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Sample records for holcus lanatus yorkshire

  1. Phytochelatins Are Involved in Differential Arsenate Tolerance in Holcus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Hartley-Whitaker, Jeanette; Ainsworth, Gillian; Vooijs, Riet; Bookum, Wilma Ten; Schat, Henk; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2001-01-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  2. Arsenic extractability and uptake by velvetgrass Holcus lanatus and ryegrass Lolium perenne in variously treated soils polluted by tailing spills.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Anna; Lewińska, Karolina; Gałka, Bernard

    2013-11-15

    Phytostabilization should be considered as an appropriate phytoremediation technique to restore the area affected by tailing spills in Zloty Stok, where arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The study aimed to compare the suitability of velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for development of plant cover in that area. Various treatments commonly applied to support phytostabilization were examined. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the effects of soil amendment with phosphate (P), sewage sludge (SS) and iron salts (Fe) on arsenic extractability and its uptake by grass. Four kinds of soil material, containing 356-5350 mg kg(-1) As, were examined. Velvetgrass proved to be more resistant than ryegrass to the toxicity of soil arsenic. Ammonium sulphate extractability of As in soils correlated well with As concentrations in the biomass of both grass species. In three of four tested soils, application of Fe failed to decrease As extractability and to reduce its concentrations in the aboveground parts of grasses. Application of P and SS resulted in increased As solubility in soils, but their effects on plant biomass and As uptake were ambiguous. SS had a strong beneficial influence on the growth of velvetgrass, while such an effect was not observed for ryegrass.

  3. Influence of soil properties and phosphate addition on arsenic uptake from polluted soils by velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Lewińska, K; Karczewska, A

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of soil material were used in a pot experiment with velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus). Two unpolluted soils: sand (S) and loam (L) were spiked with sodium arsenite (As II) and arsenate (As V), to obtain total arsenic (As) concentrations of 500 mg As kg(-1). Two other soils (ZS I, ZS III), containing 3320 and 5350 mg As kg(-1), were collected from Zloty Stok where gold and arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The effects of phosphate addition on plants growth and As uptake were investigated. Phosphate was applied to soils in the form of NH4H2PO4 at the rate 0.2 g P/kg. Average concentrations of arsenic in the shoots of velvetgrass grown in spiked soils S and L without P amendment were in the range 18-210 mg As kg(-1) d.wt., whereas those in plants grown on ZS I and ZS II soils were considerably lower, and varied in the range 11-52 mg As kg(-1) d.wt. The addition of phosphate caused a significant increase in plant biomass and therefore the total amounts of As taken up by plants, however, the differences in As concentrations in the shoots of velvetgrass amended and non-amended with phosphate were not statistically significant.

  4. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  5. The Distribution of Arsenate and Arsenite in Shoots and Roots of Holcus lanatus is Influenced by Arsenic Tolerance and Arsenate and Phosphate Supply

    PubMed Central

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 μm) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 μm); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus. PMID:12857839

  6. The distribution of arsenate and arsenite in shoots and roots of Holcus lanatus is influenced by arsenic tolerance and arsenate and phosphate supply.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-07-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 micro M) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 micro M); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus.

  7. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  8. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  9. Developing Entrepreneurship in West Yorkshire: West Yorkshire Universities' Partnership and Business Start-Up@Leeds Met

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    West Yorkshire universities together with Yorkshire Forward, the Regional Development Agency (RDA) for Yorkshire and Humberside, are collaborating on a graduate entrepreneurship programme. This paper outlines the national and regional context for the role of entrepreneurial education in producing new business and a climate in which creativity and…

  10. 75 Years and More in Yorkshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood-Robinson, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    To celebrate the work of the Association for Science Education (ASE), the Science Masters' Association (SMA) and the Association of Women Science Teachers (AWST) in Yorkshire, the Region Committee invited Edgar Jenkins to write a celebratory history, entitled "75 years and More in Yorkshire". The booklet, locating that work in its wider…

  11. 75 Years and More in Yorkshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood-Robinson, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    To celebrate the work of the Association for Science Education (ASE), the Science Masters' Association (SMA) and the Association of Women Science Teachers (AWST) in Yorkshire, the Region Committee invited Edgar Jenkins to write a celebratory history, entitled "75 years and More in Yorkshire". The booklet, locating that work in its wider…

  12. North Yorkshire Schools' Responses to Pupil Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John; McLennan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This was a research project carried out in North Yorkshire schools by the loss and bereavement research group of the Educational Psychology Service. The background was an interest in how schools responded to bereaved pupils, whether they had a structured response, trained staff and training needs, from where they sought support and the level of…

  13. North Yorkshire Schools' Responses to Pupil Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John; McLennan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This was a research project carried out in North Yorkshire schools by the loss and bereavement research group of the Educational Psychology Service. The background was an interest in how schools responded to bereaved pupils, whether they had a structured response, trained staff and training needs, from where they sought support and the level of…

  14. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  15. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  16. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  17. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  19. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus) x Citrullus colocynthis.

    PubMed

    Levi, A.; Thomas, E.; Joobeur, T.; Zhang, X.; Davis, A.

    2002-09-01

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [Plant Accession Griffin 14113 ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x New Hampshire Midget (NHM; C. lanatus var. lanatus)] x U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 386015 ( Citrullus colocynthis). The map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker that was previously reported as linked (1.6 cM) to race-1 Fusarium wilt [incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F.Sm.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans] resistance in watermelon. The map consists of 25 linkage groups. Among them are a large linkage group that contains 22 markers covering a mapping distance of 225.6 cM and six large groups each with 10-20 markers covering a mapping distance of 68.8 to 110.8 cM. There are five additional linkage groups consisting of 3-7 markers per group, each covering a mapping distance of 36.5 to 57.2 cM. The 13 remaining linkage groups are small, each consisting of 2-11 markers covering a mapping distance of 3.5-29.9 cM. The entire map covers a total distance of 1,166.2 cM with an average distance of 8.1 cM between two markers. This map is useful for the further development of markers linked to disease resistance and watermelon fruit qualities.

  20. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Okada, Rina; Harada, Yu; Ikushima, Kenji; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 24-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,25-dien-3beta-ol (1) and 25-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-3beta-ol (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 33.4-52.4 microM against HL-60 (human leukemia), P388 (murine leukemia), and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells. Compound 1 showed melanogenesis inhibitory activity (melanin content 80.0 %) with low cytotoxicity (cell viability 97.6%) at a low concentration (10 microM).

  2. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  3. Computed tomography of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in 3 Yorkshire Terriers.

    PubMed

    Ducoté, J M; Johnson, K E; Dewey, C W; Walker, M A; Coates, J R; Berridge, B R

    1999-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Yorkshire terriers has recently been reported in 6 dogs in Switzerland, 1 dog in Japan and 1 dog in the United States. The purpose of this report is to describe the computed tomographic (CT) findings in 3 dogs with this disease, and to correlate the CT abnormalities with the clinical and pathologic findings in each case. Three Yorkshire Terriers between 2 and 10 years old were evaluated. Physical and neurologic examinations, complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemistry profile, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and CT scan were performed on all 3 dogs. Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were evaluated for 2 dogs. Two dogs were euthanized at the owners' request and necropsies were performed. Neurologic examination findings were consistent with a multifocal/diffuse encephalitis involving the cerebrum and brainstem in all 3 dogs. Complete blood count and biochemistry profiles were normal. Elevated protein concentration and a mononuclear pleocytosis were demonstrated in 2 of 3 dogs on cerebrospinal fluid evaluation. Multifocal, extensive areas of decreased opacity throughout the cerebral hemispheres, asymmetric ventriculomegaly, and lack of contrast enhancement were appreciated on CT images of all three dogs. No mass effect was seen. These findings correlated well with pathologic findings at necropsy, which included multiple malacic cavitations within the brain, representing areas of locally extensive necrosis. CT abnormalities in combination with signalment, clinical findings and cerebrospinal fluid analysis should facilitate a presumptive diagnosis of Yorkshire Terrier necrotizing meningoencephalitis.

  4. Orthopaedic surgeons in Yorkshire--are we ATLS positive?

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, S. P.; McMurray, D. H. M.; Hinsche, A. F.; Deacon, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1993, the Major Trauma Working Group of Yorkshire proposed that hospitals should be accredited as Trauma Reception Hospitals with a policy for the response to the arrival of a trauma patient. These requirements include specific criteria for orthopaedics. METHODS: To evaluate if these criteria are being fulfilled, we carried out an audit comparing the response in the hospitals within the Yorkshire deanery to the arrival of major trauma. All consultant and middle-grade orthopaedic surgeons on call for trauma were contacted and questioned as to their ATLS provider status and involvement in the "trauma call". RESULTS: 16 hospitals were included of which 13 have a "trauma team". 191 surgeons (96% response) were included. 175 have completed an ATLS course. Of these, 72 (41%) had out-of-date qualifications. Only 9 (13%) were waiting to revalidate. Variation was seen in the frequency of accident and emergency department attendance by different grades of surgeon for major trauma. DISCUSSION: All hospitals have a response for major trauma although variations occur. The vast majority of orthopaedic surgeons in Yorkshire have been adequately trained in ATLS management (more so than any study has previously shown), particularly the middle grades, who are usually first to attend. The level of revalidation is low and reasons for this are discussed with recommendations for revalidation in the future. PMID:15720907

  5. Orthopaedic surgeons in Yorkshire--are we ATLS positive?

    PubMed

    Kelley, S P; McMurray, D H M; Hinsche, A F; Deacon, P

    2005-01-01

    In 1993, the Major Trauma Working Group of Yorkshire proposed that hospitals should be accredited as Trauma Reception Hospitals with a policy for the response to the arrival of a trauma patient. These requirements include specific criteria for orthopaedics. To evaluate if these criteria are being fulfilled, we carried out an audit comparing the response in the hospitals within the Yorkshire deanery to the arrival of major trauma. All consultant and middle-grade orthopaedic surgeons on call for trauma were contacted and questioned as to their ATLS provider status and involvement in the "trauma call". 16 hospitals were included of which 13 have a "trauma team". 191 surgeons (96% response) were included. 175 have completed an ATLS course. Of these, 72 (41%) had out-of-date qualifications. Only 9 (13%) were waiting to revalidate. Variation was seen in the frequency of accident and emergency department attendance by different grades of surgeon for major trauma. All hospitals have a response for major trauma although variations occur. The vast majority of orthopaedic surgeons in Yorkshire have been adequately trained in ATLS management (more so than any study has previously shown), particularly the middle grades, who are usually first to attend. The level of revalidation is low and reasons for this are discussed with recommendations for revalidation in the future.

  6. Comparison of litter adjustment factors in Yorkshire and Landrace data.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, M; Lofgren, D; Einstein, M; Stewart, T

    1994-10-01

    National Swine Improvement Federation (NSIF) adjustment factors presently used to standardize litter data for age at 21 d, number born alive (NBA), 21-d litter weight, and number after transfer (NAT) were evaluated using 104,884 litters in 1,348 Yorkshire herds and 20,370 litters in 197 Landrace herds. In addition, adjustment factors for number weaned were calculated for standardization of this trait. Number weaned is adjusted for parity and NAT. The mixed-model least squares, maximum likelihood computer program described by Harvey was used in the analyses. Yorkshire and Landrace data were combined to test for breed effects and interactions involving breed. Breed interactions were different (P < .05). Therefore, breed-specific adjustment factors were calculated for Yorkshire and Landrace data sets. Also, adjustment factors were calculated for combined data that might be appropriate to use for breeds without specific adjustments available. Parity adjustment factors for NBA and 21-d litter weight were different (P < .05) from current NSIF recommendations, as was the NAT adjustment for 21-d litter weight. The age-at-weaning multiplicative factors were not different (P > .05) from current NSIF values. However, in all three data sets, the intercepts and linear coefficients of the quadratic regression for age at weaning were different (P < .05) from NSIF's. A Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test was used to evaluate the NSIF groupings of parity and number after transfer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  8. Rheological Study of Batter Dough for Yorkshire Pudding Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, M.; Gabriele, D.; Baldino, N.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Batter dough are widely used in manufacturing of baked goods having different texture characteristics. The analysis of "liquid-like" properties of these systems allows the control of product shape and consistency during production, because of the flow pattern definition. This work deals with "batter" for "Yorkshire Pudding" production, having a characteristic shape mainly due to the combination of shear flow and bubble expansion during baking. Some of mechanical properties can be controlled by varying the recipe as normally done during industrial production. Dynamic measurement and viscosity data at some characteristic temperatures are reported in the view of supporting the modeling of the shape variation under shear flow and bubble expansion.

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S. M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; McKinney, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis. PMID:3304389

  10. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C; Darwin, C M; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-07-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis.

  11. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  12. The oral health of adults in Yorkshire and Humber 2008.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Z; Dyer, T A; Wyborn, C G; Beal, J; Godson, J H

    2010-09-25

    Although national surveys are conducted of the oral health of adults in the UK, few data are available at regional and primary care trust levels to inform local commissioning. A postal survey was conducted to investigate the oral health and use of dental services by adults in the Yorkshire and Humber region. A questionnaire was developed and piloted, then sent to a random sample of 25,200 adults. Data were analysed by sex, gender, age and deprivation. 10,864 (43.0%) questionnaires were returned completed. Nearly three-quarters (71.6%) of respondents had 20 or more teeth and approximately one quarter (25.3%) rated their oral health as fair, poor or very poor. The percentage reporting painful aching, discomfort when eating and being self-conscious about their mouths (occasionally or more often in the last 12 months) were 28.8%, 32.8% and 29.1% respectively. Overall, 80.3% reported attending a dentist in the last two years, although nearly a quarter (22.6%) of respondents reported difficulties accessing routine care. However, there were marked inequalities between those living in the most and least deprived neighbourhoods. This survey was the first to investigate the oral health and service use of adults in the Yorkshire and Humber region. The findings have implications for the local commissioning of dental services.

  13. Estimation of dominance variance in purebred Yorkshire swine.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, M S; Mabry, J W; Misztal, I; Gengler, N; Bertrand, J K; Varona, L

    1998-02-01

    We used 179,485 Yorkshire reproductive and 239,354 Yorkshire growth records to estimate additive and dominance variances by Method Fraktur R. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA), 21-d litter weight (LWT), days to 104.5 kg (DAYS), and backfat at 104.5 kg (BF). The single-trait models for NBA and LWT included the fixed effects of contemporary group and regression on inbreeding percentage and the random effects mate within contemporary group, animal permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance. The single-trait models for DAYS and BF included the fixed effects of contemporary group, sex, and regression on inbreeding percentage and the random effects litter of birth, dam permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance. Final estimates were obtained from six samples for each trait. Regression coefficients for 10% inbreeding were found to be -.23 for NBA, -.52 kg for LWT, 2.1 d for DAYS, and 0 mm for BF. Estimates of additive and dominance variances expressed as a percentage of phenotypic variances were, respectively, 8.8 +/- .5 and 2.2 +/- .7 for NBA, 8.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.3 +/- .9 for LWT, 33.2 +/- .4 and 10.3 +/- 1.5 for DAYS, and 43.6 +/- .9 and 4.8 +/- .7 for BF. The ratio of dominance to additive variances ranged from .78 to .11.

  14. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-08-01

    Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries CE were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century CE and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century CE present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  15. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  16. Generalized Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in six Yorkshire terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, Rosario

    2004-06-01

    Six Yorkshire terrier dogs with generalized, chronic dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis were seen over a 3-year period. Specific tests showed that they also had concurrent leishmaniosis (four cases), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis (one case) or diabetes mellitus (one case). Although specific therapy for these infectious diseases was instituted and the dogs were treated systemically and topically with appropriate antifungal drugs, only partial clinical resolution of the dermatophytosis was achieved. M. canis infection resolved in the dog with diabetes mellitus after stabilizing the diabetes mellitus. Although immunological studies were not performed in these cases, it is theorized that the immune disregulation caused by leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis or diabetes mellitus may have favoured generalization of the infection and prevented favourable responses to appropriate treatment of the M. canis infection.

  17. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  18. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  19. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  20. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, T; Harrington, J M

    2000-06-01

    To investigate mortality from lung cancer in chrome platers, a group exposed to chromic acid. The mortality of a cohort of 1087 chrome platers (920 men, 167 women) from 54 plants situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects were employed as chrome platers for >/=3 months and all were alive on 31 May 1972. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds (989 men, 174 women). Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 (84.3%) of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1004 (86.3%) comparison workers. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed (obs) in male chrome platers (obs 60, expected (exp) 32.5, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 185, p<0. 001) but not in male comparison workers (obs 47, exp 36.9, SMR 127). Positive trends were not shown for duration of employment exposed to chrome, although data on working after 1972 were not available. Confident interpretation is not possible but occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may well have been involved in the increased mortality from lung cancer found in this cohort of chrome platers.

  1. Serum concentrations of canine alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in cobalamin-deficient Yorkshire Terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Heilmann, Romy M; Bridges, Cory S; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Fecal canine alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentration has been reported to be increased in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy due to the loss of cα1-PI into the gastrointestinal tract. A chronic loss of cα1-PI may theoretically deplete serum cα1-PI, potentially altering the proteinase-to-proteinase inhibitor balance. Protein-losing enteropathy has been reported to occur frequently in certain dog breeds such as Yorkshire Terriers and to be associated with hypocobalaminemia. The objective was to compare serum cα1-PI concentrations in Yorkshire Terriers with and without cobalamin (COB) deficiency. Serum samples from 52 COB-deficient and 69 normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers, which had been submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory (2008-2011; College Station, TX), were included retrospectively. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were measured using an in-house radioimmunoassay and compared between Yorkshire Terriers with and without COB deficiency using a Mann-Whitney U test. A Fisher exact test was used to evaluate whether a decreased serum cα1-PI concentration is associated with COB deficiency in Yorkshire Terriers. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,016 mg/l, range: 315-3,945 mg/l) than in normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,665 mg/l, range: 900-2,970 mg/l; P < 0.0001). One-fourth (n = 13) of the COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers had a serum cα1-PI concentration below the lower limit of the reference interval (<732 mg/l), and COB deficiency was associated with decreased serum cα1-PI concentrations (P < 0.0001). In the current study, serum cα1-PI concentrations are significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers when compared to normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers. Further studies are needed to determine the functional and potential prognostic implications of serum cα1-PI concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

  2. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe; Salse, Jerome; Lucas, William J; Zhang, Haiying; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Linyong; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhiwen; Min, Jiumeng; Guo, Xiaosen; Murat, Florent; Ham, Byung-Kook; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Gao, Shan; Huang, Mingyun; Xu, Yimin; Zhong, Silin; Bombarely, Aureliano; Mueller, Lukas A; Zhao, Hong; He, Hongju; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Tan, Tao; Pang, Erli; Lin, Kui; Hu, Qun; Kuang, Hanhui; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jingan; Kou, Qinghe; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Klee, Kathrin; Schoof, Heiko; Huang, Ying; Hu, Xuesong; Dong, Shanshan; Liang, Dequan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Kui; Xia, Yang; Zhao, Xiang; Zheng, Zequn; Xing, Miao; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Bangqing; Lv, Tian; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yi, Hongping; Li, Ruiqiang; Wu, Mingzhu; Levi, Amnon; Zhang, Xingping; Giovannoni, James J; Wang, Jun; Li, Yunfu; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity and population structure of watermelon germplasm. Genomic regions that were preferentially selected during domestication were identified. Many disease-resistance genes were also found to be lost during domestication. In addition, integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses yielded important insights into aspects of phloem-based vascular signaling in common between watermelon and cucumber and identified genes crucial to valuable fruit-quality traits, including sugar accumulation and citrulline metabolism.

  3. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T.; Harrington, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate mortality from lung cancer in chrome platers, a group exposed to chromic acid.
METHODS—The mortality of a cohort of 1087 chrome platers (920 men, 167 women) from 54 plants situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects were employed as chrome platers for ⩾3 months and all were alive on 31 May 1972. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds (989 men, 174 women). Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 (84.3%) of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1004 (86.3%) comparison workers. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression.
RESULTS—Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed (obs) in male chrome platers (obs 60, expected (exp) 32.5, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 185, p<0.001) but not in male comparison workers (obs 47, exp 36.9, SMR 127). Positive trends were not shown for duration of employment exposed to chrome, although data on working after 1972 were not available.
CONCLUSIONS—Confident interpretation is not possible but occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may well have been involved in the increased mortality from lung cancer found in this cohort of chrome platers.


Keywords: chromium plating; lung cancer PMID:10810127

  4. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  5. Energy requirements for growth in the Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2017-01-01

    The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies. Twenty-two puppies (from eight litters) were offered complete and balanced diets to maintain ideal body condition score (BCS). Energy intake, body weight and BCS were recorded from 10 to 52 weeks of age. Every 12 weeks, health was monitored by veterinary examination, routine haematology and plasma biochemistry. Puppies remained clinically healthy with normal skeletal development throughout. After analysis by linear mixed models it was observed that the NRC equation overestimates YT energy requirements between 10 and 20 weeks of age by up to 324·3 (95 % CI 390·4, 258·2) kJ/kg(0·75). Energy intake was lower (P < 0·05) in YT than Labradors until 29 weeks by up to 376·6 (95 % CI 477·4, 275·3) kJ/kg(0·75) and lower than MS between 16 and 25 weeks by up to 216·3 (95 % CI 313·0, 119·7) kJ/kg(0·75) (P < 0·05). Data indicate differences in toy, medium and large breed energy requirements for growth. The NRC equation for puppy energy requirements overestimated the requirements of this YT population, suggesting the need for breed-specific feeding guides for growth to avoid overfeeding.

  6. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  7. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  8. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides.

  9. Effective and safe anesthesia for Yorkshire and Yucatan swine with and without cardiovascular injury and intervention.

    PubMed

    Linkenhoker, Jan R; Burkholder, Tanya H; Linton, Cg Garry; Walden, April; Abusakran-Monday, Kim A; Rosero, Ana P; Foltz, Charmaine J

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to identify an injectable anesthetic protocol that provides sedation sufficient for peripheral vascular catheterization, intubation, and transport while minimizing cardiovascular changes in Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs with and without cardiovascular injury and intervention (CI). Phase 1 examined the safety and efficacy of acepromazine-ketamine, diazepam-ketamine, midazolam-ketamine, and medetomidine-ketamine in 5 healthy Yorkshire pigs. For each drug combination, we obtained multiple measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sedation score, ability to catheterize and intubate, and recovery score. Phase 2 evaluated and refined the dose of the most effective Phase 1 anesthetic combination (midazolam-ketamine) in healthy and CI Yorkshire pigs (n = 53 trials). Phase 3 mirrored Phase 2 but tested midazolam-ketamine in healthy and CI Yucatan pigs (n = 34 trials). Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg)-ketamine (25 to 27 mg/kg) was the most effective anesthetic combination in healthy Yorkshire pigs, but this dose was less effective in healthy Yucatan pigs and CI Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs. Midazolam-ketamine resulted in tachycardia and apnea more frequently in CI pigs than healthy pigs. This combination also caused vomiting in one CI Yucatan pig. Overall, midazolam-ketamine provided safe and effective sedation for catheterization and intubation of both healthy and CI pigs. This study suggests Yucatan pigs may require a higher dose midazolam-ketamine to achieve the same level of sedation as that in Yorkshire pigs. Although anesthetic complication rates were higher in CI pigs, our results indicate that midazolam-ketamine can be safely used for sedation of both pig breeds with and without CI.

  10. Effective and Safe Anesthesia for Yorkshire and Yucatan Swine with and without Cardiovascular Injury and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Linkenhoker, Jan R; Burkholder, Tanya H; Linton, CG Garry; Walden, April; Abusakran-Monday, Kim A; Rosero, Ana P; Foltz, Charmaine J

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify an injectable anesthetic protocol that provides sedation sufficient for peripheral vascular catheterization, intubation, and transport while minimizing cardiovascular changes in Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs with and without cardiovascular injury and intervention (CI). Phase 1 examined the safety and efficacy of acepromazine–ketamine, diazepam–ketamine, midazolam–ketamine, and medetomidine–ketamine in 5 healthy Yorkshire pigs. For each drug combination, we obtained multiple measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sedation score, ability to catheterize and intubate, and recovery score. Phase 2 evaluated and refined the dose of the most effective Phase 1 anesthetic combination (midazolam–ketamine) in healthy and CI Yorkshire pigs (n = 53 trials). Phase 3 mirrored Phase 2 but tested midazolam–ketamine in healthy and CI Yucatan pigs (n = 34 trials). Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg)–ketamine (25 to 27 mg/kg) was the most effective anesthetic combination in healthy Yorkshire pigs, but this dose was less effective in healthy Yucatan pigs and CI Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs. Midazolam–ketamine resulted in tachycardia and apnea more frequently in CI pigs than healthy pigs. This combination also caused vomiting in one CI Yucatan pig. Overall, midazolam–ketamine provided safe and effective sedation for catheterization and intubation of both healthy and CI pigs. This study suggests Yucatan pigs may require a higher dose midazolam–ketamine to achieve the same level of sedation as that in Yorkshire pigs. Although anesthetic complication rates were higher in CI pigs, our results indicate that midazolam–ketamine can be safely used for sedation of both pig breeds with and without CI. PMID:20587167

  11. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  12. Genetic diversity in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces from Zimbabwe revealed by RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mujaju, C; Sehic, J; Werlemark, G; Garkava-Gustavsson, L; Fatih, M; Nybom, H

    2010-08-01

    Low polymorphism in cultivated watermelon has been reported in previous studies, based mainly on US Plant Introductions and watermelon cultivars, most of which were linked to breeding programmes associated with disease resistance. Since germplasm sampled in a putative centre of origin in southern Africa may harbour considerably higher variability, DNA marker-based diversity was estimated among 81 seedlings from eight accessions of watermelon collected in Zimbabwe; five accessions of cow-melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and three of sweet watermelons (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Two molecular marker methods were used, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) also known as microsatellite DNA. Ten RAPD primers produced 138 markers of which 122 were polymorphic. Nine SSR primer pairs detected a total of 43 alleles with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 for the RAPD primers and from 0.39 to 0.97 for the SSR loci. Similarity matrices obtained with SSR and RAPD, respectively, were highly correlated but only RAPD was able to provide each sample with an individual-specific DNA profile. Dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS) produced two major clusters; one with the five cow-melon accessions and the other with the three sweet watermelon accessions. One of the most variable cow-melon accessions took an intermediate position in the MDS analysis, indicating the occurrence of gene flow between the two subspecies. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) attributed most of the variability to within-accessions, and contrary to previous reports, sweet watermelon accessions apparently contain diversity of the same magnitude as the cow-melons.

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUCIES ON THE SEEDS OF MULAM CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MATS & NAKAI (CUCURBITACAE)

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, T.R.; Kumar, K.G. Vasantha; Pasupathy, Saraswathy; Vijayalakshmi, B.; Bikshapathi, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  14. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  15. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    PubMed

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The genomic and biological characterization of Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus infecting watermelon in China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Min; Cao, Mengji; Liu, Wenwen; Ren, Yingdang; Lu, Chuantao; Wang, Xifeng

    2017-03-15

    A dsRNA virus was detected in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) samples collected from Kaifeng, Henan province, China through the use of next generation sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus is comprised of dsRNA-1 (1603nt) and dsRNA-2 (1466nt), both of which are single open reading frames and potentially encode a 54.2kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a 45.9kDa coat protein (CP), respectively. The RdRp and CP share the highest amino acid identities 85.3% and 75.4% with a previously reported Israeli strain Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus (CiLCV), respectively. Genome comparisons indicate that this virus is the same species with CiLCV, whereas the reported sequences of the Israeli strain of CiLCV are partial, and our newly identified sequences can represent the complete genome of CiLCV. Futhermore, phylogenetic tree analyses based on the RdRp sequences suggest that CiLCV is one member in the genus Deltapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. In addition, field investigation and seed-borne bioassays show that CiLCV commonly occurs in many varieties and is transmitted though seeds at a very high rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-09-06

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions.

  18. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    PubMed Central

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤−2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  19. Paroxysmal dyskinesia suspected as canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in a young Yorkshire terrier dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Dong-Kyu; Song, Kun-Ho; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2014-08-01

    A 9-month-old intact female Yorkshire terrier dog was presented with episodic partial seizure-like cramping of the limbs. The patient's episodes began six months previously; the interval between episodes became shorter, and the duration of the episodes increased. Various tests including neurologic examination, blood examination, abdominal radiography, ultrasonographic examination, angiographic computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected no remarkable changes. After these tests were conducted, the patient's condition was suspected to be canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS), which could be a form of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), and as a trial therapy, Science Diet k/d (Hill's Pet Nutrition, Topeka, KS, U.S.A.) was prescribed. The clinical signs were dramatically reduced after diet therapy, and we diagnosed the patient with CECS. This is the first case report of CECS in a Yorkshire terrier dog.

  20. The sources of innovation in the woollen and worsted industry of eighteenth-century Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Smail, J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the economic developments that induced producers to seek our innovations during a transformative period in the Yorkshire woollen industry. The analysis examines both the increase in the scale of the typical operation and the tremendous effect that fashion had on the industry. Particular attention is given to the ways in which the workings of real markets and product innovation focused entrepreneurial energy on the production process, and what that tells us about the origins of the Industrial Revolution.

  1. Methylmalonic Aciduria Secondary to Selective Cobalamin Malabsorption in a Yorkshire Terrier.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, Gerard; McLaughlin, Angela; Sewell, Adrian C; Bell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    An 8 wk old male Yorkshire terrier was presented with a 2 wk history of recurrent hypoglycemia, lethargy, and seizures. Investigations revealed a marked increase in blood ammonia, low serum cobalamin, and increased levels of urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. No liver vascular abnormality was detected. The patient was diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria due to cobalamin malabsorption. The patient responded well to parenteral cobalamin administration, and the urinary MMA levels normalized rapidly following instigation of treatment. Due to the suspected hereditary nature of selective cobalamin deficiency, one sibling of this dog was screened and found to be normal. This is the first reported case of MMA secondary to hypocobalaminemia in Yorkshire terriers, and the second report of this disease in a dog in the United Kingdom. Given the fact that clinical signs of MMA are similar to those seen in dogs with portosystemic shunts and that Yorkshire terriers are predisposed to liver vascular abnormalities, this case report adds important clinical information to the current available literature.

  2. Phomentrioloxin: A phytotoxic pentasubstituted geranylcyclohexentriol produced by Phomopsis sp., a potential mycoherbicide for Carthamus lanatus Biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria C; Troise, Ciro; Santini, Antonello; Tuzi, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-06-22

    A new phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol, named phomentrioloxin, was isolated from the liquid culture of Phomopsis sp., a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of Carthamus lanatus, a widespread and troublesome thistle weed belonging to the Asteraceae family causing severe crop and pastures losses in Australia. The structure of phomentrioloxin was established by spectroscopic, X-ray, and chemical methods as (1S,2S,3S,4S)-3-methoxy-6-(7-methyl-3-methylene-oct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-5-ene-1,2,4-triol. At a concentration of 6.85 mM, the toxin causes the appearance of necrotic spots when applied to leaves of both host and nonhost plants. It also causes growth and chlorophyll content reduction of fronds of Lemna minor and inhibition of tomato rootlet elongation. Finally, in preliminary bioassays, phomentrioloxin did not show any antibacterial, fungicidal, or zootoxic activities.

  3. Phytochemical and in vitro total antioxidant capacity analyses of peel extracts of different cultivars of Cucumis melo and Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Shahzad, Muhammad Tahir; Nadeem, Iram; Ashraf, Chaudhry Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) and Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Cucurbitaceae) are desert vegetables popular for their nutritional value and year round availability. The pulp and seeds of these plants are used for dietary purposes or as medications for certain ailments in the folk medicinal system. Peels of the fruit are either wasted or used as feed of grazing animals. A detailed investigation regarding the chemical constituents and antioxidative analyses of the peel extract of fully ripened fruits from different cultivars of the two vegetables was carried out here for the first time. Chemical constituents of the peel extracts of C. melo and C. lanatus cultivars in methanol, 1-butanol, chloroform and n-hexane were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antioxidative properties were evaluated using standard in vitro antioxidative assays. The results demonstrated large variation in the chemical constituents of the extracts including alkanes, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and their esters, cyclic ketones, aldehydes, phenolic compounds and anthocyanin derivatives. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.96-0.85 mg/L gallic acid equivalents for different extracts. Employing GC-MS analyses and standard in vitro antioxidative assays, the data presented here clearly demonstrate the potency of C. melo and C. lanatus extracts as antioxidant and radical scavenger plants which may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants. The peels of both the plants can be added to the diet at various stages to compensate food shortage and dietary deficiency problems of living beings.

  4. Joint disease mapping using six cancers in the Yorkshire region of England

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Amy; Forman, David; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Edwards, Kimberley L; Manda, Samuel OM

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to model jointly the incidence rates of six smoking related cancers in the Yorkshire region of England, to explore the patterns of spatial correlation amongst them, and to estimate the relative weight of smoking and other shared risk factors for the relevant disease sites, both before and after adjustment for socioeconomic background (SEB). Methods Data on the incidence of oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers between 1983 and 2003 were extracted from the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry database for the 532 electoral wards in the Yorkshire region. Using postcode of residence, each case was assigned an area-based measure of SEB using the Townsend index. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer site and their correlations investigated. The joint analysis of the spatial variation in incidence used a Bayesian shared-component model. Three components were included to represent differences in smoking (for all six sites), bodyweight/obesity (for oesophagus, pancreas and kidney cancers) and diet/alcohol consumption (for oesophagus and stomach cancers). Results The incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, and bladder was relatively evenly distributed across the region. The incidence of stomach and lung cancers was more clustered around the urban areas in the south of the region, and these two cancers were significantly associated with higher levels of area deprivation. The incidence of lung cancer was most impacted by adjustment for SEB, with the rural/urban split becoming less apparent. The component representing smoking had a larger effect on cancer incidence in the eastern part of the region. The effects of the other two components were small and disappeared after adjustment for SEB. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of joint disease modelling using data from six cancer sites. Incidence estimates are more precise than those obtained without

  5. Comparison of faecal microbial community of lantang, bama, erhualian, meishan, xiaomeishan, duroc, landrace, and yorkshire sows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Bian, Gaorui; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the faecal microbial composition among Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows and to explore the possible link of the pig breed with the gut microbial community. Among the sows, the Meishan, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire sows were from the same breeding farm with the same feed. Fresh faeces were collected from three sows of each purebred breed for microbiota analysis and volatile fatty acid (VFA) determination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that samples from Bama, Erhualian, and Xiaomeishan sows, which from different farms, were generally grouped in one cluster, with similarity higher than 67.2%, and those from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows were grouped in another cluster. Principal component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from the foreign breeds and the samples from the Chinese indigenous breeds were scattered in two different groups, irrespective of the farm origin. Faecal VFA concentrations were significantly affected by the pig breed. The proportion of acetate was higher in the Bama sows than in the other breeds. The real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the Bama sows compared to Xiaomeishan and Duroc sows. Both Meishan and Erhualian sows had higher numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and sulphate-reducing bacteria as compared to Duroc sows. The results suggest that the pig breed affects the composition of gut microbiota. The microbial composition is different with different breeds, especially between overseas breeds (lean type) and Chinese breeds (relatively obese type).

  6. [Nasopharyngeal cyst of the respiratory epithelium in a 9-year-old Yorkshire terrier].

    PubMed

    Acker, Alexander; Thiel, Cetina; Köhler, Kernt; von Pückler, Kerstin; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin

    2017-02-23

    In a 9-year-old Yorkshire terrier a cyst of the respiratory epithelium of the nasopharynx was diagnosed. A complete obstruction of the nasopharynx leading to dyspnea was detected by computed tomography and endoscopy. A minimally invasive ablation of the cystic wall was performed under endoscopic guidance, followed by a pathohistological examination. Immediately after resection of the cyst, the clinical symptoms resolved. The follow-up endoscopical examination 3 months postoperatively was unremarkable. In the presented case the minimally invasive endoscopic ablation of the cystic wall was a successful treatment method.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis in a Yorkshire terrier bitch.

    PubMed

    Armenise, Andrea; Pastorelli, Gianfranco; Palmisano, Angela; Sontas, Hasan B; Romagnoli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A 6 yr old pregnant Yorkshire terrier bitch presented 62 days after mating with an acute history of vomiting and coughing. The owners also reported that the dog was polyuric and polydypsic for the last 2 weeks. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis revealed hyperglycemia, ketonemia, ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed and after emergency treatment, including fluid therapy, prophylactic antibiotics, and regular insulin, the bitch whelped six healthy normal puppies. Two weeks after treatment, the bitch was clinically normal with normal fructosamine levels. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of gestational diabetes mellitus in a small breed dog.

  8. Wound healing differences between Yorkshire and red Duroc porcine medial collateral ligaments identified by biomechanical assessment of scars.

    PubMed

    Germscheid, Niccole M; Thornton, Gail M; Hart, David A; Hildebrand, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are no large animal models to assess potential genetic contributions to ligament biomechanics during an injury repair response. Yorkshire and red Duroc pigs display phenotypically and genetically different skin wound healing responses; red Duroc skin scars were hyper-contracted and hyper-pigmented, whereas Yorkshire skin scars were not. Such findings raise the question whether connective tissues of synovial joints display a similar differential healing response in these pig breeds. This study assessed medial collateral ligament healing in Yorkshire and red Duroc pigs at the functional (biomechanical) level. Surgical injury was created in the right hind limb medial collateral ligament of Yorkshire and red Duroc pigs. After 10 weeks of healing, low-load (laxity and creep) and high-load (failure) mechanical properties were measured. Large, complete ligament scars formed by 10 weeks post-injury. A differential healing response was observed between the breeds, where red Duroc ligament scars had larger cross-sectional areas, exhibited greater static and total creep responses, failed at greater deformations and strains (P ≤ 0.05), and failed with strong trends for higher loads and lower moduli (P=0.06) than Yorkshire ligament scars. The ligament healing response of red Duroc pigs differs from Yorkshire pigs. Previously observed breed differences in dorsal skin wound healing are not restricted to skin. Such findings support a genetic basis for breed differences in response to connective tissue injury. Since this animal model is physiologically comparable to humans, these findings could provide further insight into identification of specific genetic contributions to ligament repair in human populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An evaluation of paediatric dental general anaesthesia in Yorkshire and the Humber.

    PubMed

    Ní Chaollaí, A; Robertson, S; Dyer, T A; Balmer, R C; Fayle, S A

    2010-12-18

    Following major change in UK policy regarding dental general anaesthesia (DGA) in 2001, there appears to be little information available about paediatric DGA services, their organisation, availability and utilisation. To establish the location, organisation and monitoring systems of paediatric DGA services in Yorkshire and the Humber Strategic Health Authority and to audit these services against existing standards of best practice. A postal survey of all potential paediatric DGA providers in Yorkshire and the Humber. Thirty-one possible DGA service providers were identified, 24 of which provided paediatric DGAs. Of 84 DGA lists identified, 75 regularly treated children, and nine were run on an ad hoc basis. The lists were held in 20 centres. The number of patients treated per list varied depending on treatment provided, ranging from 3.9 to 7.5 patients per list. Maximum waiting times varied from three to 84 weeks. Outcome data recording methods varied. Just over half of respondents used the Hospital Episode Statistics system; the remainder used other systems, or none. There was much variation in how DGA lists were organised. Most lists met some of the accepted standards, but very few met all. Waiting times were largely in accordance with national targets.

  10. The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingping; Li, Kaifeng; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Gui, Guohong; Yang, Hua

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman's rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  11. Severe necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: topographic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, S; Toussaint, Y; Prata, D; Lejeune, T; Ferreira-Neves, P; Rakotovao, F; Fontaine, J J; Marchal, T; Cordonnier, N

    2007-05-01

    Necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire terrier is a chronic non-suppurative encephalitis that was reported in approximately 15 cases worldwide. We report the case of a 10-year-old female Yorkshire terrier with gross evidence of severe cortical degeneration and necrosis. Microscopically, affected areas were mainly located in the cortical white matter and in the mesencephalon without implication of the cerebellum. Cavitation necrosis, demyelination, gemistocytic astrocytosis, marked perivascular lymphocytic cuffing with a diffuse lymphocytic/histiocytic/gitter cell infiltration characterized the lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the major infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages with implication of some cytotoxic lymphocytes and IgG-producing plasma cells; depositions of IgG in the affected white matter were also observed. Specific stains did not reveal fungal, protozoal or bacterial organisms and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis for distemper virus was also negative. The lympho-histiocytic inflammation suggests a T-cell-mediated and a delayed-type immune reaction as a possible pathogenic mechanism for this brain disorder.

  12. Genetic characterization of a novel Phomopsis sp., a putative biocontrol agent for Carthamus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Ash, Gavin J; Stodart, Benjamin; Sakuanrungsirikul, Suchirat; Anschaw, Emma; Crump, Nigel; Hailstones, Deborah; Harper, John D I

    2010-01-01

    A large number of isolates of Phomopsis sp. have been collected from the weed Carthamus lanatus (saffron thistle) in Australia, and their potential as biological control agents for weeds of the Asteraceae has been demonstrated. An analysis of their genetic diversity and a multigene phylogenetic analysis were undertaken to ascertain whether these isolates were distinct from other species of Phomopsis that commonly attack crop species in Australia. Minimal variation was found between the Phomopsis spp. isolated from saffron thistle, except two isolates that appeared to share identity with Diaporthe helianthii and P. viticola. Analysis of the selected isolates from saffron thistle with the nucleotide sequence of the partial ITS and tefl-alpha regions demonstrated that the sequences were distinct from all other species of Phomopsis so far described from crops in Australia. These findings provide strong support for the recognition of these isolates as a separate species of Phomopsis. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to biological control of saffron thistle.

  13. Bennettitales from the Grisethorpe Bed (Middle Jurassic) at Cayton Bay, Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Crane, Peter R; Herendeen, Patrick S

    2009-01-01

    Middle Jurassic fossil plants from the Grisethorpe Bed at Cayton Bay and Grisethorpe Bay, Yorkshire, UK, are preserved in a soft claystone, and plant mesofossils recovered by sieving reveal excellent details of external structure. Studies of these mesofossils complement previous work on macrofossils from the Grisethorpe Bed and allow the plant fossils in this classic flora to be studied in a similar way to those preserved in Cretaceous mesofloras. Bennettitales, a key group in discussions of how angiosperms may be related to other seed plants, are especially well represented among mesofossils from the Grisethorpe Bed. Abundant bennettitalean leaves, scale leaves, and fragments of pollen and ovulate organs provide new information on these extinct plants. In particular, a specimen of Williamsoniella coronata (presumed aborted) shows only weak differentiation between interseminal scales and ovules and provides further evidence of homology between these structures.

  14. Demand for housing and the development of the Selby Coalfield: a case study. [North Yorkshire

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.; Webb, M.G.

    1980-06-01

    Development in the Selby Coalfield in North Yorkshire will bring in new miners who will require housing services estimated at between 865 to 1725 housing units. Using Selby as a case study, the demand for local authority housing and the financial deficit this will create are estimated. Financing strategies to meet this deficit are considered as well as their effect on rents and coal prices. The cost of housing should be included as a relevant development cost of projects of this type. Other policy issues are whether these special housing needs are included in the planning of Central Government Housing and the responsibility of the Selby District Council to finance housing. (21 references, 8 tables. (DCK)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings associated with necrotizing encephalitis in two Yorkshire terriers.

    PubMed

    von Praun, Ferdinand; Matiasek, Kaspar; Grevel, Vera; Alef, Michaele; Flegel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two young adult Yorkshire terriers had neurologic signs consistent with forebrain and brainstem involvement or forebrain involvement alone. On magnetic resonance imaging studies there were asymmetric bilateral lesions mainly in the cerebral cortex, and in the diencephalon. These areas were hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, but hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted images. Lesions had a varying degree of contrast enhancement. Areas which were isointense on T1-weighted images had no contrast enhancement or only foci of contrast enhancement. Lesions with hypointensity in T1-weighted images had no enhancement or more frequently ring-like enhancement around the lesion. Necrotizing encephalitis was confirmed pathohistologically in both dogs. The degree of contrast enhancement appeared to be related to the degree of lymphohistiocytic inflammation on histologic examination.

  16. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ndikau, Michael; Andala, Dickson M.; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm. PMID:28316627

  17. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-12-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

  18. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  19. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  20. Swine Leukocyte Antigen Diversity in Canadian Specific Pathogen-Free Yorkshire and Landrace Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Quan, Jinqiang; Jiang, Xinjie; Li, Changwen; Lu, Xiaoye; Chen, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    The highly polymorphic swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), termed swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), is associated with different levels of immunologic responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and transplantation. Pig breeds with known SLA haplotypes are important genetic resources for biomedical research. Canadian Yorkshire and Landrace pigs represent the current specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding stock maintained in the isolation environment at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. In this study, we identified 61 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3, DRB1, and DQB1) representing 17 class I haplotypes and 11 class II haplotypes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing and PCR-sequence specific primers methods in 367 Canadian SPF Yorkshire and Landrace pigs. The official designation of the alleles has been assigned by the SLA Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics and released in updated Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC SLA sequence database [Release 2.0.0.3 (2016-11-03)]. The submissions confirmed some unassigned alleles and standardized nomenclatures of many previously unconfirmed alleles in the GenBank database. Three class I haplotypes, Hp-37.0, 63.0, and 73.0, appeared to be novel and have not previously been reported in other pig populations. One crossover within the class I region and two between class I and class II regions were observed, resulting in three new recombinant haplotypes. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in three class I haplotypes Hp-28.0, Hp-35.0, and Hp-63.0. Furthermore, we also analyzed the functional diversities of 19 identified frequent SLA class I molecules in this study and confirmed the existence of four supertypes using the MHCcluster method. These results will be useful for studying the adaptive immune response and immunological phenotypic differences in

  1. Digestive utilization of phosphorus from plant-based diets in the Cassie line of transgenic Yorkshire pigs that secrete phytase in the saliva.

    PubMed

    Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Fan, M Z; Zhang, J; Phillips, J P; Forsberg, C W

    2013-03-01

    A line of transgenic Yorkshire pigs referred to as the Cassie (CA) line was generated, which possessed a stable, low copy number phytase transgene insertion that enabled phytase secretion in the saliva. This study was conducted to assess growth and efficacy for improving P, Ca, and other macromineral utilization in the CA pigs receiving diets typical of those used for commercial swine production. In Exp. 1, 12 CA boars and 12 CA gilts fed diets without supplemental P gained weight and exhibited feed efficiency similar to conventional age-matched 12 Yorkshire boars and 12 Yorkshire gilts raised on similar diets with supplemental P. Serum concentrations of P and Ca were similar for CA and Yorkshire pigs during the growing and finishing phases, indicating that the CA pigs were not P limited. In Exp. 2, 6 CA (13.1 kg BW) and 6 Yorkshire barrows (8.8 kg BW) were fed 3 diets (control; low in Ca and P; and low in Ca, P, and CP) over 3 phases. The CA barrows fed the diet without supplemental P retained 25 to 40% (P < 0.001), 77 to 91% (P < 0.001), and 27 to 56% (P < 0.001) more P during the weaning, growing, and finishing phases, respectively, than conventional Yorkshire barrows fed similar diets without supplemental P. In Exp. 3, CA and Yorkshire barrows of similar ages weighing 66.2 ± 1.7 kg (n = 10) and 50.0 ± 1.0 kg (n = 10), respectively, were used. The P retention of CA finisher barrows fed a diet without supplemental P was 34% greater (P < 0.001) than conventional Yorkshire barrows fed the same diet with 750 units of exogenous phytase/kg diet. Urinary Ca to P ratio in the CA pigs was 0.27, whereas that for the Yorkshire barrows was 30, thereby, indicating that the Yorkshire barrows suffered a P deficiency. Furthermore, digestive utilization of major electrolyte macrominerals, K and Na, was improved (P < 0.05) by 18 and 16%, respectively, in the CA finisher pigs compared with the conventional Yorkshire finisher pigs fed phytase; however, only K exhibited enhanced

  2. Levels of advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor female sex workers in West Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Claire; Clarke, Janette

    2014-02-01

    To assess the proportion of independent indoor female sex workers (FSW) in West Yorkshire, UK who advertise unprotected sex, and to investigate any association with cost, location and provision of anal sex. Data on whether independent indoor FSW (defined as those not advertising via an escort agency or through a parlour) advertised unprotected sexual services, along with demographic data, were collected from 462 advertisement profiles of FSW in West Yorkshire from the website http://www.adultwork.com. Independent t test and χ(2) statistics were used to test the association between advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and FSW age, cost of services, location and whether they advertised anal sex. Unprotected vaginal sex was advertised by 8% of FSW, and unprotected oral sex by 74% of FSW. FSW advertising unprotected vaginal sex were more likely to live in Wakefield and Bradford than in Leeds, had significantly lower hourly rates, and were more likely to advertise anal sex. Advertised condom use for vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor FSW in West Yorkshire was significantly lower than reported rates of protected sex found in previous studies based in London and the south of England. The advertisement of unprotected vaginal sex is associated with factors such as lower hourly rates and the advertisement of higher risk anal sex, which may signify greater economic need. FSW offering unprotected sex therefore represent an at-risk target group for health promotion.

  3. Genetic correlations between male reproductive traits and growth traits in growth performance tested Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breed boars.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Lai, Yung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Che; Sasaki, Osamu

    2017-02-09

    Male-related traits at 180-225 days of age for 6464 grow-finish performance tested boars were measured from 2000 to 2016. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations among average daily gain, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, teat counts, mounting libido, leg locomotion, penile length, sperm motility, sperm concentration and total sperm counts were estimated by VCE software using a multiple traits animal model in each breed. Growth-tested boars had heritability estimates of male reproductive traits in 0.34-0.56 of teat counts, 0.12-0.20 of libido, 0.08-0.12 of locomotion, 0.17-0.58 of penile length, 0.04-0.21 of sperm motility and concentration, 0.17-0.30 of total sperm counts. Total sperm counts were genetically positively correlated with penile length in all breeds. Boars with higher total sperm counts had genetically better libido and locomotion. Genetic correlation between feed efficiency and sperm motility and feed efficiency and sperm concentration were positive in Duroc and negative in Landrace and Yorkshire. Sperm motility and concentration were genetically negatively correlated with average daily gain in Yorkshire. Male reproductive traits of imported breeds could be improved with care in the change of growth traits, especially in Yorkshire.

  4. Space-time clustering of childhood central nervous system tumours in Yorkshire, UK

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We specifically tested the aetiological hypothesis that a factor influencing geographical or temporal heterogeneity of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumour incidence was related to exposure to a transient environmental agent. Methods Information was extracted on individuals aged 0-14 years, diagnosed with a CNS tumour between the 1st January 1974 and 31st December 2006 from the Yorkshire Specialist Register of Cancer in Children and Young People. Ordnance Survey eight-digit grid references were allocated to each case with respect to addresses at the time of birth and the time of diagnosis, locating each address to within 0.1 km. The following diagnostic groups were specified a priori for analysis: ependymoma; astrocytoma; primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs); other gliomas; total CNS tumours. We applied the K-function method for testing global space-time clustering using fixed geographical distance thresholds. Tests were repeated using variable nearest neighbour (NN) thresholds. Results There was statistically significant global space-time clustering for PNETs only, based on time and place of diagnosis (P = 0.03 and 0.01 using the fixed geographical distance and the variable NN threshold versions of the K-function method respectively). Conclusions There was some evidence for a transient environmental component to the aetiology of PNETs. However, a possible role for chance cannot be excluded. PMID:22244018

  5. Homicide and suicide in Yorkshire and the Humber: 1975-1992 and 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Marilyn J; Milroy, Christopher M

    2010-03-01

    Homicide-suicide (HS) events in Yorkshire and the Humber have been documented previously by Milroy in a study of the period 1975 to 1992 (Milroy, Med Sci Law. 1993;33:167-171; Milroy 1994; Milroy, Forensic Sci Int. 1995;71:117-122; Milroy, Med Sci Law. 1995;35:213-217; and Milroy, J Clin Forensic Med. 1998;5:61-64). Reported here is an update of that study covering HS events in the same region from 1993 to 2007. Data from cohort 1 (1975-1992) and cohort 2 (1993-2007) are presented and compared, where data are available, with the findings of 2 previous studies in England and Wales (Barraclough and Harris, Psychol Med. 2002;32:577-584; and West 1965). Homicide followed by suicide is often defined in the literature as homicide(s) followed by the suicide of the perpetrator within 1 week of the homicide(s) (Barraclough and Harris, Psychol Med. 2002;32:577-584; Campanelli and Gilson, Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2002;23:248-251; and Hannah et al, 1998;19:275-283). All the cases reported here fall within this definition. Findings are consonant with international literature, and suggest that HS is most likely to be carried out by an older, white, married, or cohabiting working man, who kills his female partner and/or their children and then himself. There are indications that restricting access to significant methods of killing can reduce the incidence of HS.

  6. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  7. Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Ansari, N M; Houlihan, L; Hussain, B; Pieroni, A

    2005-10-01

    Five vegetables traditionally consumed among South-Asian migrants in Bradford (Yorkshire, UK) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay (using extracts prepared both by cold maceration and also by boiling the plant in the solvent under reflux) and for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation. In both antioxidant assays a strong activity was shown by extracts derived from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, Malvaceae) fruits and charungli (Caralluma edulis, Asclepiadaceae) aerial parts. Extracts from bitter melon (Momordica charantia, Cucurbitaceae) and angular loofah (Luffa acutangula) showed a significant difference in the FRSA between the extract obtained by using cold maceration and that prepared by boiling the plant in the solvent under reflux, suggesting the chemical composition of the plant changed during the heating process, leading to an increase in the amount of antioxidant components. These findings confirm the great interest of the nutraceutical sciences in extracts of Caralluma edulis, whose phytochemistry and phytopharmacology should be investigated further in order to detect possible phytotherapeutic uses in the prevention of ageing related diseases (ARDs) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses.

  9. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon on the River Swale, Yorkshire

    PubMed

    Eatherall; Warwick; Tolchard

    2000-05-05

    A dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sampling study was carried out on the River Swale in Yorkshire as part of the NERC LOIS programme. Loads of DOC were calculated from the river and its tributaries. For the River Swale calculated loads varied between 1900 and 9000 kg/day and for the tributaries between 1 and 8500 kg/day. No relationship was found between the amount of organic carbon in the soil of the catchments and the DOC loads, perhaps because of the preceding dry summer. DOC loads were also estimated for sewage point sources and ranged between 7 and 287 kg/day. Some of the catchments draining to the River Swale respond with high DOC loads during high flow conditions, others do not. Some catchments are dominated by sewage point sources during low flows and diffuse sources during high flows. A mass balance for DOC on the River Swale was calculated, however, loads from inputs did not balance with outputs because of a lack of data and errors inherent in some of the approaches used. Despite this, results indicate in-stream losses of approximately 20%. A highly detailed measurement study of a stretch of river is recommended to identify all the sources and sinks of DOC, the relative size of their contribution and how they respond in differing conditions.

  10. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species.

  11. South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with

  12. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  13. Chromium Isotope Stratigraphy of the Toarcian OAE From Yorkshire, NE England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, K.; Al-Suwaidi, A.; Hesselbo, S.; Jenkyns, H.; Porcelli, D.

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry now permit the routine measurement of a very wide range of stable isotope ratios and provide a new approach for the investigation of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes from sedimentary records. Transition-metal trace elements are sensitive indicators of redox conditions, controlled by chemical processes that can be dramatically altered in response to environmental change. Chromium has particular advantages as a tracer of past ocean-water oxygenation because its two principal stable oxidation states show very different chemical behaviour in the natural environment. Chromium is expected to act in a similar way to molybdenum, for which published data shows a 2 permille excursion in the 98Mo/95Mo ratio across the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) Oceanin Anoxic Event (OAE) interpreted as a drawdown of marine Mo into a sediment sink as euxinic conditions envelop the water column (Pearce et al., 2008). The two elements have different oceanic residence times; approximately 800,000 years for Mo and about 10,000 years for chromium, raising the possibility of investigating the onset of anoxia in unprecedented detail. However, to obtain accurate and precise measurements a method for extracting chromium from rock samples that delivers a high yield is required. A high yield is important to ensure that the natural signal is not masked by isotope fractionation induced by the separation process. We have recently developed a method which consistently delivers chromium yields of 95% and greater from sedimentary samples. Here we present preliminary results for chromium abundance and 53Cr/52Cr isotope ratios across the Jurassic, Toarcian OAE, from the Jet Rock section at Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, UK. Samples were collected at a 10 cm spacing giving an equivalent temporal resolution of approximately 6,000 years.

  14. Breed-specific adjustment factors for reproductive traits in Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire swine.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, M S; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K; Nelson, A H

    1997-09-01

    Number born alive (NBA) and litter weaning weight (LWT) can be influenced by many factors, including environment, parity, age at farrowing, lactation length, and genetic merit as well as number of pigs after transfer (NAT) and weaning age (WNAGE) for LWT. The objectives of this study were to estimate adjustment factors for NBA and LWT using all effects in the model and to refine parity effects by including age of the sow in parity 1 (P1) and parity 2 (P2). The models used included fixed effects of contemporary groups and parity/age class, random direct genetic and permanent environment effects, as well as the fixed effects of NAT and WNAGE for LWT. A large effect due to age of the sow at breeding within P1 and P2 was found and new adjustments were found to differ from previous studies. In the Yorkshire population, for example, the average P1 adjustment was 1.0 pig in this study, compared to the current .69; however, this ranges from 1.46 for the youngest P1 females to .57 for the oldest. Similarly, in P2 the average adjustment was found to be .50, with an adjustment of .99 for the youngest P2 and 0 for the oldest. Also, age of dam was found to contribute variation to P1 litter records for LWT. A residual analysis showed nonsignificant differences (P > .60) across the age classes after using the new adjustments; however, significant differences (P < .01) remained after using the current adjustments.

  15. Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon).

    PubMed

    Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K

    2010-06-01

    A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species.

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)

    PubMed Central

    Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K.

    2010-01-01

    A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species. PMID:20181664

  17. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  18. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  19. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Je; Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook

    2015-03-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most reliable molecular biology technique for assessment of mRNA expression levels. However, to obtain the accurate RT-qPCR results, the expression levels of genes of interest should be normalized with appropriate reference genes and optimal numbers of reference genes. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 15 well-known candidate reference genes (ACTB, ALDOA, B2M, GAPDH, HPAR1, HSPCB, PGK1, POLR2G, PPIA, RPL4, RPS18, SDHA, TBP, TOP2B, and YWHAZ) in seven body tissues (liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) of Berkshire, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire pigs using three excel-based programs, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Combination analysis of these three programs showed that the stable and appropriate reference genes are PPIA, TBP, and HSPCB in Berkshire pigs; PPIA, TBP, RPL4, and RPS18 in Landrace pigs; PPIA and TBP in Duroc pigs; and PPIA, TOP2B, RPL4, and RPS18 in Yorkshire pigs. Because the four pig breeds had different suitable reference genes, the selection of appropriate reference genes is essential in RT-qPCR analyses. Taken together, our data could help to select reliable reference genes for the normalization of expression levels of various target genes in pigs.

  20. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Moraes, Luis E; Murray, James D; Owens, Sean D

    2014-01-10

    Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed.

  1. L1 insertion within SPEF2 gene is associated with increased litter size in the Finnish Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Sironen, A; Uimari, P; Iso-Touru, T; Vilkki, J

    2012-04-01

    Immotile, short-tail sperm defect (ISTS) expanded in the Finnish Yorkshire population in the end of 1990s. The causal mutation for this defect is a recent L1 insertion within the SPEF2 gene in chromosome 16. Even though all homozygous boars are eliminated from the population because of infertility, the amount of affected boars increased rapidly until marker-assisted selection against the defect was established. To elucidate the associated effects of the ISTS defect on production traits, we have investigated the association of the L1 insertion and PRLR haplotype with reproduction traits in the Finnish Yorkshire population. Two data sets including 357 sows and 491 AI-boars were genotyped for the presence of the L1 insertion and analysed for association with reproduction traits. A Proc Mixed procedure (SAS Inc) and a software package for analysing multivariate mixed models (DMU) were used to study the effect of polymorphisms on reproduction traits. The L1-insertion within SPEF2 gene was associated with litter size in the first parity. The SPEF2 gene is located adjacent to a candidate gene for litter size in the pig, PRLR. Haplotypes within PRLR exon 10 were analysed in data set of 93 AI-boars for the association with reproduction traits. However, no associations were detected within the analysed data set indicating that PRLR sequence variants are not the causal cause for the identified effect on litter size.

  2. Quality evaluation and prediction of Citrullus lanatus by 1H NMR-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Tarachiwin, Lucksanaporn; Masako, Osawa; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2008-07-23

    (1)H NMR spectrometry in combination with multivariate analysis was considered to provide greater information on quality assessment over an ordinary sensory testing method due to its high reliability and high accuracy. The sensory quality evaluation of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) was carried out by means of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multivariate analyses by partial least-squares projections to latent structures-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and PLS-regression offered extensive information for quality differentiation and quality evaluation, respectively. The impact of watermelon and rootstock cultivars on the sensory qualities of watermelon was determined on the basis of (1)H NMR metabolic fingerprinting and profiling. The significant metabolites contributing to the discrimination were also identified. A multivariate calibration model was successfully constructed by PLS-regression with extremely high reliability and accuracy. Thus, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate analysis was considered to be one of the most suitable complementary techniques that could be applied to assess and predict the sensory quality of watermelons and other horticultural plants.

  3. Insights into the Evolution of Mitochondrial Genome Size from Complete Sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W.; Stern, David B.; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)—the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes—and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors. PMID:20118192

  4. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the ClTCP transcription factors in Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pibiao; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Wu, Weifang; Fang, Bingsheng; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-04-12

    The plant-specific TCP transcription factor family, which is involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, performs diverse functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no comprehensive analysis of the TCP family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) has been undertaken previously. A total of 27 watermelon TCP encoding genes distributed on nine chromosomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the genes into 11 distinct subgroups. Furthermore, phylogenetic and structural analyses distinguished two homology classes within the ClTCP family, designated Class I and Class II. The Class II genes were differentiated into two subclasses, the CIN subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass. The expression patterns of all members were determined by semi-quantitative PCR. The functions of two ClTCP genes, ClTCP14a and ClTCP15, in regulating plant height were confirmed by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis wild-type and ortholog mutants. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of the watermelon TCP gene family, which provides valuable information for understanding the classification and functions of the TCP genes in watermelon.

  6. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  7. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  8. Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong Cai x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Len, N T; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B

    2007-08-01

    Total tract digestibility and nitrogen retention of three diets containing different levels of fibre [200, 260 and 320 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in dry matter] were determined in three breeds of growing pig at an initial age of approximately 3.5 months. The breeds were local (Mong Cai, MC), F1 crossbred (MC x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire, LY), allocated at random within breed (block) to double 3 x 3 Latin squares. The main fibrous ingredients of the experimental diets were rice bran, cassava residue meal and non-dehulled groundnut cake meal. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NDF, crude fibre, gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) decreased as the level of dietary NDF increased (p < 0.001). The r(2) values for the relationship between NDF level and digestibility of OM, CP, GE and EE were 83%, 83%, 80% and 82% respectively. On average, an increase in NDF content of 1% unit resulted in a decrease in OM, CP, GE and EE digestibility of 0.67%, 0.75%, 0.50% and 0.42% units respectively. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was the highest for MC and the lowest for LY (p < 0.01), with intermediate values for F1. There was a negative effect of NDF level on nitrogen (N) retained as a proportion of intake (p < 0.05). Nitrogen retention and utilization were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for LY than for MC and F1 pigs.

  9. An Investigation into the Provision of Built Environment Education to Schools in London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Murfield, Jenny; Wilkin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The report was commissioned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) to provide information on organizations providing education focusing on the built environment in three regions (London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber). The findings from this study will be used to inform "Engaging Places," a project from DCMS,…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  12. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  13. CDNA microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in blood mononuclear cells of SLA-DRB1-defined Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Nino-Soto, M I; Jozani, R J; Bridle, B; Mallard, B A

    2008-01-01

    Three lines of commercialYorkshire pigs with defined SLA-DRB1 alleles were developed at the University of Guelph for xenotransplantation and immune response studies. Two of the SLA-DRB1 alleles have been previously reported (SLA-DRB1*0502 and *0701), whereas the third one is a new allele. The influence of defined SLA-DRB1 alleles on transcriptional patterns of immune-related genes in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) of pigs was explored using cDNA microarray. Microarray analysis showed significant differential expression of inflammatory genes in association with the various SLA-DRB1 alleles. A better understanding of the association between SLA genotypes and gene activity can increase the knowledge of the function of these molecules, as well as define new strategies to control animal health and optimize animal production.

  14. An evaluation of pulmonary atelectasis and its re-expansion: hyperpolarized 3He MRI in the Yorkshire pig.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Margaret A; Asiaii, Ali; Ishii, Masaru; Roberts, David A; Edvinsson, Johan M; Jalali, Aman; Spector, Zebulon Z; Meisel, Fabian; Rizi, Rahim R

    2003-11-01

    Atelectasis, the collapse of small airways, is a significant clinical problem. We use hyperpolarized (HP) 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or HP 3He MRI, to describe atelectasis in the normal Yorkshire pig, the pig with atelectasis, and the pig with re-expansion of atelectasis. We compare HP 3He MRI findings with depictions of atelectasis by proton MRI. During end-expiration in the anesthetized and paralyzed Yorkshire pig (n = 6), HP 3He gas produced by the optical pumping spin-exchange method, was delivered via an endotracheal tube. For two separate groups, atelectasis was either induced by Fogarty-catheter occlusion balloon inflation (n = 3), or lateral chest wall administration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (n = 3). MRI was performed at time zero, at 5, 9, 13, 15, and 19 minutes after atelectasis production, 30 minutes after balloon deflation, and 10 and 30 minutes after recruitment of atelectatic areas with increased tidal volumes and added positive end-expiratory pressure. High-resolution, cross-sectional MR images were procured, and comparison was made with the traditional proton MRI. Atelectatic areas by HP 3He MRI were easily distinguishable in both subject groups, and correlated with those located by proton MR. HP 3He MR images showed absence of ventilation, whereas proton MR images depicted dense, white areas. Re-expansion of atelectasis was well delineated by HP 3He MRI. HP 3He MRI may overcome many of the shortcomings of other well-established radiographic methods. HP 3He MRI is a novel, informative method for describing atelectasis and its re-expansion.

  15. A 10-Year Retrospective Review of a Nonrandomized Cohort of 458 Patients Undergoing Radical Radiotherapy or Cystectomy in Yorkshire, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Nicholas P.; Sundaram, Subramnian K.; Weston, Philip; Fairley, Lesley; Harrison, Simon C.W.; Forman, David; Chahal, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported on the mortality, morbidity, and 5-year survival of 458 patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or surgery for invasive bladder cancer in Yorkshire from 1993 to 1996. We aim to present the 10-year outcomes of these patients and to reassess factors predicting survival. Methods and Materials: The Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry identified 458 patients whose cases were subjected to Kaplan-Meier all-cause survival analyses, and a retrospective casenote analysis was undertaken on 398 (87%) for univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Additional proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the statistical significance of variables on overall survival. Results: The ratio of radiotherapy to cystectomy was 3:1. There was no significant difference in overall 10-year survival between those who underwent radiotherapy (22%) and radical cystectomy (24%). Univariate analyses suggested that female sex, performance status, hydronephrosis and clinical T stage, were associated with an inferior outcome at 10 years. Patient age, tumor grade, treatment delay, and caseload factors were not significant. Multivariate analysis models were created for 0-2 and 2-10 years after treatment. There were no significant differences in treatment for 0-2 years; however, after 2 years follow-up there was some evidence of increased survival for patients receiving surgery compared with radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusions: a 10-year minimum follow-up has rarely been reported after radical treatment for invasive bladder cancer. At 10 years, there was no statistical difference in all-cause survival between surgery and radiotherapy treatment modalities.

  16. Dynamic changes in the leaf proteome of a C3 xerophyte, Citrullus lanatus (wild watermelon), in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hoshiyasu, Saki; Inagaki, Naoyuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2011-05-01

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a xerophyte native to the Kalahari Desert, Africa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in this plant, we examined changes in the proteome in response to water deficit. Wild watermelon leaves showed decreased transpiration and a concomitant increase in leaf temperature under water deficit conditions. Comparison of the proteome of stressed plants with that of unstressed plants by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the intensity of 40 spots increased in response to the stress, and the intensity of 11 spots decreased. We positively identified 23 stress-induced and 6 stress-repressed proteins by mass spectrometry and database analyses. Interestingly, 15 out of the 23 up-regulated proteins (65% of annotated up-regulated proteins) were heat shock proteins (HSPs). Especially, 10 out of the 15 up-regulated HSPs belonged to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family. Other stress-induced proteins included those related to antioxidative defense and carbohydrate metabolism. Fifteen distinct cDNA sequences encoding the sHSP were characterized from wild watermelon. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the representative sHSP genes revealed strong transcriptional up-regulation in the leaves under water deficit. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed that protein abundance of sHSPs was massively increased under water deficit. Overall, these observations suggest that the defense response of wild watermelon may involve orchestrated regulation of a diverse array of functional proteins related to cellular defense and metabolism, of which HSPs may play a pivotal role on the protection of the plant under water deficit in the presence of strong light.

  17. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  18. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m−2·s−1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  19. The effect of a rosette-crown fly, Botanophila turcica, on growth,biomass allocation and reproduction of the thistle Carthamus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Andrew W.; Vitou, Janine

    2000-12-01

    Plant growth and reproductive output of the winter annual invasive thistle, Carthamus lanatus was characterised in relation to plant size in three native populations in southern France. The effects of the rosette-crown feeding fly Botanophila turcica on these plant characteristics were assessed by comparing unattacked with naturally attacked plants at each site and by a field experiment. Indirect effects of B. turcica on plant seed production were also compared with direct seed loss caused by a guild of capitulum-feeding insects that incidentally attacked the marked plants at these sites. C. lanatus showed no size or weight requirement for flowering, but larger flowering plants produced less total receptacle surface and less seed production (female reproductive potential) in proportion to plant weight than smaller flowering plants. B. turcica did not select hosts on the basis of size or density. B. turcica reduced plant relative growth rate (RGR) in all situations, but attacked plants compensated fully at two of three sites as attack failed to halt rosette growth. Attacked plants suffered 12 % mortality, and 71 % lower seed production than unattacked plants at the site with the lowest RGR. This corresponded to 9 % lower seed production for the whole thistle population compared to 8.6-19.5 % direct seed loss to capitulum insects across all sites.

  20. Genetic parameters and trends for litter traits in U.S. Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Baas, T J; Mabry, J W; Koehler, K J; Dekkers, J C M

    2003-01-01

    Records on 251,296 Yorkshire, 75,262 Duroc, 83,338 Hampshire, and 53,234 Landrace litters born between 1984 and April of 1999 in herds on the National Swine Registry Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System were analyzed. Animal model and restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to estimate variances of animal genetic (a), maternal genetic (m), permanent environmental, and service sire, and the covariances between a and m for number born alive (NBA), litter weight at 21 d (L21WT), and number weaned (NW). Fixed effects of contemporary groups were included in the analysis. Based on a single-trait model, estimates of heritabilities were 0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0.08 for NBA; 0.08, 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09 for L21WT; and 0.05, 0.07, 0.05, and 0.05 for NW in the Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Landrace breeds, respectively. Estimates of maternal genetic effects were low and ranged from 0.00 to 0.02 for all traits and all breeds. Estimates of permanent environmental effects ranged from 0.03 to 0.08. Estimates of service sire effects ranged from 0.02 to 0.05. A bivariate analysis was used to estimate the genetic correlations among traits. Average genetic correlations over the four breeds were 0.13, 0.15, and 0.71 for NBA with L21WT, NBA with NW, and L21WT with NW, respectively. Average genetic trends were 0.018 pigs/yr, 0.114 kg/yr, and 0.004 pigs/yr for NBA, L21WT, and NW, respectively. Although estimates of heritabilities for litter traits were low and similar across breeds, genetic variances for litter traits were sufficiently large to indicate that litter traits could be improved through selection. This study presents the first set of breed-specific estimates of genetic parameters available from large numbers of field records. It provides information for use in national genetic evaluations.

  1. [Analysis of the level and pattern of genomic DNA methylation in different ploidy watermelons by MSAP (Citrullus lanatus)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Guo; Gu, Yu; Chen, Cheng Bin; Jiao, Ding Liang; Xue, Zhen Yi; Song, Wen Qin

    2009-04-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications. It is very important to the regulation of gene expression. In present study, an autoploidy series (2x, 3x and 4x) in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was constructed and MSAP (Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism) analysis was conducted to elucidate the level and pattern of DNA methylation at CCGG sites in different ploidy watermelons. Totally, 1883 genetic loci were produced by 23 pairs of selective primers, of which 647, 655 and 581 sites were detected in diploid, autotriploid and autotetraploid, respectively. The methylation sites were 181, 150 and 159, and the corresponding total methylation ratios were 28.0%, 22.9% and 27.4% in 2x, 3x and 4x, respectively, of which the fully methylation sites were 121, 80 and 82, and the corresponding fully methylation ratios were 18.7%, 12.2% and 14.1%. Further analysis of the pattern of DNA methylation suggested that compared 4x with 2x, about half of detected sites (54.4%) shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Similarly, compared 4x with 3x, 45.4% sites also shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Moreover, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved increase of DNA methylation levels in 4x. However, compared 3x with 2x or 4x, although the changes of DNA methylation pattern also widely occurred, which involved 41.6% (compared 3x with 2x) and 45.4% (compared 3x with 4x) sites, respectively, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved decrease of DNA methylation levels in 3x. All these results indicated that DNA methylation events were widely existed in different ploidy watermelons. However, not only based on the total DNA methylation ratio or fully DNA methylation ratio, the results both implied that the DNA methylation levels were not closely associated with the autopolyploidy level in watermelon. Autotriploid watermelon shows obvious low level of DNA methylation. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns also suggested that

  2. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  3. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over

  4. Genetic (co)variances and breeding value estimation of Gompertz growth curve parameters in Finnish Yorkshire boars, gilts and barrows.

    PubMed

    Koivula, M; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Strandén, I; Matilainen, K; Serenius, T; Stalder, K J; Mäntysaari, E A

    2008-06-01

    This paper's objectives were to estimate the genetic (co)variance components of the Gompertz growth curve parameters and to evaluate the relationship of estimated breeding values (EBV) based on average daily gain (ADG) and Gompertz growth curves. Finnish Yorkshire central test station performance data was obtained from the Faba Breeding (Vantaa, Finland). The final data set included 121,488 weight records from 10,111 pigs. Heritability estimates for the Gompertz growth parameters mature weight (alpha), logarithm of mature weight to birth weight ratio (beta) and maturation rate (kappa) were 0.44, 0.55 and 0.31, respectively. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations between the growth curve parameters were high and mainly negative. The only positive relationship was found between alpha and beta. Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between EBV for ADG and daily gain calculated from Gompertz growth curves were 0.79. The Spearman rank correlation between the sire EBV for ADG and Gompertz growth curve parameter-based ADG for all sires with at least 15 progeny was 0.86. Growth curves differ significantly between individuals and this information could be utilized for selection purposes when improving growth rate in pigs.

  5. Letters of condolence: assessing attitudes and variability in practice amongst oncologists and palliative care doctors in Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Jessica S; Makinde, Oluwatobi; Vasudev, Naveen S

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a patient’s death, some doctors routinely write a letter of condolence to the bereaved family. Practice appears to vary widely but this is poorly documented, particularly in the UK setting. We wished to explore the attitudes of oncologists and palliative care consultants towards writing letters of condolence to patient’s families. Methods A sample of oncology and palliative care consultants from across Yorkshire were invited via email to complete an anonymous online survey. The survey aimed to identify current practice regarding condolence letter writing and respondents attitudes towards this. Results A total of 47 (72%) recipients completed the survey, comprised of clinical oncologists (45%), medical oncologists (42%), and palliative care consultants (13%). The majority (87%) reported sending condolence letters, but amongst this group, only 49% indicated they do this ‘often’ or ‘always’. When asked whether they would use a standard template letter, should it be made available, 77% of participants responded negatively. Many later commented that a template with room for flexibility would be better received. The majority (72%) were also not in favour of the introduction of policies to try to unify practices. Conclusions Practices and attitudes towards condolence letter writing are variable. The participants in this study felt strongly about when and how they wished to express condolences. A single unifying policy seems unlikely to be appropriate or feasible. PMID:27347006

  6. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF.

  7. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, P<0.001) and growth rate (r=0.20, P=0.015) of the gilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  8. Mine water geochemistry and metal flux in a major historic Pb-Zn-F orefield, the Yorkshire Pennines, UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Rogerson, M; Greenway, G; Potter, H A B; Mayes, W M

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have shown up to 6 % of rivers in England and Wales to be impacted by discharges from abandoned metal mines. Despite the large extent of impacts, there are still many areas where mine water impact assessments are limited by data availability. This study provides an overview of water quality, trace element composition and flux arising from one such area; the Yorkshire Pennine Orefield in the UK. Mine drainage waters across the orefield are characterised by Ca-HCO3-SO4-type waters, with moderate mineralization (specific electrical conductance: 160-525 μS cm(-1)) and enrichment of dissolved Zn (≤2003 μg L(-1)), Ba (≤971 μg L(-1)), Pb (≤183 μg L(-1)) and Cd (≤12 μg L(-1)). The major ion composition of the waters reflects the Carboniferous gritstone and limestone-dominated country rock, the latter of which is heavily karstified in parts of the orefield, while sulphate and trace element enrichment is a product of the oxidation of galena, sphalerite and barite mineralization. Contaminant flux measurements at discharge sites highlight the disproportionate importance of large drainage levels across the region, which generally discharge into first-order headwater streams. Synoptic metal loading surveys undertaken in the Hebden Beck sub-catchment of the river Wharfe highlight the importance of major drainage levels to instream baseflow contamination, with diffuse sources from identifiable expanses of waste rock becoming increasingly prominent as river flows increase.

  9. The influence of environmental factors on movements of lowland-river fish in the Yorkshire Ouse system.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M C

    2000-05-05

    The influence of several environmental parameters on movements of fish within the Yorkshire Ouse system, north-east England, is considered. Automated monitoring of fish with passive integrated transponding (PIT) tags, at the entrance to a fish pass on the lower Derwent, was used to examine factors influencing upstream migration of fish between May and August 1998. Overall, 85% of records were from the cyprinids, chub Leuciscus cephalus, dace Leuciscus leuciscus and roach Rutilus rutilus, which are the dominant species in the lower Derwent. Daily numbers of PIT-tagged fish entering the pass in summer were significantly and positively correlated with daylength, but not significantly correlated with mean daily temperature or mean daily flow. There were significant variations in the diel pattern of PIT records between species. Adult chub mostly approached the fish pass at night, while other species entered over a wider range of times, and stocked juvenile cyprinids entered mostly during daytime. Analyses of movements of radio-tracked barbel from the lower Nidd showed that downstream displacements associated with high flow in summer were often followed by homing to the original residence area, but that in autumn displacements were significantly more frequent and homing was significantly less frequent, resulting in a tendency for barbel to move downstream. It is concluded that an appreciation of the effects of environmental parameters on movements by different fish species is important in understanding the causation of spatial variations in distribution of fish in lowland rivers.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activities of cucurbitacin E isolated from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides: role of reactive nitrogen species and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Yagi, Sakina M Ahmed; Koko, Waleed S; Mohan, Syam; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2011-12-01

    The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A GBS-SNP-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Farnham, Mark W; Patrick Wechter, W

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 Mb interval using a high-density GBS-SNP linkage map, the first map of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides. Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, does not exist in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Cll) and has been well described in a few plant introductions of the wild subspecies of watermelon, C. lanatus var. citroides (Clc). Clc provides a vital source of genetic diversity, as well as resistance to numerous diseases. Unfortunately, both genetic diversity and disease resistance are lacking in Cll due to the narrow genetic base. Despite the importance of Clc to continued watermelon improvement, intra-variety genetic studies are lacking. Here, we present the first Clc genetic linkage map, generated with 2495 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and use it to identify quantitative trait loci associated with Fon race 2 resistance. Multiple QTL mapping in a Clc F2:3 population (N = 173) identified one major and four minor QTL. The major QTL explained 43% of the variation in Fon race 2 resistance and was delimited to a 1.2-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region spanning 44 genes.

  12. The temporal and spatial variability of sediment transport and yields within the Bradford Beck catchment, West Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Tracey H; Young, Andrew R; Holmes, Matthew G R; Old, Gareth H; Hewitt, Ned; Leeks, Graham J L; Packman, John C; Smith, Barnaby P G

    2003-10-01

    Recent EU directives have emphasised the need to understand and limit potential water quality problems within urban river systems. Under certain conditions sediments and contaminants derived from industrial and domestic waste and the urban surface may be expelled into urban rivers via the sewer and drainage system. These discharges may lead to water quality problems within urban catchments. One aspect of water quality is the suspended sediment. This can be directly detrimental to water quality by affecting the habitat for fish and other biota but it is also closely associated with pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be adsorbed onto the sediments surface. This paper presents a comparative analysis of sediment yields for a small mixed rural/urban catchment, the Bradford Beck in West Yorkshire, over a number of precipitation events. Flow and water quality parameters were monitored at a high temporal resolution at strategic sites within the urban watercourse over a 2-year period. Rainfall was measured at six locations within the catchment. Analysis of discrete rainfall events allowed an understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of sediment transport within the catchment to be developed. The results demonstrated that for individual storms the sediment yields from the urban sub-catchment were generally higher than those from the rural system although the annual yields were comparable. Sediment transport within the urban area, for large events, was dominated by the impact of the Combined Sewer Overflows discharging. Within these events peak suspended sediment concentration, SSC, were generally higher than the rural system. Within smaller events the main sediment source within the urban area was the surface runoff discharging directly to the urban river. Analysis of SSC and discharge relationships illustrated the different sources of sediment for contrasting events. Within the rural system clockwise hysteresis, indicating exhaustion of sediment supply

  13. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  14. Developmental changes in the expression of the GLUT2 and GLUT4 genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Yorkshire and Tibetan pigs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; Yang, X M; Gu, Y R; Tao, X; Zhong, Z Z; Gong, J J; Chen, X H; Lv, X B

    2015-02-13

    Glucose transporter proteins 2 and 4 (GLUT2 and GLUT4) play important roles in glucose transport and energy metabolism. Changes in the levels of GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were measured in longissimus dorsi muscle from the lean Yorkshire and fat Tibetan pig breeds at six different time points (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months) with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The results showed that GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were abundantly expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle and that the developmental expression patterns were similar in both breeds. Tibetan pigs exhibited higher intramuscular fat and GLUT2 mRNA levels, while Yorkshire pigs exhibited a higher myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and GLUT4 mRNA levels. Furthermore, the changes in the GLUT4 mRNA levels were strongly and positively correlated with the CSA over a period of six months. These results exhibit time- and breed-specific expression patterns of GLUT2 and GLUT4, which highlight their potential as candidate genes for assessing adipose deposition and muscle development in pigs. These differences in the expression of GLUT family genes may also have indications for meat quality.

  15. A comparative study on the expression profile of MCTs and HSPs in Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire breeds of pigs during different seasons.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Thulasiraman; Banerjee, Dipak; Mohanty, Niharika; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, ProbalRanjan; Mukherjee, Joydip; Paul, Avishek; Das, Arun Kumar; Nanda, P K; Naskar, Syamal; Mohan, Narayana H; Sarkar, Mihir; Das, Bikash Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Thermal stress has a significant adverse effect on commercial swine production but it is not easy to measure. Animals may adapt to stress conditions by an alteration in the expression of stress-related genes such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The present study presents a comparative analysis of seasonally varied effects on the expression profiles of HSPs (27, 70, and 90) and MCTs (1, 2, and 4) transcripts in thigh muscle and colon tissue of Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) breeds of pig. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 genes was found to be higher in both thigh muscle and colon tissue in Ghungroo compared to Large White Yorkshire pigs during the summer. However, the relative expression of HSP70 was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in Ghungroo compared to Large White Yorkshire pigs during both seasons in both thigh muscle and colon tissue. The expression of HSP90 was higher in Ghungroo when compared to LWY though the variation was non-significant (P > 0.05) in the colon during different seasons. However, in Ghungroo, the mRNA expression of MCT1 was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in thigh muscle and colon regions during the summer compared to LWY, whereas MCT2 was expressed more in the colon in LWY compared to Ghungroo during the summer. The relative expression of mRNA of MCT4 was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in thigh region in both summer and winter in Ghungroo compared with LWY. Thus, the study demonstrated that both HSPs and MCTs gene expression during thermal stress suggests the possible involvement of these genes in reducing the deleterious effect of thermal stress, thus maintaining cellular integrity and homeostasis in pigs. These genes could be used as suitable markers for the assessment of stress in pigs.

  16. Investigation of social, demographic and health variations in the usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines within a large cohort (South Yorkshire, UK)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mark A; Little, Emma; Cooper, Richard; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. Design Cross-sectional data analysis. Setting South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 27 806 individuals from wave 1 of the Yorkshire Health Study (2010–2012). Measures Individuals self-reported each medicine they were taking and whether each was prescribed or not. The medicines were grouped into 14 categories (eg, cardiovascular system, infection, contraception). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyse the count of medicine usage. We included demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), social (education), health-related (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) factors and chronic health conditions (eg, stroke, anxiety and heart disease) in our analyses. Results 49% of men and 62% of women were taking medicine with the majority of this prescribed (88% and 83%, respectively). Health conditions were found to be positively associated with prescribed medicine usage, but mixed in their associated with over-the-counter medicines. Educational attainment was negatively associated with prescribed and positively associated with over-the-counter usage. Conclusions Our study addresses a dearth of evidence to provide new insights into how behaviours in medicine usage vary by demographic, social and health-related factors. Differences in over-the-counter medicine usage by educational attainment may help our understanding of the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:27683515

  17. Patient Acceptability of the Yorkshire Dialysis Decision Aid (YoDDA) Booklet: A Prospective Non-Randomized Comparison Study Across 6 Predialysis Services.

    PubMed

    Winterbottom, Anna E; Gavaruzzi, Teresa; Mooney, Andrew; Wilkie, Martin; Davies, Simon J; Crane, Dennis; Tupling, Ken; Baxter, Paul D; Meads, David M; Mathers, Nigel; Bekker, Hilary L

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Patients are satisfied with their kidney care but want more support in making dialysis choices. Predialysis leaflets vary across services, with few being sufficient to enable patients' informed decision making. We describe the acceptability of a patient decision aid and feasibility of evaluating its effectiveness within usual predialysis practice. ♦ Prospective non-randomized comparison design, Usual Care or Usual Care Plus Yorkshire Dialysis Decision Aid Booklet (+YoDDA), in 6 referral centers (Yorkshire-Humber, UK) for patients with sustained deterioration of kidney function. Consenting (C) patients completed questionnaires after predialysis consultation (T1), and 6 weeks later (T2). Measures assessed YoDDA's utility to support patients' decisions and integration within usual care. ♦ Usual Care (n = 105) and +YoDDA (n = 84) participant characteristics were similar: male (62%), white (94%), age (mean = 62.6; standard deviation [SD] 14.4), kidney disease severity (glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] mean = 14.7; SD 3.7); decisional conflict was < 25; choice-preference for home versus hospital dialysis approximately 50:50. Patients valued receiving YoDDA, reading it on their own (96%), and sharing it with family (72%). The +YoDDA participants had higher scores for understanding kidney disease, reasoning about options, feeling in control, sharing their decision with family. Study engagement varied by center (estimated range 14 - 49%; mean 45%); participants varied in completion of decision quality measures. ♦ Receiving YoDDA as part of predialysis education was valued and useful to patients with worsening kidney disease. Integrating YoDDA actively within predialysis programs will meet clinical guidelines and patient need to support dialysis decision making in the context of patients' lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  18. Effect of daily fluctuations in ambient temperature on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their temperature management strategies.

  19. Detection and duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in semen, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and tissues from Yorkshire, Hampshire, and Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, J; Holler, L D; Benfield, D A; Nelson, E A

    2001-03-01

    Because transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can occur through boar semen, it is important to identify persistently infected boars. However, even for boars given the same PRRSV strain and dose, variability in the duration of viral shedding in semen has been observed, suggesting that host factors are involved in PRRSV persistence. To determine whether there are host genetic factors, particularly litter and breed differences related to the persistence of PRRSV, 3 litters from 3 purebred swine breeds were used for this study. It was also determined whether PRRSV could be detected for a longer period of time in serum, semen, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and if PRRSV could still be detected in tissues after these antemortem specimens were PRRSV negative for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Three Hampshire, 3 Yorkshire, and 2 Landrace PRRSV-naive boars were obtained and inoculated intranasally with a wild-type PRRSV isolate (SD-23983). All boars within each breed were from the same litter, and litters were within 9 days of age. Serum and PBMC were collected twice weekly from each boar and analyzed for the presence of PRRSV by virus isolation and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was also used to obtain virus neutralization titers and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay S/P values. Semen was collected twice weekly from 7 of 8 boars and analyzed by PCR. After all specimens were PRRSV negative for a minimum of 2-3 weeks, each boar was euthanized, and 21 tissues plus saliva, serum, feces, and urine were collected. All postmortem specimens were evaluated by virus isolation. Specimens that were PRRSV negative by virus isolation were then evaluated by PCR. The mean number of days (+/-SD) for the duration of PRRSV shedding in semen was 51+/-26.9 days, 7.5+/-4.9 days, and 28.3+/-17.5 days for Landrace, Yorkshire, and Hampshire boars, respectively. Because of small sample sizes and large SDs, the differences in duration of PRRSV

  20. The geochemistry of environmentally important trace elements in UK coals, with special reference to the Parkgate coal in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spears, D.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkgate coal of Langsettian age in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield is typical of many coals in the UK in that it has a high sulphur (S) content. Detailed information on the distribution of the forms of S, both laterally and vertically through the seam, was known from previous investigations. In the present work, 38 interval samples from five measured sections of the coal were comprehensively analysed for major, minor and trace elements and the significance of the relationships established using both raw and centered log transformed data. The major elements are used to quantify the variations in the inorganic and organic coal components and determine the trace element associations. Pyrite contains nearly all of the Hg, As, Se, Tl and Pb and is also the major source of the Mo, Ni, Cd and Sb. The clays contain the following elements in decreasing order of association: Rb, Cs, Li, Ga, U, Cr, V, Sc, Y, Bi, Cu, Nb, Sn, Te and Th. Nearly all of the Rb is present in the clay fraction, whereas for elements such as V, Cu and U, a significant amount is thought to be present in the organic matter, based on the K vs trace element regression equations. Only Ge, and possibly Be, would appear to have a dominant organic source. The trace element concentrations are calculated for pyrite, the clay fraction and organic matter. For pyrite it is noted that concentrations agree with published data from the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield and also that Tl concentrations (median of 0.33 ppm) in the pyrite are greater than either Hg or Cd. Unlike these elements, Tl has attracted less attention and possibly more information is needed on its anthropogenic distribution and impacts on man and the environment. A seawater source is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of S, Cl and the non-detrital trace elements in the Parkgate coal. Indicative of the seawater control is the Th/U ratio, which expresses the detrital to non-detrital element contributions. Using

  1. Effects of lactation length and weaning-to-service interval on subsequent farrowing rate and litter size in Landrace and Yorkshire sows in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantasuparuk, W; Lundeheim, N; Dalin, A M; Kunavongkrit, A; Einarsson, S

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of lactation length (LL) on weaning-to-service interval (WSI), and the effect of LL and WSI on the subsequent farrowing rate and litter size among purebred Landrace and Yorkshire sows under tropical conditions. The variation in litter weight at weaning (LWW) was also studied. Data were analyzed from three purebred sow herds located in the central part of Thailand, including sows weaned during the period from January 1993 to December 1996. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance using SAS software. The procedure MIXED was used for analysis of the continuous outcome variables (namely LL, LWW, WSI, number of total born and number of live born piglets). The GLIMMIX macro was used for analysis of the categorical outcome variable, farrowing rate (FR). In the statistical analyses, WSI was grouped into 7 groups, when it was an independent variable, as follows: 1 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, to 10, and 11 to 21 days. Lactation length was grouped into 4 groups as follows: 17 to 24, 25 to 27, 28 to 30 and 31 to 35 days. Parities were grouped into 4 groups as follows: 1, 2, 3 + 4, and 5 to 8. Landrace sows had significantly higher LWW (P < 0.001) compared with Yorkshire sows (56.1 vs. 53.6 kg). The LL was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter during the cool season than during the other seasons while no difference was found in LWW between the hot and the cool season. The LL had no effect on WSI, FR and litter sizes. The FR was significantly lower when the WSI was 7 to 10 days than when the WSI was 1 to 6 days. An increase in WSI between Days 9 to 10 and Day 21 resulted in a significant increase in FR. Subsequent litter size decreased by about 0.5 piglets when the WSI increased from 1 to 5 days to 6 to 7 days. Thereafter, litter size increased as the WSI increased from 9 to 10 days to 21 days.

  2. Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures.

    PubMed

    Whitley, N; Morrow, W E M; See, M T; Oh, S-H

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY), Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY) or Tamworth (TY) boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg), feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight) or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas) system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d) were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (p<0.05). For birth weight, BY pigs were the lightest, TY and YY pigs were the heaviest but similar to each other and LBY pigs were intermediate. For weaning weights, BY and LBY pigs were heavier than TY and YY pigs. However, litter birth and weaning weights were not influenced by sire breed, and average daily gain was also not significantly different among breed types. Tamworth sired pigs had lower overall body weight gain, and feed conversion was lower in TY and YY groups than BY and LBY groups (p<0.05), however, number of observations was somewhat limited for feed conversion and for Tamworth pigs. Overall, no convincing differences among breed types were noted for this study, but growth performance in the

  3. Expression analysis of β-glucosidase genes that regulate abscisic acid homeostasis during watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) development and under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Sun, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Dai, Shengjie; Chen, Pei; Duan, Chaorui; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain new insights into the mechanisms that regulate endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels by β-glucosidase genes during the development of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) and under drought stress conditions. In total, five cDNAs from watermelons were cloned by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). They included three cDNAs (ClBG1, ClBG2 and ClBG3) homologous to those that encode β-glucosidase l that hydrolyzes the ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA, ClNCED4, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, and ClCYP707A1, encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase. A BLAST homology search revealed that the sequences of cDNAs and the deduced amino acids of these genes showed a high degree of homology to comparable molecules of other plant species. During fruit development and ripening, the expressions of ClBG1, ClNCED4 and ClCYP707A1 were relatively low at an early stage, increased rapidly along with fruit ripening, and reached the highest levels at 27 days after full bloom (DAFB) at the harvest stage. This trend was consistent with the accumulation of ABA. The ClBG2 gene on the other hand was highly expressed at 5 DAFB, and then decreased gradually with fruit development. Unlike ClBG1 and ClBG2, the expression of ClBG3 was low at an early stage; its expression peak occurred at 15 DAFB and then declined to the lowest point. When watermelon seedlings were subjected to drought stress, expressions of ClBG1 and ClCYP707A1 were significantly down-regulated, while expressions of ClBG2 and ClNCED4 were up-regulated in the roots, stems and leaves. The expression of ClBG3 was down-regulated in root tissue, but was up-regulated in stems and leaves. In conclusion, endogenous ABA content was modulated by a dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism regulated by ClNCED4, ClCYP707A1 and ClBGs during development and under drought stress condition. It seems likely that β-glucosidase genes are

  4. RNA-seq analysis reveals new candidate genes for drip loss in a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Weng, Qiannan; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Li, Qifa; Chen, Jie; Huang, Ruihua; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-04-01

    Drip loss, one of the most important meat quality traits, is characterized by low heritability. To date, the genetic factors affecting the drip loss trait have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify critical candidate genes affecting drip loss. First, we generated a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire commercial pig population and obtained phenotypic values for the drip loss trait. Furthermore, we constructed two RNA libraries from pooled samples of longissimus dorsi muscles with the highest (H group) and lowest (L group) drip loss and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these extreme phenotypes using RNA-seq technology. In total, 25 883 genes were detected in the H and L group libraries, and none was specifically expressed in only one library. Comparative analysis of gene expression levels found that 150 genes were differentially expressed, of which 127 were upregulated and 23 were downregulated in the H group relative to the L group. In addition, 68 drip loss quantitative trait loci (QTL) overlapping with 63 DEGs were identified, and these QTL were distributed mainly on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the triadin (TRDN) gene, which is involved in muscle contraction and fat deposition, and the myostatin (MSTN) gene, which has a role in muscle growth, were localized to more than two drip loss QTL, suggesting that both are critical candidate genes responsible for drip loss. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. A critical re-evaluation of controls on spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate concentrations in river waters throughout the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Adnan, Muhammad; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2016-05-01

    Since mean nitrate concentration along single river channels increases significantly with percent arable land use upstream of sampling points and autumn/early winter flushes in nitrate concentration are widespread, it is generally concluded that farmers contribute most of the nitrate. For the River Derwent in North Yorkshire, the correlation between nitrate concentration and percent arable land use is much poorer when tributary data are included in the equation, because of greater variations in dilution by water draining upland areas and in other N input sources. For the whole river system therefore, percent upland moorland/rough grazing land cover is an appreciably better predictor than percent arable land use for nitrate concentration. Upland land use encompasses the higher precipitation and runoff in such areas, and the subsequent greater dilution downstream of both arable land runoff and effluent from treatment works, as well as an inverse correlation to percent arable land use. This is strongly supported by the observation that, for the Derwent, Meteorological Office rainfall data alone proved even better than percent moorland rough grazing for predicting nitrate concentration. The dilution effect is therefore substantial but highly seasonal; lower runoff and dilution in summer offset the lower leaching losses from arable land, and higher dilution and runoff in winter offset greater nitrate leaching losses from arable soils. Because of this, coupled to improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use, seasonality trends in nitrate concentrations that were pronounced a decade ago now have all but disappeared in the catchment.

  6. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  7. Changes in expression of monocarboxylate transporters, heat shock proteins and meat quality of Large White Yorkshire and Ghungroo pigs during hot summer period

    PubMed Central

    Parkunan, Thulasiraman; Das, Arun K.; Banerjee, Dipak; Mohanty, Niharika; Paul, Avishek; Nanda, P. K.; Biswas, T. K.; Naskar, Syamal; Bag, Sadhan; Sarkar, Mihir; Mohan, Narayana H.; Das, Bikash Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Objective Present study explores the effect of hot summer period on the glycolytic rate of early post-mortem meat quality of Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pig and comparative adaptability to high temperature between above breeds by shifting the expression of stress related genes like mono-carboxylate transporters (MCTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Methods Healthy pigs of two different breeds, viz., LYW and Ghungroo (20 from each) were maintained during hot summer period (May to June) with a mean temperature of about 38°C. The pigs were slaughtered and meat samples from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were analyzed for pH, glycogen and lactate content and mRNA expression. Following 24 h of chilling, LD muscle was also taken from the carcasses to evaluate protein solubility and different meat quality measurements. Results LWY exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher plasma cortisol and lactate dehydrogenase concentration than Ghungroo indicating their higher sensitivity to high temperature. LD muscle from LWY pigs revealed lower initial and ultimate pH values and higher drip loss compared to Ghungroo, indicating a faster rate of pH fall. LD muscle of Ghungroo had significantly lower lactate content at 45 min postmortem indicating normal postmortem glycolysis and much slower glycolytic rate at early postmortem. LD muscle of LWY showed rapid postmortem glycolysis, higher drip loss and higher degrees of protein denaturation. Ghungroo exhibited slightly better water holding capacity, lower cooking loss and higher protein solubility. All HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) and MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) in the LD muscle of pigs inclined to increase more in Ghungroo than LWY when exposed to high temperature. Conclusion Effect of high temperature on the variation of HSPs and MCTs may play a crucial role in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions, pH regulation, muscle acidification, drip loss, protein denaturation and also in

  8. Changes in the patterns of care of central nervous system tumours among 16-24 year olds and the effect on survival in Yorkshire between 1990 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, B D; Picton, S V; Chumas, P; Dixit, S; van Laar, M; Loughrey, C; O'Reilly, G; Stark, D P; Feltbower, R G

    2013-03-01

    There is a paucity of work documenting the influence of patterns of care on survival for teenagers and young adults with primary central nervous system tumours. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake a detailed assessment examining any changes in the patterns of care over time and how these related to survival outcomes for 16-24 year olds diagnosed with a primary central nervous system tumour between 1990 and 2009. We used high-quality data from one population-based cancer registry in Yorkshire, UK to describe primary central nervous system tumours in teenagers and young adults (16-24 years) diagnosed between 1990 and 2009. The Birch classification scheme was used to identify differences by tumour subgroup. Incidence, patterns of care and survival trends were described using Poisson and Cox regression. There were 163 cases comprising 98 astrocytomas, 17 'other gliomas', 14 ependymomas, 11 medulloblastomas and 23 'other intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms' yielding an overall incidence of 18.1 million person-years. Care varied significantly over time and by principal treatment centre (Leeds 77%, Hull 23%), co-ordinating specialty (neurosurgery 53%, clinical oncology 22%, paediatrics 17%, other adult services 8%) and treatment received. Cox regression showed no significant difference in survival by age, gender, treatment centre, level of deprivation, year of diagnosis or co-ordinating specialty, but a significant difference by tumour grade and diagnostic group. Survival improved for all diagnostic groups except astrocytoma, although only the medulloblastoma group showed a significant change over time. The lack of any significant improvement in survival over time in most diagnostic groups warrants further investigation and provides justification for a more collaborative regional approach to the care of central nervous system tumours, perhaps through the development of regional guidelines for this unique population. More detailed analysis of relapse

  9. Changing profile of joint disorders with age: findings from a postal survey of the population of Calderdale, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Badley, E M; Tennant, A

    1992-01-01

    A survey of the age-sex specific prevalence of joint problems in a population and associated features such as disablement and use of treatment was carried out in 1986 in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. A postal questionnaire was sent to 25,168 households; 87% were returned, representing households containing 42,826 people aged 16 years and over. Positive answers to a question about pain, swelling, or stiffness in the joints, neck, or back were given by 10,246 subjects, 24% of the population aged 16 years and older, of whom 6181 (60.3%) were women. The rate of reporting of joint problems increased markedly with age, from 5% for subjects aged 16-24 years to 54% for those aged 85 years and older. The joint sites most often reported as affected were the knee and the back, with a frequency in the population of about 10%. The increase in joint problems with age was accompanied by an increase in reported morning stiffness of more than half an hour, taking drugs, and disability, but not in reporting seeing a specialist for these conditions. Of those aged 85 years and older who reported joint problems, most also had difficulty or dependence in activities of daily living. The increasing prevalence of joint problems with age has implications for the provision of care, both in the community and in hospitals, especially in view of the aging of the population as a whole. The planning of health services for those with rheumatic disorders needs to take into account the high incidence of joint problems in the population. PMID:1533506

  10. Functional Genomics Unique to Week 20 Post Wounding in the Deep Cone/Fat Dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire Porcine Model of Fibroproliferative Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Engrav, Loren H.; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Kathy Q.; Numhom, Surawej; Couture, Oliver P.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hocking, Anne M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Ramos, Maria Luiza C.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. Conclusions/Significance 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:21533106

  11. Changes in expression of monocarboxylate transporters, heat shock proteins and meat quality of Large White Yorkshire and Ghungroo pigs during hot summer period.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Thulasiraman; Das, Arun K; Banerjee, Dipak; Mohanty, Niharika; Paul, Avishek; Nanda, P K; Biswas, T K; Naskar, Syamal; Bag, Sadhan; Sarkar, Mihir; Mohan, Narayana H; Das, Bikash Chandra

    2017-02-01

    Present study explores the effect of hot summer period on the glycolytic rate of early post-mortem meat quality of Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pig and comparative adaptability to high temperature between above breeds by shifting the expression of stress related genes like mono-carboxylate transporters (MCTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Healthy pigs of two different breeds, viz., LYW and Ghungroo (20 from each) were maintained during hot summer period (May to June) with a mean temperature of about 38°C. The pigs were slaughtered and meat samples from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were analyzed for pH, glycogen and lactate content and mRNA expression. Following 24 h of chilling, LD muscle was also taken from the carcasses to evaluate protein solubility and different meat quality measurements. LWY exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher plasma cortisol and lactate dehydrogenase concentration than Ghungroo indicating their higher sensitivity to high temperature. LD muscle from LWY pigs revealed lower initial and ultimate pH values and higher drip loss compared to Ghungroo, indicating a faster rate of pH fall. LD muscle of Ghungroo had significantly lower lactate content at 45 min postmortem indicating normal postmortem glycolysis and much slower glycolytic rate at early postmortem. LD muscle of LWY showed rapid postmortem glycolysis, higher drip loss and higher degrees of protein denaturation. Ghungroo exhibited slightly better water holding capacity, lower cooking loss and higher protein solubility. All HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) and MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) in the LD muscle of pigs inclined to increase more in Ghungroo than LWY when exposed to high temperature. Effect of high temperature on the variation of HSPs and MCTs may play a crucial role in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions, pH regulation, muscle acidification, drip loss, protein denaturation and also in postmortem meat quality development.

  12. Effects of Tactical Vehicle Activity on the Mammals, Birds, and Vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    sides of the creek. On the south side, the forest is bordered by a sward of nonnative grasses . The dominant species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa praetensis...common velvet grass (Holcus lanatus), English rye (Lolium perenne), and orchard grass Dactylis glomerata) create a stand 3-m high and 10-m wide that...with heavy grass , which furnished excellent pasturage. 1 7 Today, the prairie is dotted with stands of Douglas fir, and the soil is poor. According to

  13. [Correlation of allergy positivity for the tests of gramineas between tribes and species].

    PubMed

    Riggioni, O; Montiel, M; Fonseca, J; Jaramillo, O; Carvajal, E; Rosencwaig, P; Colmenares, A

    1994-04-01

    In a sample of 190 Costa Rican allergic patients and 100 non atopic subjects there was a positive correlation of positivities in skin prick tests to individual Poaceae species and to the Tribe. The exceptions were Panicum maximun, Panicum molle, and Holcus lanatus, because they presented higher individual positivities. A table of correlations among tribes is included. Skin prick tests for Poaceae pollens should be organized by tribes to prevent a 25% of false negative cases.

  14. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study Volume III. Classification and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    8217ve(Di italis ur velvet-grass (Holcus lanatus), cattail (Tyha latifolah )Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor), evergreen blackberry (Rubus laciniatus...Crop/Pasture Areas of cultivated , mowed, or grazed land usually occurring on "flat to gently rolling slopes with good moisture regimes. Agri- cultural...horticultural purposes. Practically none of these areas are found in the Snohomish estuary. *221 Orchard Those lands supporting fruit or nut trees

  15. Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Torry, Bren

    2007-05-03

    In recent years, diverse scholars have addressed the issue of the chemosensory perceptions associated with traditional medicines, nevertheless there is still a distinct lack of studies grounded in the social sciences and conducted from a cross-cultural, comparative perspective. In this urban ethnobotanical field study, 254 informants belonging to the Gujarati, Kashmiri and English ethnic groups and living in Western Yorkshire in Northern England were interviewed about the relationship between taste and medicinal perceptions of five herbal drugs, which were selected during a preliminary study. The herbal drugs included cinnamon (the dried bark of Cinnamomum verum, Lauraceae), mint (the leaves of Mentha spp., Lamiaceae), garlic (the bulbs of Allium sativum, Alliaceae), ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae), and cloves (the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae). The main cross-cultural differences in taste perceptions regarded the perception the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon, of the bitter taste of ginger, the sweet taste of mint, and of the sour taste of garlic. The part of the study of how the five selected herbal drugs are perceived medicinally showed that TK (Traditional Knowledge) is widespread among Kashmiris, but not so prevalent among the Gujarati and especially the English samples. Among Kashmiris, ginger was frequently considered to be helpful for healing infections and muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders, mint was chosen for healing digestive and respiratory troubles, garlic for blood system disorders, and cinnamon was perceived to be efficacious for infectious diseases. Among the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups there was evidence of a strong link between the bitter and spicy tastes of ginger, garlic, cloves, and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal properties, whereas there was a far less obvious link between the sweet taste of mint and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal

  16. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, T T B; Hong, T T T; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs.

  17. The association between growth rate, body weight, backfat thickness and age at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire gilts.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tantasuparuk, Wichai; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Kunavongkrit, Annop

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the association between growth rate (GR), body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF) and age at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) replacement gilts in the tropics. The study was carried out on five commercial swine herds in Thailand between 2004 and 2006. A total of 6946 LY gilts were included. The gilts entered the herd at about 163 days of age. The BW (kg) and BF (mm) of the gilts were measured when the gilts entered the gilt pools and again when the gilts were sent to the breeding house. The GR from birth to entry into the gilt pools (birth to 90 kg BW) (GRe), the GR from entry into to exit from the gilt pools (91-134 kg BW) (GRi) and the GR from birth until the gilts were sent to the breeding house (birth to 134 kg BW) (GRs) were calculated. The relationship between age at first observed oestrus and GRe, GRs, GRi, BW and BF were analyzed. Pearson's correlation and four general linear models (GLMs) were conducted. On average, the gilts showed first observed oestrus at 200+/-28 days of age. The means of age at first observed oestrus varied from 188 to 251 days (P<0.001) among the herds. The GRs of the gilts significantly correlated with the BW (r=0.55, P<0.001) of the gilts when they were sent to the breeding house and the age at first observed oestrus (r=-0.40, P<0.001). Gilts with a high GRe and GRs were younger at first observed oestrus compared to gilts with a low GRe and GRs. On average, the gilts with GRs of over 604 g/day showed first observed oestrus before 5 months of age. GRi was not correlated with the age at first observed oestrus (P>0.05). Neither the BF of the gilts at entry nor the BF that the gilts gained within the gilt pools significantly correlated with age at first observed oestrus (P=0.29 and P=0.69, respectively). But the gilts with a higher BF at entry tended to have a higher BW when they were sent to the breeding house (r=0.44, P<0.001). The present study indicates that

  18. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    PubMed

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  19. Depositional and diagenetic processes involved in the development of mudstone successions: a multi proxy study of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Basin (The North Yorkshire coast, England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadeer, S.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hughes, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    Mud and mudstones are the most abundant (>60%) sediment and sedimentary rock type preserved at and close to the surface of the Earth. They have formed commonly throughout the Phanerozoic and are found in many environments including present-day soils, lake basins, continental shelves, and ocean basins. Mudstones deposited in ancient shelf seas are particularly important as they are very common and significant components of many petroleum systems as sources and seals. In spite of their importance the variability that they exhibit is usually not incorporated into basin-scale facies models as they are assumed to contain little information that is useful in predicting the distribution of reservoir facies. The fundamental mechanisms (physical, chemical and biological) that control the origin of fine-grained sediments in ancient shelf seas is less studied in comparison with other sediments types (e.g. limestones and sandstones). The Middle Jurassic aged succession from the Staithes Sandstone through to the Mulgrave Shale Member (Jet Rock), which is largely continuous and very well-exposed in two locations in the Cleveland Basin, North Yorkshire Coast, England is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate how marginal marine processes evolve into deep marine processes. In the literature, the fundamental controls on lithofacies variability in mudstone-dominated successions preserved in distal shelf environments have been mainly interpreted in terms of varying bottom water oxygen concentrations, primary production and suspension settling. In proximal muddy environments researchers have broadly interpreted lithofacies variability in terms of storm events, tidal currents, etc. These are very different mechanisms. Moreover, these rocks are rarely studied as a whole system; the basinal mudstones are rarely connected up-dip to muddy sandstones and mudstones deposited in the offshore transition and offshore zones. In order to determine the processes responsible for the formation

  20. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Trends for Length of Productive Life and Lifetime Production Traits in a Commercial Landrace and Yorkshire Swine Population in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Noppibool, Udomsak; Elzo, Mauricio A; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters and trends for length of productive life (LPL), lifetime number of piglets born alive (LBA), lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime litter birth weight (LBW), and lifetime litter weaning weight (LWW) in a commercial swine farm in Northern Thailand. Data were gathered during a 24-year period from July 1989 to August 2013. A total of 3,109 phenotypic records from 2,271 Landrace (L) and 838 Yorkshire sows (Y) were analyzed. Variance and covariance components, heritabilities and correlations were estimated using an Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) procedure. The 5-trait animal model contained the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, breed group, and age at first farrowing. Random effects were sow and residual. Estimates of heritabilities were medium for all five traits (0.17±0.04 for LPL and LBA to 0.20±0.04 for LPW). Genetic correlations among these traits were high, positive, and favorable (p<0.05), ranging from 0.93±0.02 (LPL-LWW) to 0.99±0.02 (LPL-LPW). Sow genetic trends were non-significant for LPL and all lifetime production traits. Sire genetic trends were negative and significant for LPL (-2.54±0.65 d/yr; p = 0.0007), LBA (-0.12±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0073), LPW (-0.14±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0037), LBW (-0.13±0.06 kg/yr; p = 0.0487), and LWW (-0.69±0.31 kg/yr; p = 0.0365). Dam genetic trends were positive, small and significant for all traits (1.04±0.42 d/yr for LPL, p = 0.0217; 0.16±0.03 piglets/yr for LBA, p<0.0001; 0.12±0.03 piglets/yr for LPW, p = 0.0002; 0.29±0.04 kg/yr for LBW, p<0.0001 and 1.23±0.19 kg/yr for LWW, p<0.0001). Thus, the selection program in this commercial herd managed to improve both LPL and lifetime productive traits in sires and dams. It was ineffective to improve LPL and lifetime productive traits in sows.

  1. Do smoking cessation activities as part of oral health promotion vary between dental care providers relative to the NHS/private treatment mix offered? A study in West Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Csikar, Julia; Williams, Sonia A; Beal, John

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether or not and to what extent health promotion and smoking cessation activities varied between dental practices relative to their National Health Service (NHS)/private treatment mix. A piloted questionnaire was posted to all dental practitioners within West Yorkshire, with two follow-up mailings. The response rate was 50% (386/769) of dental practitioners within West Yorkshire. Respondents were dichotomised at the median according to the proportion of NHS/private patients seen (>89% NHS, described as 'NHS-orientated practices' [NHSOPs] and <90% NHS, referred to as 'more privately-orientated practices' [POPs]). Practice profiles: Compared with POPs, NHSOPs' respondents had a significantly higher proportion of adult patients exempt from NHS charges (34% vs 57%), together with a higher proportion of children. Health promotion activities: there was no significant difference between the two groups of practitioners regarding the proportion claiming to give smoking cessation advice (42% vs 37%), although a higher proportion of those from POPs offered guidance on diet and nutrition (67% vs 54%; P<0.05). However, a significantly higher proportion of POP respondents reported (a) recording smoking status in the clinical notes, (b) giving out smoking-related leaflets, and (c) referring to an NHS 'Stop Smoking Service'. NHSOP respondents were more likely to cite 'lack of time', 'no incentive' and 'lack of expertise' as potential barriers to providing health promotion advice. General: 7% of POP respondents thought that the new NHS contract arrangements would influence their smoking cessation activities versus 19% of NHSOP residents. Considerable variation between NHSOPs and POPs was found when comparing aspects of their health promotion/smoking cessation activities. The findings identified here suggest that the current situation, with regard to the NHS, will tend to increase health inequalities.

  2. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes families in Citrullus lanatus under various abiotic stresses and grafting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenliang; Dong, Wenqi; Zhan, Yihua; Huang, Zong-An; Li, Zhimiao; Kim, Il Seop; Zhang, Chenghao

    2017-04-07

    Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in response to exogenous auxin and abiotic stresses in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. L) remained unknown. Here, the latest updated watermelon genome was used to characterise the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes from watermelon. The genome-wide analysis of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes, including chromosome localisation, gene structure, and phylogenic relationships, was carried out. Seven ClLAXs, 11 ClPINs and 15 ClABCBs were mapped on 10 watermelon chromosomes. The expression profiles of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, and cold stresses) treatments were performed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcriptional level of majority ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes were changed by abiotic stresses in both shoots and roots. We also analysed the expression levels of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes in graft response. Analysis of the expression patterns of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under salt, drought, cold treatment and grafting response helps us to understand the possible roles of auxin transporter genes in watermelon adaptation to environmental stresses.

  3. General health promotion in general dental practice--the involvement of the dental team Part 2: A qualitative and quantitative investigation of the views of practice principals in South Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dyer, T A; Robinson, P G

    2006-07-08

    To investigate the factors that might influence the provision of general health promotion through seven different health interventions by dental teams in general dental practice. A mixed-method was used comprising cross-sectional qualitative research using semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of 10 practice principals, and a cross sectional survey of a practice principal from every dental practice in South Yorkshire, using a self-complete questionnaire. Two core categories emerged from the qualitative data: seeing health or disease and practitioners' views of the structure of dental practice. The former refers to the participants' general outlook and cut across many dimensions constituting the structure of dental practice. Health-orientated dentists were more likely to be involved in prevention and were more open-minded to expanding the dental team's role into general health promotion. However participants perceived that barriers existed to involvement such as time and financial factors, current workload and lack of personal skills. The response rate of useable questionnaires in the cross sectional survey was 84%. Reported levels of involvement in general health promotion were low. Most frequently reported barriers were 'insufficient funding' and 'poor use of time'. 'Poor use of time' and 'lack of training/knowledge' were reported less frequently for professionals complementary to dentistry (PCDs) than dentists (p<0.05). Most dentists agreed that PCDs could be trained to deliver health interventions and would be happy for PCDs to do so in their practice if reported barriers were removed. Although dental teams' involvement in general health promotion is low, there is willingness to increase involvement, particularly among health-orientated dentists. Some reported barriers to involvement might be removed by impending changes to the GDS in England. Other important factors include a lack of education and workforce shortages of dentists and PCDs. Respondents

  4. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    PubMed

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  5. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from ensiled stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. var. guianensis) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Neil, Maria; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of replacing crude protein (CP) from soybean with CP from ensiled stylo (ES) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) native Lao pigs. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the diet treatments according to a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial (three ES levels × two breeds) arrangement, with four pigs per diet treatment. Pigs were kept in individual pens and fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 98 days. The control diet was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two experimental diets, CP from soybean was replaced at 25 % (ES25) and 50 % (ES50) by CP from ES. Calculated metabolisable energy intake decreased with ES50 diet, while dry matter intake (DMI) and CP intake (CPI) were the highest in ES25 diet (P < 0.001). Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected by diet treatments. Carcass weight, backfat thickness and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while the weights of lung, large intestine and stomach were higher (P < 0.001) when 25 % of soybean CP was replaced by CP from ES. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI and ADG and poorer (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower backfat thickness (P < 0.001) and higher organ weight (P < 0.001) than ML pigs, except for small intestine weight, where there was no difference between the LY and ML pigs (P > 0.05). In conclusion, ES can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  6. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck.

  7. Aided phytostabilization of a trace element-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Bouchardon, Jean Luc; Faure, Olivier; Moutte, Jacques; Mench, Michel

    2016-12-15

    Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL). In the CSS soil, pH and soluble Cr decreased whereas soluble Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni and P increased. The RCW treatment enhanced soluble Fe, Mn, and Mg concentrations. After 15 weeks, shoot DW yield and shoot Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, and Mg removals peaked for F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, with lowest shoot Cr, Ni and Mo concentrations. Holcus lanatus only grew on the CTRL, UNT, and CSS soils and P. lanceolata on the CTRL soil. Best treatment, F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, led to a dense grass cover but its shoot Mo concentration exceeded the maximum permitted concentration in forage.

  8. Sources of wild germplasm to improve whitefly resistance in commercial watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex is well known as a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive number of plant species (over 1,000). Yet, th...

  9. Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography1

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Roger S.; Fuller, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s−1, and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s−1. Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below −2°C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

  10. Changes in Sb speciation with waterlogging of shooting range soils and impacts on plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-ming; Tandy, Susan; Hockmann, Kerstin; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the solubility and redox species of antimony (Sb) in a relocated shooting range soil and its uptake by Lolium perenne L. and Holcus lanatus L. under different water regimes. After 1-week waterlogging, the total Sb concentration in soil solution decreased from ∼110 μg L(-1) to <20 μg L(-1), and slowly increased over the following 4 weeks, with the dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. In this process, half of the Sb in soil solution was reduced to Sb(III), which greatly affected the plant uptake of Sb. Waterlogging increased shoot Sb concentrations of L. perenne by ∼10 fold but decreased uptake in H. lanatus by 80%. Results indicate that Sb might primarily be taken up as Sb(III) by L. perenne and as Sb(V) by H. lanatus. Temporary waterlogging of soil may increase the risk of trace elements entering the food chain.

  11. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characterisation and functional properties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Singh, Preeti; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Shivhare, Uma S

    2011-01-15

    People in developing countries depend largely on non-conventional protein sources to augment the availability of proteins in their diets. Watermelon seed meal is reported to contain an adequate amount of nutritional proteins that could be extracted for use as nutritional ingredients in food products. Osborne classification showed that globulin was the major protein (≥500 g kg (-1)) present in watermelon seed meal, followed by albumin and glutelin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the polypeptides had low molecular weights ranging from 35 to 47 kDa. Isoelectric focusing revealed that the isoelectric point of most proteins was in the acidic range 4-6. These proteins are rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. An increase in pH (5-9) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the denaturation enthalpy of these proteins. Among functional properties, albumin exhibited a much higher dispersibility index (810.3-869.6 g kg(-1)) than globulin (227.8-245.4 g kg(-1)), glutelin (182.1-187.7 g kg(-1)) and prolamin (162.3-177.7 g kg(-1)). Digestibility was in the ranges 760.6-910.0 and 765.5-888.5 g kg(-1) for Mateera and Sugar Baby watermelon protein fractions respectively, while surface hydrophobicity ranged from 126.4 to 173.2 and from 125.8 to 169.3 respectively. The foaming and emulsifying properties of albumin were better than those of the other proteins studied. The good nutritional and functional properties of watermelon seed meal proteins suggest their potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Nutrient Availability and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure Modulate the Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity on the Size Structure of Populations in Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    MAESTRE, FERNANDO T.; REYNOLDS, JAMES F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Size-asymmetric competition occurs when larger plants have a disproportionate advantage in competition with smaller plants. It has been hypothesized that nutrient heterogeneity may promote it. Experiments testing this hypothesis are inconclusive, and in most cases have evaluated the effects of nutrient heterogeneity separately from other environmental factors. The aim of this study was to test, using populations of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, two hypotheses: (a) nutrient heterogeneity promotes size-asymmetric competition; and (b) nutrient heterogeneity interacts with both atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) and nutrient availability to determine the magnitude of this response. • Methods Microcosms consisting of monocultures of the three species were grown for 90 d in a factorial experiment with the following treatments: PCO2 (37·5 and 70 Pa) and nutrient availability (NA; 40 and 120  mg of N added as organic material) combined with different spatial distribution of the organic material (NH; homogeneous and heterogeneous). Differences in the size of individual plants within populations (size inequality) were quantified using the coefficient of variation of individual above-ground biomass and the combined biomass of the two largest individuals in each microcosm. Increases in size inequality were associated with size-asymmetric competition. • Key Results Size inequality increased when the nutrients were heterogeneously supplied in the three species. The effects of NH on this response were more pronounced under high nutrient supply in both Plantago and Holcus (significant NA × NH interactions) and under elevated PCO2 in Plantago (significant PCO2 × NA × NH interaction). No significant two- and three-way interactions were found for Lolium. • Conclusions Our first hypothesis was supported by our results, as nutrient heterogeneity promoted size-asymmetric competition in the three species evaluated

  14. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    PubMed

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed.

  15. On-scene times for trauma patients in West Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Goodacre, S W; Gray, A; McGowan, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether length of time on-scene in patients with major injury was associated with severity of injury or with abnormal on-scene physiology. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a convenience sample of patients in whom prehospital on-scene times were entered onto the regional major trauma database. On-scene times of patients were analysed to assess whether ultimate injury severity score or on scene physiology measurements affected times. This was undertaken by examining subgroups of patients with similar injury severity or physiological measurements by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney testing and comparing 95% confidence intervals of the mean on-scene times. RESULTS: The mean on-scene time for 111 non-entrapped patients was 26 minutes (95% confidence interval 23.5 to 28.6). Patients with injury severity score of > 15, with a Glasgow coma scale of < 13, and with an abnormal pulse spent significantly less time on-scene than less severely injured or physiologically deranged patients. CONCLUSIONS: Paramedics have the ability to recognise patients with severe injury and reduce on-scene times. On-scene times were consistently long throughout all subgroups of major trauma patients. PMID:9315926

  16. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  17. Referrals to the Marie Curie nursing service in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, B; Feather, J; Ward, C

    2000-01-01

    District and Marie Curie nurses participated in a small-scale study to describe referrals to a Marie Curie service in one English health district over a 3-month period. The number of new patients referred was small; they were geographically clustered and had widely differing life expectancies. Anecdotal reports of difficulties with the 'Nurselink' referral system were not confirmed, and in situations where the system was in operation, Marie Curie nurses were more likely to speak directly to the referring nurse. The most frequently cited reason for referral was general nursing needs; however, Marie Curie nurses felt that they were most often involved to provide family support. These findings suggest that there may not be a shared understanding of the Marie Curie nurse's role, and that equity in community palliative nursing care merits examination. Defining and publicizing the role of the Marie Curie nurse, providing guidance for referrals and prioritizing communication between professionals are proposed not only to enhance the service locally but to ensure that the service is available to all. This article illustrates the value of research to identify ways to improve service delivery.

  18. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  19. Impact of temperature on the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis: growth responses of the host plant and its AM fungal partner.

    PubMed

    Heinemeyer, A; Fitter, A H

    2004-02-01

    The growth response of the hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi has been determined, both when plant and fungus together and when only the fungus was exposed to a temperature change. Two host plant species, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, were grown separately in pots inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae at 20/18 degrees C (day/night); half of the pots were then transferred to 12/10 degrees C. Plant and fungal growth were determined at six sequential destructive harvests. A second experiment investigated the direct effect of temperature on the length of the extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of three mycorrhizal fungal species. Growth boxes were divided in two equal compartments by a 20 micro m mesh, allowing only the ERM and not roots to grow into a fungal compartment, which was either heated (+8 degrees C) or kept at ambient temperature. ERM length (LERM) was determined on five sampling dates. Growth of H. lanatus was little affected by temperature, whereas growth of P. lanceolata increased with temperature, and both specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) increased independently of plant size. Percentage of colonized root (LRC) and LERM were positively correlated with temperature when in symbiosis with P. lanceolata, but differences in LRC were a function of plant biomass. Colonization was very low in H. lanatus roots and there was no significant temperature effect. In the fungal compartment LERM increased over time and was greatest for Glomus mosseae. Heating the fungal compartment significantly increased LERM in two of the three species but did not affect LRC. However, it significantly increased SRL of roots in the plant compartment, suggesting that the fungus plays a regulatory role in the growth dynamics of the symbiosis. These temperature responses have implications for modelling carbon dynamics under global climate change.

  20. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  1. Influence of plant root exudates on the mobility of fuel volatile compounds in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation and its associated microorganisms play an important role in the behaviour of soil contaminants. One of the most important elements is root exudation, since it can affect the mobility, and therefore, the bioavailability of soil contaminants. In this study, we evaluated the influence of root exudates on the mobility of fuel derived compounds in contaminated soils. Samples of humic acid, montmorillonite, and an A horizon from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were contaminated with volatile contaminants present in fuel: oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE) and monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Natural root exudates obtained from Holcus lanatus and Cytisus striatus and ten artificial exudates (components frequently found in natural exudates) were added to the samples, individually and as a mixture, to evaluate their effects on contaminant mobility. Fuel compounds were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the addition of natural and artificial exudates increased the mobility of all contaminants in humic acid. In A horizon and montmorillonite, natural or artificial exudates (as a mixture) decreased the contaminant mobility. However, artificial exudates individually had different effects: carboxylic components increased and phenolic components decreased the contaminant mobility. These results established a base for developing and improving phytoremediation processes of fuel-contaminated soils.

  2. Amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)C, (15)N) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.

    PubMed

    Streeter, T C; Bol, R; Bardgett, R D

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (N) for certain plants, and especially those of N-limited environments. This study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N and ((15)NH4)(2)SO(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (Festuca-Agrostis-Galium) are able to utilise amino acid N for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands (Lolium-Cynosurus), that receive regular applications of inorganic fertiliser, use inorganic N forms as their main N source. Data from field experiments confirmed that 'free' amino acids were more abundant in 'unimproved' than 'improved' grassland and that glycine was the dominant amino acid type (up to 42% of total). Secondly, the injection of representative amounts of glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N (4.76 and 42.86 mM) into intact soil cores from the two grassland types provided evidence of direct uptake of glycine by plants, with both (15)N and (13)C being detected in plant material of both grasslands. Finally, a microcosm experiment demonstrated no preferential uptake of amino acid N by the grasses which dominate the grassland types, namely Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris from the 'unimproved' grassland, and Lolium perenne from the 'improved' grassland. Again, both (13)C and (15)N were detected in all grass species suggesting uptake of intact glycine by these plants.

  3. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2009-02-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community.

  4. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion.

    PubMed

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources.

  5. Influence of a large herbivore reintroduction on plant invasions and community composition in a California grassland.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent E; Cushman, J Hall

    2007-04-01

    Despite many successful reintroductions of large mammalian herbivores throughout the world, remarkably little attention has focused on how these actions affect native and exotic vegetation at reintroduction sites. One such herbivore is tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes), which was on the brink of extinction in the mid 1800s, but now has numerous stable populations due to intensive reintroduction efforts. Here, we summarize results from a 5-year exclosure experiment that explored the effects of tule elk on a coastal grassland in northern California. Elk significantly altered the species composition of this community; the response of annual species (dominated heavily by exotic taxa) was dramatically different from perennial species. Elk herbivory increased the abundance and aboveground biomass of native and exotic annuals, whereas it either had no effect on or caused significant decreases in perennials. Elk also decreased the cover of native shrubs, suggesting that these herbivores play an important role in maintaining open grasslands. In addition, elk significantly reduced the abundance and biomass of a highly invasive exotic grass, Holcus lanatus, which is a major problem in mesic perennial grasslands. Our results demonstrate that the successful reintroduction of a charismatic and long-extirpated mammal had extremely complex effects on the plant community, giving rise to both desirable and undesirable outcomes from a management perspective. We suspect that these kinds of opposing effects are not unique to tule elk and that land managers will frequently encounter them when dealing with reintroduced mammals.

  6. Warming differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.

    PubMed

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and warming, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and warming. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and warming, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, warming further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex environmental conditions.

  7. Impact of lime, nitrogen and plant species on bacterial community structure in grassland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Nabla; Brodie, Eoin; Connolly, John; Clipson, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    A microcosm-based approach was used to study impacts of plant and chemical factors on the bacterial community structure of an upland acidic grassland soil. Seven perennial plant species typical of both natural, unimproved (Nardus stricta, Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina and F. rubra) and fertilized, improved (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) grasslands were either left unamended or treated with lime, nitrogen, or lime plus nitrogen in a 75-day glasshouse experiment. Lime and nitrogen amendment were shown to have a greater effect on microbial activity, biomass and bacterial ribotype number than plant species. Liming increased soil pH, microbial activity and biomass, while decreasing ribotype number. Nitrogen addition decreased soil pH, microbial activity and ribotype number. Addition of lime plus nitrogen had intermediate effects, which appeared to be driven more by lime than nitrogen. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that lime and nitrogen addition altered soil bacterial community structure, while plant species had little effect. These results were further confirmed by multivariate redundancy analysis, and suggest that soil lime and nitrogen status are more important controllers of bacterial community structure than plant rhizosphere effects.

  8. Preferential uptake of soil nitrogen forms by grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Alexandra; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we assessed whether a range of temperate grassland species showed preferential uptake for different chemical forms of N, including inorganic N and a range of amino acids that commonly occur in temperate grassland soil. Preferential uptake of dual-labelled (13C and 15N) glycine, serine, arginine and phenylalanine, as compared to inorganic N, was tested using plants growing in pots with natural field soil. We selected five grass species representing a gradient from fertilised, productive pastures to extensive, low productivity pastures (Lolium perenne, Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Deschampsia flexuosa, and Nardus stricta). Our data show that all grass species were able to take up directly a diversity of soil amino acids of varying complexity. Moreover, we present evidence of marked inter-species differences in preferential use of chemical forms of N of varying complexity. L. perenne was relatively more effective at using inorganic N and glycine compared to the most complex amino acid phenylalanine, whereas N. stricta showed a significant preference for serine over inorganic N. Total plant N acquisition, measured as root and shoot concentration of labelled compounds, also revealed pronounced inter-species differences which were related to plant growth rate: plants with higher biomass production were found to take up more inorganic N. Our findings indicate that species-specific differences in direct uptake of different N forms combined with total N acquisition could explain changes in competitive dominance of grass species in grasslands of differing fertility.

  9. Soil-to-plant transfer of arsenic and phosphorus along a contamination gradient in the mining-impacted Ogosta River floodplain.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Michael; Suess, Elke; Christl, Iso; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2016-12-01

    Riverine floodplains downstream of active or former metal sulfide mines are in many cases contaminated with trace metals and metalloids, including arsenic (As). Since decontamination of such floodplains on a large scale is unfeasible, management of contaminated land must focus on providing land use guidelines or even restrictions. This should be based on knowledge about how contaminants enter the food chain. For As, uptake by plants may be an important pathway, but the As soil-to-plant transfer under field conditions is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the soil-to-shoot transfer of As and phosphorus (P) in wild populations of herbaceous species growing along an As contamination gradient across an extensive pasture in the mining-impacted Ogosta River floodplain. The As concentrations in the shoots of Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus reflected the soil contamination gradient. However, the soil-to-shoot transfer factors (TF) were fairly low, with values mostly below 0.07 (TF=Asshoot/Assoil). We found no evidence for interference of As with P uptake by plants, despite extremely high molar As:P ratios (up to 2.6) in Olsen soil extracts of the most contaminated topsoils (0-20cm). Considering the restricted soil-to-shoot transfer, we estimated that for grazing livestock As intake via soil ingestion is likely more important than intake via pasture herbage.

  10. Climate vs. soil factors in local adaptation of two common plant species.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; Lawson, Clare S; Mortimer, Simon R; Smilauerova, Marie; Bischoff, Armin; Crémieux, Lisèle; Dolezal, Jirí; Edwards, Andrew R; Lanta, Vojtĕch; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H; Igual, José M; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Steinger, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that divergent natural selection in heterogeneous environments can result in locally adapted plant genotypes. To understand local adaptation it is important to study the ecological factors responsible for divergent selection. At a continental scale, variation in climate can be important while at a local scale soil properties could also play a role. We designed an experiment aimed to disentangle the role of climate and (abiotic and biotic) soil properties in local adaptation of two common plant species. A grass (Holcus lanatus) and a legume (Lotus corniculatus), as well as their local soils, were reciprocally transplanted between three sites across an Atlantic-Continental gradient in Europe and grown in common gardens in either their home soil or foreign soils. Growth and reproductive traits were measured over two growing seasons. In both species, we found significant environmental and genetic effects on most of the growth and reproductive traits and a significant interaction between the two environmental effects of soil and climate. The grass species showed significant home site advantage in most of the fitness components, which indicated adaptation to climate. We found no indication that the grass was adapted to local soil conditions. The legume showed a significant home soil advantage for number of fruits only and thus a weak indication of adaptation to soil and no adaptation to climate. Our results show that the importance of climate and soil factors as drivers of local adaptation is species-dependent. This could be related to differences in interactions between plant species and soil biota.

  11. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources. PMID:24198931

  12. Identification of Seed Gall Nematodes of Agronomic and Regulatory Concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Szalanski, A L; Mullin, P G; Harris, T S; Bertozzi, T; Griesbach, J A

    2001-12-01

    A molecular analysis of eight described species of seed gall nematode, along with six undescribed isolates from different hosts, has revealed a strong association between nucleotide sequence polymorphism and host status. Each anguinid nematode associated with a unique host produced a unique PCR-RFLP pattern for the ITS1 region. Anguina species that had been synonymized in the past, Anguina agrostis, A. funesta, and A. wevelli (Afrina wevelli), were readily discriminated. Two undescribed species from northern New South Wales and southeastern South Australia, reported to be vectors of Rathyaibacter toxicus in the disease called ''floodplain staggers,'' were differentiated by a single restriction enzyme, and both could be separated easily from A. funesta, the vector of R. toxicus in annual ryegrass toxicity. Other species differentiated in this study include A. agropyronifloris, A. graminis, A. microlaenae, A. pacificae, and undescribed species from host species Dactylis glomerata, Agrostis avenacea, Polypogon monospeliensis, Stipa sp., Astrebla pectinata, and Holcus lanatus. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region suggests that considerable anguinid genetic diversification has accompanied specialization on different host species.

  13. Roles of epi-anecic taxa of earthworms in the organic matter recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeffner, Kevin; Monard, Cécile; Santonja, Mathieu; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Given their impact on soil functioning and their interactions with soil organisms, earthworms contribute to the recycling of organic matter and participate significantly in the numerous ecosystem services provided by soils. Most studies on the role of earthworms in organic matter recycling were conducted at the level of the four functional groups (epigeic, epi-anecic, anecic strict and endogeic), but their effects at taxa level remain largely unknown. Still, within a functional group, anatomic and physiologic earthworm taxa traits are different, which should impact organic matter recycling. This study aims at determining, under controlled conditions, epi-anecic taxa differences in (i) leaf litter mass loss, (ii) assimilation and (iii) impact on microorganisms communities implied in organic matter degradation. In seperate microcosms, we chose 4 epi anecic taxa (Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus centralis and Lumbricus terrestris). Each taxon was exposed separately to leaves of three different plants (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Corylus avellana). In the same microcosm, leaves of each plant was both placed on the surface and buried 10cm deep. The experiment lasted 10 days for half of the samples and 20 days for the second half. Microorganisms communities were analysed using TRFLP in each earthworm taxon burrow walls at 20 days. We observed differences between epi-anecic taxa depending on species of plant and the duration of the experiment. Results are discussed taking into account physical and chemical properties of these 3 trophic resources (e.g. C/N ratio, phenolic compounds, percentage of lignin and cellulose...).

  14. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching.

  15. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  16. Characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis of the MAPK and MAPKK genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Song, Qiuming; Li, Dayong; Dai, Yi; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-12-23

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which consist of three functionally associated protein kinases, namely MEKKs, MKKs and MPKs, are universal signaling modules in all eukaryotes and have been shown to play critical roles in many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. However, little or nothing is known about the MPK and MKK families in watermelon. In the present study, we performed a systematic characterization of the ClMPK and ClMKK families including the identification and nomenclature, chromosomal localization, phylogenetic relationships, ClMPK-ClMKK interactions, expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic and biotic stress and transient expression-based functional analysis for their roles in disease resistance. Genome-wide survey identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes in watermelon genome and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of the ClMPK and ClMKK families can be classified into four distinct groups. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated significant interactions between members of the ClMPK and ClMKK families, defining putative ClMKK2-1/ClMKK6-ClMPK4-1/ClMPK4-2/ClMPK13 and ClMKK5-ClMPK6 cascades. Most of the members in the ClMPK and ClMKK families showed differential expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic (e.g. drought, salt, cold and heat treatments) and biotic (e.g. infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum) stresses. Transient expression of ClMPK1, ClMPK4-2 and ClMPK7 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and upregulated expression of defense genes while transient expression of ClMPK6 and ClMKK2-2 led to increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. Furthermore, transient expression of ClMPK7 also led to hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and significant accumulation of H2O2 in N. benthamiana. We identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes from watermelon and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, expression patterns and protein-protein interactions and functions in disease resistance. Our results demonstrate that ClMPK1, ClMPK4-2 and ClMPK7 positively but ClMPK6 and ClMKK2-2 negatively regulate the resistance to B. cinerea when transiently expressed in N. benthamiana and that ClMPK7 functions as a regulator of HR-like cell death through modulating the generation of H2O2.

  17. Combining ability analysis in complete diallel cross of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    PubMed

    Bahari, M; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G B; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  18. Genome-wide characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2013-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and adaptation. PAL enzymes are encoded by a gene family in plants. Here, we report a genome-wide search for PAL genes in watermelon. A total of 12 PAL genes, designated ClPAL1-12, are identified . Nine are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks located on chromosomes 4 and 7, and the other three ClPAL genes are distributed as single copies on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8. Both the cDNA and protein sequences of ClPALs share an overall high identity with each other. A phylogenetic analysis places 11 of the ClPALs into a separate cucurbit subclade, whereas ClPAL2, which belongs to neither monocots nor dicots, may serve as an ancestral PAL in plants. In the cucurbit subclade, seven ClPALs form homologous pairs with their counterparts from cucumber. Expression profiling reveals that 11 of the ClPAL genes are expressed and show preferential expression in the stems and male and female flowers. Six of the 12 ClPALs are moderately or strongly expressed in the fruits, particularly in the pulp, suggesting the potential roles of PAL in the development of fruit color and flavor. A promoter motif analysis of the ClPAL genes implies redundant but distinctive cis-regulatory structures for stress responsiveness. Finally, duplication events during the evolution and expansion of the ClPAL gene family are discussed, and the relationships between the ClPAL genes and their cucumber orthologs are estimated.

  19. The effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extracts and L-citrulline on rat uterine contractility.

    PubMed

    Munglue, Phukphon; Eumkep, Graingsak; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2013-04-01

    In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of watermelon and its citrulline content are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore, to determine the effects of watermelon extract and citrulline on the myometrium and to investigate their mechanisms of action. The effects of extracts of watermelon flesh and rind and L-citrulline (64 μmol/L) were evaluated on 3 types of contractile activity; spontaneous, those elicited by potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization, or oxytocin (10 nmol/L) application in isolated rat uterus. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and its mechanisms of action, N ω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L), LY83583 (1 μmol/L), and tetraethylamonium chloride (5 mmol/L), as well as Ca signaling pathways, were determined. Both flesh and rind extracts significantly decreased the force produced by all 3 mechanisms, in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts could also significantly decrease the force under conditions of sustained high Ca levels (depolarization and agonist) and when the force was produced only by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. L-citrulline produced the same effects on force as watermelon extracts. With submaximal doses of extract, the additive effects of L-citrulline were found. The inhibitory effects of extracts and L-citrulline were reversed upon the addition of NO inhibitors, and pretreatment of tissues with these inhibitors prevented the actions of both extracts and L-citrulline. Thus, these data show that watermelon and citrulline are potent tocolytics, decreasing the force produced by calcium entry and SR release and arising by different pathways, including oxytocin stimulation. Their major mechanism is to stimulate the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) relaxant pathway.

  20. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of polygalacturonase genes in Cucumis sativus and Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Wu, Jian; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG, EC3.2.1.15), one of the hydrolytic enzymes associated with the modification of pectin network in plant cell wall, has an important role in various cell-separation processes that are essential for plant development. PGs are encoded by a large gene family in plants. However, information on this gene family in plant development remains limited. In the present study, 53 and 62 putative members of the PG gene family in cucumber and watermelon genomes, respectively, were identified by genome-wide search to explore the composition, structure, and evolution of the PG family in Cucurbitaceae crops. The results showed that tandem duplication could be an important factor that contributes to the expansion of the PG genes in the two crops. The phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggested that PGs could be classified into seven clades, and that the exon/intron structures and intron phases were conserved within but divergent between clades. At least 24 ancestral PGs were detected in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and Cucumis sativus. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most CsPGs exhibit specific or high expression pattern in one of the organs/tissues. The 16 CsPGs associated with fruit development could be divided into three subsets based on their specific expression patterns and the cis-elements of fruit-specific, endosperm/seed-specific, and ethylene-responsive exhibited in their promoter regions. Our comparative analysis provided some basic information on the PG gene family, which would be valuable for further functional analysis of the PG genes during plant development.

  2. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  3. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g−1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L−1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L−1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  4. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.

  5. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  6. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-03-04

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit.

  7. Testing the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research on health care innovations from South Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Gerrish, Kate; Booth, Andrew; Field, Becky

    2013-10-01

    There is an international imperative to implement research into clinical practice to improve health care. Understanding the dynamics of change requires knowledge from theoretical and empirical studies. This paper presents a novel approach to testing a new meta theoretical framework: the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The utility of the Framework was evaluated using a post hoc, deductive analysis of 11 narrative accounts of innovation in health care services and practice from England, collected in 2010. A matrix, comprising the five domains and 39 constructs of the Framework was developed to examine the coherence of the terminology, to compare results across contexts and to identify new theoretical developments. The Framework captured the complexity of implementation across 11 diverse examples, offering theoretically informed, comprehensive coverage. The Framework drew attention to relevant points in individual cases together with patterns across cases; for example, all were internally developed innovations that brought direct or indirect patient advantage. In 10 cases, the change was led by clinicians. Most initiatives had been maintained for several years and there was evidence of spread in six examples. Areas for further development within the Framework include sustainability and patient/public engagement in implementation. Our analysis suggests that this conceptual framework has the potential to offer useful insights, whether as part of a situational analysis or by developing context-specific propositions for hypothesis testing. Such studies are vital now that innovation is being promoted as core business for health care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Labour and Hospitals in Urban Yorkshire: Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, 1919–1938

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In the debates over the politics of National Health Service foundation, there has been little investigation of the attitudes of the inter-war labour movement to a state-run hospital system. In particular, there has been limited assessment of views outside parliament in provincial Labour parties and trade unions. Drawing on a case study of Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, this article examines the politics of hospital provision prior to the National Health Service (NHS). It focuses on the involvement of the labour movement in hospital provision within localities and on the extent to which the dominant form of labour politics—labourist or socialist—shaped hospital policy. It suggests that, in the heavy industrial towns of Middlesbrough and Sheffield, close involvement with voluntary hospitals through workers contributory schemes dampened the enthusiasm for a state system. However, such a policy was heavily promoted by socialists in more economically diverse Leeds.

  9. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (2nd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 2, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The eight papers constituting the Proceedings of the second National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with five feature articles, as follows: (1) "Paired Reading--History & Future" (R. Morgan); (2) "Crosland Moor Junior High School Paired Reading Projects with…

  10. Heritage Quay: What Will You Discover? Transforming the Archives of the University of Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, M. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The University of Huddersfield presents a key case study of the transformation of its Archives Service, using the newly-developed Staff/Space/Collections dependency model for archives and the lessons of the UK's Customer Service Excellence (CSE) scheme in order to examine and illustrate service development. Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) and…

  11. Fracture-fault network characterization of pavement imagery of the Whitby Mudstone, Yorkshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Quinten; Hardebol, Nico; Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    Natural fractures play an important role in the hydrocarbon production from tight reservoirs. The need for fracture network pathways by fraccing matters particularly for shale gas prospects, due to their micro- to nano-darcies matrix permeabilities. The study of natural fractures from outcrops helps to better understand network connectivity and possibility of reactivating pre-existing planes of weakness, induced by hydraulic stimulation. Microseismicity also show that natural fractures are reactivated during fraccing in tight gas reservoirs and influence the success of the stimulation. An accurate understanding of natural fracture networks can help in predicting the development of fracture networks. In this research we analyze an outcrop analogue, the Whitby Mustone Formation (WMF), in terms of its horizontal fracture network. The WMF is the time equivalent of the Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF), which on itself is the main shale gas prospect in the Dutch subsurface. The fracture network of the WMF is characterized by a system of steep dipping joints with two dominant directions with N-S and E-W strike. The network was digitized from bird-view imagery of the pavement with a spatial extent of ~100 m at sub-cm resolution. The imagery is interpreted in terms of orientation and length distributions, intensity and fractal dimensions. Samples from the field were analyzed for rock strength and sample mineralogy. The results indicate that the fracture networks greatly differ per bed. Observed differences are for example; the geometry of the fracture network, its cumulative length distribution law, the fracture intensity, the fracture length vs its orientation and the fractal dimension. All these parameters greatly influence fracture network connectivity, the probability that longer fractures exist within the pavement and whether the network is more prone to clustering or scattering. Apart from the differences, the networks display a fairly similar orthogonal arrangement with dominant large (> 5-10 m) N-S striking fractures and smaller E-W striking cross-joints (< 2-3 m). A nested network arrangement is indicated by some smaller-scale N-S fractures abutting against the E-W striking ones. Furthermore, abutment relations provide some constraints on relative time. Timing indications with respect to burial-exhumation are difficult to establish. Some joints are cemented and measurable from the high-resolution imagery. The vein measurements helped establishing a first order relation between the fracture aperture with respect to their length and confirm that longer fractures have a wider aperture. The above stated parameters and results all prove to be very valuable information which can help predict the geometries of the different fracture networks present within the PSF. It is important to understand the possible mechanisms which can cause these differences in fracture network characteristics. Bulk lithological variations between beds are minor, mainly consisting of clay minerals. Furthermore, some quartz and pyrite is present in all samples and TOC is present in variable amounts. However, the occurrence of concretions up to 0.5m in size correlates with notable differences in distinct network arrangement. Therefore it appears that the presence of these concretions greatly alters the overall strength of the rock, hence the fracture network geometry.

  12. Barriers to education of overseas doctors in paediatrics: a qualitative study in South Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, J; Stark, P

    2007-03-01

    To explore the factors that may influence the progress of doctors who come from the Indian subcontinent to train in paediatrics in the UK. Overseas doctors training in paediatrics in Rotherham, Sheffield and Doncaster participated in the study. Focus groups were used to collect data; two focus groups, each with 4-5 participants, were conducted at 6-week intervals. Semistructured, one-to-one interviews were conducted to add more understanding and depth to issues highlighted in the focus groups. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped; the tapes were transcribed and data were analysed using the Grounded Theory; open codes were formed and concepts identified using microanalysis, and initial theories were built. Lack of information about the National Health Service (NHS)/Royal Colleges, inappropriate communication skills, difficulties in team working, difficulties in preparing for Royal College examinations, visa and job hunting, and social and cultural isolation were identified as major barriers. Problems arose not only from difficulties with language but also from use of local and colloquial words, different accents and difficulty in communicating sensitive issues. Lack of understanding of role in teams and difficulties in working in multiprofessional setting all contributed to the problems. Cultural differences inside and outside the workplace, and social isolation were also highlighted. Induction programmes, mentoring, awareness of the issues within the teams, and courses in communication specifically directed at overseas doctors were identified as means to overcome these barriers. Several intercultural factors were identified that could act as barriers to the progress of overseas doctors training in paediatrics in the UK. Increased awareness of these factors within the teams would be the first step in resolving some of the issues.

  13. Post-weaning blood transcriptomic differences between Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Nguyen, Yet T; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2016-01-22

    Improving feed efficiency (FE) of pigs by genetic selection is of economic and environmental significance. An increasingly accepted measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI). Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying RFI are largely unknown. Additionally, to incorporate RFI into animal breeding programs, feed intake must be recorded on individual pigs, which is costly and time-consuming. Thus, convenient and predictive biomarkers for RFI that can be measured at an early age are greatly desired. In this study, we aimed to explore whether differences exist in the global gene expression profiles of peripheral blood of 35 to 42 day-old pigs with extremely low (more efficient) and high RFI (less efficient) values from two lines that were divergently selected for RFI during the grow-finish phase, to use such information to explore the potential molecular basis of RFI differences, and to initiate development of predictive biomarkers for RFI. We identified 1972 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (q ≤ 0.15) between the low (n = 15) and high (n = 16) RFI groups of animals by using RNA sequencing technology. We validated 24 of 37 selected DEGs by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a joint analysis of 24 (12 per line) of the 31 samples already used for RNA-seq plus 24 (12 per line) novel samples from the same contemporary group of pigs. Using an analysis of the 24 novel samples alone, only nine of the 37 selected DEGs were validated. Genes involved in small molecule biosynthetic process, antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, and steroid biosynthetic process were overrepresented among DEGs that had higher expression in the low versus high RFI animals. Genes known to function in the proteasome complex or mitochondrion were also significantly enriched among genes with higher expression in the low versus high RFI animals. Alternatively, genes involved in signal transduction, bone mineralization and regulation of phosphorylation were overrepresented among DEGs with lower expression in the low versus high RFI animals. The DEGs significantly overlapped with genes associated with disease, including hyperphagia, eating disorders and mitochondrial diseases (q < 1E-05). A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified four co-expression modules that were differentially expressed between the low and high RFI groups. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, regulation of bone mineralization, cellular immunity and response to stimulus were overrepresented within the two modules that were most significantly differentially expressed between the low and high RFI groups. We also found five of the DEGs and one of the co-expression modules were significantly associated with the RFI phenotype of individual animals (q < 0.05). The post-weaning blood transcriptome was clearly different between the low and high RFI groups. The identified DEGs suggested potential differences in mitochondrial and proteasomal activities, small molecule biosynthetic process, and signal transduction between the two RFI groups and provided potential new insights into the molecular basis of RFI in pigs, although the observed relationship between the post-weaning blood gene expression and RFI phenotype measured during the grow-finish phase was not strong. DEGs and representative genes in co-expression modules that were associated with RFI phenotype provide a preliminary list for developing predictive biomarkers for RFI in pigs.

  14. Concentrations of suspended particulate organic carbon in the tidal Yorkshire Ouse River and Humber Estuary.

    PubMed

    Uncles, R J; Frickers, P E; Easton, A E; Griffiths, M L; Harris, C; Howland, R J; King, R S; Morris, A W; Plummer, D H; Tappin, A D

    2000-05-05

    Data are presented for particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentrations in the Humber Estuary and tidal River Ouse Estuary. The POC data were derived from approximately monthly surveys and are consistent with data reported for suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the non-tidal River Ouse (the freshwater river) and with SPM, or bed sediments, in estuarine ecosystems such as the Mississippi, Delaware, San Francisco Bay, Tolo Harbour, the Vellar Estuary and Cochin Backwater, as well as the Loire, Gironde, Ems and Tamar Estuaries. Relative to the dry weight of SPM, the Humber-averaged organic carbon and nitrogen percentages during the year February 1995-March 1996 were 2.6 +/- 0.6% (mean and S.D.) and 0.21 +/- 0.04%, respectively. The ratio of Humber-averaged POC to Humber-averaged PN was 13 +/- 3. Higher POC levels were observed near the Humber's mouth and in the adjacent coastal zone during 'bloom' conditions, and in the upper estuarine reaches during large, winter and springtime freshwater inflows. At these times of high runoff, the POC content of SPM increased progressively up-estuary from the coastal zone to the tidal River Ouse. When inflows became very low, during late spring to early autumn of 1995, both the freshwater-saltwater interface (FSI) and the strengthening turbidity maximum (TM) moved further up-estuary and the POC content of SPM in the upper reaches of the Ouse became lower compared with that immediately down-estuary. This led to a poorly defined POC maximum near the confluence of the Humber, Ouse and Trent, before POC eventually decreased again towards the coastal zone. The lower POC contents in the upper estuarine reaches of the tidal Ouse may have been partly due to POC respiration by heterotrophic bacteria attached to SPM within the TM, consistent with the severe oxygen depletion observed there during high turbidity, summertime spring tides.

  15. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (3rd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers constituting the Proceedings of the third National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with seven feature articles, as follows: (1) "Peer Tutored Paired Reading in a College of Further Education" (S. Booth and J. Winter); (2) "A Comparative Review of…

  16. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (1st, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 3, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The first National Paired Reading Conference decided to establish a Paired Reading Information Network and to publish a journal. This bulletin is a direct result of this decision. It contains eight conference papers (constituting the conference proceedings), six feature articles, and four short reports (all with an emphasis on the method of…

  17. Managing 'civilian deaths due to war operations': Yorkshire experiences during world war II.

    PubMed

    Rugg, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Air raid precautions prior to and during the Second World War included guidance on the burial of civilians who had been killed by enemy bombardment. The Ministry of Health Circular 1779 was published before the start of the war, on the understanding that 'scheme-making' authorities would need time to prepare for the interment of mass fatalities. As the Blitz got underway, tensions emerged between the state's pragmatic concerns to restrict the cost and resources afforded to burial, and the wish of many local authorities to secure decent burial for their citizens. Key issues on which there was disagreement included the state-proposed use of shrouds instead of coffins, and mass interment. These practices carried overtones of the much-hated pauper funeral and ran counter to the political imperative to present civilian death as 'heroic'. This local study is placed in the wider context of the history of death and burial, and provides an indicator of the strength of attachment to customary funerary ritual during the middle of the twentieth century.

  18. Western guidelines or practice algorithms?-Yorkshire Pudding or Dal Makhni!

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    Physicians to be able deliver contemporary care need to be updated on the recent developments in diagnosis and treatment. However, there is numerous data available practically on each and every aspect of day-today clinical practice. Clinical guidelines may provide a quick solution for everyday problems but many times they themselves are too many, too voluminous and may confuse more than simplify. More-over, they are based on Western derived clinical data, even clinical practice, developed for ethico-legal and reimbursement purposes and therefore may not be applicable to clinical practice in majority of the world. Thus there is a need to develop simple management algorithms which can be used by physicians from developing world who are often constrained by availability, accessibility and affordability.

  19. Negative Power Law Scaling of Rockfalls along the Yorkshire Coast: Implications for Long Term Landscape Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, John; Rosser, Nick; Lime, Michael; Petley, David; Brain, Matthew; Sapsford, Melanie; Norman, Emma

    2010-05-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that rockfalls follow a negative power law scaling in their magnitude-frequency distribution of the form F = aM-b. Where F is the normalized frequency density, M is the event magnitude, and a / b are dimensionless scaling coefficients. Investigation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has produced an extremely high resolution inventory of rockfall magnitudes along the sea cliffs near Staithes, UK. Such data is ideal for erosion modelling. Once the scaling parameters have been estimated, the volume of eroded rock for events of magnitude x (Vx) is derived as Vx = ax-b+1. Therefore, the total volume (V t) of eroded rock between a minimum and maximum magnitude can be calculated by taking by integrating the above. An examination of monthly fluctuations in the scaling coefficients indicates greater variation within the winter months in response to higher deliveries of wave energy during these months. Initial results using geophone data indicate a relationship between the magnitude of the scaling coefficients and the amount of wave energy delivered to the cliff. Such linkages suggest the possibility of a predictive model for erosion based on wave climate, providing a predictive capability for the implications of environmental change. Model testing is to be accomplished using an innovative cliff recession model derived using cosmogenic isotope concentrations and paleoenvironmental data. Our cosmogenic dating model considers marine variables (tidal range, wave climate and inundation duration); Holocene relative sea level change; lateral cliff retreat, and the consequent changes in geometrical and marine shielding to establish the rate of retreat based on a continuum of Be10 concentrations.

  20. Genome-wide associations for age at puberty in a Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire swine population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gilts that achieve puberty earlier tend to be more fertile throughout their breeding lifetime, have a shorter weaning to estrus interval, and have increased retention in the breeding herd with increases in parity. Age at puberty can be changed through selection, but collecting phenotypes can be labo...

  1. Spatial patterns in electoral wards with high lymphoma incidence in Yorkshire health region.

    PubMed

    Barnes, N; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C; Roberts, B; Richards, I D; Bird, C C

    1987-08-01

    The possibilities of clustering between those electoral wards which display higher than expected incidences of cases of the lymphomas occurring between 1978 and 1982 are examined. Clusters are defined as being those wards with cases in excess (at a probability of less than 10%) which are geographically adjacent to each other. A separate analysis extends the definition of cluster to include high incidence wards that are adjacent or separated by one other ward. The results indicate that many high incidence lymphoma wards do occur close together and when computer simulations are used to compute expected results, many of the observed results are shown to be highly improbable both in the overall number of clustering wards and in the largest number of wards comprising a 'cluster'.

  2. Acute myeloid leukemia in adults: a case-control study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C; McKinney, P A; Roberts, B; Richards, I D; Bird, C C

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a case-control analysis of 161 cases of acute myeloid leukemia and 310 matched hospital controls. The patients were interviewed between 1982 and 1986. The study shows a weak association for cases with previous malignant disease. Furnace workers show excess risks. Urticaria and vertigo are in excess, as well as some aspects of family medical histories, including multiple sclerosis and cases of leukemia/lymphoma in blood relations.

  3. Barriers to education of overseas doctors in paediatrics: a qualitative study in South Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, J; Stark, P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors that may influence the progress of doctors who come from the Indian subcontinent to train in paediatrics in the UK. Methods Overseas doctors training in paediatrics in Rotherham, Sheffield and Doncaster participated in the study. Focus groups were used to collect data; two focus groups, each with 4–5 participants, were conducted at 6‐week intervals. Semistructured, one‐to‐one interviews were conducted to add more understanding and depth to issues highlighted in the focus groups. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped; the tapes were transcribed and data were analysed using the Grounded Theory; open codes were formed and concepts identified using microanalysis, and initial theories were built. Results Lack of information about the National Health Service (NHS)/Royal Colleges, inappropriate communication skills, difficulties in team working, difficulties in preparing for Royal College examinations, visa and job hunting, and social and cultural isolation were identified as major barriers. Problems arose not only from difficulties with language but also from use of local and colloquial words, different accents and difficulty in communicating sensitive issues. Lack of understanding of role in teams and difficulties in working in multiprofessional setting all contributed to the problems. Cultural differences inside and outside the workplace, and social isolation were also highlighted. Induction programmes, mentoring, awareness of the issues within the teams, and courses in communication specifically directed at overseas doctors were identified as means to overcome these barriers. Conclusions Several intercultural factors were identified that could act as barriers to the progress of overseas doctors training in paediatrics in the UK. Increased awareness of these factors within the teams would be the first step in resolving some of the issues. PMID:16935914

  4. Heritage Quay: What Will You Discover? Transforming the Archives of the University of Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, M. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The University of Huddersfield presents a key case study of the transformation of its Archives Service, using the newly-developed Staff/Space/Collections dependency model for archives and the lessons of the UK's Customer Service Excellence (CSE) scheme in order to examine and illustrate service development. Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) and…

  5. High frequency oligonucleotides – targeting active gene (HFO-TAG) markers reveal wide genetic diversity among Citrullus spp. accessions useful for enhancing disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. Different U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus subsp. lanatus var. lanatus [also known as C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) col...

  6. Risk assessment of a former military base contaminated with organoarsenic-based warfare agents: uptake of arsenic by terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Pitten, F A; Müller, G; König, P; Schmidt, D; Thurow, K; Kramer, A

    1999-02-09

    Organoarsenic-based chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as the sternutators diphenylchloroarsine (CLARK I), diphenylcyanoarsine (CLARK II) or phenyldichloroarsine (PFIFFIKUS) still pose a notable risk in countries where former military bases that have stored these weapons have not yet been reclaimed. In fact, this is the case for many countries of Eastern Europe and the CIS. One of the most important military bases of the former Third Reich, the Heeresmunitionsanstalt I and II, is situated close to the German-Polish border at Loecknitz (Fig. 1). The German army stored and decanted different compounds of CWAs at this military base until 1945. When the Soviet Army destroyed the base in 1946, large amounts of CWAs and other organoarsenic compounds polluted the soil. Today up to 250 g (!) of arsenic may be found in 1 kg of soil at some places in this area. Since 1991, a Government Working Group has been working on the risk assessment in order to define the scope of reclamation measures. This study investigates the contamination and the uptake of arsenic by plants because little is known about the bioavailability and metabolism of sternutators and their constituents. The total arsenic concentration of nine different species of terrestrial plants with at least six samples per species is presented. In spite of the considerable arsenic contamination of the soil (mean value 923 mg arsenic/kg soil) the plant contamination remained comparably low. The median value of arsenic contamination of the above-ground organs of velvet grass, Holcus lanatus, was 0.7 mg/kg dry wt. and the mean value was 4.3 mg/kg dry wt. due to some highly contaminated samples. The highest arsenic concentration registered was 26 mg/kg dry wt. in a sample of H. lanatus, which was most probably caused by soil particles adhering to the plant. The chemical structure of the arsenic compounds carried by the above-ground plant organs has been determined by gas chromatographic investigations and showed an uptake

  7. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  8. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from ‘Arka Manik’ × ‘TS34’ and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  9. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  10. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  11. Impacts of summer ozone exposure on the growth and overwintering of UK upland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Felicity; Mills, Gina; Williams, Philip; Harmens, Harry; Büker, Patrick

    The effects of ozone exposure on species of an upland grassland were assessed. Thirty-three species from Snowdonia, North Wales, UK, were exposed for 10 weeks to a weekly episodic ozone regime in solardomes representing predicted future concentrations. Two solardomes were used as controls, with ozone added to charcoal-filtered air to give a continuous ozone concentration of 30 ppb (O 3(30)). A weekly episodic ozone regime was applied to two other solardomes, with concentrations rising for 8 h per day to 80 ppb on day 1, 100 ppb on days 2 and 3, and 80 ppb on day 4; ozone concentrations remained at 30 ppb at all other times (O 3(30+peaks)). The control and background ozone concentrations of 30 ppb were maintained throughout the night as well as during the daytime. During exposure to the episodic ozone regime, some species were sensitive to ozone and showed ozone-specific leaf injury symptoms (e.g . Carex echinata) and/or premature senescence (e.g. Festuca rubra) and/or changes in above-ground biomass (e.g. Armeria maritima), whereas other species (e.g Holcus lanatus and Carex demissa) showed no effects. Some species, although showing no effects during the 10-week ozone exposure, showed carry-over effects on biomass the following spring, after a winter period of ambient ozone exposure (e.g. Galium saxatile, Nardus stricta and Saxifraga stellaris). The carry-over effects shown in this study indicate the potential ecological impact of ozone on semi-natural vegetation species and indicate the importance of longer-term studies on the effects of ozone on plants.

  12. Stimulation of soil nitrification and denitrification by grazing in grasslands: do changes in plant species composition matter?

    PubMed

    Le Roux, X; Bardy, M; Loiseau, P; Louault, F

    2003-11-01

    Stimulation of nitrification and denitrification by long term (from years to decades) grazing has commonly been reported in different grassland ecosystems. However, grazing generally induces important changes in plant species composition, and whether changes in nitrification and denitrification are primarily due to changes in vegetation composition has never been tested. We compared soil nitrification- and denitrification-enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively) between semi-natural grassland sites experiencing intensive (IG) and light (LG) grazing/mowing regimes for 13 years. Mean NEA and DEA (i.e. observed from random soil sampling) were higher in IG than LG sites. The NEA/DEA ratio was higher in IG than LG sites, indicating a higher stimulation of nitrification. Marked changes in plant species composition were observed in response to the grazing/mowing regime. In particular, the specific phytomass volume of Elymus repens was lower in IG than LG sites, whereas the specific volume of Lolium perenne was higher in IG than LG sites. In contrast, the specific volume of Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Arrhenatherum elatius were not significantly different between treatments. Soils sampled beneath grass tussocks of the last three species exhibited higher DEA, NEA and NEA/DEA ratio in IG than LG sites. For a given grazing regime, plant species did not affect significantly soil DEA, NEA and NEA/DEA ratio. The modification of plant species composition is thus not the primary factor driving changes in nitrification and denitrification in semi-natural grassland ecosystems experiencing long term intensive grazing. Factors such as trampling, N returned in animal excreta, and/or modification of N uptake and C exudation by frequently defoliated plants could be responsible for the enhanced microbial activities.

  13. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Sarah E; Close, Andrew J; Port, Gordon R

    2013-08-01

    Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug-seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced.

  14. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, M A; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on germination was tested on 10 species of the Cistaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae, from fire-prone, shrubby woodlands in central-western Spain. Dry seeds were exposed to smoke, by watering with distilled water-charred wood suspensions, or NaNO2, KNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3. Smoke enhanced germination in 9 of 10 of the species. In species of Poaceae, germination was stimulated by 20 min of smoke exposure. In Asteraceae and Fabaceae species, 10 min of smoke exposure was the most effective treatment for enhancing germination. Three species--Cistus ladanifer, Cistus crispus, and Cistus monspeliensis--had a positive response to 20 min of smoke exposure; germination of Cistus salviifolius L. was also enhanced after 10 min. The effect of charred wood was variable, with no consistent germination pattern within the families. Trifolium angustifolium and Retama sphaerocarpa showed no stimulation of germination under most of the charred wood concentrations. Similarly, germination of Senecio jacobea under the charred wood treatment did not surpass that of the control. NaNO2 promoted seed germination in Dactylis glomerata (10 mM), Cistus ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), and Cistus crispus (1 and 10 mM). KNO3 enhanced germination in Dactylis glomerata (1 and 25 mM), Dittrichia viscosa (10 and 25 mM), C. ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), Cistus crispus (1 and 25 mM), and C. salviifolius aud C. monspeliensis (25 mM). NH4Cl induced germination of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa (1 mM), and Cistus species germinated best in 25 mM of this salt. NH4NO3 induced germination only in Cistus species. Holcus lanatus had the highest level of germination regardless of treatment.

  15. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.

  16. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors. PMID:26664116

  17. In vitro assessment of physiological changes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) upon iron oxide nanoparticles exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunqiang; Hu, Jing; Dai, Zhaoyi; Li, Junli; Huang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, developing nano iron fertilizer is an important strategy to alleviate Fe deficiency and elevate Fe fertilization effect in agricultural applications. In this study, watermelon seedlings were grown in soil amended with iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) at different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 mg/L). The content of soluble sugar and protein, content of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes of watermelon leaves were determined in five successive weeks to evaluate the physiological changes of watermelon plants after γ-Fe2O3 NPs exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter root cell of watermelon. Results showed that 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs didn't cause any oxidative stress on watermelon and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs could increase soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in the growth of plants. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs caused oxidative stress on watermelon leaves, but this NP-induced stress was removed with the growth of watermelon. It is noteworthy that we found γ-Fe2O3 NPs might possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The variation trend of physiological parameters was correlated with the nutritional requirements of plants. It can be concluded that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations have the ability to improve iron deficiency chlorosis and promote the growth of watermelon plants. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in long-term experiment of watermelon plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    PubMed

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  19. Establishment of a transgenic hairy root system in wild and domesticated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) for studying root vigor under drought.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Morikawa, Kaoru; Abe, Yosuke; Yokota, Akiho; Akashi, Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Root vigor is an important trait for the growth of terrestrial plants, especially in water-deficit environments. Although deserts plants are known for their highly developed root architecture, the molecular mechanism responsible for this trait has not been determined. Here we established an efficient protocol for the genetic manipulation of two varieties of watermelon plants: a desert-grown wild watermelon that shows vigorous root growth under drought, and a domesticated cultivar showing retardation of root growth under drought stress. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transgenic hairy roots were efficiently induced and selected from the hypocotyls of these plants. Transgenic GUS expression was detected in the roots by RT-PCR and histochemical GUS staining. Moreover, a liquid culture system for evaluating their root growth was also established. Interestingly, growth of the hairy roots derived from domesticated variety of watermelon strongly inhibited under high osmotic condition, whereas the hairy roots derived from wild variety of watermelon retained substantial growth rates under the stress condition. The new protocol presented here offers a powerful tool for the comparative study of the molecular mechanism underlying drought-induced root growth in desert plants.

  20. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors.

  1. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  2. Local melatonin application induces cold tolerance in distant organs of Citrullus lanatus L. via long distance transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Zheng, Junxian; Dong, Yuchuan; Liu, Qiyan; Yang, Xiaozhen; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous chemical substance that regulates plant growth and responses to stress. Several recent studies show that exogenous melatonin confers cold tolerance to plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that melatonin application at optimal dose, either on the leaves or the roots, not only induced cold stress tolerance in the site of application, but also systemically induced cold tolerance in untreated distant parts. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin increased the melatonin levels in untreated roots or leaves, respectively, under both normal and cold stress conditions, whereas rhizospheric melatonin treatment increased the melatonin exudation rates from the xylem. An increased accumulation of melatonin accompanied with an induction in antioxidant enzyme activity in distant untreated tissues alleviated cold-induced oxidative stress. In addition, RNA-seq analysis revealed that an abundance of cold defense-related genes involved in signal sensing and transduction, transcriptional regulation, protection and detoxification, and hormone signaling might mediate melatonin-induced cold tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin can induce cold tolerance via long distance signaling, and such induction is associated with an enhanced antioxidant capacity and optimized defense gene expression. Such a mechanism can be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production. PMID:28102304

  3. Differential effect of organic and plastic mulches on Cyperus rotundus suppression and Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge) [PN] is commonly referred to as one of the worst weeds of the world. In Puerto Rico, PN is among the most troublesome weeds in production systems where synthetic herbicides are not utilized. Alternative methods for PN management, such as mulching, may be valuable ...

  4. Effect of selection for residual feed intake on feeding behavior and daily feed intake patterns in Yorkshire swine.

    PubMed

    Young, J M; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intake based on average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for decreased RFI on feeding behavior traits and to estimate their relationships with RFI. Three data sets from the 4th and 5th generations of a selection experiment with a line selected for reduced RFI (LRFI) and a randomly selected control line (CTRL) were analyzed. Lines were mixed in pens of 16 and evaluated for feeding behavior traits obtained from a single-space electronic feeder over a growing period of ~3 mo before ~115 kg. The following traits were evaluated as averages over the entire test period and over the first and second half of the test period: number of visits per day and hour; occupation time per day, visit, and hour; feed intake (FI) per day, visit, and hour; and FI rate per visit. Models used included fixed effects of line and feeder, covariates of on-test age and FI per day, and random effects of pen, on-test group, sire, and litter. Repeated measures models were used to analyze feeding patterns during the day. The LRFI pigs had significantly less FI per day than CTRL pigs for all 3 data sets. With adjustment for FI per day, line differences of all traits were in the same direction for all 3 data sets but differed in significance and size. Feed intake per visit and hour and visits per day and hour did not differ between lines, but the trend was for LRFI pigs to have fewer visits, in particular during peak eating times. The LRFI pigs had a greater feeding rate and less occupation time per day, visit, and hour than CTRL pigs, but this was not significant for all data sets. Correlations of RFI with FI per day and visit and visits per day were positive. Average daily gain was positively correlated with FI per day and visit and occupation time per visit but negatively correlated with visits per day. Feed intake per day was positively correlated with backfat. In conclusion, feed efficiency may be affected by FI behavior because selection for decreased RFI has resulted in pigs that spend less time eating and eat faster.

  5. Relationships of birth weight traits with age at first estrus and number of ovulations in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection for increased litter size has resulted in greater within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and a reduction in litter average birth weight; believed to be associated with intrauterine growth restriction as a result of limitations in uterine capacity. This leads to increased preweaning...

  6. Mind the gap: developing the PH workforce in the North East and Yorkshire and Humber regions: a scoping stakeholder study.

    PubMed

    Brown, J S; Learmonth, A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify key issues around public health workforce development in the North of England, considering the gap between need and current capacity and the training requirements to deliver the public health and health improvement agenda. Interviews were carried out with over 50 professionals in a variety of stakeholder organizations, seeking their views on priorities for workforce development and perceived opportunities and threats to the development of a good public health workforce. There was general recognition of a gap between current public health resources and what is needed to meet the public health agenda. Priorities included both increasing capacity at the specialist end of public health and raising general public health awareness at all levels of public organizations. Major barriers identified to meeting these needs included organizational difficulties, professional barriers and shortages of appropriate training and resources. Opportunities were seen to be presented by the increased amount of joint working and by national and local raising of awareness of public health issues. Across the health sector, local authorities, training organizations and voluntary sectors, similar issues and expectations were mentioned at both specialist and practitioner levels. However, it has not been possible in North East England to translate this finding into practical programmes in the absence of nationally identified resources to address the issue.

  7. Proceedings of the OGAMM Meeting (4th) Held in Ilkley, Yorkshire, England on 19-22 August 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-22

    active polymers as side chain types. Table I summarizes synthesized poly(acrolein)’s hav- ing NLO active moieties as pendant Schiff bases . They were...19 to 22 August 1991. The OGAMM program is a highly collaborative multidisciplinary effort designed to provide the technology base needed for the...Polymers 26 by Naoya Ogata, Sophia University Novel Electroactive and Nonlinear Optical Composites 32 by Paras N. Prasad, Photonics Research Labratory

  8. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  9. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  10. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  11. CO2-induced photosynthetic and stoichiometric responses to phosphorus limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo; di Lallo, Giacomo; van Dijk, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fertilisation from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations increases the productivity of plants globally. Meanwhile, the global cycles of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) are also altered due to anthropogenic emissions. In general, the additional supply of N is expected to exceed that of P, leading to an increase in P limitation in natural ecosystems. Although the direct carbon fertilisation effect and the interaction with available N is relatively well understood, it remains uncertain how carbon fertilisation is confounded by the availability of P. It is hypothesised that (i) the photosynthetic P-use efficiency increases at elevated CO2 owing to a direct increase in photosynthesis and (ii) the photosynthetic maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax) are down-regulated in response to a combination of elevated CO2 and P-limitation via a coordinated reduction of leaf N and P content per unit leaf area. In this study we examined the hypothesised effects of P limitation and CO2 fertilisation on the photosynthetic and stoichiometric responses of three plant species: Holcus lanatus (C3 grass), Panicum miliaceum (C4 grass) and Solanum dulcamara (C3 herb). Individuals of these species were grown at sub-ambient (150 ppm), modern (450 ppm) and elevated CO2 concentrations (800 ppm) and exposed to an N:P treatment consisting of either severe nitrogen limitation at an N:P ratio of 1:1, or severe P limitation at an N:P ratio of 45:1, with a similar supply rate of N. Our results show significant effects of growth CO2 and P supply on Vcmax and Jmax, as well as the whole-plant biomass at the point of harvest. Interaction effects between growth CO2 and P supply were observed for the light-saturated photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, leaf P content, and the N:P ratio of the leaf. No significant change in the leaf N content was observed across treatments. These results suggest that limited availability of P constrains the biochemical potential

  12. 12 Comprehensive Detection of Allergens in Grass Pollen Extracts by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Steffen; Mitulski, Liane; Cromwell, Oliver; Reese, Gerald; Nandy, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 40% of type 1-allergic individuals suffer from hypersensitivity to grass pollen. Patients are treated traditionally with specific immunotherapy using pollen extracts derived from one or several different Pooideae species. While for several species the most important allergens (group 1 and group 5) have been identified, other allergens have either not been identified or sequence data are still missing. We have used mass spectrometry (MS) together with genetic and immunological methods to identify allergens in various grass pollen extracts. Methods Pollen extracts of 6 different grass species (Phleum pratense, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Dactylus glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis) and a mixture thereof were analyzed. For identification of allergens by MS, extracts were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Resulting peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching both the NCBIPlant release and an individually designed database. The presence of individual allergens was confirmed with allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies. Unknown sequences were determined following cDNA synthesis from pollen RNA and allergen sequence amplification by PCR. Results Fes p 1 and Fes p 5 were identified by the PCR approach. MS analysis of pollen extracts from the 6 individual species resulted in detection of all known allergens including the newly identified Fes p 1 and Fes p 5. Based on the homology of allergens from different grass species, previously unknown sequences of representatives of groups 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12 and 13 were detected by MS in investigated extracts with high sequence coverage. Group 6 allergens could not be identified in some of the analyzed extracts. These findings are supported by immunological analyses and thus demonstrate the specificity of the applied method. Members of all allergen groups were identified in an extract mix prepared from

  13. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  14. Contribution of different grass species to plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange in intensively managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, M.; Herrmann, B.; Jones, S.; Neftel, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Species diversity in grasslands usually declines with increasing input of nitrogen from fertilizers or atmospheric deposition. Conversely, species diversity may also impact the build-up of soil and plant nitrogen pools. One important pool is NH3/NH4+ which also can be exchanged between plant leaves and the atmosphere. Limited information is available on how plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange is related to species diversity in grasslands. We have here investigated grass species abundance and different foliar nitrogen pools in 4-year-old intensively managed grassland. Apoplastic pH and NH4+ concentrations of the 8 most abundant species (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Lolium multiflorum, Poa pratensis, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Bromus mollis) were used to calculate stomatal NH3 compensation points. Apoplastic NH4+ concentrations differed considerably among the species, ranging from 13 to 117 μM, with highest values in Festuca pratensis. Also apoplastic pH values varied, from pH 6.0 in Phleum pratense to 6.9 in Dactylis glomerata. The observed differences in apoplastic NH4+ and pH resulted in a large span of predicted values for the stomatal NH3 compensation point which ranged between 0.20 and 6.57 nmol mol-1. Three species (Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis and Dactylis glomerata) had sufficiently high NH3 compensation point and abundance to contribute to the bi-directional NH3 fluxes recorded over the whole field. The other 5 grass species had NH3 compensation points considerably below the atmospheric NH3 concentration and were thus not likely to contribute to NH3 emission but only to NH3 uptake from the atmosphere. Evaluated across species, leaf bulk-tissue NH4+ concentrations correlated well (r2=0.902) with stomatal NH3 compensation points calculated on the basis of the apoplastic bioassay. This suggests that leaf tissue NH4+ concentrations combined with data for the frequency distribution of the corresponding species can be used for

  15. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013–2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900–1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65–151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19–9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%–13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R2 = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R2 = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R2 = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R2 = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R2 = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits. PMID:28398228

  16. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  17. Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, U G; Fernando, K S S P; Ranaweera, K K D S

    2009-11-01

    The carotenoid content and in vitro accessibility of the 'Sugar baby' variety of watermelon and the 'Horana red' variety of guava from Sri Lanka was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram showed that the Guava 'Horana red' variety contained almost exclusively lycopene (45.3 +/- 8.0 microg/g fresh weight (FW)), with a small amount of lutein (2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW), beta-carotene (2.0 +/- 0.2 microg/g FW) and beta-cryptoxanthin. As far as carotenoids in the sugar baby variety of watermelon are concerned, it contained lycopene, lutein and beta-carotene of 37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW, 2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW and 0.3 +/- 1 microg/g FW, respectively. The studies showed that guava contains more lycopene (45.3+/-8.0 microg/g FW) than watermelon (37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW), and that the in vitro accessibility of lycopene in guava (73%) is more than that in watermelon (25.8%). Therefore it can be concluded that guava can be used as a better lycopene source than watermelon.

  18. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  19. Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most devastating watermelon diseases worldwide, Fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). Spread of the particularly virulent Fon race 2 in the United States, coupled with the lack of resistance in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lan...

  20. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive.

  1. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  2. Molecular Phylogeny of Citrullus Species as Inferred from AFLPs and SSRs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-one accessions of Citrullus spp. belonging to C. lanatus var. lanatus, C. lanatus var. citroids and Citrullus colocynthis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using combined data sets of AFLPs and SSRs. Tree topologies inferred by Neighbor Joining analysis have resolved the phylogenic rel...

  3. Comment on Jameson et al.: Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Jan; McKenna, Paula; Vergote, Valentijn; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This British hantavirus IgG prevalence study, aimed at 119 asymptomatic farmers in England, and using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as screening technique, concluded that rat-transmitted Seoul virus (SEOV) might be the main suspect as hantaviral pathogen in the UK. Exactly the same conclusion, using the same IFA screening technique, resulted from a 1994 serosurvey in the same country, and in 627 clinical cases plus 100 healthy controls. SEOV-positive study subjects were also mainly farmers with heavy rat-exposure, but residing in Northern-Ireland, a region where all other known rodent reservoirs for pathogenic hantaviruses are known to be absent, except the wild rat. A rodent capture action in and around the farms of eight seropositives confirmed SEOV seropositivity in 21.6% of 51 rats. All SEOV seropositives were patients, hospitalized with an acute feverish condition, a majority of which having the clinical picture of hantavirus-induced nephropathy, known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Leptospirosis, often mimicking perfectly HFRS, was serologically excluded. Thus, SEOV was established as a human hantaviral pathogen in the UK and in Europe 20 years ago. PMID:25256389

  4. DIFFERENTIAL ENDOMETRIAL TRANSCRIPT EXPRESSION BETWEEN YORKSHIRE AND THE PROLIFIC MEISHAN BREED OF PIGS DURING THE CRITICAL STAGE OF CONCEPTUS ELONGATION AND EARLY ATTACHMENT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Chinese Meishan pig breed is known for larger average litters, as compared to commercial breeds. This difference is due to increased embryo survival controlled primarily by the dam and particularly at the implantation stage that initiates at day 11-12 of gestation (d11-12). To identify the genes...

  5. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire breeds at peri-implantation to characterize the prolific nature of pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The prolificacy trait of pigs (larger litter size) is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. Previous studies revealed that the function of the maternal uterine endometrium, which has been shown to be closely related to early embryo mortality, has considerable in...

  6. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of the elements in the macerals are consistent with the presence of micron and submicron inclusions of clays such as kaolinite, illite, and Ca-rich or Ca-bearing minerals (e.g. calcite, Ca-Al phosphates, and illite) which are different in kind and proportions in the three macerals. The variance as measured by the F-statistic for all three macerals indicates generally a nonuniform distribution of minor and trace elements in all three macerals, thus supporting a mineral-matter (inorganic) origin of the elements analysed. Exceptions are Al, K, Fe, Ga, and Sr in the vitrinite and cutinite, which is consistent with organic complexing or a uniform distribution of micron or submicron mineral matter such as illite and phosphate(s). ?? 1990.

  7. Analysis of gene expression patterns by microarray hybridization in blood mononuclear cells of SLA-DRB1 defined Canadian Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Nino-Soto, Maria I; Jozani, Razi Jafari; Bridle, Byram; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2008-06-23

    The Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) system encodes molecules for self-nonself discrimination and is associated with immune responses and disease resistance. Three lines of pigs defined by their SLA-DRB1 alleles were developed at the University of Guelph for xenotransplantation and immune response studies. The aim of this project was to explore the potential association between defined SLA-DRB1 alleles and gene transcriptional patterns of other immune-related genes in blood mononuclear cells. Three SLA-DRB1 alleles were characterized using a RT-PCR-based sequencing method. The loci represented included a new allele, DRB1*04ns01. Next, microarray heterologous (bovine-porcine) hybridization together with qPCR were used to explore differential gene expression between SLA-DRB1-defined groups. Microarray analysis showed significant (p < 0.01) differential expression for 5 genes, mostly related to inflammation. Genes varied according to the comparison analyzed. Further testing with qPCR revealed the same trend of differential expression for 4 of the genes, although statistical significance was reached for only one. A new SLA-DRB1 allele was characterized. A potential association was found between SLA-DRB1 alleles and inflammation-related genes. However, the influence of other genes cannot be ruled out. These preliminary findings agree with other studies linking MHC haplotypes and inflammation processes, including autoimmune disease. The study provides an initial view of the biological interactions between the SLA complex and other immune-related genes. Future studies will focus on characterization of SLA-haplotypes associated with these particular alleles and the dynamics of the immune response to antigenic challenges.

  8. Analysis of gene expression patterns by microarray hybridization in blood mononuclear cells of SLA-DRB1 defined Canadian Yorkshire pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nino-Soto, Maria I; Jozani, Razi Jafari; Bridle, Byram; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2008-01-01

    Background The Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) system encodes molecules for self-nonself discrimination and is associated with immune responses and disease resistance. Three lines of pigs defined by their SLA-DRB1 alleles were developed at the University of Guelph for xenotransplantation and immune response studies. The aim of this project was to explore the potential association between defined SLA-DRB1 alleles and gene transcriptional patterns of other immune-related genes in blood mononuclear cells. Findings Three SLA-DRB1 alleles were characterized using a RT-PCR-based sequencing method. The loci represented included a new allele, DRB1*04ns01. Next, microarray heterologous (bovine-porcine) hybridization together with qPCR were used to explore differential gene expression between SLA-DRB1-defined groups. Microarray analysis showed significant (p < 0.01) differential expression for 5 genes, mostly related to inflammation. Genes varied according to the comparison analyzed. Further testing with qPCR revealed the same trend of differential expression for 4 of the genes, although statistical significance was reached for only one. Conclusion A new SLA-DRB1 allele was characterized. A potential association was found between SLA-DRB1 alleles and inflammation-related genes. However, the influence of other genes cannot be ruled out. These preliminary findings agree with other studies linking MHC haplotypes and inflammation processes, including autoimmune disease. The study provides an initial view of the biological interactions between the SLA complex and other immune-related genes. Future studies will focus on characterization of SLA-haplotypes associated with these particular alleles and the dynamics of the immune response to antigenic challenges. PMID:18710484

  9. Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products in South Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P A; Cerdán Malo, A T; Ellin, M; Ashton, R; Harkin

    2001-02-28

    A 1 year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products from retail butchers' shops was performed in the Sheffield area. Each month, samples of rectal faeces were collected immediately after slaughter from 400 cattle and 600 sheep, and 400-430 samples of raw meat products were purchased from butchers' shops. Meat samples were also obtained from 1500 beef and 1500 lamb carcasses. All samples were examined for E. coli O157 by enrichment culture, immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic particles onto cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. Raw meat products were also examined for numbers of generic E. coli by a standard membrane culture method. E. coli O157 was isolated from 620 (12.9%) of 4800 cattle, 100 (7.4%) of 7200 sheep, 21 (1.4%) of 1500 beef carcasses, 10 (0.7%) of 1500 lamb carcasses and from 22 (0.44%) of 4983 raw meat products. E. coli O157 was isolated more frequently from lamb products (0.8%) than from beef products (0.4%). Numbers of generic E. coli in meat products reached seasonal peaks in July and August with counts of > 10(4)/g occurring more frequently in lamb products (50.8 and 42.4%, respectively) than in beef products (19.3 and 23.8%, respectively). The majority of E. coli O157 strains, from animals, carcasses and meat samples, were isolated during the summer. Most were verocytotoxigenic as determined by Vero cell assay and DNA hybridisation, eaeA gene positive and contained a 92 kb plasmid. The isolates were compared with 66 isolates from human cases over the same period. A combination of phage type, toxin genotype and plasmid analysis allowed subdivision of all the E. coli O157 isolates into 96 subtypes. Of these subtypes, 53 (55%) were isolated only from bovine faecal samples. However, 61 (92%) of the 66 isolates from humans belonged to 13 subtypes which were also found in the animal population.

  10. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a mileu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyalu...

  11. Sedimentary transport and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from managed burning of moorland vegetation on a blanket peat, South Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H; Rawlins, Barry G; Kim, Alexander W; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Kendrick, Christopher P; Leng, Melanie J

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from managed burning of moorland vegetation and compares them to PAH in catchment vegetation, underlying peats, head water suspended sediment (HSS), stream water and reservoir sediment cores. Total PAH ranged from 203 to 11,112 μg/kg in the blanket peats, 101-290 μg/kg in the fresh moorland vegetation, 4186 μg/kg at the burnt site, 17,439 μg/kg in the HSS, 56 ng/L in the stream water and 987 to 7346 μg/kg in the reservoir sediments. No total or individual PAH concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines. The perylene content of selected moorland vegetation (sphagnum, heather and bilberry) ranged from 10 to 18% as compared to only 2% for the sediment hosted PAH. A comparison of whole and <250 μm fractions from the burnt surface layer revealed a near threefold increase in PAH concentration in the fine fraction and a change in the PAH distribution such that naphthalene>phenanthrene>2-methylnaphthalene. Elevated total PAH contents were observed close to the blanket peat sediment surface (0-10 cm) and then declined at greater depths. The high PAH content of the HSS was attributed to the high sorption capacity of the organic-rich particles (TOC 25.8% (wt/wt)). The distribution of individual PAH in reservoir cores and HSS was consistent and the results of the principal component analysis and isomeric ratios suggest mainly pyrolytic inputs, from either vegetation burning and coal combustion. A comparison of the reservoir core PAH profiles shows that the source(s) have remained largely unchanged since the reservoir construction in 1929A.D. reflecting consistent moorland management practices.

  12. Nuclear DNA assay in solving issues related to ancestry of the domesticated diploid safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and the polyploid (Carthamus) taxa, and phylogenetic and genomic relationships in the genus Carthamus L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Raina, Soom Nath; Devarumath, Rachhaya M; Sasanuma, Tetsuo; Sasakuma, Tetsuo

    2009-12-01

    The multipronged nuclear DNA assay by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting, ribosomal DNA repeat unit length polymorphism, internal transcribed sequence (ITS) RFLP, and comparative sequence analysis of ITS and external transcribed sequence (ETS) regions of the 29 accessions belonging to 18 Carthamus taxa including five unverified species was undertaken to obtain new information on (1) interrelationships among botanical varieties of cultivated safflower, C. tinctorius, and phylogenetic relationships (2) among the safflower and its close relatives and (3) that of Carthamus species and subspecies. The root tip cells of the 12 accessions contained 24 chromosomes followed by 64, 44 and 20 chromosomes in 9, 6 and 2 accessions, respectively. Barring C. lanatus, the accessions within each taxon had the same zygotic number. The present results strongly support the view that the wild C. palaestinus (2n=24) and the cultivated C. tinctorius (2n=24) are closely related. With few exceptions, all DNA based dendrograms support three lineages within the genus. One lineage is constituted by C. arborescens (2n=24) alone. The present data indicates that because of unique composition of its nuclear genome vis-à-vis other Carthamus taxa, C. arborescens should be placed in a separate subgenus. The two remaining lineages, constituted by the taxa with 2n=24, and the taxa with 2n=20, 2n=44 and 2n=64, respectively should be given the rank of two taxonomic sections in the other subgenus. The present study also demonstrates that none of the present taxa with 2n=24 have contributed to the origin of polyploid taxa. Carthamus boisserii (2n=20) and C. glaucus ssp. anatolicus (2n=20) are more likely to be one of the diploid progenitor of C. lanatus ssp. creticus (2n=64), C. lanatus (2n=44), C. lanatus ssp. lanatus (2n=44) and C. lanatus ssp. montanus (2n=44), and C. lanatus ssp. turkestanicus (2n=64), respectively. Within Lanatus species complex, constituted by C. lanatus, C

  13. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hispida (wax gourd), Citrullus Lanatus (watermelon) Cucumis melon (muskmelon, cantaloup, honeydew... (calabash, gourd), Luffa cylindrica (dishcloth gourd), Mormoridica charantia (bitter melon), and...

  14. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hispida (wax gourd), Citrullus Lanatus (watermelon) Cucumis melon (muskmelon, cantaloup, honeydew... (calabash, gourd), Luffa cylindrica (dishcloth gourd), Mormoridica charantia (bitter melon), and...

  15. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hispida (wax gourd), Citrullus Lanatus (watermelon) Cucumis melon (muskmelon, cantaloup, honeydew... (calabash, gourd), Luffa cylindrica (dishcloth gourd), Mormoridica charantia (bitter melon), and...

  16. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hispida (wax gourd), Citrullus Lanatus (watermelon) Cucumis melon (muskmelon, cantaloup, honeydew... (calabash, gourd), Luffa cylindrica (dishcloth gourd), Mormoridica charantia (bitter melon), and...

  17. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hispida (wax gourd), Citrullus Lanatus (watermelon) Cucumis melon (muskmelon, cantaloup, honeydew... (calabash, gourd), Luffa cylindrica (dishcloth gourd), Mormoridica charantia (bitter melon), and...

  18. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ....'', ``Squash--Cucurbita pepo L., C. moschata (Duchesne) Poiret, and C. maxima Duchesne'', and ``Watermelon..., and C. maxima Duchesne'', and ``Watermelon-- Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var....

  19. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  20. Ecohydrology of an Embanked Lowland UK River Meadow and the Effects of Embankment Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, H.; Thompson, J.; Sayer, C.; Heppell, K.; Axmacher, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pristine riparian and floodplain ecosystems are in a state of dynamic balance due to the regular floods that continuously reshape river channels and their banks, and transport water, sediment and nutrients onto the floodplain. However, the natural flow regime of many rivers has been altered by channelization and artificial embankments designed to protect agricultural and urban developments from flooding. This has had a lasting impact on the hydrological characteristics of floodplain ecosystems and the biological communities that inhabit them. Floodplain restoration, through embankment removal and the reconfiguration of river channels, is now being increasingly employed to re-establish river-floodplain connections and assist the recovery of lost or declining species. In order to manage a river restoration site for plant biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the physical and nutritional status of the root environment. We conducted fine scale (10 × 10 m) botanical and chemical sampling on a 3 ha embanked grassland meadow in Norfolk (Eastern England) and assessed the spatial pattern of plant communities in relation to soil physicochemical conditions. Continuous measurements of groundwater depth and river stage were collectively used to determine changes in the hydrological regime following embankment-removal. Prior to the restoration the meadow plant community was dominated by Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus repens and Agrostis stolonifera. Species richness was fairly low (mean: 8 spp. per m2), and indices of alpha-diversity suggest low heterogeneity of the plant assemblages (mean values for Shannon's Diversity and 1/Simpson's Diversity = 1.4 and 3.4, respectively). Top soils were moderately fertile, with mean respective Olsen P and plant available potassium concentrations of 9.1 mg P kg-1and 1.6 mg K+g-1. Plant available ammonium and nitrate concentrations were on average 31.7 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 2.8 mg NO3--N kg-1, respectively. River water was enriched in nitrate

  1. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  2. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  3. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries.

  4. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  5. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon.

  6. Technological Analysis of the World’s Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK

    PubMed Central

    Little, Aimée; Elliott, Benjamin; Conneller, Chantal; Pomstra, Diederik; Evans, Adrian A.; Fitton, Laura C.; Holland, Andrew; Davis, Robert; Kershaw, Rachel; O’Connor, Sonia; O’Connor, Terry; Sparrow, Thomas; Wilson, Andrew S.; Jordan, Peter; Collins, Matthew J.; Colonese, André Carlo; Craig, Oliver E.; Knight, Rebecca; Lucquin, Alexandre J. A.; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. Here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the Early Holocene site of Star Carr (c. 11 kya). More than 90% of the examples from prehistoric Europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. Our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, analysis of macroscopic traces, organic residue analysis and 3D image acquisition, metrology and visualisation, represents the first attempt to understand the manufacturing processes used to create these artefacts. The results produced were unexpected—rather than being carefully crafted objects, elements of their production can only be described as expedient. PMID:27073850

  7. "It Is Only the Instructed and Trained Overlooker and Artisan That Can Successfully Compete against Foreign Skills": Nineteenth-Century Adult Technical and Vocational Education Offered by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes and the Foundation of Further Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Further education colleges in England and Wales have offered government-recognised courses and qualifications which receive public funding and have included technical and vocational courses since their foundation in the early twentieth century. Yet developments in such curricula and qualifications are not new and they can be traced back to the…

  8. "It Is Only the Instructed and Trained Overlooker and Artisan That Can Successfully Compete against Foreign Skills": Nineteenth-Century Adult Technical and Vocational Education Offered by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes and the Foundation of Further Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Further education colleges in England and Wales have offered government-recognised courses and qualifications which receive public funding and have included technical and vocational courses since their foundation in the early twentieth century. Yet developments in such curricula and qualifications are not new and they can be traced back to the…

  9. Technological Analysis of the World's Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Little, Aimée; Elliott, Benjamin; Conneller, Chantal; Pomstra, Diederik; Evans, Adrian A; Fitton, Laura C; Holland, Andrew; Davis, Robert; Kershaw, Rachel; O'Connor, Sonia; O'Connor, Terry; Sparrow, Thomas; Wilson, Andrew S; Jordan, Peter; Collins, Matthew J; Colonese, André Carlo; Craig, Oliver E; Knight, Rebecca; Lucquin, Alexandre J A; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. Here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the Early Holocene site of Star Carr (c. 11 kya). More than 90% of the examples from prehistoric Europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. Our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, analysis of macroscopic traces, organic residue analysis and 3D image acquisition, metrology and visualisation, represents the first attempt to understand the manufacturing processes used to create these artefacts. The results produced were unexpected--rather than being carefully crafted objects, elements of their production can only be described as expedient.

  10. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  11. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  12. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  13. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  14. An integrated genetic linkage map of watermelon and genetic diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is an important vegetable fruit throughout the world. A high number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers should provide large coverage of the watermelon genome and high phylogenetic resolution of germplasm acces...

  15. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  16. Whiteflies: Developing host plant resistance in watermelon from wild sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The whitefly (Aleyrodidae) Bemisia tabaci causes serious damage to horticultural crops, including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and it is known to transmit many plant viruses. This whitefly is highly polyphagous, with over 1,000 known species, and can adapt to the environment. Yet, th...

  17. Effect of climate change on Bemisia tabaci in Southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional and molecular approaches can be used to improve cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex attacks many crops on a global scale. It is very adaptive, and it feeds on over 1,000 diverse species of...

  18. An allele-specific SNP mutation in the eIF4E gene is associated with the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced an eIF4E gene in the ZYMV-resistant PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon c...

  19. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  20. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  1. Cytogenetic relationships among Citrullus species in comparison with some genera of the tribe Benincaseae (Cucurbitaceae) as inferred from rDNA distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Peng; Wu, Yun-Xiang; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Yan; Lü, Xing-Ming; Wang, Ji-Ming; Xu, Yong; Li, Zong-Yun; Han, Yong-Hua

    2016-04-18

    Comparative mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is an excellent tool to determine cytogenetic relationships among closely related species. In this study, the number and position of 5S and 45S rDNA loci in all Citrullus species and subspecies were determined. The cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, C. colocynthis and C. naudinianus (or Acanthosicyos naudinianus) had two 45S rDNA loci and one 5S rDNA locus which was located syntenic to one of the 45S rDNA loci. C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus subsp. lanatus had one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, each located on a different chromosome. C. rehmii had one 5S and one 45S rDNA locus positioned on different chromosomes. The distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA in several species belonging to other genera in Benincaseae tribe was also investigated. The distribution pattern of rDNAs showed a great difference among these species. The present study confirmed evolutionary closeness among cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus and C. colocynthis. Our result also supported that C. lanatus subsp. lanatus was not a wild form of the cultivated watermelon instead was a separate crop species. In addition, present cytogenetic analysis suggested that A. naudinianus was more closely related to Cucumis than to Citrullus or Acanthosicyos, but with a unique position and may be a link bridge between the Citrullus and the Cucumis.

  2. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-06-13

    Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 'ultra-brief' case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule-Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3-4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3-4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East-York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East—York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. PMID:27297012

  4. SPICED: Evaluation of a Drug Education Project in Kirklees Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosswaite, C.; Tooby, J.; Cyster, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the process, implementation, and short-term outcomes of a drug education programme (SPICED) introduced in Kirklees schools, West Yorkshire. Design: A retrospective evaluation using mixed methods. Setting: Ten primary schools in West Yorkshire. Methods: Interviews with professionals, survey of parents, focus groups with…

  5. Build the Big Society on What We Know Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskin, Jol

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Workers' Educational Association's (WEA) Yorkshire and Humber region was funded by the Academy for Community Leadership to deliver a programme of active citizenship learning in South Yorkshire. The programme was expected to: equip potential and existing community leaders with the skills, knowledge and experience necessary to address…

  6. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  7. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  8. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  10. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  11. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  14. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  17. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  18. USVL-380, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-380’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] resistant to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated with ZYMV-resis...

  19. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  20. First Report of Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus in Cucurbits in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In August and September of 2007, watermelon plants (Cucumis lanatus L.) in commercial fields in Manatee and Hillsborough Counties in west central Florida began exhibiting a range of symptoms including stunting, deformation, interveinal chlorosis, leaf mottling and spotting. Leaves of plants had larg...

  1. Host resistance to phytophthora fruit rot in U.S. watermelon plant introductions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by P. capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then, the dise...

  2. Genetic Resources of Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...

  3. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR and USVL020-PFR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Phytophthora capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then...

  4. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  5. Use of external indicators to predict maturity of mini-watermelon fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Personal-size watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], cultivars Valdoria and Vanessa were evaluated at 20, 30, 40 or 50 days after anthesis to determine a means of determining maturity at harvest. Fruit circumference, weight, ground-spot color, and number of senescent tendrils were measured for ea...

  6. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  7. Linkage mapping in a watermelon population segregating for fusarium wilt resistance

    Treesearch

    Leigh K. Hawkins; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Billy B. Rhodes; Robert L. Jarret

    2001-01-01

    Isozyme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were used to generate a linkage map in an F2 and F3 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai) population derived from a cross between the fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f....

  8. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Alo...

  9. Melon Quality: What Consumers Like

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet melons (Cucumis melo L. plus Citrullus lanatus L.) are the most popular fresh fruit, based on per capita consumption, in the U.S.A. Cucumis melo (muskmelons or rockmelons) are the only fruits in the U.S.A. to have a 2.3 fold increase in consumer demand over the past 35 years. Preference attr...

  10. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  11. Watermelon germplasm lines USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 tolerant to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two improved germplasm lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) designated USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 were released in 2012 by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Wechter et al. 2012). These lines are each highly uniform for growth characteri...

  12. USVL-360, a novel watermelon tetraploid germplasm line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A tetraploid line “USVL-360” derived from the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 299379 that belong to Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. (CLC) was developed in this study. USVL-360 is a pure line selection from an autotetraploid plant generated by tr...

  13. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  14. Technique Development for a Polytrauma Model to Study Partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (P-REBOA) in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    widely in literature, limiting comparisons. Methods: Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and splenectomized. A simple liver...applicable injury in swine . Use of the tourniquet allowed for consistent liver injury and precise control over hemorrhage.

  15. The National Lending Library: Information Resource Center Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Theodore P.

    1973-01-01

    This article provides a brief glimpse of the National Lending Library at Boston Spa in Yorkshire which is the primary bibliographic resource center for science and technology in Great Britain. (Author)

  16. Genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, P W; Harvey, W R; Irvin, K M

    1985-02-01

    Yorkshire and Duroc litter records were used to estimate genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits. Two data sets with two subsets each were used to complete this study; 663 and 460 records included litter traits only, while 522 and 359 records also contained sow body weight for Yorkshires and Durocs, respectively. Heritability estimates for number born (NB), number born alive (NBA), total birth weight of live pigs (BWLIT), litter weight at 3 wk (WT3WK), sow weight at parturition (WTDAMPAR) and sow weight at weaning (WTDAMWN) were .24 +/- .14, .21 +/- .14, .42 +/- .16, .19 +/- .14, .72 +/- .21 and .42 +/- .18, respectively, for Yorkshires and .05 +/- .10, .04 +/- .10, .21 +/- .14, .25 +/- .15, .85 +/- .25 and .87 +/- .26, respectively, for the Durocs. Repeatability estimates for NB, NBA, BWLIT, WT3WK, WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN were .13 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .27 +/- .06, .13 +/- .06, .64 +/- .05 and .54 +/- .05, respectively, for Yorkshires and .17 +/- .06, .21 +/- .06, .14 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .28 +/- .07 and .39 +/- .07, respectively, for Durocs. Genetic correlations among litter traits were high and positive in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations between NBA and WTDAMPAR, NBA and WTDAMWN, WT3WK and WTDAMPAR, and WT3WK and WTDAMWN were .37 +/- .25, .18 +/- .34, .60 +/- .29 and .29 +/- .45, respectively, in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations among litter traits in the Duroc analysis had large standard errors but were generally similar to the estimates obtained from the Yorkshire data. The genetic correlation between WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN was .93 +/- .09 for Yorkshire sows. The primary conclusion from this study is that as selection increases sow productivity traits, there will be a positive correlated response in sow body weight.

  17. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Analysis on single nucleotide polymorphisms of porcine myostatin gene in different breeds].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y L; Li, N; Wu, C X; Du, L X

    2001-01-01

    By PCR-RFLPs and PCR-SSCP approach, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of porcine myostatin gene (MSTN) were analyzed in different breeds including "doubled-muscled" Yorkshire, Yorkshire, Landrace, Hamshire, Duroc, Piteran, Erhualian, Min, Hubei White and some hybrids. The three SNPs were located in the 3' encoding region, 5' promoter region and intronl region respectively. For the SNP in the 3' encoding region, which was caused by C-->T transition, the mutation frequency was relatively low: no TT genotype was detected in 274 individuals of different breeds. For the SNP in the 5' promoter region, 560 pigs were investigated. The allele T dominates in the imported lean-type pig breeds such as Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire, Piteran and hybrid, however, in Erhualian and Hubei White pigs, the allele A was in majority. Polymorphism showed the similar pattern for the SNP in intron 1 region. G was the dominant allele in Yorkshire, Landrace and their hybrids, while in Erhualian and Hubei White pigs the frequency of A was much higher. Obviously they were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state. For Min and Yorshire x Erhualian pigs, they were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state for the SNPs in the 5' promoter region and (or) intron 1 region. The frequency for the A alleles of SNPs in the 5' promoter region and intron 1 region was higher for "double-muscled" Yorkshire than for Yorkshire and linkage for these two mutation sites was also observed.

  19. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  20. Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.

  1. Genetic diversity, extent of linkage disequilibrium and persistence of gametic phase in Canadian pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Daniela A; Jafarikia, Mohsen; Brito, Luiz F; Buzanskas, Marcos E; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flávio S

    2017-01-21

    Knowledge on the levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome, persistence of gametic phase between breed pairs, genetic diversity and population structure are important parameters for the successful implementation of genomic selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate these parameters in order to assess the feasibility of a multi-herd and multi-breed training population for genomic selection in important purebred and crossbred pig populations in Canada. A total of 3,057 animals, representative of the national populations, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip (62,163 markers). The overall LD (r (2)) between adjacent SNPs was 0.49, 0.38, 0.40 and 0.31 for Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire and Crossbred (Landrace x Yorkshire) populations, respectively. The highest correlation of phase (r) across breeds was observed between Crossbred animals and either Landrace or Yorkshire breeds, in which r was approximately 0.80 at 1 Mbp of distance. Landrace and Yorkshire breeds presented r ≥ 0.80 in distances up to 0.1 Mbp, while Duroc breed showed r ≥ 0.80 for distances up to 0.03 Mbp with all other populations. The persistence of phase across herds were strong for all breeds, with r ≥ 0.80 up to 1.81 Mbp for Yorkshire, 1.20 Mbp for Duroc, and 0.70 Mbp for Landrace. The first two principal components clearly discriminate all the breeds. Similar levels of genetic diversity were observed among all breed groups. The current effective population size was equal to 75 for Duroc and 92 for both Landrace and Yorkshire. An overview of population structure, LD decay, demographic history and inbreeding of important pig breeds in Canada was presented. The rate of LD decay for the three Canadian pig breeds indicates that genomic selection can be successfully implemented within breeds with the current 60 K SNP panel. The use of a multi-breed training population involving Landrace and Yorkshire to estimate the genomic

  2. Are We Losing the Next Generation? A Strange Experience on a Poetry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, David

    1981-01-01

    Examining the attitudes and behaviors of his adolescent students in rural Yorkshire, the author finds in them a strange lack of respect for adults, which he attributes to disruptions of consciousness caused by the constant bombardment of pop music and television. Two other authors comment on pp128-30. (SJL)

  3. Briggs, Henry (1561-1630)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Worley Wood, Yorkshire, England. Professor at Cambridge, London (Gresham College) and Oxford. By pointing out how much more useful logarithms would be if (unlike JOHN NAPIER's original invention) they were to base 10, he was responsible for improving astronomers' ability to calculate. Published mathematical tables (logarithms, sines, tangents, secants) as an aid to such ca...

  4. Paediatric respiratory nursing posts in secondary care reduce asthma morbidity, but provision is variable.

    PubMed

    McKean, M; Furness, J

    2009-08-01

    British guidelines on asthma recommend nurse delivered structured discharges for all children with asthma. This study carried out a postal and telephone survey to investigate the provision of this service. Twenty out of 34 (59%) hospitals in the Northern and Yorkshire regions do not have a recognised paediatric respiratory nurse post to facilitate this aspect of care.

  5. Innovative Practice in the Use of ICT in Education and Training: Learning from the Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggleby, Julia; Jennings, David; Pickering, Fred; Schmoller, Seb; Bola, Femi; Stone, Richard; Willis, Penny

    2004-01-01

    Addresses three separate initiatives South Yorkshire Further Education Consortium SYFEC e-skills4industry - a partnership between Lewisham College and Deloitte and Cascade and information and communication technology ICT training for schools. The initiatives, however, share two important characteristics. First, they are all initiatives which have…

  6. Ode to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2011-01-01

    Best known for his monumental abstract sculptures of reclining figures, Henry Moore's forms are generally pierced or have a hollow space within them. Some say that these "organic undulating forms" are reminiscent of the landscape of his home in Yorkshire, England. Moore was a giant in the world of sculpture and his large cast bronzes and marble…

  7. Brain Biology and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from teachers during in-service courses shows that they are fascinated by neuroscience, as they feel that it has the potential to improve their teaching practice. There were two main outcomes from a small-scale action research project with primary and secondary science advanced skills teachers (AST) in North Yorkshire. The first is that…

  8. Shake It All About! Using Earthquake Science to Enhance Geology and Physics Teaching in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Phillip; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A three-year project aimed at embedding seismology into schools in northern England to support the teaching of the earth science strands in the National Curriculum for England and Wales is described. Seismometers were deployed in a range of high schools across the Yorkshire and Humberside region. Deployment was supported by a programme of staff…

  9. Brain Biology and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from teachers during in-service courses shows that they are fascinated by neuroscience, as they feel that it has the potential to improve their teaching practice. There were two main outcomes from a small-scale action research project with primary and secondary science advanced skills teachers (AST) in North Yorkshire. The first is that…

  10. Exploring the "Dragon's Graveyard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Most schools visit Magna Science Adventure Centre on the back of careful planning and preparation. Magna is a fairly unique environment. "Steelos", the local name for the former Templeborough steelworks in Rotherham, West Yorkshire, was a vast plant. It became home to Magna in 2001. The building is over half a kilometre long and 45…

  11. Forest School in an Inner City? Making the Impossible Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…

  12. Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelly; Beasley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK--an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews…

  13. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  14. Harrison, John (1693-1776)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Clockmaker, born in Foulby, West Yorkshire, England. In 1713 the British Government offered a valuable prize for the invention of a method to determine longitude accurately. Harrison developed a series of clocks through wooden models, and in 1726 invented the bimetallic pendulum that compensated for thermal expansion due to the variations of climate expected on long sea voyages, as well as seve...

  15. Azoospermia in an 8-month-old boar due to bilateral obstruction at the testis/epididymis interface

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Kristin M.; Shipley, Clifford F.; Coleman, David A.; Ehrhart, Eugene J.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Clark, Sherrie G.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-month-old Yorkshire boar was presented for apparent azoospermia. Two semen collections also revealed azoospermia. Ultrasonographic examination of the gonads revealed bilateral caput epididymal dilatation and anechoic fluid within the tubules. Because a testicular biopsy revealed normal spermatogenesis, an outflow tract obstruction was suspected. Multiple sperm granulomas were found within the parenchyma of both testes at necropsy. PMID:21197205

  16. Approaches to Teaching the Particulate Theory of Matter. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This guide…

  17. Approaches to Teaching Plant Nutrition. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This document…

  18. A Constructivist View of Learning and Teaching in Science. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Philip; And Others

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This booklet…

  19. Teaching Strategies for Developing Understanding in Science. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Richard; Hill, Peter

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. The purpose of…

  20. Sacred Cows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years this author has spent a good deal of time in primary classrooms, working with teachers on problem solving approaches to the teaching and learning of mathematics. He has also worked part-time on an initial teacher training course and an NCETM/Yorkshire Forward funded project entitled "Inspiring Mathematics Champions". Thus…

  1. Problems and Good Practice in Post-Compulsory Educational Provision for Travellers: The Wakefield Kushti Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hately-Broad, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the work of the Wakefield Local Education Authority (LEA) Kushti Project in the UK. This project, focused on the Traveller population in England, is aimed specifically at the post-16 Traveller population in Wakefield, West Yorkshire. Generally, the paper considers the project in three broad areas: recruitment, retention and…

  2. NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have identified Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University. These SCID pigs lack B-cells and T-cells, but possess Natural Killer (NK) cells. This SCID phenotype is caused by recessive mutations in the Artemis gene. Interestingly, two human tumor c...

  3. Life on Our Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham; Grassam, Matthew; Scott, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    St. Martin's Church of England Primary School in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, enjoys a unique location, being approximately 10 minutes walk from a rocky shore and a similar distance from the University of Hull (Scarborough Campus) and its Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences. A grant provided by the Royal Society (under their Education…

  4. School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Because of established links with attainment, the UK government has, over the last ten years, developed policies to improve school attendance. Legislation now makes school attendance a parental responsibility. In the small-scale study reported in this article, Anne Sheppard, manager of an Education Welfare Service Team in North Yorkshire,…

  5. GP Exercise Referral Schemes: Improving the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Helen; Ingle, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore patients' perceptions of general practitioner (GP) exercise referral (ER) schemes with a view to providing a better service for future patients. Design: A qualitative focus group methodology. Setting: Meeting rooms or communal areas in leisure centres across North Yorkshire. Method: Thirty…

  6. Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelly; Beasley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK--an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews…

  7. Star gazing in a dog: Atypical manifestation of upper gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Poirier-Guay, Marie-Pier; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Frank, Diane

    2014-01-01

    A Yorkshire terrier dog was presented for episodes of “star gazing” behavior expressed as upward raising of the head and neck extension with subsequent staring at the ceiling or sky. Erosive gastritis with reflux esophagitis was diagnosed. Treatment of these conditions was associated with resolution of the behavior, suggesting a causal link. PMID:25392552

  8. Creative Minds at "Eureka!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraclough, Helen; Bracey, Becky

    2005-01-01

    "Eureka!" is an interactive museum for children situated in Halifax, West Yorkshire, which opened in 1992. It has over 400 hands-on exhibits in four gallery spaces: (1) "SoundSpace"; (2) "Living and working together"; (3) "Our global garden"; and (4) "Me and my body". It aims to inspire children about themselves and the world around them through…

  9. Approaches to Teaching Energy. Energy and Ourselves/Energy for the Consumer. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This guide…

  10. Sacred Cows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years this author has spent a good deal of time in primary classrooms, working with teachers on problem solving approaches to the teaching and learning of mathematics. He has also worked part-time on an initial teacher training course and an NCETM/Yorkshire Forward funded project entitled "Inspiring Mathematics Champions". Thus…

  11. Disasters in the Classroom: Teaching about Disasters in the Third World. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Cluny; And Others

    This middle school curriculum packet contains teaching ideas developed by United Kingdom professionals who then implemented the ideas in 15 day programs in West Yorkshire, England. The objectives were to stimulate communication and inquiry; to question accepted ideas on poverty; to challenge stereotypes; to value students' knowledge concerning…

  12. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  13. Disasters in the Classroom: Teaching about Disasters in the Third World. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Cluny; And Others

    This middle school curriculum packet contains teaching ideas developed by United Kingdom professionals who then implemented the ideas in 15 day programs in West Yorkshire, England. The objectives were to stimulate communication and inquiry; to question accepted ideas on poverty; to challenge stereotypes; to value students' knowledge concerning…

  14. Developing Young Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Liz; Woodbridge, Jenny; Pearson, Sue

    2003-01-01

    The Early Excellence centre was established in 1999 to undertake early years curriculum development in the North West, Yorkshire and Humberside regions. As part of development work, small research projects are commissioned in early years settings. This article describes how the authors worked with Wingate Community Nursery School. The work was…

  15. Forest School in an Inner City? Making the Impossible Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…

  16. Ode to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2011-01-01

    Best known for his monumental abstract sculptures of reclining figures, Henry Moore's forms are generally pierced or have a hollow space within them. Some say that these "organic undulating forms" are reminiscent of the landscape of his home in Yorkshire, England. Moore was a giant in the world of sculpture and his large cast bronzes and marble…

  17. Relational Capabilities to Leverage New Knowledge: Managing Directors' Perceptions in UK and Portugal Old Industrial Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on the specific context of two European old industrial regions--South Yorkshire (UK) and North Region of Portugal--this paper aims to identify and conceptualise a set of relational capabilities that business leaders perceive to play a key role in industrial rejuvenation. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research design…

  18. Comparison of Ground Raw Soybean and Soybean Meal Diets on Carcass Traits of Gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of an ongoing reproductive efficiency study with gilts fed a raw soybean (RSB) diet, an assessment of carcass traits was performed to measure the effect of antinutritional factors present in RSB. Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred gilts (n = 20) were assigned to balanced isonitrogenous (crude pr...

  19. [Detecting selection signatures on X chromosome in pig through high density SNPs].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Long; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiang-Dong

    2012-10-01

    In the process of domestic pig breeding, many important economic traits were subject to strong artificial se-lection pressure. With the availability of high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in farm animals, selection occurring in those traits could be traced by detecting selection signatures on genome, and the genes experiencing selection can also be further mined based on selection signatures. Due to the special characteristic of X chromosome, many approaches of genetic analysis fitted for autosome are not plausible for X chromosome. Fortunately, detecting selection signature provides an effective tool to settle such situation. In this study, the Cross Population Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (XP-EHH) was implemented to identify selection signatures on chromosome X in three pig breeds (Landrace, Songliao, and Yorkshire) using high density SNPs, and the genes located within selection signature regions were revealed through bioinformatic analysis. In total, 29, 13, and 15 selection signature regions, with 3.59, 4.92, and 4.07 SNPs on average in each region, were identified in Landrace, Songliao, and Yorkshire, respectively. Some overlaps of selection signature regions were observed between Songliao and Landrace, and between Landrace and Yorkshire, while no overlaps between Yorkshire and Songliao were found. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many genes in the selection signature regions were related to reproduction and immune traits, and some of them have not been reported in pigs, which might serve as important candidate genes in future study.

  20. Spontaneous Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Some of the best learning experiences can arise incidentally and unexpectedly from an event or good idea. This happened at the author's school, Laycock Primary in West Yorkshire, in April and May 2010. Children and staff returned from the Easter holidays to discover that a pair of blue tits had built their nest in a bird box on a wall in the…

  1. John Fothergill: a biographical sketch and his contributions to neurology.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2013-01-01

    John Fothergill was a remarkable but largely forgotten physician, plant collector, and philanthropist, born of Quaker parents in Yorkshire. This article summarizes the legacy of his work on trigeminal neuralgia and migrainous "sick headaches," and his seminal studies on angina, scarlatina, and diptheria. He became hugely influential and fostered both education and many medical careers in Britain and America.

  2. Professionalism: Doing a Good Job!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of professionalism via perceptions (real or imagined) of lecturers delivering higher education business programmes (HEBPs) in further education colleges in England. The study comprised 26 in-depth interviews conducted in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. The study builds on Perkin's views of a professional…

  3. Exploring the "Dragon's Graveyard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Most schools visit Magna Science Adventure Centre on the back of careful planning and preparation. Magna is a fairly unique environment. "Steelos", the local name for the former Templeborough steelworks in Rotherham, West Yorkshire, was a vast plant. It became home to Magna in 2001. The building is over half a kilometre long and 45…

  4. Pre-multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain associated with disseminated tuberculosis in a pet dog.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Ana; Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets.

  5. Pre-Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strain Associated with Disseminated Tuberculosis in a Pet Dog

    PubMed Central

    Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets. PMID:24153119

  6. Hoyle, Sir Fred (1915-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrophysicist, controversialist and science fiction writer, born in Bingley, West Yorkshire, England, became professor of astronomy at Cambridge where he founded the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy (IOTA), later merged with the Cambridge Observatory as the Institute of Astronomy. Motivated by anti-religious sentiments, and wishing to avoid the issue of cause of the start of the universe, Hoyl...

  7. Careers Using Languages: How to Set up a Conference for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, York St John University (YSJU) has run an annual one-day "Careers using Languages" conference for schools in Yorkshire and Humberside. It has the aim of demonstrating to school students the opportunities in life that speaking a foreign language opens up as well as showing how they will be able to offer an added bonus to their…

  8. Effect of Recombinant FVIIA in Hypothermic, Coagulopathic Pigs with Liver Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    parameters and trends for litter traits in U.S. Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Landrace pigs. J Anim Sci. 2003 ; 8: 46-53. Danilos J, Goral A...Shock. 2002; 18: 316- 321. Tummaruk P, Lundeheim N, Einarsson S, Dalin AM. Factors influencing age at first mating in purebred Swedish Landrace and

  9. Life on Our Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham; Grassam, Matthew; Scott, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    St. Martin's Church of England Primary School in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, enjoys a unique location, being approximately 10 minutes walk from a rocky shore and a similar distance from the University of Hull (Scarborough Campus) and its Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences. A grant provided by the Royal Society (under their Education…

  10. Innovative Practice in the Use of ICT in Education and Training: Learning from the Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggleby, Julia; Jennings, David; Pickering, Fred; Schmoller, Seb; Bola, Femi; Stone, Richard; Willis, Penny

    2004-01-01

    Addresses three separate initiatives South Yorkshire Further Education Consortium SYFEC e-skills4industry - a partnership between Lewisham College and Deloitte and Cascade and information and communication technology ICT training for schools. The initiatives, however, share two important characteristics. First, they are all initiatives which have…

  11. Shake It All About! Using Earthquake Science to Enhance Geology and Physics Teaching in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Phillip; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A three-year project aimed at embedding seismology into schools in northern England to support the teaching of the earth science strands in the National Curriculum for England and Wales is described. Seismometers were deployed in a range of high schools across the Yorkshire and Humberside region. Deployment was supported by a programme of staff…

  12. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  13. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just…

  14. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  15. Nurses lead the way with webcam consultations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-09-06

    More than a decade ago, Airedale NHS Foundation Trust in West Yorkshire began using a video link to deliver consultations to prisoners at a high-security jail. It meant prisoners no longer had to be escorted to the outpatient department.

  16. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  17. Relational Capabilities to Leverage New Knowledge: Managing Directors' Perceptions in UK and Portugal Old Industrial Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on the specific context of two European old industrial regions--South Yorkshire (UK) and North Region of Portugal--this paper aims to identify and conceptualise a set of relational capabilities that business leaders perceive to play a key role in industrial rejuvenation. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research design…

  18. Lean and obese pig breeds exhibit differences in prenatal gene expression profiles of muscle development.

    PubMed

    Yang, X R; Yu, B; Mao, X B; Zheng, P; He, J; Yu, J; He, Y; Reecy, J M; Chen, D W

    2015-01-01

    Muscle development in domesticated animals is important for meat production. Furthermore, intramuscular fat content is an important trait of meat intended for consumption. Here, we examined differences in the expression of factors related to myogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscle growth during fetal muscle development of lean (Yorkshire) and obese (Chenghua) pig breeds. At prenatal days 50 (d50) and 90 (d90), muscles and sera were collected from pig fetuses. Histology revealed larger diameters and numbers of myofibers in Chenghua pig fetuses than those in Yorkshire pig fetuses at d50 and d90. Yorkshire fetuses had higher serum concentrations of myostatin (d90), a negative regulator for muscle development, and higher mRNA expression of the growth hormone receptor Ghr (d90), myogenic MyoG (d90) and adipogenic LPL (d50). By contrast, Chenghua fetuses exhibited higher serum concentration of growth hormone (d90), and higher mRNA expression of myogenic MyoD (d90) as well as adipogenic PPARG and FABP4 (d50). Our results revealed distinct expression patterns in the two pig breeds at each developmental stage before birth. Compared with Chenghua pigs, development and maturation of fetal skeletal muscles may occur earlier in Yorkshire pigs, but the negative regulatory effects of myostatin may suppress muscle development at the later stage.

  19. The UK National Arts Education Archive: Ideas and Imaginings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff; Bailey, Rowan; Walton, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The National Arts Education Archive (NAEA) is housed and maintained by the Yorkshire Sculpture Park (YSP), and managed by YSP coordinators and educators with a well-established volunteer programme. This year, 2017, as part of the celebrations of the YSP's 40th anniversary, the Archive will hold its own exhibition entitled "Treasures…

  20. PATHOGENESIS OF A MYCOPLASM INFECTION IN SWINCE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    pound pigs were absent or minimal. Hampshire pigs that were not deprived of colostrum at birth had the greatest response to the injected organism... Colostrum -deprived Hampshirepigs weighing 100 pounds elicited a response similar to Yorkshires that had not received colostrum at birth. An indirect

  1. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just…

  2. Graduating into Start-up: Exploring the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Ghulam; Holden, Rick; Walmsley, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the exploratory research discussed in this paper was to generate insights into the complexity of the career-making processes involved in the transition from being a student to starting up a business. Using story-telling interviews, data were collected from fifteen graduates based in the Yorkshire region of the UK. Qualitative…

  3. The use of digital infrared thermal imaging to detect estrus in gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yorkshire/Landrace crossbred gilts (N =32) were evaluated using digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to discriminate between estrus and diestrus phases of the porcine estrous cycle. Gilts (N =32) were part of an ongoing reproductive efficiency study involving the use of raw soybean (RSB; N = 15) ...

  4. Bridging the Religious Divide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mission success. The actions of religious actors like Sistani and Sadr accentuate the need for increased “religious situational awareness...in London, his voice inflected with a West Yorkshire accent , preaching jihad in English. Al Jazeera aired the communique of 30-year-old Mohammad

  5. Close to Kill: Vestigial Technologies and Combat Arms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    underwater rams of the past. As had been the case with rams in the latter part of the 19th century, they also produced extremely damaging...Robertshaw, Andrew and David Kenyon. Digging the Trenches: The Archaeology of the Western Front. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Military

  6. School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Because of established links with attainment, the UK government has, over the last ten years, developed policies to improve school attendance. Legislation now makes school attendance a parental responsibility. In the small-scale study reported in this article, Anne Sheppard, manager of an Education Welfare Service Team in North Yorkshire,…

  7. Spontaneous Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Some of the best learning experiences can arise incidentally and unexpectedly from an event or good idea. This happened at the author's school, Laycock Primary in West Yorkshire, in April and May 2010. Children and staff returned from the Easter holidays to discover that a pair of blue tits had built their nest in a bird box on a wall in the…

  8. Professionalism: Doing a Good Job!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of professionalism via perceptions (real or imagined) of lecturers delivering higher education business programmes (HEBPs) in further education colleges in England. The study comprised 26 in-depth interviews conducted in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. The study builds on Perkin's views of a professional…

  9. A genome scan for selection signatures in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunlong; Wei, Julong; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jinyong; Liu, Jianfeng; Ding, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying signatures of selection can provide a straightforward insight into the mechanism of artificial selection and further uncover the causal genes related to the phenotypic variation. Based on Illumina Porcine60KSNP chip data, four complementary methods, Long-Range Haplotype (LRH), Tajima's D, Cross Population Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (XPEHH) and FST, were implemented in this study to detect the selection signatures in the whole genome of one typical Chinese indigenous breed, Rongchang, one Chinese cultivated breed, Songliao, and two western breeds, Landrace and Yorkshire. False Discovery Rate (FDR) was implemented to control the false positive rates. In our study, a total of 159, 127, 179 and 159 candidate selection regions with average length of 0.80 Mb, 0.73 Mb, 0.78 Mb and 0.73 Mb were identified in Landrace, Rongchang, Songliao and Yorkshire, respectively, that span approximately 128.00 Mb, 92.38 Mb, 130.30 Mb and 115.40 Mb and account for approximately 3.74-5.33% of genome across all autosomes. The selection regions of 11.52 Mb shared by Landrace and Yorkshire were the longest when chosen pairs from the pool of the four breeds were examined. The overlaps between Yorkshire and Songliao, approximately 9.20 Mb, were greater than those of Yorkshire and Rongchang. Meanwhile, the overlaps between Landrace and Songliao were greater than those of Landrace and Rongchang but less than those of Songliao and Ronchang. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the genes/QTLs relevant to fertility, coat color, and ear morphology were found in candidate selection regions. Some genes, such as LEMD3, MC1R, KIT, TRHR etc. that were reported under selection, were confirmed in our study, and this analysis also demonstrated the diversity of breeds.

  10. A Genome Scan for Selection Signatures in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunlong; Wei, Julong; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jinyong; Liu, Jianfeng; Ding, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying signatures of selection can provide a straightforward insight into the mechanism of artificial selection and further uncover the causal genes related to the phenotypic variation. Based on Illumina Porcine60KSNP chip data, four complementary methods, Long-Range Haplotype (LRH), Tajima’s D, Cross Population Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (XPEHH) and FST, were implemented in this study to detect the selection signatures in the whole genome of one typical Chinese indigenous breed, Rongchang, one Chinese cultivated breed, Songliao, and two western breeds, Landrace and Yorkshire. False Discovery Rate (FDR) was implemented to control the false positive rates. In our study, a total of 159, 127, 179 and 159 candidate selection regions with average length of 0.80 Mb, 0.73 Mb, 0.78 Mb and 0.73 Mb were identified in Landrace, Rongchang, Songliao and Yorkshire, respectively, that span approximately 128.00 Mb, 92.38 Mb, 130.30 Mb and 115.40 Mb and account for approximately 3.74–5.33% of genome across all autosomes. The selection regions of 11.52 Mb shared by Landrace and Yorkshire were the longest when chosen pairs from the pool of the four breeds were examined. The overlaps between Yorkshire and Songliao, approximately 9.20 Mb, were greater than those of Yorkshire and Rongchang. Meanwhile, the overlaps between Landrace and Songliao were greater than those of Landrace and Rongchang but less than those of Songliao and Ronchang. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the genes/QTLs relevant to fertility, coat color, and ear morphology were found in candidate selection regions. Some genes, such as LEMD3, MC1R, KIT, TRHR etc. that were reported under selection, were confirmed in our study, and this analysis also demonstrated the diversity of breeds. PMID:25756180

  11. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  12. Structure, evolution and functional inference on the Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family in three cultivated Cucurbitaceae spp.

    PubMed

    Iovieno, Paolo; Andolfo, Giuseppe; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Catalano, Domenico; Ricciardi, Luigi; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-12-29

    The powdery mildew disease affects thousands of plant species and arguably represents the major fungal threat for many Cucurbitaceae crops, including melon (Cucumis melo L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). Several studies revealed that specific members of the Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family act as powdery mildew susceptibility factors. Indeed, their inactivation, as the result of gene knock-out or knock-down, is associated with a peculiar form of resistance, referred to as mlo resistance. We exploited recently available genomic information to provide a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family in Cucurbitaceae. We report the identification of 16 MLO homologs in C. melo, 14 in C. lanatus and 18 in C. pepo genomes. Bioinformatic treatment of data allowed phylogenetic inference and the prediction of several ortholog pairs and groups. Comparison with functionally characterized MLO genes and, in C. lanatus, gene expression analysis, resulted in the detection of candidate powdery mildew susceptibility factors. We identified a series of conserved amino acid residues and motifs that are likely to play a major role for the function of MLO proteins. Finally, we performed a codon-based evolutionary analysis indicating a general high level of purifying selection in the three Cucurbitaceae MLO gene families, and the occurrence of regions under diversifying selection in candidate susceptibility factors. Results of this study may help to address further biological questions concerning the evolution and function of MLO genes. Moreover, data reported here could be conveniently used by breeding research, aiming to select powdery mildew resistant cultivars in Cucurbitaceae.

  13. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eIF4E gene are closely associated with resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kai-Shu; Harris, Karen R; Meyer, Jenelle D F; Levi, Amnon; Guner, Nihat; Wehner, Todd C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Havey, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E gene segments in watermelon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences between the ZYMV-resistant watermelon plant introduction PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon cultivar 'New Hampshire Midget' ('NHM') showed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Initial analysis of the identified SNPs in association studies indicated that SNPs in the eIF4E, but not eIF(iso)4E, were closely associated to the phenotype of ZYMV-resistance in 70 F(2) and 114 BC(1R) progenies. Subsequently, we focused our efforts in obtaining the entire genomic sequence of watermelon eIF4E. Three SNPs were identified between PI 595203 and NHM. One of the SNPs (A241C) was in exon 1 and the other two SNPs (C309A and T554G) were in the first intron of the gene. SNP241 which resulted in an amino acid substitution (proline to threonine) was shown to be located in the critical cap recognition and binding area, similar to that of several plant species resistance to potyviruses. Analysis of a cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) marker derived from this SNP in F(2) and BC(1R) populations demonstrated a cosegregation between the CAPS-2 marker and their ZYMV resistance or susceptibility phenotype. When we investigated whether such SNP mutation in the eIF4E was also conserved in several other PIs of C. lanatus var. citroides, we identified a different SNP (A171G) resulting in another amino acid substitution (D71G) from four ZYMV-resistant C. lanatus var. citroides (PI 244018, PI 482261, PI 482299, and PI 482322). Additional CAPS markers were also identified. Availability of all these CAPS markers will enable marker-aided breeding of watermelon for ZYMV resistance.

  14. Genome wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in watermelon genome and their application in comparative mapping and genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huayu; Song, Pengyao; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Guo, Luqin; Li, Yanman; Sun, Shouru; Weng, Yiqun; Yang, Luming

    2016-08-05

    Microsatellite markers are one of the most informative and versatile DNA-based markers used in plant genetic research, but their development has traditionally been difficult and costly. The whole genome sequencing with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides large amounts of sequence data to develop numerous microsatellite markers at whole genome scale. SSR markers have great advantage in cross-species comparisons and allow investigation of karyotype and genome evolution through highly efficient computation approaches such as in silico PCR. Here we described genome wide development and characterization of SSR markers in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) genome, which were then use in comparative analysis with two other important crop species in the Cucurbitaceae family: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.). We further applied these markers in evaluating the genetic diversity and population structure in watermelon germplasm collections. A total of 39,523 microsatellite loci were identified from the watermelon draft genome with an overall density of 111 SSRs/Mbp, and 32,869 SSR primers were designed with suitable flanking sequences. The dinucleotide SSRs were the most common type representing 34.09 % of the total SSR loci and the AT-rich motifs were the most abundant in all nucleotide repeat types. In silico PCR analysis identified 832 and 925 SSR markers with each having a single amplicon in the cucumber and melon draft genome, respectively. Comparative analysis with these cross-species SSR markers revealed complicated mosaic patterns of syntenic blocks among the genomes of three species. In addition, genetic diversity analysis of 134 watermelon accessions with 32 highly informative SSR loci placed these lines into two groups with all accessions of C.lanatus var. citorides and three accessions of C. colocynthis clustered in one group and all accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus and the remaining accessions of C. colocynthis

  15. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis Transcriptome during Water Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R.; McElroy, J. Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress. PMID:25118696

  16. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis transcriptome during water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R; McElroy, J Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress.

  17. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  18. Fruit quality assessment of watermelons grafted onto citron melon rootstock.

    PubMed

    Fredes, Alejandro; Roselló, Salvador; Beltrán, Joaquim; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Pérez-de-Castro, Ana; Gisbert, Carmina; Picó, María Belén

    2017-03-01

    The grafting of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) is a common technique that increases yield under stressful soil conditions. The most common rootstocks for watermelons are Cucurbita hybrids. However, they often have a negative impact on fruit quality. Exploiting novel Citrullus germplasm such as citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an alternative to avoid these quality problems. Citron melon has been validated as watermelon rootstock, comparing its effects on watermelon quality to those of Cucurbita hybrids. Larger fruits with thicker rinds were observed in fruits from plants grafted onto both citron and Cucurbita rootstocks. The citron melon had no significant effect on flesh sugars or acid profiles compared to non-grafted watermelons, except for an increase in glucose and malic acid content, which also occurred in the Cucurbita rootstocks. The aroma profile of fruits produced on citron melon was similar to that of the non-grafted and self-grafted controls. The citron rootstock did not display the increased levels of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol (a compound associated with pumpkin-like odors) found in fruits produced with Cucurbita hybrids. The low impact of citron melon rootstock on fruit quality, along with the enhanced resistance against nematodes, make the citron a promising alternative to Cucurbita rootstocks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Kang, D; Shi, Z; Shen, H; Wehner, T

    2004-01-01

    High resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus-China strain (ZYMV-CH) and moderate resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) were found in a selection of PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), an Egusi type originally collected in Nigeria. Mixed inoculations showed primarily that these two viruses have no cross-protection. This fact may explain the high frequency of mixed infection often observed in commercial fields. When plants were inoculated with a mixture of the two viruses, the frequency of plants resistant to ZYMV was lower than expected, indicating that WMV infection may reduce the ability of a plant to resist ZYMV. We studied inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-CH and WMV, using crosses between a single-plant selection of PI 595203 and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon inbreds 9811 and 98R. According to virus ratings of the susceptible parents, the resistant parent, and the F1, F2, and BC1 generations, resistance to ZYMV-CH was conferred by a single recessive gene, for which the symbol zym-CH is suggested. The high tolerance to WMV was controlled by at least two recessive genes.

  20. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-07

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Discovery of second gene for solid dark green versus light green rind pattern in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Wehner, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) has high variability for fruit size, shape, rind pattern, and flesh color. This study was designed to measure the qualitative inheritance of rind phenotypes (solid dark green vs. light green). For each of the 2 families, "Mountain Hoosier" × "Minilee" and "Early Arizona" × "Minilee," 6 generations (P(a)S(1), P(b)S(1), F(1), F(2), BC(1)P(a), BC(1)P(b)) were developed. Each family was tested in summer 2008 in 3 environments in North Carolina. Phenotypic data were analyzed with the χ(2) method to test the segregation of Mendelian genes. Deviations from the expected segregation ratios based on hypothesized single dominant gene for solid dark green versus light green rind pattern were recorded, raising questions on the inheritance of this trait. Inheritance of solid dark green rind versus light (gray) rind showed duplicate dominant epistasis. Duplicate dominant epistasis gives rise to a 15:1 ratio (solid dark green:light rind pattern) in F(2) generation. When both the loci are homozygous recessive, we observe light rind pattern. The g-1 and g-2 genes were identified to control light green rind when in homozygous recessive form.

  3. Developing network-based services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Conner, M

    2001-01-01

    Networks, based upon informal relationships, have ensured that care was delivered to patients for many years. This informal organisation of care, based upon personal relationships, ensures that where the bureaucratic organisation fails the patient, health professionals' work together to network the resources the patient needs. Networks are not new. Formalising networks and recognising their potential to deliver seamless care is new. The NHS must ensure that networks are developed, allowing them freedom from bureaucracy to reach their potential. The Northern and Yorkshire Learning Alliance (NYLA) was established as part of the Northern and Yorkshire health community's efforts to radically improve care. The NYLA operates as a network with a small team of change experts working to develop change management and service improvement capacity across 10,000 square miles. As a network based organisation the team has learned many lessons, which may inform the development of clinical networks in England.

  4. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1.3um laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Winston, Golda C. H.; Burton, Margaret B.; Greene, Willie L.

    2003-07-01

    An increasing number of industries, to include military, medicinal, and technological arenas, are using 1.3 micron laser systems for which current skin and eye guidelines are identical. No skin threshold, ED50 or exposure data are available. The mechanisms of laser-tissue interaction with skin at 1.3 microns are unknown. Together, these facts necessitate increased research to prevent future laser accidents and injuries. This study examines the method of interaction of 1.3 microns laser light with tissue in the Yorkshire pig. Our research addresses laser-tissue interaction through delivery using a Nd:YAG with an intracavity filter producing 1.3 micron light at 0.5 millisecond exposure time and in the range of 137 to 475 J/cm2. Laser exposure to Yorkshire pigs was evaluated for dermal lesion development. Lesions were appraised for acute, one-hour and 24-hour post exposure presentation.

  5. Canine urolithiasis: A look at over 16 000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from February 1998 to April 2003

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to report on the age, sex, breed, and mineral composition of 16 647 canine bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between February 1998 and April 2003. Each urolith submission was accompanied by a questionnaire. Of the submissions, approximately 43.8% were struvite and 41.5% oxalate. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs. Mixed breed dogs predominated, followed by the shih tzu, bichon frise, miniature schnauzer, Lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier. Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier. Urate uroliths were most common in male Dalmations. Other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported. A review of risk factors for the various uroliths is presented, along with some recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:15072194

  6. A comparison of small-area hospitalisation rates, estimated morbidity and hospital access.

    PubMed

    Shulman, H; Birkin, M; Clarke, G P

    2015-11-01

    Published data on hospitalisation rates tend to reveal marked spatial variations within a city or region. Such variations may simply reflect corresponding variations in need at the small-area level. However, they might also be a consequence of poorer accessibility to medical facilities for certain communities within the region. To help answer this question it is important to compare these variable hospitalisation rates with small-area estimates of need. This paper first maps hospitalisation rates at the small-area level across the region of Yorkshire in the UK to show the spatial variations present. Then the Health Survey of England is used to explore the characteristics of persons with heart disease, using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Using the most significant variables from this analysis the authors build a spatial microsimulation model of morbidity for heart disease for the Yorkshire region. We then compare these estimates of need with the patterns of hospitalisation rates seen across the region.

  7. Psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy training in a UK deanery: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Amy Alice; Clark, Sarah Emily

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method To explore core psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) training by using interpretative phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven core trainee psychiatrists in Yorkshire and the Humber Deanery. Results Four key themes emerged: (1) barriers to training; (2) guidance, with emphasis on the importance of supervision groups; (3) acquisition of new skills and confidence; (4) personal influence on the training experience. Clinical implications Many trainees in Yorkshire have a positive experience of CBT training; however, some also experience barriers to acquiring the relevant skills. Further research should build on the positive factors and barriers identified here, with a view to guiding improvements in training nationwide. PMID:28400968

  8. Treatment of Decompression Sickness in Swine With Intravenous Perfluorocarbon Emulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    canine muscle tissue by 110% over that in saline-treated dogs (14). Hamsters showed significant increased survival, reduced bubble formation, and fewer... Neutered male Yorkshire swine littermates (n 45, mean weight 20.9 kg 0.2 SEM) were exam- ined by a veterinarian on receipt, then fitted with an...no neurological DCS (Ta- ble I). Our reduction in DCS incidence was smaller than that previously observed (10,19) for several reasons . First, prior

  9. Strategic Success Of SRI Lankan Government Against LTTE Remains Tentative Despite Military Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-13

    conditions which allowed for a successful military campaign to defeat the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). During the final phase of the war, the...Destruction of the Tamil Tigers : The Rare Victory of Sri Lanka’s Long War (Pen & Sword Books Ltd., South Yorkshire, 2012), 166-167. 24 Ibid. 25...Moorcraft, 168. 26 Gordon Weiss, The Cage: The Fight for Sri Lanka and the Last Days of the Tamil Tigers (Bellevue Literary Press, New York, 2012), 219

  10. Partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (P-REBOA) in a Pig Model (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-10

    procedure to limit exsanguination is unclear. We evaluated the impact of P-REBOA on immediate survival in a highly lethal swine liver injury model...Methods: Fifteen Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and subjected to 30 liver amputation. Coagulopathy was created...through hemodilution. Randomized swine received no intervention (control), P-REBOA, or complete REBOA (C-REBOA). Central mean arterial pressure

  11. Phenobarbital-responsive sialadenosis associated with an esophageal foreign body in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gilor, Chen; Gilor, Shir; Graves, Thomas K

    2010-01-01

    A 4-year-old Yorkshire terrier was presented for an esophageal foreign body. After removal of the foreign body, clinical signs of gagging, regurgitation, and vomiting continued unabated for >6 weeks. The dog had enlarged submandibular salivary glands that were histologically normal. Treatment with phenobarbital resulted in a rapid and dramatic resolution of clinical signs. After 3 months, the dog was weaned of phenobarbital and was free of any signs of disease 6 months later.

  12. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J C; Taylor, J G; Jackson, A A; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1000

  13. Ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis in a piglet.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L E; McGovern, P T

    1984-10-27

    A congenital anomaly characterised by displacement of the heart through a ventral body wall fissure involving the thoracic and cranial abdominal regions was recorded in a female Yorkshire-cross piglet. Dissection to assess the morphology of the developmental defect and a summary review of the literature on ectopia cordis were made. This case appears to be one of only three of ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis reported in swine.

  14. Prediction of Genes Related to Positive Selection Using Whole-Genome Resequencing in Three Commercial Pig Breeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyoYoung; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Seo, Minseok; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kangseok; Kim, Heebal

    2015-12-01

    Selective sweep can cause genetic differentiation across populations, which allows for the identification of possible causative regions/genes underlying important traits. The pig has experienced a long history of allele frequency changes through artificial selection in the domestication process. We obtained an average of 329,482,871 sequence reads for 24 pigs from three pig breeds: Yorkshire (n = 5), Landrace (n = 13), and Duroc (n = 6). An average read depth of 11.7 was obtained using whole-genome resequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. In this study, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and cross-population composite likelihood ratio tests were implemented to detect genes experiencing positive selection for the genome-wide resequencing data generated from three commercial pig breeds. In our results, 26, 7, and 14 genes from Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively were detected by two kinds of statistical tests. Significant evidence for positive selection was identified on genes ST6GALNAC2 and EPHX1 in Yorkshire, PARK2 in Landrace, and BMP6, SLA-DQA1, and PRKG1 in Duroc.These genes are reportedly relevant to lactation, reproduction, meat quality, and growth traits. To understand how these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related positive selection affect protein function, we analyzed the effect of non-synonymous SNPs. Three SNPs (rs324509622, rs80931851, and rs80937718) in the SLA-DQA1 gene were significant in the enrichment tests, indicating strong evidence for positive selection in Duroc. Our analyses identified genes under positive selection for lactation, reproduction, and meat-quality and growth traits in Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively.

  15. The Effect of rFVIIa on Pro- and Anti-Inflamatory Cytokines in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    alpha expression and protein levels after fluid percussion injury in rats: the effect of injury severity and brain temperature. Neurosurgery ...Short Communication The effect of rFVIIa on pro- and anti-inflamatory cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in a swine model of traumatic brain...Tumor necrosis factor-ex lnterleukin-1 p lnterleukin-1 0 rfVlla TBl Twenty anesthetized immature Yorkshire swine underwent fluid percussion TBI. At

  16. The Adult Göttingen Minipig as a Model for Chronic Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction: Focus on Cardiovascular Imaging and Regenerative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Schuleri, Karl H; Boyle, Andrew J; Centola, Marco; Amado, Luciano C; Evers, Robert; Zimmet, Jeffrey M; Evers, Kristine S; Ostbye, Katherine M; Scorpio, Diana G; Hare, Joshua M; Lardo, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    Porcine models have become increasingly popular in cardiovascular research. The standard farm pig rapidly increases in body weight and size, potentially confounding serial measurements of cardiac function and morphology. We developed an adult porcine model that does not show physiologic increases in heart mass during the study period and is suitable for long-term study. We compared adult minipigs with the commonly used adolescent Yorkshire swine. Myocardial infarction was induced in adult Göttingen minipigs and adolescent Yorkshire swine by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. At 8 wk after infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 34.1 ± 2.3% in minipigs and 30.7 ± 2.0% in Yorkshire swine. The left ventricular end-diastolic mass in Yorkshire pigs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging increased 17 ± 5 g, from 42.6 ± 4.3 g at week 1 after infarction to 52.8 ± 6.6 g at week 8, whereas it remained unchanged in minipigs. Cardiac anatomy and physiology in adult minipigs were evaluated invasively by angiography and noninvasively by Multidetector Computed Tomography and by Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T prior to myocardial infarction and during folow-up. This porcine heart failure model is reproducible, mimics the pathophysiology in patients who have experienced myocardial infarction, and is suitable for imaging studies. New heart failure therapies and devices can be tested preclinically in this adult animal model of chronic heart failure. PMID:19149414

  17. Cook, James (1728-79)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Sailor, born in Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, England. As a captain in the Royal Navy, conducted three voyages of exploration in the Pacific Ocean, the first inspired by EDMOND HALLEY's suggestion that the distance from the Sun to the Earth could be calculated by timing the transit of Venus across the face of the Sun. A better measurement would enable more accurate ephemeredes to be computed an...

  18. Comparison of markers predicting litter size in different pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, W-S; Rahman, M S; Ryu, D-Y; Khatun, A; Pang, M-G

    2017-05-01

    To overcome the limitations of conventional analysis of male fertility in animals and humans, proteomic studies have been performed to develop fertility-related biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. However, the studies were focused on specific species or breeds. Therefore, a study is required to validate whether fertility-related markers would apply to other breeds in pigs. In this study, previously developed fertility-related biomarkers from Landrace were validated to use for prognosis of male fertility in commercially available breeds. Expression level of eight biomarkers in non-capacitated and capacitated (C) spermatozoa from Yorkshire and Duroc boars was analyzed. And then, to explore the validity of these markers for prognosis of male fertility, i.e. litter size, artificial insemination was performed. Among them, RAB2A (NC) and UQCRC1 (NC) turned out to be highest efficient markers for Yorkshire. RAB2A (C) was most efficient marker for Duroc. Average litter size has increased as much as 1.41 live born after prediction using eight fertility-related biomarkers in Yorkshire. In addition, average 2.52 litter size was increased after prediction using eight fertility-related biomarkers in Duroc. Average litter sizes were especially highly increased after prediction of fertility using RAB2A (NC) in Yorkshire (1.57 piglets) and TPI (NC) in Duroc (3.14 piglets), respectively. As a result, all biomarkers were significantly correlated with litter size. However, overall accuracy to predict litter size in three breeds was different in response with each marker. Average litter size after artificial insemination was also significantly affected by marker selection. Therefore, this study suggests that developed fertility-related markers may be used for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility irrespective of breed. However, selection of efficient markers for breeds should be considered to obtain more accurate and efficient outcomes. © 2017 American

  19. Integrative Lifecourse and Genetic Analysis of Military Working Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    such as some forms of cancer, and as anti-inflammatory treatments of diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Many more are being...the phenotype are very small dogs – Yorkshire Terrier, Chihuahua and Japanese Chin – leading the authors to propose the trait is not manifest in...also have that insertion haplotype at high frequency but do not manifest proportionally-short legs – ruling out recent selection on that trait

  20. Headed the Wrong Way: The British Army’s Painful Re-Acquaintance with Its Own COIN Doctrine in Southern Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    ed. and trans. by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). The referenced quote is found in Book 1...Bryan Ray , Dangerous Frontiers Campaigning in Somaliland & Oman (South Yorkshire, Britain: Pen and Sword Military, 2008), 46. The jebel was an...development to Dhofar became a classic revolutionary movement with much wider aims.25 Bryan Ray , a seconded26 British officer who commanded a SAF regiment

  1. Respiratory symptoms in wool textile workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.G.; Smith, T.; Jones, C.O.; Gurr, D.; Soutar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This epidemiological study was intended to investigate exposures to inspirable wool dust in selected wool textile mills, the patterns of respiratory symptoms reported by workers in the industry, and the relationships of symptoms to exposure to dust. Fifteen mills in West Yorkshire representing all stages of the woollen and worsted process, and production of carpet yarns, were included in the study, their size ranging from four to nearly four hundred employees.

  2. Quantitative Mechanistic Modeling of Sublingual PC02 as an Index of Shock Severity and Resuscitation Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    cortex were increased early. Tissue hypercarbia was promptly reversed after restoration of normal blood flow (Desai, 1993, 1995; Johnson, 1995; Kette ...set forth in the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, 1996. Animal preparation. Ten healthy male Yorkshire-X...animals. The Institute adheres to the principles set forth in the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, 1996. METHODS

  3. Transcriptomic profiling in muscle and adipose tissue identifies genes related to growth and lipid deposition.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xuan; Liang, Yan; Yang, Xuemei; Pang, Jianhui; Zhong, Zhijun; Chen, Xiaohui; Yang, Yuekui; Zeng, Kai; Kang, Runming; Lei, Yunfeng; Ying, Sancheng; Gong, Jianjun; Gu, Yiren; Lv, Xuebin

    2017-01-01

    Growth performance and meat quality are important traits for the pig industry and consumers. Adipose tissue is the main site at which fat storage and fatty acid synthesis occur. Therefore, we combined high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing in adipose and muscle tissues with the quantification of corresponding phenotypic features using seven Chinese indigenous pig breeds and one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire). We obtained data on 101 phenotypic traits, from which principal component analysis distinguished two groups: one associated with the Chinese breeds and one with Yorkshire. The numbers of differentially expressed genes between all Chinese breeds and Yorkshire were shown to be 673 and 1056 in adipose and muscle tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are associated with biological functions and canonical pathways related to oxidoreductase activity, immune response, and metabolic process. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis found more coexpression modules significantly correlated with the measured phenotypic traits in adipose than in muscle, indicating that adipose regulates meat and carcass quality. Using the combination of differential expression, QTL information, gene significance, and module hub genes, we identified a large number of candidate genes potentially related to economically important traits in pig, which should help us improve meat production and quality.

  4. Variance and covariance components for liability of piglet survival during different periods.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sorensen, D; Lund, M S

    2008-02-01

    Variance and covariance components for piglet survival in different periods were estimated from individual records of 133 004 Danish Landrace piglets and 89 928 Danish Yorkshire piglets, using a liability threshold model including both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. At the individual piglet level, the estimates of direct heritability in Landrace were 0.035, 0.057 and 0.027, and in Yorkshire the estimates were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.025 for liability of survival at farrowing (SVB), from birth to day 5 (SV5) and from day 6 to weaning (SVW), respectively. The estimates of maternal heritability for SVB, SV5 and SVW were, respectively, 0.057, 0.040 and 0.030 in Landrace, and 0.050, 0.038 and 0.019 in Yorkshire. Both direct and maternal genetic correlations between the three survival traits were low and not significantly different from zero, except for a moderate direct genetic correlation between SVB and SV5 and between SV5 and SVW in Landrace. Direct and maternal genetic correlations between piglet birth weight (BW) and SV5 were moderately high, but the correlations between BW and SVB and between BW and SVW were low and most of them were not significantly different from zero. These results suggest that effective genetic improvement in piglet survival before weaning by selection should be based on both direct and maternal additive genetic effects and treat survival in different periods as different traits.

  5. Protective effects of seed melon extract on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Tian, Xing; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Xue, Lin; Tian, Li-Ping

    2016-12-04

    Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao, was also known as watermelon belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, variously used as healthy food and in the treatment of liver and lungs problems. Currently, Citrullus lanatus has become a major economic crop of medicinal and edible effects with regional characteristics. This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the seed melon (Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao) extract (SME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. In this study, mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including normal control, model, silymarin tablets as the positive control, SME 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/kg. After 8 weeks, activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) were checked. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutataion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined after SME administration. The hydroxyproline (HYP) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and histopathologic examinations of hepatocyte fibrosis were also determined. Additionally, effects of SME on alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β1) protein expressions were determined. We found that SME could significantly lower the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers AST, ALT, HA and LN (P<0.01). Compared with the CCl4-only treatment group, levels of hepatic SOD and GSH-Px were significantly increased, and the MDA levels were remarkably decreased in mice treated by SME at medium dose (400mg/kg) and high dose (800mg/kg) (P<0.01). A histological examination of the liver showed that lesions, including necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration and fatty degeneration, were partially healed by treatment with SME. The results of protein expressions studies displayed that SME could inhibit α-SMA and TGF-β1

  6. Effects of allelopathic compounds of corn pollen on respiration and cell division of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Cruz Ortega, R; Anaya, A L; Ramos, L

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the allelopathic compounds of an "'ethanolic extract" of corn pollen on growth, respiration, and cellular division of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, var. peacock improved) were studied. Bioassays with the ethanolic extract showed an inhibition of radicle and hypocotyl growth. The effects on respiration were observed in isolated watermelon hypocotyl mitochondria. The ethanolic extract acts as an inhibitor of the electron pathway, decreasing oxygen consumption in state 3, with malate and succinate substrates. The specific inhibition site probably is located before the cytochromec. Ascorbate-TMPD as substrate reversed the inhibitory effect of the ethanolic extract. An evaluation of the mitotic index was made in slide preparations of previously treated meristematic cells. A decrease in mitotic activity of more than 50% was found, as well as irregular and pycnotic nuclei. The data obtained from this study reflect an important mechanism of action of the allelopathic compounds of corn pollen.

  7. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  8. Phomentrioloxin, a fungal phytotoxin with potential herbicidal activity, and its derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Boari, Angela; Troise, Ciro; Motta, Andrea; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-10-09

    Phomentrioloxin is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture by Phomopsis sp. (teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the annual weed Carthamus lanatus. In this study, seven derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and zootoxic activities, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. Each compound was tested on nonhost weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and on brine shrimp larvae. The results provide insights into an investigation of the structural requirements for activity. The hydroxy groups at C-2 and C-4 appeared to be important features for the phytotoxicity, as well as an unchanged cyclohexentriol ring. A role seemed also to be played by the unsaturations of the geranyl side chain. These findings could be useful for understanding the mechanisms of action of new natural products, for identifying the active sites, and possibly in devising new herbicides of natural origin.

  9. The Effect of the UK Coordinating Centre for Cancer Research Anal Cancer Trial (ACT1) on Population-based Treatment and Survival for Squamous Cell Cancer of the Anus.

    PubMed

    Downing, A; Morris, E J A; Aravani, A; Finan, P J; Lawton, S; Thomas, J D; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2015-12-01

    Between 1987 and 1994, three randomised phase III trials showed that chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil was superior to radiotherapy alone (ACT1, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) or radiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 87-04, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1289) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. We explored the population-based changes in England before, during and after the UK-based ACT1 trial. Information was extracted from the National Cancer Data Repository on patients diagnosed with squamous cell anal cancer in England between 1981 and 2010 (n = 11 743). Robust treatment information was available for the Yorkshire region (n = 1065). Changes in treatment patterns and 3 year survival were investigated in 7 year cohorts before, during and after the ACT1 trial. In Yorkshire, the proportion of patients receiving surgery alone fell from 61.6% before, 29.8% during and 12.5% after ACT1; the proportion of patients receiving primary chemoradiotherapy rose from 6.5% before, 17.7% during and 58.8% after ACT1 and continued to rise to 70.3% in the subsequent period. Three year survival improved during the study period from 59.5% (95% confidence interval 56.6-62.2) before ACT1 to 73.6% (95% confidence interval 71.9-75.2) after the trial. Survival in Yorkshire was comparable with that in England. The treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus changed dramatically during the study period. The predominant use of surgery before ACT1, a transition phase during the trial and a dramatic increase in the use of chemoradiotherapy after ACT1 provide strong evidence of the effect of the trial on population-based practice. Survival continued to increase during this period. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Discolouration Risk Mapping: a Regionally Mapped Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M.; Arrell, K.; McDonald, A.; Tillotson, M.; Foulger, M.; Walker, A.

    2006-12-01

    Discolouration in catchment waters is caused by the release through oxidation, warming and biological decomposition of the soil. Catchments that yield highly discoloured waters not only increase treatment and sludge disposal costs but also risk compliance failures and increase the potential for Trihalomethane (THM) production; an unwanted byproduct of water chlorination. Therefore it is important for water companies to quantify and map water discolouration risk within their catchments to guide surveillance and intervention strategies. Yorkshire Water Services derives significant water resources from upland catchments. These catchments continue to produce increasing quantities of discolouration which are problematic and costly to treat. The company is taking several initiatives to manage colour. Traditional water colour studies tend to be restricted in scale and are unable to make conclusions about water colour production within a region. Sensitivities of water colour production to feedbacks and interactions between multiple factors also remains largely unquantified. This research addressed these limitations and mapped water discolouration risk for the Yorkshire Water area. Many factors are believed to influence colour production within a catchment. These are divided into two groups: dynamic factors for example, drought frequency, duration and severity or changes in the levels of acid precipitation; and static factors that are catchment specific, such as land management techniques, slope, soil type and erosion. A map of discolouration risk was created by sourcing and combining data for each of these variables. Data were categorised as either factors or constraints on water colour production and combined in a series of weighted overlays within a GIS, reflecting recent research on the processes leading to water colour production. Resulting risk maps identified a large variability in risk throughout study catchments. Analyses were also undertaken to examine the

  11. Comparison of Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus Muscles from Purebred Pigs and Three-way Crossbred LYD Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeong-Seok; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Jung, Ji-Taek; Jung, Young-Chul; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Yang-Il; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to find pork quality to meet the needs of consumers. Thus, the meat quality and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscles from purebred pigs (Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc) and three-way crossbred LYD pigs were compared and evaluated. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscles were significant (p<0.05) different among pigs. Duroc contained significant (p<0.05) higher fat contents than other pigs, whereas significant (p<0.05) higher moisture contents were observed in Landrace, Yorkshire, and LYD pigs compared to those of Duroc pigs. The values of pH24 h and pH14 d were the highest in Landrace pigs. Myoglobin contents of LYD pigs were higher (p<0.05) than those of purebred pigs. Regarding meat color, Duroc and Yorkshire pigs had higher redness values than Landrace and LYD pigs, while Landrace pigs had the lowest (p<0.05) color values among all pigs. There was no significant difference in shear force or water holding capacity (WHC). Duroc pigs maintained the lowest drip loss during 14 d of cold storage. In sensory evaluation, the marbling scores of Duroc pigs were higher (p<0.05) than other pigs. Regarding fatty acid compositions, total USFA, poly-, n-3, and n-6 contents were the highest (p<0.05) in LYD pigs, while total SFA contents were the highest (p<0.05) in Duroc pigs. Based on these results, purebred pigs had superior overall meat quality to crossbred pigs. PMID:27857546

  12. Drought causes step-changes in catchment-scale carbon export from peatland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, Nicholas; Worrall, Fred; Burt, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Increases in fluvial DOC concentrations in world rivers, particularly those that drain areas of peatland, have been observed for some years, suggesting an increase in carbon loss from the terrestrial biosphere. But it has not been straightforward to identify what causes these increases due to a lack of long-term time series to characterise both observed DOC concentrations and potential drivers. The York Waterworks Company (York, UK) abstracted drinking water from the Yorkshire Ouse just upstream of the city from the late 1800s until 2002. During the period August 1945 to December 2002, records of monthly-average DOC concentrations were kept (using water colour as a surrogate). From January 2003 onwards, the Environment Agency of England and Wales (EA) continued the monitoring, thus providing a 68-year record of monthly-average DOC concentrations in the Yorkshire Ouse, which is the longest DOC time series ever reported for a catchment with significant peat cover. We use the Yorkshire Ouse DOC record to develop a new method that shows how changes in DOC concentration and river flow have influenced carbon fluxes in the Ouse for the latter half of the 20th century and show that the only major changes in DOC flux are caused by step-increases in concentration following severe drought. We then use this method to identify a similar effect in other DOC records for UK rivers. The results suggest that increases in DOC export are due more to discrete events than to the impact of continuous drivers (such as increasing temperatures or changing atmospheric deposition), and also show these increases not to be reversed for at least four decades.

  13. Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Bryan Irvine; Kim, Tae Hun; Makumbe, Milton Tinashe; Song, Chol Won; Seo, Kang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA) and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT) of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated. Methods Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals. Results The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value. Conclusion Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea. PMID:28335089

  14. Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Bryan Irvine; Kim, Tae Hun; Makumbe, Milton Tinashe; Song, Chol Won; Seo, Kang Seok

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA) and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT) of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated. Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value. Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea.

  15. Ultrasonic determination of thermodynamic threshold parameters for irreversible cutaneous burns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo ultrasonic measurements of the depth of conductive cutaneous burns experimentally induced in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs are reported as a function of burn time for the case in which the skin surface temperature is maintained at 100 C. The data are used in the solution of the one-dimensional heat diffusion equation with time-dependent boundary conditions to obtain the threshold temperature and the energy of transformation per unit mass associated with the transition of the tissue from the state of viability to the state of necrosis. The simplicity of the mathematical model and the expediency of the ultrasonic measurements in studies of thermal injury are emphasized.

  16. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  17. A new method for deriving steady-state rate equations suitable for manual or computer use.

    PubMed

    Indge, K J; Childs, R E

    1976-06-01

    A schematic method for the derivation of steady-state enzyme rate equations by using the Wang algebra is described. The method is simple, easy to learn and offers a substantial decrease in analytical effort over previously published algorithms. Being essentially an algebraic procedure the method can be readily computerized. Computer programs in BASIC and ALGOL languages have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50065 (19 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1976). 153, 5.

  18. Postembryonic stages of Nucellicola holmanae Lamb et al., 1996 (copepoda, poecilostomatoida), an endoparasite of the dog whelk Nucella lapillus (gastropoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, E. J.; Boxshall, G. A.; Mill, P. J.; Grahame, J.

    1998-06-01

    The external morphology of the first three larval stages of Nucellicola holmanae is described. These stages were cultured from eggs found with the adults in the viscera of dog whelks collected from Robin Hood's Bay, North Yorkshire. The nauplius develops within the whelk. It moults to a metanauplius which is released as a free-swimming stage. The metanauplius moults to a free copepodid stage which exhibits a combination of characters typical of the first, second and third copepodid stages of other poecilostomatoid copepods. The infective copepodid stage which locates and penetrates the host is visible through the integument of this free-swimming copepodid.

  19. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts in a kitten and a dog.

    PubMed

    Reed, Scott; Cho, Doo Youn; Paulsen, Dan

    2009-09-01

    Two quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts with different pathogenesis are described in 2 different species. A 10-week-old male Persian kitten with a progressively decreasing level of consciousness died spontaneously. At necropsy, mild internal hydrocephalus, caudal cerebellar coning, and cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum were associated with a congenital quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst compressing the rostral cerebellum and shifting the entire cerebellum caudally. In contrast, a possibly acquired quadrigeminal cyst was observed in a 2-year-old male neutered Yorkshire Terrier in association with necrotizing encephalitis. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts have been rarely reported in dogs and humans.

  20. Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on reproduction traits in Finnish pig populations.

    PubMed

    Sironen, A I; Uimari, P; Serenius, T; Mote, B; Rothschild, M; Vilkki, J

    2010-03-01

    Reproduction traits play an important role in economically viable piglet production and are closely related to the quality and length of the productive life of the sow. A increased removal rate of young sows is undesirable not only because of the associated financial penalties incurred, but also because of ethical concerns. Candidate genes and gene pathways have been identified for fertility in model species, and recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms within these genes are associated with reproduction traits in American Yorkshire/Large White and Landrace populations. In this study we evaluated the impact of single polymorphisms (n = 7) in 7 candidate genes on reproductive efficiency in Finnish Yorkshire (n = 280) and Landrace (n = 271) populations: IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP5, CPTIA (carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I), COX2 (PG-endoperoxide synthase 2, also known as cyclooxygenase-2), and SLC22A5 [organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (solute carrier family member I), OCTN2]. In the Finnish Yorkshire population, only 4 of the analyzed markers were polymorphic. Significant effects on farrowing time were detected from the Yorkshire data, with polymorphisms within the genes CPT1A [a (allele substitution effect of allele A) = 2.97 d for age at first farrowing)], IGFBP3 (a = 0.54 d for farrowing interval of parities >1), and IGFBP5 (a = 3.22, 1.27, and 0.85 d for age at first farrowing and farrowing interval in the first and later parities, respectively). For the Landrace population, 6 markers were polymorphic, and significant effects were detected for traits affecting litter size. The polymorphism within the COX2 gene had an additive effect of 0.3 piglets for litter size in parities >1, and the IGFBP1 gene had an additive effect of 0.21, 0.26, and 0.11 piglets for litter size in the first parity, parities >1, and stillborn in parities >1, respectively. The additive effect of the SNP within the IGFBP2 gene was 0.16, 0.09, and 0.09 piglets for

  1. Ultrasonic determination of thermodynamic threshold parameters for irreversible cutaneous burns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo ultrasonic measurements of the depth of conductive cutaneous burns experimentally induced in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs are reported as a function of burn time for the case in which the skin surface temperature is maintained at 100 C. The data are used in the solution of the one-dimensional heat diffusion equation with time-dependent boundary conditions to obtain the threshold temperature and the energy of transformation per unit mass associated with the transition of the tissue from the state of viability to the state of necrosis. The simplicity of the mathematical model and the expediency of the ultrasonic measurements in studies of thermal injury are emphasized.

  2. Studies on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Organophosphate Poisons in Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Idantlty by Woe« numb«-; Hydrolysis Of the OrganO- phosphate paraoxon was studied in Yorkshire pig, rat and human sera. Enzymatic hydrolysis ...D-A123 269 UNCLASSIFIED STUDIES ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGflNOPHOSPHATE 1/i POISONS IN PIGS(U) LETTERNAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH...ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONS IN PIGS Part 1. pH and Ion Effects in Sera from Pigs, Rats, and Humans PETER SCHMID, PhD

  3. A consumer trial to assess the acceptability of an irradiated chilled ready meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. H.; Stewart, E. M.; McAteer, N. J.

    1995-02-01

    One hundred and seven consumers assessed the sensory quality of a chilled irradiated (2 kGy) and non-irradiated ready meal, consisting of beef and gravy, Yorkshire pudding, carrot, broccoli and roast potato 4 days after treatment. The irradiated meal was moderately to very acceptable and was not significantly different to the non-irradiated meal. The beef and gravy component of the meal was most liked by consumers. Appearance and aroma appeared to be more important than flavour or texture in the overall assessment of the meals.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery as treatment for oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Bernardo, E; Niza, M M R E; Lloret, A; Buracco, P

    2012-07-01

    A gingival maxillary squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier. After a complete diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomography scan, the tumour was staged as T3bN1aM0 and considered non-resectable at presentation. The combination of neoadjuvant megavoltage radiotherapy and neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and doxorubicin decreased the size of the tumour, allowing for surgery. The dog was free from local disease for 421 days after which it was euthanased at the owners' request.

  5. Monoclonal gammopathy associated with heartworm disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    de Caprariis, Donato; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old, intact female, mixed Yorkshire terrier was evaluated for syncopal episodes, weakness, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Heartworm disease was diagnosed based on evidence of circulating microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis on direct examination of blood smears and a positive SNAP heartworm antigen test. An immunoglobulin G (IgG) gammopathy, demonstrated by serum protein electrophoresis, was associated with heartworm disease in this dog. Response to treatment with both an adulticide and the microfilaricide ivermectin included remission of clinical signs and a decrease in the monoclonal gammopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IgG gammopathy associated with heartworm disease in the dog.

  6. New approaches to ambulatory care facilities in the United Kingdom--an investor developer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Eminson, C; Dawson, D

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the strategic context within which ambulatory care facilities are being developed, to consider a range of models of care facilities available, and, by drawing on the experience of the authors, to comment on some of the investment and development issues arising from two projects in progress--the community hospitals in Richmond, Yorkshire, in rural north England, and Thames Ditton on the borders of outer south London. In the final section, we consider the possible future of ambulatory care development in the light of government policy.

  7. Ten genetic polymorphisms in bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R A; Adib, R; Appleyard, I; Coxon, J G; Glashan, R W; Richards, B; Robinson, M R; Sunderland, E; Barham-Hall, D

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented on a group of cases of primary carcinoma of the bladder, detailing red cell surface blood group antigenic phenotypes, serum haptoglobin phenotypes, and some red cell isoenzyme phenotypes. Account is taken of the stage of the disease at presentation. The results are compared with corresponding phenotype frequencies in groups of presumed healthy persons originating either in Yorkshire or County Durham. Differences in relative incidences were found in the haptoglobin, phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and some other systems. These are both differences between all cases and controls and between particular stages at presentation and controls. PMID:6221102

  8. Treatment of a periorbital cyst in a dog by creation of a permanent drainage opening.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, S; Driesen, A; Malberg, S; Kramer, M; Thiel, C

    2015-01-01

    An inflammatory periorbital cyst with secondary pressure atrophy of the maxilla was treated by surgical creation of a drainage opening to the nasal cavity in a 4-year-old Yorkshire Terrier. Following treatment, clinical signs resolved and computed tomography 5 weeks after surgery confirmed the permanence of the drainage opening. Eight months later, the dog showed no clinical abnormalities. Therefore, the procedure described in this report may offer a suitable treatment option in cases where the cyst's size or localization prevents complete excision.

  9. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  10. [The genetic variation of two microsatellite markers of Escherichia coli F4(K88) receptor in different swine breeds].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Shi, Qi-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Huang, Sheng-Qiang; He, Chang-Qing

    2004-03-01

    The genetic variation of ETEC F4 receptor in Shaziling and Yorkshire breeds were studied using two micro-satellite markers(S0223 and S0068). The results showed that there were polymorphisms in the two markers, and there were great variations of the gene heterozygosity and Shannon information index in the two breeds. It was also reported that there were differences in K88ab and K88ac receptors in Chinese native breeds and foreign breeds, so the two markers might be the genetic markers of F4 receptor gene.

  11. Collaborative project optimises LED lighting.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Early 2013 saw Brandon Medical, which designs and manufactures equipment ranging from operating theatre lighting to medical AV and control systems, celebrate '20 years of innovation and growth', with a move to a new pounds 2 million, 50,000 ft2 headquarters in Morley near Leeds, twice the size of its former premises. A milestone year then for the entrepreneurial Yorkshire company, but, as HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, discovered, when he met with joint MD, Graeme Hall, 2014 should prove an equally exciting one for the medical technology specialist, with the launch of several new 'field-leading' medical lighting products designed for use in operating theatres and minor examination settings.

  12. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  13. An automatic method for deriving steady-state rate equations.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish-Bowden, A

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for systematically deriving steady-state rate equations. It is based on the schematic method of King & Altman [J. Phys. Chem. (1956) 60, 1375-1378], but is expressed in purely algebraic terms. It is suitable for implementation as a computer program, and a program has been written in FORTRAN IV and deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50078 (12 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977) 161, 1-2. PMID:889575

  14. A new method for deriving steady-state rate equations suitable for manual or computer use.

    PubMed Central

    Indge, K J; Childs, R E

    1976-01-01

    A schematic method for the derivation of steady-state enzyme rate equations by using the Wang algebra is described. The method is simple, easy to learn and offers a substantial decrease in analytical effort over previously published algorithms. Being essentially an algebraic procedure the method can be readily computerized. Computer programs in BASIC and ALGOL languages have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50065 (19 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1976). 153, 5. PMID:949319

  15. Active Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Vuksanovic, B.

    1996-02-01

    Most of the current research on active noise control is confined to restricted spaces such as earphones, active silencers, air-conditioning ducts, truck cabins and aircraft fuselages. In this paper the basic concepts of environmental noise reduction by using active noise control in unconfined spaces are explored. The approach is to develop a controlled acoustic shadow, generated by a wall of secondary sources, to reduce unwanted sound in the direction of a complaint area. The basic acoustic theory is considered, followed by computer modelling, and some results to show the effectiveness of the approach. EA Technology and Yorkshire electric in the United Kingdom are supporting this work.

  16. Diabetes: increasing the knowledge base of mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Steve; Trotter, Fiona; Stephenson, John; Holdich, Phillip

    Physical health assessment for people with a serious mental illness (SMI) has been a neglected issue, with all the evidence showing that mental health nurses (MHNs) and associated practitioners need to develop such skills. The University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust collaborated in a Physical Skills Project with the aim of facilitating knowledge and skills for MHNs. The development of the education and training workshop is presented. The results of a pre- and post-test evaluation of diabetes, evaluation of the workshop and, finally, implications for practice with regard to transferable knowledge and skill, are discussed.

  17. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  18. [Allergens used in skin tests in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Guidos Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Cid del Prado, Mari Lou

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only recognized causal treatment for allergies. It is prepared on an individual basis, based on the patient's clinical history and the result of the skin prick test (SPT). An adequate composition of the allergens with which to test the patient is crucial for an optimal diagnosis. To know allergens used in tests in allergy practices in Mexico. A national survey among all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras Especialistas en Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (COMPEDIA) was carried out. In a second phase respondents were asked to send in the composition of a routine SPT in their clinic. The results are presented descriptively and the frequency is calculated by which certain allergen is tested in the interviewed practices. A survey response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained and 54% showed their SPT content. Weeds' representation in the SPT seems adequate; Atriplex is tested in all allergy practices. Some trees that show cross-reactivity might be eliminated from the SPT, but 20% doesn't test for Cynodon nor Holcus, and 25% doesn't for important allergens as cat, dog and cockroach. House dust and tobacco are still tested with certain frequency. The selection of which allergens to test in a SPT is based on multiple data, that change continuously with new investigations and discoveries. Our specialty is the most indicated--and obligated--to adjust constantly to these changes to have the best diagnostic tool to detect specific allergies.

  19. [Skin reactivity frequency to aeroallergens in patients with clinical symptoms of allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: El diagnóstico de las enfermedades alérgicas debe basarse en la historia clínica alergológica adecuada y en una prueba inmunológica de sensibilización; la de mayor sensibilidad y especificidad es la prueba cutánea por punción. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de la reactividad cutánea hacia aeroalérgenos, por grupos etarios, en pacientes del Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital Universitario de Puebla, México. Métodos: Se realizó estudio transversal que incluyó a pacientes de 2 a 64 años de edad, con síntomas sugestivos de enfermedad alérgica, en quienes se realizaron pruebas cutáneas con aeroalérgenos; los criterios diagnósticos fueron los de las guías internacionales. Se calcularon frecuencias, porcentajes y medidas de dispersión. Resultados: De 173 pacientes, 63 % fue del sexo femenino. La edad media fue de 22.3 años. La frecuencia de la reactividad cutánea para Quercus sp. fue 12.72 %, Periplaneta americana 9.83 %, Dermatophagoides farinae 9.25 %, Cynodon dactylon 8.09 %, Blatella germanica 8.09 %, Holcus halepensis 6.94 %, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 6.36 %, Schinus molle 5.78 %, Fraxinus uhdei 5.20 %, Lolium perenne 5.20 %, Ambrosia eliator 5.20 % y Artemisa tridentata 4.62 %. Conclusión: Los Dermatophagoides son los aeroalérgenos más identificados, pero en el presente estudio fue más común un polen, probablemente debido a factores geográficos-medioambientales, aunque no fue así en el análisis por grupos etarios.

  20. Joint Analysis of Binomial and Continuous Traits with a Recursive Model: A Case Study Using Mortality and Litter Size of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a model for the joint analysis of a binomial and a Gaussian trait using a recursive parametrization that leads to a computationally efficient implementation. The model is illustrated in an analysis of mortality and litter size in two breeds of Danish pigs, Landrace and Yorkshire. Available evidence suggests that mortality of piglets increased partly as a result of successful selection for total number of piglets born. In recent years there has been a need to decrease the incidence of mortality in pig-breeding programs. We report estimates of genetic variation at the level of the logit of the probability of mortality and quantify how it is affected by the size of the litter. Several models for mortality are considered and the best fits are obtained by postulating linear and cubic relationships between the logit of the probability of mortality and litter size, for Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. An interpretation of how the presence of genetic variation affects the probability of mortality in the population is provided and we discuss and quantify the prospects of selecting for reduced mortality, without affecting litter size. PMID:24414548

  1. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    PubMed

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  2. Role of Intrinsic (Graft) Versus Extrinsic (Host) Factors in the Growth of Transplanted Organs Following Allogeneic and Xenogeneic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, T; Watanabe, H; Shah, J A; Sahara, H; Shimizu, A; Nomura, S; Asfour, A; Danton, M; Boyd, L; Dardenne Meyers, A; Ekanayake-Alper, D K; Sachs, D H; Yamada, K

    2017-01-24

    In our studies of life-supporting α-1,3-galactocyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pig-to-baboon kidneys, we found that some recipients developed increased serum creatinine with growth of the grafts, without histological or immunological evidence of rejection. We hypothesized that the rapid growth of orthotopic pig grafts in smaller baboon recipients may have led to deterioration of organ function. To test this hypothesis for both kidneys and lungs, we assessed whether the growth of outbred (Yorkshire) organ transplants in miniature swine was regulated by intrinsic (graft) or extrinsic (host environment) factors. Yorkshire kidneys exhibited persistent growth in miniature swine, reaching 3.7 times their initial volume over 3 mo versus 1.2 times for miniature swine kidneys over the same time period. Similar rapid early growth of lung allografts was observed and, in this case, led to organ dysfunction. For xenograft kidneys, a review of our results suggests that there is a threshold for kidney graft volume of 25 cm(3) /kg of recipient body weight at which cortical ischemia is induced in transplanted GalT-KO kidneys in baboons. These results suggest that intrinsic factors are responsible, at least in part, for growth of donor organs and that this property should be taken into consideration for growth-curve-mismatched transplants, especially for life-supporting organs transplanted into a limited recipient space.

  3. Analysis of litter size and average litter weight in pigs using a recursive model.

    PubMed

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel; Thompson, Robin

    2007-11-01

    An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods. As parameterized in this work, the RMM tests for the presence of a recursive relationship between additive genetic values, permanent environmental effects, and specific environmental effects of litter size, on average piglet weight. The equivalent standard mixed model tests whether or not the covariance matrices of the random effects have a diagonal structure. In Landrace, posterior predictive model checking supports a model without any form of recursion or, alternatively, a SMM with diagonal covariance matrices of the three random effects. In Yorkshire, the same criterion favors a model with recursion at the level of specific environmental effects only, or, in terms of the SMM, the association between traits is shown to be exclusively due to an environmental (negative) correlation. It is argued that the choice between a SMM or a RMM should be guided by the availability of software, by ease of interpretation, or by the need to test a particular theory or hypothesis that may best be formulated under one parameterization and not the other.

  4. Developing alternative ambulance response schemes: analysis of attitudes, barriers, and change

    PubMed Central

    Squires, J; Mason, S

    2004-01-01

    Methods: South Yorkshire Ambulance Service crews and control room staff were interviewed, using South Yorkshire's paramedic practitioner (PP) scheme as a model of an alternative response scheme. Results: 55 ambulance crew and 17 control staff were interviewed. Most (97%, n = 70) thought that the PP scheme was a good way of dealing with patients who call 999 but may not need urgent transport and hospital treatment. The perceived effect of the PP scheme on traditional ambulance service duties was equally divided between a third who thought there had been no effect, a third who perceived an improvement, and a third a deterioration. Recurrent difficulties with the scheme were found relating to the AMPDS methodology of ambulance dispatch, and ambulance service performance targets. Conclusions: Flexibility of AMPDS and dispatch targets will need to be reviewed to permit the successful implementation of alternative responses to 999 calls. Careful consideration needs to be given to communicating the aims and value of such schemes to all staff and ensuring a common understanding of, and commitment to, a shared vision. The effect of implementation on the remaining service function must be well planned. PMID:15496710

  5. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  6. A Genetic Analysis of Mortality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of mortality is undertaken in two breeds of pigs: Danish Landrace and Yorkshire. Zero-inflated and standard versions of hierarchical Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial Bayesian models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The objectives of the study were to investigate whether there is support for genetic variation for mortality and to study the quality of fit and predictive properties of the various models. In both breeds, the model that provided the best fit to the data was the standard binomial hierarchical model. The model that performed best in terms of the ability to predict the distribution of stillbirths was the hierarchical zero-inflated negative binomial model. The best fit of the binomial hierarchical model and of the zero-inflated hierarchical negative binomial model was obtained when genetic variation was included as a parameter. For the hierarchical binomial model, the estimate of the posterior mean of the additive genetic variance (posterior standard deviation in brackets) at the level of the logit of the probability of a stillbirth was 0.173(0.039) in Landrace and 0.202(0.048) in Yorkshire. The implications of these results from a breeding perspective are briefly discussed. PMID:19901070

  7. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in open reduction and internal fixation of compound mandibular fractures: a collaborative regional audit of outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindra P; Carter, Lachlan M; Whitfield, Paul H

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a regional 2-stage prospective audit involving 5 different maxillofacial units in the Yorkshire region of the UK to evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in the treatment of mandibular fractures. In the first stage (145 patients) we surveyed current practice concerning antimicrobial prophylaxis and found out the current infection rate after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of mandibular fractures. In the second stage (157 patients) we implemented a common antimicrobial protocol in all units and recorded the infection rates using the new regimen. In the first stage a wide range of antimicrobial prophylaxis was used in different units. The agreed perioperative antimicrobial protocol in the second stage was to begin amoxicillin or clarithromycin and metronidazole intravenously on admission and include 2 postoperative doses. The infection rates were 10.3% and 8.9%, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was not significant (χ(2)=0.051, df=1, p=0.83). The infection rate in the Yorkshire region was similar to results from other centres. We recommend short perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis with a maximum of 2 postoperative doses after ORIF of mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential expression of porcine TAP1 gene in the populations of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S P; Yin, X M; Sun, L; Sun, S Y; Bao, W B; Wu, S L

    2015-03-01

    Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for subsequent loading onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. TAP is consisted of two subunits: TAP and TAP2. Using Real-time PCR technology, this study detected tissue expression profile and analyzed the differential expression of TAP1 gene in Sutai Escherichia coli-resistant group, Yorkshire and Meishan pigs. Tissue expression profile revealed that TAP1 gene expressed in all tissues we detected, and the expression levels were high in lung, immune tissues and intestines. Through the comparation of gene expression differention in different populations, TAP1 expression level of Sutai E. coli-resistant group was significantly higher than that of Yorkshire and Meishan populations in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, thymus, lymph, duodenum and jejunum (P<0.05). Meanwhile TAP1 gene was more highly expressed in Sutai E. coli-resistant group than that of Meishan population in stomach (P<0.05). In conclusion, the upregulation of TAP1 expression level in E. coli-resistant group could be related to E. coli F18 infection. In addition, Chinese local pigs may have special immune response and genetic mechanism in resisting E. coli F18 infection which is differing from MHC I moleculars.

  9. More gaps than shale: stratigraphic incompleteness of marine shale successions using a Toarcian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Marine shale successions are probably the best archives of earth history. The degree of completeness of a marine shale succession is a critical factor in the interpretation of the geologic record of climatic, oceanic, and biogeochemical processes, in the prediction of timescales of those processes, in the determination of the duration of events, and in the establishment of correlations between successions. The sedimentation rates of marine shale successions are often calculated by dividing the thickness of a succession by the duration of the stratigraphic interval it occupies. Sedimentation rates calculated this way are always much lower than rates measured directly in equivalent modern environments. When we apply modern rates to the deposits left behind by their ancient equivalents, and correct for compaction due to overburden and time, we find that the entire succession can be deposited in a relatively short time. Since we know that the stratigraphic interval occupied by such ancient deposits is much longer, we must conclude that the succession is very incomplete. In this presentation, I will use a few different methods to show that 65 to >80% of the duration of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Yorkshire, U.K., is represented by gaps rather than shale. This means that the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event is not as short as proposed by authors who studied the cyclostratigraphy of the Yorkshire succession, and that it probably represents a much longer-term history of environmental change driven by processes acting on longer time scales.

  10. History of photodynamic therapy in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Mitton, D; Ackroyd, R

    2005-12-01

    Although the concept photodynamic therapy has been recognised for over a century, it is only over the last 25 years that it has been used in Great Britain. The first applications in the UK were in 1981 by John Carruth, who treated patients with advanced ENT and skin cancers. The following year, he and Stephen Bown set up the British Medical Laser Association (BMLA). Since that time, the use of PDT in the UK has slowly expanded in all fields of medicine and surgery. In 1986, Bown set up the National Medical Laser Centre (NMLC) and later collaborated with Liverpool gastroenterologist, Neville Krasner, in animal studies on rat colon. In 1997, Keyvan Moghissi founded the Yorkshire Laser Centre (YLC) and began treating patients with advanced inoperable bronchial and oesophageal cancers. Stan Brown in Leeds set up the Centre for Photobiology and Photodynamic Therapy at the University of Leeds, working in close collaboration with the Yorkshire Cancer Research Centre. Other pioneers include Hugh Barr in Gloucester, Colin Hopper in London, Grant Fullarton in Glasgow and Roger Ackroyd, Malcolm Reed and Nicky Brown in Sheffield. PDT has now been used in the UK in the treatment of skin, oral, ENT, oesophageal, lung, bladder and gynaecological malignancies.

  11. Sensitivity and dependence of mesoscale downscaled prediction results on different parameterizations of convection and cloud microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, R.; Bellerby, T.

    2012-04-01

    These days as operational real-time flood forecasting and warning systems rely more on high resolution mesoscale models employed with coupling system of hydrological models. So it is inevitable to assess prediction sensitivity or disparity in collection with selection of different cumulus and microphysical parameterization schemes, to assess the possible uncertainties associated with mesoscale downscaling. This study investigates the role of physical parameterization in mesoscale model simulations on simulation of unprecedented heavy rainfall over Yorkshire-Humberside in United Kingdom during 1-14th March, 1999. The study has used a popular mesoscale numerical weather prediction model named Advanced Research Weather Research Forecast model (version 3.3) which was developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the USA. This study has performed a comprehensive evaluation of four cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) [Kian-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD)] and five microphysical schemes Lin et al scheme, older Thompson scheme, new Thompson scheme, WRF Single Moment - 6 class scheme, and WRF Single Moment - 5 class scheme] to identify how their inclusion influences the mesoscale model's meteorological parameter estimation capabilities and related uncertainties in prediction. The case study was carried out at the Upper River Derwent catchment in Northern Yorkshire, England using both the ERA-40 reanalysis data and the land based observation data.

  12. Informal care and terminal illness.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Penny; Shaw, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of the care and services received by people in the year before death in one Yorkshire health authority. In the spring of 1997 in-depth interviews were carried out with bereaved relatives and carers of a weighted sample of 33 people who had died in one Yorkshire health authority in the previous 18 months. Deaths where people were judged to have needed no input from palliative care services were excluded. The sample covers a range of different caring arrangements, experiences of caring for someone who is dying, support from formal services, place and manner of death. All those interviewed were providing some form of informal care or support to those who died, in some cases 24-h care. The interviews provided a valuable insight into ordinary people's experiences of death and of caring for someone who is dying. Most importantly for the purposes of this study, they gave insight into their experiences of services to support both the dying person and themselves in their caring role. The paper discusses the ways in which care of the terminally ill is distinctive. It explores the role of informal care in relation to the wider character and history of the local community, in particular the significance of its declining industrial base, and secondly, the availability of appropriate services to support those caring for the terminally ill. Finally, it makes recommendations about service planning and delivery which challenge the current framework for providing services to the terminally ill.

  13. The expression of genes PKM2 and CAST in the muscle tissue of pigs differentiated by glycolytic potential and drip loss, with reference to the genetic group.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, H; Zybert, A; Krzecio, E; Antosik, K; Koćwin-Podsiadła, M; Pierzchała, M; Urbański, P

    2010-01-01

    The present studies aimed at an analysis of the expression level of genes PKM2 and CAST in Longissimus lumborum [LL] muscle tissue of pigs differing as regards the glycolytic potential [GP] and drip loss [DL] from the LL muscle, with reference to the genetic group. The studies covered a total of 65 pigs: 20 purebred Landrace [L], 22 crossbreeds of Landrace with the Yorkshire [L x Y] and 23 three-breed crosses (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc [(L x Y) x D]. In the case of gene PKM2 one may observe in (L x Y) x D crossbreds, compared to L x Y crossbreds, an increased expression, closely related with the increase in dry matter content, including intramuscular fat, as well as a more favourable progress of glycolytic and energy metabolism during the early time post mortem (pH(45) and R(1)). Compared with Landrace animals, the lower expression of the CAST gene observed in (L x Y) x D pigs is manifested by a marked improvement of meat quality (R(1) pH(45) pH(24), pH(48)), arising from the rate of glycolytic and energy metabolism, typical for normal meat, that in effect results in its higher culinary and technological value.

  14. Quality Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham Made from Two Different Three-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Hong, Doo-Il; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc (YLD) and Yorkshire×Berkshire×Duroc (YBD). Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 110 to 120 kg and cooled at 0°C for 24 h in a chilling room, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physico-chemical analyses. While the moisture and crude protein contents of dry-cured ham were higher in YLD than in YBD, crude fat and ash content were higher in YBD (p<0.05). The salt contents of ham from YBD were higher than those from YLD (p<0.05). YBD ham samples showed a higher L* and b* values than those from YLD, while YBD ham showed lower a* value (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of YLD hams were lower than those of YBD samples (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force values of YBD ham were higher than those of YLD sample (p<0.05). Saltiness was significantly higher in YBD ham than in YLD samples (p<0.05). YLD ham displayed a superior quality than YBD. Considering the meat quality parameters of two-way crossbred ham, YLD hams could be more suitable for the production of dry-cured products. PMID:26333670

  15. Joint analysis of binomial and continuous traits with a recursive model: a case study using mortality and litter size of pigs.

    PubMed

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a model for the joint analysis of a binomial and a Gaussian trait using a recursive parametrization that leads to a computationally efficient implementation. The model is illustrated in an analysis of mortality and litter size in two breeds of Danish pigs, Landrace and Yorkshire. Available evidence suggests that mortality of piglets increased partly as a result of successful selection for total number of piglets born. In recent years there has been a need to decrease the incidence of mortality in pig-breeding programs. We report estimates of genetic variation at the level of the logit of the probability of mortality and quantify how it is affected by the size of the litter. Several models for mortality are considered and the best fits are obtained by postulating linear and cubic relationships between the logit of the probability of mortality and litter size, for Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. An interpretation of how the presence of genetic variation affects the probability of mortality in the population is provided and we discuss and quantify the prospects of selecting for reduced mortality, without affecting litter size.

  16. Reducing the impact of physical inactivity: evidence to support the case for targeting people with chronic mental and physical conditions.

    PubMed

    Everson-Hock, Emma S; Green, Mark A; Goyder, Elizabeth C; Copeland, Robert J; Till, Simon H; Heller, Ben; Hart, Ollie

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that small increases in the physical activity of those considered least active can have a bigger health impact than raising levels of those already achieving or close to achieving recommendations. Profiling the characteristics of those who are least active allows for appropriate targeting of interventions. This study therefore examined the characteristics of people in the lowest physical activity bracket. Data were taken from the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) funded 'South Yorkshire Cohort', a longitudinal observational dataset of residents of South Yorkshire, England. Five separate outcomes based on a shortened version of the GPPAQ were used to represent the lowest levels of physical activity. Potential predictors examined were age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, chronic conditions, current employment and deprivation. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were conducted. Individuals with chronic mental and physical conditions (fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, depression, diabetes, breathing problems, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke and cancer) were more likely to report the lowest levels of physical activity across all five outcomes. Demographic variations were also observed. Targeting people with chronic mental and physical conditions has the potential to reduce the impact of physical inactivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Sheffield RNAi Screening Facility (SRSF): portfolio growth and technology development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The Sheffield RNAi Screening Facility (SRSF) (www.rnai.group.shef.ac.uk) was established in 2008 with Wellcome Trust and University of Sheffield funding, with the task to provide the first UK RNAi screening resource for academic groups interested in identifying genes required in a diverse range of biological processes using Drosophila cell culture. The SRSF has carried out a wide range of screens varying in sizes from bespoke small-scale libraries, targeting a few hundred genes, to high-throughput, genome-wide studies. The SRSF has grown and improved with a dedicated partnership of its academic customers based mainly in the UK. We are part of the UK Academics Functional Genomics Network, participating in organizing an annual meeting in London and are part of the University of Sheffield's D3N (www.d3n.org.uk), connecting academics, biotech and pharmaceutical companies with a multidisciplinary network in Drug Discovery and Development. Recently, the SRSF has been funded by the Yorkshire Cancer Research Fund to perform genome-wide RNAi screens using human cells as part of a core facility for regional Yorkshire Universities and screens are now underway. Overall the SRSF has carried out more than 40 screens from Drosophila and human cell culture experiments.

  18. Injury thresholds for topical-cream-coated skin of hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Zohner, Justin J.; Stolarski, David J.; Buchanan, Kelvin C.; Jindra, Nichole M.; Figueroa, Manuel A.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    The reflectance and absorption of the skin plays a vital role in determining how much radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. Any substance covering the skin would change the way radiation is reflected and absorbed and thus the extent of thermal injury. Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin. The ED 50 for visible lesions due to an Er: glass laser at 1540-nm with a pulse width of 50-ns was determined, and the results were compared with model predictions using a skin thermal model. The ED50 is compared with the damage threshold of skin coated with a highly absorbing topical cream at 1540 nm to determine its effect on damage pathology and threshold. The ED 50 for the guinea pig was then compared to similar studies using Yucatan minipigs and Yorkshire pigs at 1540-nm and nanosecond pulse duration. 1,2 The damage threshold at 24-hours of a Yorkshire pig for a 2.5-3.5-mm diameter beam for 100 ns was 3.2 Jcm -2; very similar to our ED 50 of 3.00 Jcm -2 for the hairless guinea pigs.

  19. Variance components and heritabilities for sow productivity traits estimated from purebred versus crossbred sows.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M J; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K; Stalder, K J

    2005-10-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for number of pigs born alive (NBA), adjusted litter weaning weight (ALWT), and the interval from weaning to first service (W2E) using 2002 purebred litter records and 14 583 crossbred litter records from a swine production unit with a defined great-grandparent, grandparent, and parent stock genetic system structure. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out by REML methods. Heritability estimates from this study for NBA were 0.155, 0.146, 0.145 for the purebred, crossbred, and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for ALWT were 0.162, 0.195, and 0.183 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for W2E were 0.205, 0.239 and 0.202 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Genetic correlations between NBA and ALWT were weak and positive for the three groups. The genetic correlation between W2E and ALWT were -0.158 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.031 for the crossbreds and 0.051 for the pooled data. The genetic correlation between W2E and NBA was -0.027 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.310 for the crossbreds and 0.236 for the pooled data. These similarities suggest that pooling of purebred and crossbred data may be considered, which may potentially increase the accuracy of breeding value estimates, which would result in increased genetic progress.

  20. Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that the selected Cucurbitaceae