, of 60 and 85 kDa were identified. Electron microscopy using postembedding staining techniques showed that both concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin staining occurred on the extracellular face of the gastric vesicles.

  5. Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

  6. Controlled expression of cholera toxin B subunit from Vibrio cholerae in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Haryanti, T; Mariana, N S; Latifah, S Y; Yusoff, K; Raha, A R

    2008-07-01

    The ctxB gene, the causative agent of cholera epidemic was successfully cloned from V. cholerae in E. coli. The insertion of the gene was confirmed by PCR as well as restriction digestion analyses. The sequencing results for the gene confirmed that the insert was in the correct orientation and in-frame with the P(BAD) promoter and it showed that the gene was 99% homologous to the published ctxB sequence. The CTB protein was successfully expressed in E. coli using the pBAD/His vector system. The expected protein of approximately 14 kDa was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The use of pBAD/His vector to express the cholera toxin gene in E. coli would facilitate future study of toxin gene products.

  7. 1885 Cholera Controversy: Klein versus Koch.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    This paper will try to give new insight into the Cholera Controversy, which occurred 125 years ago. The majority of papers already written on the topic have emphasised the role of Robert Koch who described the comma bacillus as the cause of cholera epidemics. At the same time they have marginalised the role of Emanuel Edward Klein by stating that he was wrong when he objected to Robert Koch's statement, because as an employee of the British government he was politically motivated. Moreover, they have paid barely any attention to Klein's writings on the subject. In this paper I will try to approach his attitudes from the scientific, not political, perspective and try to explain the reasons why he challenged Koch.

  8. Cholera: a continuous epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, A; Patric, K

    2002-06-01

    Cholera continues to plague many parts of the world, but has largely been concentrated in Africa, which contributes more than 80% of the total cases worldwide. Natural disasters, like the 2000 floods in Mozambique and the volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2002, generally lead to new outbreaks of the disease. The refugee problem in many countries throughout the world also causes potential threats for disease outbreaks. Case fatality rates are high, and we are not anywhere near curbing new cholera epidemics, especially in Africa. It is thus imperative to renew discussions about the nature of this deadly disease, its treatment, measures for prevention and control, modes of transmission, its physical, social and economic impact, and potential solutions.

  9. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  10. [New epidemic outbreak of cholera in Lima].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, C; Romero, J; Monteverde, L

    1992-01-01

    We report a new outbreak of cholera on the beginning of last Summer (Dec. 91 and Jan 92). Were 281 patients, 63% male and 36% female, treated in our Cholera Unit of treatment; all of them coming from marginal-urban populations. There was a rate of lethality of inpatients of 0.46% and a mortality of 0.25% over the total of patients that we saw in our hospital; on this summer the outbreak is early and greatest than the summer of 1991. We can conclude that because of epidemic behavior during the whole 1991 and in the time elapsed of 1992, Peru has become an endemic zone of this new disease, while the current epidemiologic settings stay unchanged.

  11. [Isolation and significance of Vibrio cholera NAG].

    PubMed

    Piantieri, G; Pedersoli, G; Cafarelli, A; Bossi, G; Bignamini, M L

    1982-01-01

    After the isolation of two Vibrio cholerae NAG from the stools of two tourists, the authors researched Vibrio in people coming home from particular countries and in resident people. The research was extended to the water of Varese lake after another isolation from a fisher who had fished, cooked and eaten the lake fish. Problems concerning the classification of Vibrio and their presence in the environment are examined.

  12. Origins of the current seventh cholera pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalong; Liu, Bin; Feng, Lu; Ding, Peng; Guo, Xi; Wang, Min; Cao, Boyang; Reeves, Peter R; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-29

    Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain. We used high-resolution comparative genomic analysis of strains collected from 1930 to 1964, covering the evolution from the first available El Tor biotype strain to the start of the seventh pandemic. We define six stages leading to the pandemic strain and reveal all key events. The seventh pandemic originated from a nonpathogenic strain in the Middle East, first observed in 1897. It subsequently underwent explosive diversification, including the spawning of the pandemic lineage. This rapid diversification suggests that, when first observed, the strain had only recently arrived in the Middle East, possibly from the Asian homeland of cholera. The lineage migrated to Makassar, Indonesia, where it gained the important virulence-associated elements Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I), VSP-II, and El Tor type cholera toxin prophage by 1954, and it then became pandemic in 1961 after only 12 additional mutations. Our data indicate that specific niches in the Middle East and Makassar were important in generating the pandemic strain by providing gene sources and the driving forces for genetic events.

  13. The role of food in the epidemiology of cholera.

    PubMed

    Albert, M J; Neira, M; Motarjemi, Y

    1997-01-01

    Cholera is an acute dehydrating diarrhoeal disease, traditionally caused by vibrio cholerae O1, and also more recently by V. cholerae O139 (Bengal). Traditionally, water was recognized as the primary vehicle for transmission of cholera, but in the past 30 years, outbreaks of cholera associated with eating contaminated food have demonstrated that food also plays an important role, although in many instances water is the source of contamination of foods. Most commonly associated with cholera is seafood, both molluscan shellfish and crustaceans. Seafood may be contaminated in its natural environment or during preparation. Other food items associated with outbreaks are fruit and vegetables, meat, cooked grains, etc. Vegetables are usually contaminated by contact with sewage in soil and fruits when injected with contaminated water to increase weight and turgor. Food items initially free from V. cholerae organism may become contaminated when mixed with water, or other contaminated food, or through handling by infected persons who have not observed proper hygiene. Refrigeration, freezing, alkaline pH, high concentration of carbohydrate, humidity and absence of competing flora enhance the survival of V. cholerae in food. Survival of V. cholerae is shorter in food with acidic pH. Foodborne cholera can be averted by the hygienic preparation of food and its consumption. However, since the vehicles of transmission vary markedly from place to place, being affected by local customs and practices, selected control and preventive measures that are most important locally must be implemented. To this end, application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system to food preparation is essential in order to identify the practices which may present a risk. Restrictions on importation of foods which do not present a risk of being contaminated from areas where cholera is endemic is not warranted.

  14. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  15. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  16. A Novel Function for Hog1 Stress-Activated Protein Kinase in Controlling White-Opaque Switching and Mating in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shen-Huan; Cheng, Jen-Hua; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-An

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal in heathy people but has the potential to become an opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for half of all clinical infections in immunocompromised patients. Central to understanding C. albicans behavior is the white-opaque phenotypic switch, in which cells can undergo an epigenetic transition between the white state and the opaque state. The phenotypic switch regulates multiple properties, including biofilm formation, virulence, mating, and fungus-host interactions. Switching between the white and opaque states is associated with many external stimuli, such as oxidative stress, pH, and N-acetylglucosamine, and is directly regulated by the Wor1 transcriptional circuit. The Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway is recognized as the main pathway for adapting to environmental stress in C. albicans. In this work, we first show that loss of the HOG1 gene in a/a and α/α cells, but not a/α cells, results in 100% white-to-opaque switching when cells are grown on synthetic medium, indicating that switching is repressed by the a1/α2 heterodimer that represses WOR1 gene expression. Indeed, switching in the hog1Δ strain was dependent on the presence of WOR1, as a hog1Δ wor1Δ strain did not show switching to the opaque state. Deletion of PBS2 and SSK2 also resulted in C. albicans cells switching from white to opaque with 100% efficiency, indicating that the entire Hog1 SAPK pathway is involved in regulating this unique phenotypic transition. Interestingly, all Hog1 pathway mutants also caused defects in shmoo formation and mating efficiencies. Overall, this work reveals a novel role for the Hog1 SAPK pathway in regulating white-opaque switching and sexual behavior in C. albicans. PMID:25344054

  17. A novel function for Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase in controlling white-opaque switching and mating in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shen-Huan; Cheng, Jen-Hua; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-An; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal in heathy people but has the potential to become an opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for half of all clinical infections in immunocompromised patients. Central to understanding C. albicans behavior is the white-opaque phenotypic switch, in which cells can undergo an epigenetic transition between the white state and the opaque state. The phenotypic switch regulates multiple properties, including biofilm formation, virulence, mating, and fungus-host interactions. Switching between the white and opaque states is associated with many external stimuli, such as oxidative stress, pH, and N-acetylglucosamine, and is directly regulated by the Wor1 transcriptional circuit. The Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway is recognized as the main pathway for adapting to environmental stress in C. albicans. In this work, we first show that loss of the HOG1 gene in A: / A: and α/α cells, but not A: /α cells, results in 100% white-to-opaque switching when cells are grown on synthetic medium, indicating that switching is repressed by the A1: /α2 heterodimer that represses WOR1 gene expression. Indeed, switching in the hog1Δ strain was dependent on the presence of WOR1, as a hog1Δ wor1Δ strain did not show switching to the opaque state. Deletion of PBS2 and SSK2 also resulted in C. albicans cells switching from white to opaque with 100% efficiency, indicating that the entire Hog1 SAPK pathway is involved in regulating this unique phenotypic transition. Interestingly, all Hog1 pathway mutants also caused defects in shmoo formation and mating efficiencies. Overall, this work reveals a novel role for the Hog1 SAPK pathway in regulating white-opaque switching and sexual behavior in C. albicans. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Tighter αC-helix–αL16-helix interactions seem to make p38α less prone to activation by autophosphorylation than Hog1

    PubMed Central

    Tesker, Masha; Selamat, Sadiduddin Edbe; Beenstock, Jonah; Hayouka, Ruchama; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) are autoactivated through autophosphorylation of their activation loop. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases do not autophosphorylate spontaneously; relying instead upon mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) for their activation loop phosphorylation. Yet, in previous studies we identified mutations in the yeast MAPK high osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) that render it capable of spontaneous autophosphorylation and consequently intrinsically active (MKK-independent). Four of the mutations occurred in hydrophobic residues, residing in the αC-helix, which is conserved in all EPKs, and in the αL16-helix that is unique to MAPKs. These four residues interact together forming a structural element termed ‘hydrophobic core’. A similar element exists in the Hog1’s mammalian orthologues p38s. Here we show that the ‘hydrophobic core’ is a loose suppressor of Hog1’s autophosphorylation. We inserted 18 point mutations into this core, 17 of which were able to render Hog1 MKK-independent. In p38s, however, only a very few mutations in the equivalent residues rendered these proteins intrinsically active. Structural analysis revealed that a salt bridge between the αC-helix and the αL16-helix that exists in p38α may not exist in Hog1. This bond further stabilizes the ‘hydrophobic core’ of p38, making p38 less prone to de-repressing its concealed autophosphorylation. Mutating equivalent hydrophobic residues in Jnk1 and Erk2 has no effect on their autophosphorylation. We propose that specific structural elements developed in the course of evolution to suppress spontaneous autophosphorylation of Hog1/p38. The suppressors were kept wobbly, probably to allow activation by induced autophosphorylation, but became stricter in mammalian p38s than in the yeast Hog1. PMID:26987986

  19. Spatially explicit modelling of cholera epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.

  20. Synthetic multivalent ligands for cholera & cholera-like toxins: Protected cyclic neoglycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vajinder; Yadav, Narender; Kartha, K P Ravindranathan

    2016-08-05

    Synthesis of a set of novel glycopeptide analogues as potential cholera/cholera-like toxin inhibitors in their protected form is described. They include di-, tri-, tetra- and pentavalent scaffolds. The synthetic steps were achieved using a combination of solvent-free mechanochemical as well as the conventional solution-phase reactions. During the conventional DIC-HOBt-mediated peptide coupling followed for the preparation of certain glycopeptide analogues an interesting in situ Fmoc deprotection was observed which has been demonstrated to hold potential for synthesiszing glycopeptides/neoglycopeptides with extended polyamide chains.

  1. The Vaccine Candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 Is Protective against Cholera in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    García, Luis; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; García, Hilda; Rodríguez, Boris L.; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Suzarte, Edith; Ramírez, Margarita; Pino, Yadira; Campos, Javier; Menéndez, Jorge; Valera, Rodrigo; González, Daniel; González, Irma; Pérez, Oliver; Serrano, Teresita; Lastre, Miriam; Miralles, Fernando; del Campo, Judith; Maestre, Jorge Luis; Pérez, José Luis; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Antonio; Marrero, Karen; Ledón, Talena; Fando, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXΦ prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 109 CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3, while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 109 CFU of ΔCTXΦ attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 × 105 CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3. Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (109 CFU) of strain

  2. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    PubMed

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  3. Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marek, Aleksandra; Inkster, Teresa; Anderson, Eleanor; Jenkins, Claire; Boyd, John; Kerr, Stuart; Cowden, John

    2013-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a serious public health problem worldwide, but in the UK, V. cholerae infections are rare. Here, we report a case of V. cholerae bacteraemia in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first non-travel-related V cholerae bacteraemia in the UK.

  4. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts.

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in Karnataka, India. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in Karnataka. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.

  6. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera.

  7. [Improvement of laboratory diagnostics of cholera due to genetically altered (hybrid) variants of cholera Vibrio biovar El Tor].

    PubMed

    Savel'eva, I V; Khatsukov, K X; Savel'eva, E I; Moskvitina, S I; Kovalev, D A; Savel'ev, V N; Kulichenko, A N; Antonenko, A D; Babenyshev, B V

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of laboratory diagnostics of cholera taking into the account appearance of hybrid variants of cholera vibrio El Tor biovar in the 1990s. Phenotypic and molecular-genetic properties of typical toxigenic (151 strains) and hybrid (102 strains) variants of El Tor biovar cholera vibrios, isolated in the Caucuses in 1970-1990 and 1993-1998, respectively, were studied. Toxigenicity gene DNA fragments, inherent to El Tor biovars or classic, were detected by using a reagent kit "Genes of Vibrio cholerae variant ctxB-rstR-rstC, REF" developed by us. Reagent kit "Genes of V. cholerae variant ctxB-rstR-rstC, REF" is proposed to be used for laboratory diagnostics of cholera during study of material from humans or environmental objects and for identification of V. cholerae 01 on genome level in PCR-analysis as a necessary addition to the classic scheme of bacteriological analysis. Laboratory diagnostics of cholera due to genetically altered (hybrid) variants of cholera vibrio El Tor biovar is based on a complex study of material from humans and environmental objects by routine bacteriologic and PCR-analysis methods with the aim of detection of gene DNA fragments in the studied material, that determine biovar (classic or El Tor), identification of V. cholerae O1 strains with differentiation of El Tor vibrios into typical and altered, as well as determination of enterotoxin, produced by the specific cholera vibrio strain (by the presence ctxB(El) or ctxB(Cl) gene DNA fragment, coding biosynthesis of CT-2 or CT-1, respectively).

  8. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  9. Risk Factors Early in the 2010 Cholera Epidemic, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Emily; Loharikar, Anagha; Routh, Janell; Gaines, Joanna; Fouché, Marie-Délivrance Bernadette; Jean-Louis, Reginald; Ayers, Tracy; Johnson, Dawn; Tappero, Jordan W.; Roels, Thierry H.; Archer, W. Roodly; Dahourou, Georges A.; Mintz, Eric; Quick, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    During the early weeks of the cholera outbreak that began in Haiti in October 2010, we conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors. Drinking treated water was strongly protective against illness. Our results highlight the effectiveness of safe water in cholera control. PMID:22099118

  10. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.

  11. The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chen-Shan; Sorenson, Jon; Harris, Jason B; Robins, William P; Charles, Richelle C; Jean-Charles, Roger R; Bullard, James; Webster, Dale R; Kasarskis, Andrew; Peluso, Paul; Paxinos, Ellen E; Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Calderwood, Stephen B; Mekalanos, John J; Schadt, Eric E; Waldor, Matthew K

    2011-01-06

    Although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991, it had not been epidemic in Haiti for at least 100 years. Recently, however, there has been a severe outbreak of cholera in Haiti. We used third-generation single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing to determine the genome sequences of 2 clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates from the current outbreak in Haiti, 1 strain that caused cholera in Latin America in 1991, and 2 strains isolated in South Asia in 2002 and 2008. Using primary sequence data, we compared the genomes of these 5 strains and a set of previously obtained partial genomic sequences of 23 diverse strains of V. cholerae to assess the likely origin of the cholera outbreak in Haiti. Both single-nucleotide variations and the presence and structure of hypervariable chromosomal elements indicate that there is a close relationship between the Haitian isolates and variant V. cholerae El Tor O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh in 2002 and 2008. In contrast, analysis of genomic variation of the Haitian isolates reveals a more distant relationship with circulating South American isolates. The Haitian epidemic is probably the result of the introduction, through human activity, of a V. cholerae strain from a distant geographic source. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.).

  12. Multinational Cholera Outbreak after Wedding in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Suarez, Alba Jazmin Palmera; Meyer, Luis; Hiciano, Salvador; Newton, Anna; Morgan, Oliver; Then, Cecilia; Pimentel, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study of a cholera outbreak after a wedding in the Dominican Republic, January 22, 2011. Ill persons were more likely to report having consumed shrimp on ice (odds ratio 8.50) and ice cubes in beverages (odds ratio 3.62). Travelers to cholera-affected areas should avoid consuming uncooked seafood and untreated water. PMID:22204039

  13. Quorum Regulated Resistance of Vibrio cholerae against Environmental Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, M. Mozammel; Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Zhu, Jun; Mekalanos, John J.; Faruque, Shah M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found that bacterial cell density-dependent gene expression termed “quorum sensing” which is regulated by signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) can protect V. cholerae against predatory phages. V. cholerae mutant strains carrying inactivated AI synthase genes were significantly more susceptible to multiple phages compared to the parent bacteria. Likewise when mixed cultures of phage and bacteria were supplemented with exogenous autoinducers CAI-1 or AI-2 produced by recombinant strains carrying cloned AI synthase genes, increased survival of V. cholerae and a decrease in phage titer was observed. Mutational analyses suggested that the observed effects of autoinducers are mediated in part through the quorum sensing-dependent production of haemaglutinin protease, and partly through downregulation of phage receptors. These results have implication in developing strategies for phage mediated control of cholera. PMID:27892495

  14. Satellite Water Impurity Marker (SWIM) for predicting seasonal cholera outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A. S.; Akanda, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prediction of outbreaks of cholera, a deadly water related disease, remains elusive. Since coastal brackish water provides a natural ecological niche for cholera bacteria and because a powerful evidence of new biotypes is emerging, it is highly unlikely that cholera will be fully eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop cholera prediction model with several months' of lead time. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance, has been associated with proliferation of cholera bacteria. However, survival of cholera bacteria in a variety of coastal ecological environment put constraints on predictive abilities of chlorophyll algorithm since it only measures greenness in coastal waters. Here, we propose a new remote sensing reflectance based statistical index: Satellite Water Impurity Marker, or SWIM. This statistical index estimates impurity levels in the coastal waters and is based on the variability observed in the difference between the blue (412nm) and green (555nm) wavelengths in coastal waters. The developed index is bounded between clear and impure water and shows the ability to predict cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta with a predicted r2 of 78% with two months lead time. We anticipate that a predictive system based on SWIM will provide essential lead time allowing effective intervention and mitigation strategies to be developed for other cholera endemic regions of the world.

  15. Avian cholera and organochlorine residues in an American oystercatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera, was isolated from cultures of the liver and heart blood of a female, adult American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) found dead on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, in May 1973. This is apparently the first record of avian cholera in the oystercatcher. Low levels of DDE were identified in tissues of the oystercatcher.

  16. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  17. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  18. Malonate inhibits virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that inhibition of the TCA cycle, either through mutations or chemical inhibition, increased toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we found that the addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), decreased toxT transcription in V. cholerae, an observation inconsistent with the previous pattern observed. Unlike another SDH inhibitor, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which increased toxT transcription and slightly inhibited V. cholerae growth, malonate inhibited toxT transcription in both the wild-type strain and TCA cycle mutants, suggesting malonate-mediated inhibition of virulence gene expression is independent to TCA cycle activity. Addition of malonate also inhibited ctxB and tcpA expressions but did not affect aphA, aphB, tcpP and toxR expressions. Malonate inhibited cholera toxin (CT) production in both V. cholerae classical biotype strains O395N1 and CA401, and El Tor biotype strain, N16961. Consistent with previous reports, we confirmed that these strains of V. cholerae did not utilize malonate as a primary carbon source. However, we found that the addition of malonate to the growth medium stimulated V. cholerae growth. All together, these results suggest that metabolizing malonate as a nutrient source negatively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae.

  19. The Origin of the Haitian Cholera Outbreak Strain

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chen-Shan; Sorenson, Jon; Harris, Jason B.; Robins, William P.; Charles, Richelle C.; Jean-Charles, Roger R.; Bullard, James; Webster, Dale R.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Peluso, Paul; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Mekalanos, John J.; Schadt, Eric E.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991, it had not been epidemic in Haiti for at least 100 years. Recently, however, there has been a severe outbreak of cholera in Haiti. METHODS We used third-generation single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing to determine the genome sequences of 2 clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates from the current outbreak in Haiti, 1 strain that caused cholera in Latin America in 1991, and 2 strains isolated in South Asia in 2002 and 2008. Using primary sequence data, we compared the genomes of these 5 strains and a set of previously obtained partial genomic sequences of 23 diverse strains of V. cholerae to assess the likely origin of the cholera outbreak in Haiti. RESULTS Both single-nucleotide variations and the presence and structure of hypervariable chromosomal elements indicate that there is a close relationship between the Haitian isolates and variant V. cholerae El Tor O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh in 2002 and 2008. In contrast, analysis of genomic variation of the Haitian isolates reveals a more distant relationship with circulating South American isolates. CONCLUSIONS The Haitian epidemic is probably the result of the introduction, through human activity, of a V. cholerae strain from a distant geographic source. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.) PMID:21142692

  20. Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in water reservoirs of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, Saidou; Cecchi, Philippe; Mosser, Thomas; Toubiana, Mylène; Traoré, Oumar; Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2017-09-06

    Africa is currently an important region in which cholera epidemics occur. Little is known about the presence of Vibriocholerae in freshwater bodies in Africa. There are ca. 1700 lakes and reservoirs in Burkina Faso, most of which have been built within recent decades to secure water resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of V. cholerae in the water of reservoirs, using the most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that V. cholerae could be detected in water samples collected from 14 of 39 sampled reservoirs. The concentrations varied from 0 MPN/l to more than 1100 MPN/l. Fifty strains of V. cholerae isolated on CHROMagar™ vibrio were identified as V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, none of which carried the ctxA gene. A significant positive correlation was found between the presence of V. cholerae in the reservoirs and both alkaline pH and phytoplankton biomass. V. cholerae was present in significantly higher numbers in reservoirs of urban areas than in rural areas. Since V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 has been shown to be a causative agent of endemic diarrheal outbreaks, their presence in Burkina Faso reservoirs suggests they may play a role in gastroenteritis in that country. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Ashraful I; Faruque, Abu Syed G; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Chowdhury, Fahima; Nair, Gopinath B; Salam, Mohammed A; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2005-07-01

    Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.

  2. Zebrafish as a natural host model for Vibrio cholerae colonization and transmission.

    PubMed

    Runft, Donna L; Mitchell, Kristie C; Abuaita, Basel H; Allen, Jonathan P; Bajer, Sarah; Ginsburg, Kevin; Neely, Melody N; Withey, Jeffrey H

    2014-03-01

    The human diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae in the environment is associated with several varieties of aquatic life, including insect egg masses, shellfish, and vertebrate fish. Here we describe a novel animal model for V. cholerae, the zebrafish. Pandemic V. cholerae strains specifically colonize the zebrafish intestinal tract after exposure in water with no manipulation of the animal required. Colonization occurs in close contact with the intestinal epithelium and mimics colonization observed in mammals. Zebrafish that are colonized by V. cholerae transmit the bacteria to naive fish, which then become colonized. Striking differences in colonization between V. cholerae classical and El Tor biotypes were apparent. The zebrafish natural habitat in Asia heavily overlaps areas where cholera is endemic, suggesting that zebrafish and V. cholerae evolved in close contact with each other. Thus, the zebrafish provides a natural host model for the study of V. cholerae colonization, transmission, and environmental survival.

  3. Zebrafish as a Natural Host Model for Vibrio cholerae Colonization and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Runft, Donna L.; Mitchell, Kristie C.; Abuaita, Basel H.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Bajer, Sarah; Ginsburg, Kevin; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    The human diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae in the environment is associated with several varieties of aquatic life, including insect egg masses, shellfish, and vertebrate fish. Here we describe a novel animal model for V. cholerae, the zebrafish. Pandemic V. cholerae strains specifically colonize the zebrafish intestinal tract after exposure in water with no manipulation of the animal required. Colonization occurs in close contact with the intestinal epithelium and mimics colonization observed in mammals. Zebrafish that are colonized by V. cholerae transmit the bacteria to naive fish, which then become colonized. Striking differences in colonization between V. cholerae classical and El Tor biotypes were apparent. The zebrafish natural habitat in Asia heavily overlaps areas where cholera is endemic, suggesting that zebrafish and V. cholerae evolved in close contact with each other. Thus, the zebrafish provides a natural host model for the study of V. cholerae colonization, transmission, and environmental survival. PMID:24375135

  4. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  5. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  6. Cholera in the Gilbert Island. I. Epidemiological features.

    PubMed

    Kuberski, T; Flood, T; Tera, T

    1979-07-01

    An explosive epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, was centered on the coral atoll of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands. This outbreak was a unique experience in the South and Central Pacific region. The principal mode of spread during the peak of the outbreak was probably through contamination of the main water supply. Tarawa lagoon water and shellfish were found to be contaminated with V. cholerae and ingestion of raw fish and shellfish from the lagoon also served as a source of transmission. This outbreak raises the concern of Rother outbreaks of cholera occuring on remote and poorly equipped Pacific islands where the environmental circumstances are conducive to cholera spread.

  7. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera.

    PubMed

    Hatzios, Stavroula K; Abel, Sören; Martell, Julianne; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T; Davis, Brigid M; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-04-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human choleric stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, and genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance of intelectin, an intestinal lectin, and its binding to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting that it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialog in an animal model of infection.

  8. Gastric emptying of oral rehydration solutions in acute cholera.

    PubMed

    Collins, B J; Van Loon, F P; Molla, A; Molla, A M; Alam, N H

    1989-08-01

    Gastric emptying of rice powder electrolyte solution and of glucose electrolyte solution was measured by a marker dilution double sampling technique in 14 and in 16 adult patients respectively after intravenous rehydration during an attack of acute cholera. Six patients who received rice powder electrolyte solution and seven who received glucose electrolyte solution re-attended for a repeat study with the same test meal 16 days later, when fully recovered from cholera. No differences in gastric emptying patterns of the two electrolyte solutions were observed, either in the acute or in the recovered patients. Similarly, gastric emptying of both solutions was rapid during acute cholera and comparable to that observed in recovered patients. This study indicates that gastric emptying is not impaired in acute cholera and that the rate of emptying of oral rehydration solutions is adequate to account for their observed clinical efficacy in fast purging patients with acute cholera.

  9. Role of phages in the epidemiology of cholera.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Shah M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the periodic emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae causing outbreaks of cholera in regions where the disease is endemic, is vital to develop preventive measures. Besides environmental factors which are not precisely defined, bacteriophages, and horizontally transmissible genetic elements are known to have a significant role in the epidemiology and evolution of the pathogen. Cholera epidemics are also known to be self-limiting, and hence identifying natural factors which contribute to the collapse of epidemics may have important implications in controlling the disease. Phages have been shown to play a crucial role in modulating cholera epidemics, and enhance V. cholerae evolution through a bactericidal selection process which favors the emergence of new clones.

  10. The Ssn6-Tup1 repressor complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in the osmotic induction of HOG-dependent and -independent genes.

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, J A; Pascual-Ahuir, A; Proft, M; Serrano, R

    1998-01-01

    The response of yeast to osmotic stress has been proposed to rely on the HOG-MAP kinase signalling pathway and on transcriptional activation mediated by STRE promoter elements. However, the osmotic induction of HAL1, an important determinant of salt tolerance, is HOG independent and occurs through the release of transcriptional repression. We have identified an upstream repressing sequence in HAL1 promoter (URSHAL1) located between -231 and -156. This promoter region was able to repress transcription from a heterologous promoter and to bind proteins in non-stressed cells, but not in salt-treated cells. The repression conferred by URSHAL1 is mediated through the Ssn6-Tup1 protein complex and is abolished in the presence of osmotic stress. The Ssn6-Tup1 co-repressor is also involved in the regulation of HOG-dependent genes such as GPD1, CTT1, ALD2, ENA1 and SIP18, and its deletion can suppress the osmotic sensitivity of hog1 mutants. We propose that the Ssn6-Tup1 repressor complex might be a general component in the regulation of osmostress responses at the transcriptional level of both HOG-dependent and -independent genes. PMID:9564037

  11. Vibrio cholerae/mimicus in fecal microbiota of healthy children in a cholera endemic urban slum setting in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sur, Dipika; Kurakawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2012-11-01

    During a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled probiotic trial among 3758 children residing in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, Vibrio cholerae/mimicus was detected in fecal microbiota of healthy children. The importance of this finding in the local, regional and global transmission of cholera is discussed. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Molecular characterization reveals involvement of altered El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in cholera outbreak at Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Meenu; Kumar, Pramod; Sarguna, Pennagaram; Bai, Meera; Ghosh, Neha; Gopalan, Natrajan

    2011-04-01

    Thirty-four Vibrio cholerae isolates collected from a cholera outbreak in Hyderabad, South India were found to belong to serogroup Ol biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa. The genotype of all the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays. All the isolates were found PCR positive for ctxAB, ompW, rflOl, rtxC, and tcpA genes. All the isolates but one harboured rstR ( El Tor ) allele. However, one isolate carried both rstR ( EL Tor ) as well as rstR ( Classical ) alleles. Cholera toxin (ctxB) genotyping of the isolates confirmed the presence of altered cholera toxin B of classical biotype in all the isolates. All the isolates except VCH35 harboured an RS1-CTX prophage array on the large chromosome. The isolate VCH35 contained a tandem repeat of classical CTX prophage on the small chromosome. The clonal relationship among the V. cholerae isolates as carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences PCR, BOX PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, uniformly showed a genetic relationship among the outbreak isolates. The results of this study suggest that altered El Tor biotype V. cholerae with the classical cholera toxin gene are involved in cholera outbreaks in India.

  13. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from environmental sources associated with the cholera outbreak after 'AILA' cyclone in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Palit, A; Batabyal, P

    2010-08-01

    West Bengal experienced a devastating storm named 'AILA' in its coastal and southern districts. We attempted to understand the transmission dynamics emphasizing on potable water to detect the presence of toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, followed by the natural devastation. A total of 33 water samples (from tap, tube well and ponds) were analysed. From them, 11 (33.3%) samples were found to be contaminated with V. cholerae, among which 5 (45%) isolates were V. cholerae O1 biotype Ogawa. Antibiogram profile reveals that most of the V. cholerae O1 isolates were highly sensitive against fluroquinolone group of antibiotics, but less sensitive against cefuroxime (50%), cefotaxime (40.9%), ceftriaxone (38.63%), trimethoprim (37.3%), streptomycin (29.2%) and furazolidon (4.54%). Three (36%) V. cholerae isolates were found to be ctxB positive (2 ctxB classical). Potable water plays a crucial role in cholera transmission. Natural disasters like the reported one aided with feacal-oral contamination enhance the possibilities of drinking water contamination. The application of the modified technique, making use of the enrichment subsequently followed by culture and PCR, will help us to detect the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae contamination in different aquatic environment. Moreover, natural extremes have a direct role in increase of salinity level, followed by higher predominance of V. cholerae along with their toxicity development in terms of genetic modification.

  15. Spread of Cholera with Newer Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Serotype Inaba, in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, B.; Ghosh, R.; Sharma, N. C.; Pazhani, G. P.; Taneja, N.; Raychowdhuri, A.; Sarkar, B. L.; Mondal, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Nandy, R. K.; Bhattacharya, M. K.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Ramamurthy, T.

    2006-01-01

    During 2004 and 2005, cholera was recorded in 15 states of India, with 7 outbreaks. The newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba had a different antibiogram and ribotype, different pulsotypes, and different mutations in the wbeT gene. Due to the absence of serogroup O139, the Inaba serotype may have acquired the potential to affect the population at large. PMID:16954282

  16. Antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava leaf and bark against multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae: implication for cholera control.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Niaz; Gomes, Donald James; Watanabe, Haruo; Rahman, Sabita Rizwana; Chomvarin, Chariya; Endtz, Hubert Ph; Alam, Munirul

    2010-07-01

    In clinical cholera, a 3-day course of antibiotic complements extensive rehydration therapy by reducing stool volume, shortening the illness, and averting death. However, antibiotic therapy, which has lifesaving implications for cholera, is often hindered due to multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. Crude aqueous mixture and water soluble methanol extract from leaf and bark of Psidium guajava, a tropical fruit guava of the family Myrtaceae, showed strong antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant V. cholerae O1. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude aqueous mixture and water soluble methanol extract, which was bactericidal against 10(7) CFU/mL of V. cholerae was determined to be 1,250 microg/mL and 850 microg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activity of P. guajava was stable at 100 degrees C for 15-20 min, suggesting nonprotein nature of the active component. The growth of V. cholerae in rice oral rehydration saline (ORS) was completely inhibited when 10 mg/mL (wt/vol) of crude aqueous mixture was premixed with the ORS in a ratio of 1:7 (vol. extract/vol. ORS). P. guajava, which is widely distributed in Bangladesh, thus offers great potential for use in indigenous, herbal medicine for controlling epidemics of cholera.

  17. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  18. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  19. Vaxchora: A Single-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Adriana; Lepage, Jayne E; Sullivan, Karyn M; Seed, Sheila M

    2017-07-01

    To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010. ClinicalTrials.gov was used as a source for unpublished data. Additional data sources were obtained through bibliographic review of selected articles. Studies that addressed the safety and efficacy of Vaxchora, the reformulated, single-dose oral CVD 103-HgR cholera vaccine, were selected for analysis. Approval of Vaxchora, was based on efficacy of the vaccine in human trials demonstrating 90.3% protection among those challenged with V cholerae 10 days after vaccination and in immunogenicity studies with 90% systemic vibriocidal antibody conversion at 6 months after a single-dose of vaccine. Tolerability was acceptable, with the most common adverse effects reported to be fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. Vaxchora is the only FDA-approved, single-dose oral vaccine for the prevention of cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1 in adult travelers from the United States going to cholera-affected areas. Safety and efficacy has not been established in children, immunocompromised persons, and pregnant or breastfeeding women or those living in cholera-endemic areas.

  20. Mortality of Pratylenchus penetrans by Volatile Fatty Acids from Liquid Hog Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, A.; Tenuta, M.; Hanson, M. L.; Daayf, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive. PMID:19259528

  1. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs.

  2. An integrated pathway system modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG pathway: a Petri net based approach.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Namrata; Choudhury, Olivia; Chakrabarty, Ankush; De, Rajat K

    2013-02-01

    Biochemical networks comprise many diverse components and interactions between them. It has intracellular signaling, metabolic and gene regulatory pathways which are highly integrated and whose responses are elicited by extracellular actions. Previous modeling techniques mostly consider each pathway independently without focusing on the interrelation of these which actually functions as a single system. In this paper, we propose an approach of modeling an integrated pathway using an event-driven modeling tool, i.e., Petri nets (PNs). PNs have the ability to simulate the dynamics of the system with high levels of accuracy. The integrated set of signaling, regulatory and metabolic reactions involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae's HOG pathway has been collected from the literature. The kinetic parameter values have been used for transition firings. The dynamics of the system has been simulated and the concentrations of major biological species over time have been observed. The phenotypic characteristics of the integrated system have been investigated under two conditions, viz., under the absence and presence of osmotic pressure. The results have been validated favorably with the existing experimental results. We have also compared our study with the study of idFBA (Lee et al., PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000-e1086, 2008) and pointed out the differences between both studies. We have simulated and monitored concentrations of multiple biological entities over time and also incorporated feedback inhibition by Ptp2 which has not been included in the idFBA study. We have concluded that our study is the first to the best of our knowledge to model signaling, metabolic and regulatory events in an integrated form through PN model framework. This study is useful in computational simulation of system dynamics for integrated pathways as there are growing evidences that the malfunctioning of the interplay among these pathways is associated with disease.

  3. Capsaicin, a potential inhibitor of cholera toxin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Haldar, Soumya; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2010-05-01

    The use of natural compounds as inhibitory agents for virulence factor production is a new approach to overcome increased antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we examined whether red chilli (Capsicum annuum) contains any such compound(s) that can repress the cholera toxin (CT) production in Vibrio cholerae. We found that the methanol extract of red chilli could inhibit CT production in recently emerged V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains without affecting their viability. Interestingly, capsaicin, a well-studied active component of red chilli, also drastically inhibited CT production in V. cholerae strains belonging to various serogroups including variants. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed that capsaicin effectively repressed the transcription of ctxA, tcpA and toxT genes, but not of toxR and toxS genes. On the contrary, capsaicin significantly enhanced the transcription of the hns gene, the product of which is known to regulate negatively the transcription of ctxAB, tcpA and toxT genes. These results suggest that capsaicin might act as a potent repressor for CT production possibly by enhancing the transcription of hns.

  4. US Gulf-like toxigenic O1 Vibrio cholerae causing sporadic cholera outbreaks in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Octavia, Sophie; Jin, Dazhi; Ye, Julian; Miao, Ziping; Jiang, Tao; Xia, Shichang; Lan, Ruiting

    2016-05-01

    Cholera is potentially a life threatening disease caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Here we report the identification and characterisation of 76 non-7th pandemic clone O1 V. cholerae isolates including 65 clinical isolates from diarrhoeal patients from 2005 to 2014 in Zhejiang Province, China. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise 65 V. cholerae isolates. Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on a subset of the isolates and whole-genome sequencing was done on 13 isolates. MLST separated 65 isolates into 19 sequence types (STs). Thirty three isolates belonged to ST75 which also contains the US Gulf Coast clone. PFGE separated the 33 isolates into 16 pulsotypes. Whole genome sequencing of 10 ST75 isolates showed that the US Gulf Coast clone and the Chinese ST75 isolates can be separated into two distinct lineages, ST75a and ST75b. All Zhejiang ST75 isolates were ST75b. PFGE and genome sequencing confirmed the linked cases and identified small outbreaks caused by ST75b. The emergence and potential spread of ST75b may pose significant threat to public health. Epidemiological surveillance is required to further understand its epidemic potential. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholera outbreak in South Africa, 2008-2009: laboratory analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Husna; Smith, Anthony M; Tau, Nomsa P; Sooka, Arvinda; Keddy, Karen H

    2013-11-01

    A total of 720 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains were recovered for investigation from an outbreak of cholera in South Africa between November 2008 and April 2009. Strains were characterized by serotype testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Genetic diversity of 248 strains was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Extended characterization was performed on 90 strains. Molecular analysis included: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of ctxA and tcpA genes, sequencing the ctxAB gene, and investigation of molecular mechanisms conferring antimicrobial resistance. The majority of strains were characterized as serotype Ogawa. Strains showed multidrug resistance. Approximately 1.0% of strains displayed extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity. Strains showed very similar PFGE patterns. Ninety strains selected for extended characterization showed the following results: Strains possessed the cholera toxin (CT) and all were PCR positive for the tcpA-El Tor variant. Sequencing of the ctxB gene matched the B-1 allele. Strains harbored the SXT element. Strains that displayed ESBL activity possessed a 140-kilobase-pair plasmid that produced the TEM-63 β-lactamase. Nalidixic acid-resistant strains harbored mutations in GyrA (Ser83-Ile) and ParC (Ser85-Leu). These data highlight the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance and spread of V. cholerae O1 El Tor variants expressing the classical CT within South Africa.

  6. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    1965-01-01

    In a controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines, it was demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or Vibrio El Tor gave over 50% protection for the first two months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine rapidly declined after three to four months. The V. El Tor vaccine gave protection for six months, but its effectiveness declined. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an increasing degree of protection of long duration, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5294176

  7. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Cruz, A.; Pesigan, T. P.; Alvero, M.; Camena, T.; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.; Gomez, C. Z.

    1967-01-01

    A controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or El Tor vibrios gave over 50% protection for the first 2 months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine declined rapidly after 3 to 4 months. The effectiveness of the El Tor vaccine continued for 6 months. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an equally high degree of protection for a longer period of time, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5300874

  8. Chloroform extract of hog barn dust modulates skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR1)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Fenster, Danielle S.; Mixan, Mark; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness is a reported ailment in individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities. To date, specific mechanisms responsible for this symptom remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess whether hog barn dust (HBD) contains components that are capable of binding to and modulating the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel (RyR1), a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. HBD collected from confinement facilities in Nebraska were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and rotary evaporated to dryness. Residues were resuspended in hexane-chloroform (20:1) and precipitates, referred to as HBDorg, were air-dried and studied further. In competition assays, HBDorg dose-dependently displaced [3H]ryanodine from binding sites on RyR1 with an IC50 of 1.5 ± 0.1 μg/ml (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.0 μg/ml). In single-channel assays using RyR1 reconstituted into a lipid bilayer, HBDorg exhibited three distinct dose-dependent effects: first it increased the open probability of RyR1 by increasing its gating frequency and dwell time in the open state, then it induced a state of reduced conductance (55% of maximum) that was more likely to occur and persist at positive holding potentials, and finally it irreversibly closed RyR1. In differentiated C2C12 myotubes, addition of HBD triggered a rise in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by pretreatment with ryanodine. Since persistent activation and/or closure of RyR1 results in skeletal muscle weakness, these new data suggest that HBD is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle ailment reported by hog confinement workers. PMID:20576841

  9. Assessment of F-RNA coliphage as a potential indicator of enteric virus contamination of hog carcasses.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Johns, M W

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is common in pigs, and some swine HEV strains are closely related to human strains. The zoonotic transmission of HEV is now well established. HEV can be detected by molecular techniques, but the significance of the presence of viral nucleic acid is questionable when foods are subjected to virus inactivation treatments. F-RNA coliphages are attractive candidates as indicators for enteric viruses because they are similar in size and survival characteristics and can be rapidly cultured. Information on the contamination of hog carcasses with enteric or hepatic viruses during slaughter is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-RNA coliphages, HEV, total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli at different stages of the dressing process. Hog carcasses entering the commercial slaughter facility are heavily contaminated with F-RNA coliphages and HEV. Subsequent processes such as scalding, singing, and pasteurization can reduce the incidence and levels of F-RNA coliphages and HEV substantially to almost undetectable levels. Large discrepancies between the amount of viral nucleic acid and infectious F-RNA coliphage particles, both at high levels and low levels of contamination, were observed. The prevalence and levels of viable F-RNA coliphages were lower than those of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli in the anal area and on random sites before pasteurization. At a research abattoir, there was no overall mean reduction of viable F-RNA coliphages recovered from random sites before pasteurization and after washing, whereas overall mean reductions of 1.2, 2.6, and 2.9 log CFU for total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli, respectively, were obtained. These findings suggest that bacteria such as coliforms and E. coli may not be suitable as indicators for enteric viruses in a meat processing environment.

  10. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  11. Chloroform extract of hog barn dust modulates skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Fenster, Danielle S; Mixan, Mark; Romberger, Debra J; Toews, Myron L; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2010-09-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness is a reported ailment in individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities. To date, specific mechanisms responsible for this symptom remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess whether hog barn dust (HBD) contains components that are capable of binding to and modulating the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel (RyR1), a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. HBD collected from confinement facilities in Nebraska were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and rotary evaporated to dryness. Residues were resuspended in hexane-chloroform (20:1) and precipitates, referred to as HBDorg, were air-dried and studied further. In competition assays, HBDorg dose-dependently displaced [3H]ryanodine from binding sites on RyR1 with an IC50 of 1.5±0.1 microg/ml (Ki=0.4±0.0 microg/ml). In single-channel assays using RyR1 reconstituted into a lipid bilayer, HBDorg exhibited three distinct dose-dependent effects: first it increased the open probability of RyR1 by increasing its gating frequency and dwell time in the open state, then it induced a state of reduced conductance (55% of maximum) that was more likely to occur and persist at positive holding potentials, and finally it irreversibly closed RyR1. In differentiated C2C12 myotubes, addition of HBD triggered a rise in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by pretreatment with ryanodine. Since persistent activation and/or closure of RyR1 results in skeletal muscle weakness, these new data suggest that HBD is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle ailment reported by hog confinement workers.

  12. Genetic characteristics of drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Shah M; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, M Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Watanabe, Haruo; Sack, R Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro; Alam, Munirul

    2012-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), causing the seventh cholera pandemic, was recently replaced in Bangladesh by an altered ET possessing ctxB of the Classical (CL) biotype, which caused the first six cholera pandemics. In the present study, V. cholerae O1 strains associated with endemic cholera in Dhaka between 2006 and 2011 were analysed for major phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Of 54 representative V. cholerae isolates tested, all were phenotypically ET and showed uniform resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and furazolidone (FR). Resistance to tetracycline (TE) and erythromycin (E) showed temporal fluctuation, varying from year to year, while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (CN) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). Year-wise data revealed erythromycin resistance to be 33.3 % in 2006 and 11 % in 2011, while tetracycline resistance accounted for 33, 78, 0, 100 and 27 % in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively; interestingly, all isolates tested were sensitive to TE in 2011, as observed in 2008. All V. cholerae isolates tested possessed genetic elements such as SXT, ctxAB, tcpA(ET), rstR(ET) and rtxC; none had IntlI (Integron I). Double mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR followed by DNA sequencing and analysis of the ctxB gene revealed a point mutation at position 58 (C→A), which has resulted in an amino acid substitution from histidine (H) to asparagine (N) at position 20 (genotype 7) since 2008. Although the multi-resistant strains having tetracycline resistance showed minor genetic divergence, V. cholerae strains were clonal, as determined by a PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. This study shows 2008-2010 to be the time of transition from ctxB genotype 1 to genotype 7 in V. cholerae ET causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  13. Drug response and genetic properties of Vibrio cholerae associated with endemic cholera in north-eastern Thailand, 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Chomvarin, Chariya; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Jumroenjit, Warin; Kanoktippornchai, Boonnapa; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Tantisuwichwong, Napaporn; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2013-04-01

    Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, including Thailand. Representative V. cholerae strains associated with endemic cholera (n = 32), including strains (n = 3) from surface water sources, in Khon Kaen, Thailand (2003-2011), were subjected to microbiological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. According to phenotypic and related genetic data, all tested V. cholerae strains belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor (ET), Inaba (IN) or Ogawa (OG). All of the strains were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains showing resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin were predominant in 2007. V. cholerae strains isolated before and after 2007 were non-MDR. All except six diarrhoeal strains possessed ctxA and ctxB genes and were toxigenic altered ET, confirmed by MAMA-PCR and DNA sequencing. Year-wise data revealed that V. cholerae INET strains isolated between 2003 and 2004, plus one strain isolated in 2007, lacked the RS1 sequence (rstC) and toxin-linked cryptic plasmid (TLC)-specific genetic marker, but possessed CTX(CL) prophage genes ctxB(CL) and rstR(CL). A sharp genetic transition was noted, namely the majority of V. cholerae strains in 2007 and all in 2010 and 2011 were not repressor genotype rstR(CL) but instead were rstR(ET), and all ctx(+) strains possessed RS1 and TLC-specific genetic markers. DNA sequencing data revealed that strains isolated since 2007 had a mutation in the tcpA gene at amino acid position 64 (N→S). Four clonal types, mostly of environmental origin, including subtypes, reflected genetic diversity, while distinct signatures were observed for clonally related, altered ET from Thailand, Vietnam and Bangladesh, confirmed by distinct subclustering patterns observed in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggesting that endemic cholera is caused by V. cholerae indigenous to Khon Kaen.

  14. Drug response and genetic properties of Vibrio cholerae associated with endemic cholera in north-eastern Thailand, 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    Chomvarin, Chariya; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Mannan, Shahnewaj B.; Jumroenjit, Warin; Kanoktippornchai, Boonnapa; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Tantisuwichwong, Napaporn; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur A.; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro; Colwell, Rita R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, including Thailand. Representative V. cholerae strains associated with endemic cholera (n = 32), including strains (n = 3) from surface water sources, in Khon Kaen, Thailand (2003–2011), were subjected to microbiological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. According to phenotypic and related genetic data, all tested V. cholerae strains belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor (ET), Inaba (IN) or Ogawa (OG). All of the strains were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains showing resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin were predominant in 2007. V. cholerae strains isolated before and after 2007 were non-MDR. All except six diarrhoeal strains possessed ctxA and ctxB genes and were toxigenic altered ET, confirmed by MAMA-PCR and DNA sequencing. Year-wise data revealed that V. cholerae INET strains isolated between 2003 and 2004, plus one strain isolated in 2007, lacked the RS1 sequence (rstC) and toxin-linked cryptic plasmid (TLC)-specific genetic marker, but possessed CTXCL prophage genes ctxBCL and rstRCL. A sharp genetic transition was noted, namely the majority of V. cholerae strains in 2007 and all in 2010 and 2011 were not repressor genotype rstRCL but instead were rstRET, and all ctx+ strains possessed RS1 and TLC-specific genetic markers. DNA sequencing data revealed that strains isolated since 2007 had a mutation in the tcpA gene at amino acid position 64 (N→S). Four clonal types, mostly of environmental origin, including subtypes, reflected genetic diversity, while distinct signatures were observed for clonally related, altered ET from Thailand, Vietnam and Bangladesh, confirmed by distinct subclustering patterns observed in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggesting that endemic cholera is caused by V. cholerae indigenous to Khon Kaen. PMID:23319310

  15. In vitro and in vivo cholera toxin production by classical and El Tor isolates of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, P C; Lee, J V; Miliotis, M D; Still, C S; Isaäcson, M; Ahmad, Q S

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the in vitro production of cholera toxin by 19 Vibrio cholerae El Tor isolates from patients with cholera in South Africa, one El Tor isolate from a patient in Malawi (a country approximately 1000 km north-northeast of South Africa), 6 El Tor and 12 classical type isolates from patients in Bangladesh, and 5 culture collection classical strains. Identical phage types and indistinguishable toxigenicities among the South African and Malawi V. cholerae, representing isolations obtained over a 10-year period, indicated that essentially a single strain was involved in the cholera of these regions. Similarly, phage typing and toxin profiles indicated that the 12 classical and 6 El Tor V. cholerae cultures in Bangladesh, all isolated in November 1983, represented just two strains. As assessed by titrations in Y-1 mouse adrenal and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, the general order of toxigenicities was Bangladesh and culture collection classical greater than Bangladesh El Tor greater than southern African El Tor. The African isolates consistently gave rise to very low titers. Their relative reluctance to produce the toxin in vitro compared with the culture collection classical strains, particularly strain 569B, was confirmed by rocket electrophoresis. In somewhat of a contrast, maximum in vivo titers in rice water stools from cholera patients in South Africa and from both classical and El Tor type cholera patients in Bangladesh were essentially equal. It is postulated that under the continuous culture conditions that occur in vivo, cholera toxin concentrations can accumulate to a maximum level, depending on the rate of purging by the diarrheal fluid rather than the toxigenicity of the infecting stain. The relevance of these findings to the relative severities of classical and El Tor types of cholera is discussed. Images PMID:4008618

  16. Quantifying Vibrio cholerae enterotoxicity in a zebrafish infection model.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kristie C; Breen, Paul; Britton, Sarah; Neely, Melody N; Withey, Jeffrey H

    2017-06-16

    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection in humans characterized by voluminous watery diarrhea. Cholera is spread through ingestion of contaminated food or water, primarily in developing countries that lack the proper infrastructure for proper water and sewage treatment. Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium that inhabits coastal and estuarine areas, and is known to have several environmental reservoirs, including fish. Our laboratory has recently described the use of the zebrafish as a new animal model for the study of V. cholerae intestinal colonization, pathogenesis, and transmission.As early as six hours after exposure to V. cholerae, zebrafish develop diarrhea. Prior work in our laboratory has shown that this is not due to the action of cholera toxin. We hypothesize that accessory toxins produced by V. cholerae are the cause of diarrhea in infected zebrafish. In order to assess the effects of accessory toxins in the zebrafish, it was necessary to develop a method of quantifying diarrheal volume as a measure of pathogenesis. Here, we have adapted cell density, protein, and mucin assays, along with enumeration of V. cholerae in the zebrafish intestinal tract and in the infection water, to achieve this goal. Combined, these assays should help us determine which toxins have the greatest diarrheagenic effect in fish, and consequently, which toxins may play a role in environmental transmission.Importance Identification of the accessory toxins that cause diarrhea in zebrafish can help us understand more about the role of fish in the wild as aquatic reservoirs for V. cholerae It is plausible that accessory toxins can act to prolong colonization and subsequent shedding of V. cholerae back into the environment, thus perpetuating and facilitating transmission during an outbreak. It is also possible that accessory toxins help to maintain low levels of intestinal colonization in fish, giving V. cholerae an advantage when

  17. Classification of SD-OCT volumes with multi pyramids, LBP and HOG descriptors: application to DME detections.

    PubMed

    Alsaih, Khaled; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Vall, Join Massich; Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Sidibe, Desire; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Milea, Dan; Cheung, Carol Y; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the automated detection of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) volumes. Our method considers a generic classification pipeline with preprocessing for noise removal and flattening of each B-Scan. Features such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) are extracted and combined to create a set of different feature vectors which are fed to a linear-Support Vector Machines (SVM) Classifier. Experimental results show a promising sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.87 on a challenging dataset.

  18. You Can’t Keep a Good ’Hog’ Down: The Curious Saga of the A-10 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    would also call the Thunderbolt II the ‘‘ Warthog ,’’ ‘‘Hog,’’ or ‘‘HAWG’’ because it looked ugly, and because of its tenacious close-in and low-level... Warthog was sent to various units both stateside and in Europe and also was assigned to reserve units without much fanfare. It wasn’t until the Persian...96). In all, the Warthogs flew over 8,100 missions, an average of 193 missions per day (Figure 2). According to one source, they accounted for over

  19. Establishment of Experimental Murine Peritonitis Model with Hog Gastric Mucin for Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Sung-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Animal models are essential to studies of infectious diseases. The use of mice to test bacterial infection has been extensively reported. However, methods applied to clinical isolates, particularly for carbapenem-resistant bacteria, must be tailored according to the infection models and bacteria used. In this study, we infected 6-week-old female BALB/c mice intraperitoneally with different strains of resistant bacteria plus 3% hog gastric mucin. This method was found to be efficient and readily applicable for investigation of carbapenem-resisant Gram-negative pathogens (e.g., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) detected in Korea. PMID:28271653

  20. [Cholera epidemic in Brescia in 1836].

    PubMed

    Vaglia, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cholera first made its appearance in Italy in 1836. According to reports of the time the consequences were catastrophic: both the number of the people falling ill and the incidence of mortality were high. On the basis of extensive documentation from various archives, the disease appears to have been known in its clinical aspect but its aetiology remained obscure. Hence physicians were powerless to combat such a scourge. The sense of unease and confusion that accompanied the evolution of these sad events drove the population to the use of religious practices of various kinds. It is still possible to find signs of such devotion in churches, votive chapels and ex voto offerings.