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Sample records for hold engage reorient

  1. Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

  2. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on...

  3. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on...

  4. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.142 Statement of...

  5. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  6. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  7. Stimulus-Driven Reorienting Impairs Executive Control of Attention: Evidence for a Common Bottleneck in Anterior Insula

    PubMed Central

    Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A classical model of human attention holds that independent neural networks realize stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. Questioning full independence, the two functions do, however, engage overlapping networks with activations in cingulo-opercular regions such as anterior insula (AI) and a reverse pattern of activation (stimulus-driven reorienting), and deactivation (executive control) in temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To test for independent versus shared neural mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and executive control of attention, we used fMRI and a task that isolates individual from concurrent demands in both functions. Results revealed super-additive increases of left AI activity and behavioral response costs under concurrent demands, suggesting a common bottleneck for stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. These increases were mirrored by non-additive decreases of activity in the default mode network (DMN), including posterior TPJ, regions where activity increased with off-task processes. The deactivations in posterior TPJ were spatially separated from stimulus-driven reorienting related activation in anterior TPJ, a differentiation that replicated in task-free resting state. Furthermore, functional connectivity indicated inhibitory coupling between posterior TPJ and AI during concurrent attention demands. These results demonstrate a role of AI in stimulus-driven and executive control of attention that involves down-regulation of internally directed processes in DMN. PMID:27550866

  8. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Ariel; Bouchbinder, Eran; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations – cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell’s passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells, measured over a wide range of experimental conditions, thus elucidating a basic aspect of mechanosensitivity. PMID:24875391

  9. Spin reorientation via antiferromagnetic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar, M.; Sbiaa, R.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2014-05-07

    Spin reorientation in antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) Co/Pd multilayers, wherein the thickness of the constituent Co layers was varied, was studied. AFC-Co/Pd multilayers were observed to have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for a Co sublayer thickness of 1 nm, much larger than what is usually observed in systems without antiferromagnetic coupling. When similar multilayer structures were prepared without antiferromagnetic coupling, this effect was not observed. The results indicate that the additional anisotropy energy contribution arising from the antiferromagnetic coupling, which is estimated to be around 6 × 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, induces the spin-reorientation.

  10. Reorientation from Altered States: Please, More Carefully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Claims counselors too often appear to forget to reorient clients from altered states of consciousness used in counseling and that failure to reorient can result in unnecessary discomfort for clients. Provides suggestions for when and how to reorient to avoid unwanted, lingering aftereffects. (Author/ABL)

  11. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted on crewmembers. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  12. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted after astronauts return to Earth. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  13. Neutron spin-reorientation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Norman F.

    Neutron spin-reorientation experiments which give fundamental physics information are described. The magnetic moment of the neutron has been measured to be 1.91304275(45) nuclear magnetons by separated oscillatory fields resonant reorientation's of the spins of neutrons in a beam passing through a magnetic field. In similar resonance experiments with ultracold neutrons trapped in a bottle, the neutron electric dipole moment has been shown to be less than 9 × 10 -26e cm. Neutrons “dressed” with many radio frequency quanta have been studied. The Berry phases of neutrons that have passed through a helical magnetic field or an oscillatory magnetic field have been observed. In neutron interactions experiments with condensed matter, small changes in neutron velocities have been measured by changes in the neutron precessions in magnetic fields before and after the interaction. Parity non-conserving spin rotations of neutrons passing through various materials have been observed and measured and new experiments with H 2 and He are in progress.

  14. Cryogenic liquid hydrogen reorientation activated by constant reverse gravity acceleration of geyser initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    A key objective for cryogenic fluid management in a spacecraft propulsion system is development of the technology necessary for acquisition or positioning of liquid outflow or vapor venting. Numerical simulation of positive liquid acquisition is attempted by introducing a reverse gravity acceleration from the propulsive thrust of auxiliary engines which exceeds critical value for the initiation of a geyser. Based on the computer simulation of flow fields during the course of fluid reorientation, six dimensionless parameters resulted. These parameters hold near-constant values through the entire range of liquid filled levels, from 30 to 80 percent, during the course of fluid reorientation.

  15. Constant reverse thrust activated reorientation of liquid hydrogen with Geyser initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    A key objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquisition or positioning of liquid outflow or vapor venting. Numerical simulation of positive liquid acquisition is attempted by introducing reverse gravity acceleration, resulting from the propulsive thrust of auxiliary engines, which exceeds critical value for the initiation of geyser. Based on the computer simulation of flowfields during the course of fluid reorientation, six dimensionless parameters resulted in this study. It shows that these parameters hold near-constant values through the entire ranges of liquid filled levels, from 30-80 percent, during the course of fluid reorientation.

  16. Planned Axial Reorientation Investigation on Sloshsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper details the design and logic of an experimental investigation to study axial reorientation in low gravity. The Sloshsat free-flyer is described. The planned axial reorientation experiments and test matrixes are presented. Existing analytical tools are discussed. Estimates for settling range from 64 to 1127 seconds. The planned experiments are modelled using computational fluid dynamics. These models show promise in reducing settling estimates and demonstrate the ability of pulsed high thrust settling to emulate lower thrust continuous firing.

  17. ESR Studies of a Reorienting Nickel Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowert, Bruce

    2007-03-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of the planar bis(maleonitriledithiolato)nickel anion radical (BMNT) in the intermediate motional region have been simulated in several polar solvents using axially symmetric reorientation. The rotational diffusion about the long in-plane axis is three to four times faster than that about the two axes perpendicular to it. The reorientational model needed to produce agreement with experiment is either in or close to the Brownian rotational diffusion limit. The solvents are 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), dimethyl phthalate, tri-n-butyl phosphate, tris(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphate, and 2-methoxyethyl ether (diglyme), ethyl alcohol, and a dimethylformamide-chloroform mixed solvent. The reorientational rates from the simulations are in general agreement with those from line width analyses carried out from the fast to the slow motional regions. The temperature dependence of the diffusion rates is discussed in terms of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) model and the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  18. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  19. Reorientation patterns in central-place foraging: internal clocks and klinokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Daniel; Bartumeus, Frederic; Méndez, Vicenç; Espadaler, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We study central-place foraging patterns of Aphaenogaster senilis ants at a population level by video framing individual ant trajectories in a circular arena with a nest connected to its centre. The ants naturally leave and enter the nest and forage generating non-trivial movement patterns around the nest. Our data analysis indicated that the trajectories observed can be classified into two strategies: the risk-averse strategy, which involves wandering around the nest without departing far from it and the risk-prone strategy, which involves long exploration paths with periodic returns to the central region, nearby the nest. We found that both risk-prone and risk-averse strategies exhibit qualitatively the same reorientation patterns, with the time between consecutive reorientations covering a wide range of scales, and fitting a stretched exponential function. Nevertheless, differences in the temporal scales and the time variability of such reorientation events differ, together with other aspects of motion, such as average speed and turns. Our results give experimental evidence that the internal mechanisms driving reorientations in ants tend to favour frequently long relocations, as theory predicts for efficient exploration in patchy landscapes, but ants engaged in central-place foraging can modulate such behaviour to control distances from the nest. Previous works on the species support the idea that risk-prone and risk-averse strategies may reflect actual differences between individuals age and experience; these factors (age and experience) should be then relevant in modulating the internal reorientation clocks. To support the validity of our findings, we develop a random-walk model combining stretched exponential reorientation clocks with klinokinesis that fits the time length and the travelled distance distributions of the observed trajectories. PMID:24152814

  20. The holding environment and intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    Ginot, E

    2001-04-01

    The holding environment is explored in the context of the analytic dyad, where it is seen as rooted in the patient's need to be experientially known through the intersubjective interaction. In examining previous emphasis on holding as an optimally attuned empathic environment provided by the analyst, a broadened view of what constitutes a holding environment is presented, underscoring its interactional nature. A distinction is made between empathic holding based on the patient's expressed material, and holding that is generated through the analyst's intersubjective knowledge, gained via ongoing intersubjective engagements and enactments. It is argued that the unmediated connection to the patient's internal representations resulting from these intersubjective interactions, and the ensuing verbal exploration of them, can create a profound sense of being understood and thus held. A clinical process depicting the experience of holding in an intersubjective context is presented.

  1. Fundamental experiments on hydride reorientation in zircaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, Kimberly B.

    In the current study, an in-situ X-ray diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation was used to follow directly the kinetics of hydride dissolution and precipitation during thermomechanical cycles. This technique was combined with conventional microscopy (optical, SEM and TEM) to gain an overall understanding of the process of hydride reorientation. Thus this part of the study emphasized the time-dependent nature of the process, studying large volume of hydrides in the material. In addition, a micro-diffraction technique was also used to study the spatial distribution of hydrides near stress concentrations. This part of the study emphasized the spatial variation of hydride characteristics such as strain and morphology. Hydrided samples in the shape of tensile dog-bones were used in the time-dependent part of the study. Compact tension specimens were used during the spatial dependence part of the study. The hydride elastic strains from peak shift and size and strain broadening were studied as a function of time for precipitating hydrides. The hydrides precipitate in a very compressed state of stress, as measured by the shift in lattice spacing. As precipitation proceeds the average shift decreases, indicating average stress is reduced, likely due to plastic deformation and morphology changes. When nucleation ends the hydrides follow the zirconium matrix thermal contraction. When stress is applied below the threshold stress for reorientation, hydrides first nucleate in a very compressed state similar to that of unstressed hydrides. After reducing the average strain similarly to unstressed hydrides, the average hydride strain reaches a constant value during cool-down to room temperature. This could be due to a greater ease of deforming the matrix due to the applied far-field strain which would compensate for the strains due to thermal contraction. Finally when hydrides reorient, the average hydride strains become tensile during the first precipitation regime and

  2. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  3. Spinning in the Scanner: Neural Correlates of Virtual Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jennifer E.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have used spatial reorientation task paradigms to identify underlying cognitive mechanisms of navigation in children, adults, and a range of animal species. Despite broad interest in this task across disciplines, little is known about the brain bases of reorientation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural…

  4. Singular control in minimum time spacecraft reorientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seywald, Hans; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft reorientation is investigated numerically for an inertially symmetric rigid spacecraft with three bounded independent control torques aligned with the principal axes. The dynamical system of the spacecraft and the framework of the optimal-control problem are established in order to identify all of the potential strategies. The investigation lists bang-bang solutions and finite-order and infinite-order singular arcs, and the conditions for the finite-order singular arcs are given. Numerical examples are developed for all of the control-logic systems, and the suboptimality of the rest-to-rest maneuvers is proven for principal-axis rotations. The most efficient control technique is the singular control of infinite order, and the vector-valued singular control can be utilized in a derivative of the switching function.

  5. Enabling health systems transformation: what progress has been made in re-orienting health services?

    PubMed

    Wise, Marilyn; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    The Ottawa Charter has been remarkably influential in guiding the development of the goals and concepts of health promotion, and in shaping global public health practice in the past 20 years. However, of the five action areas identified in the Ottawa Charter, it appears that there has been little systematic attention to the challenge of re-orienting health services, and less than optimal progress in practice. The purposes of re-orienting health services as proposed in the Ottawa Charter were to achieve a better balance in investment between prevention and treatment, and to include a focus on population health outcomes alongside the focus on individual health outcomes. However, there is little evidence that a re-orientation of health services in these terms has occurred systematically anywhere in the world. This is in spite of the fact that direct evidence of the need to re-orient health services and of the potential benefits of doing so has grown substantially since 1986. Patient education, preventive care (screening, immunisation), and organisational and environmental changes by health organisations have all been found to have positive health and environmental outcomes. However, evidence of effectiveness has not been sufficient, on its own, to sway community preferences and political decisions. The lack of progress points to the need for significant re-thinking of the approaches we have adopted to date. The paper proposes a number of ways forward. These include working effectively in partnership with the communities we want to serve to mobilise support for change, and to reinforce this by working more effectively at influencing broader public opinion through the media. The active engagement of clinical health professionals is also identified as crucial to achieving sustainable change. Finally we recognize that by working in partnership with like-minded advocacy organizations, the IUHPE could put its significant knowledge and experience to work in leading action to

  6. Enabling health systems transformation: what progress has been made in re-orienting health services?

    PubMed

    Wise, Marilyn; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    The Ottawa Charter has been remarkably influential in guiding the development of the goals and concepts of health promotion, and in shaping global public health practice in the past 20 years. However, of the five action areas identified in the Ottawa Charter, it appears that there has been little systematic attention to the challenge of re-orienting health services, and less than optimal progress in practice. The purposes of re-orienting health services as proposed in the Ottawa Charter were to achieve a better balance in investment between prevention and treatment, and to include a focus on population health outcomes alongside the focus on individual health outcomes. However, there is little evidence that a re-orientation of health services in these terms has occurred systematically anywhere in the world. This is in spite of the fact that direct evidence of the need to re-orient health services and of the potential benefits of doing so has grown substantially since 1986. Patient education, preventive care (screening, immunisation), and organisational and environmental changes by health organisations have all been found to have positive health and environmental outcomes. However, evidence of effectiveness has not been sufficient, on its own, to sway community preferences and political decisions. The lack of progress points to the need for significant re-thinking of the approaches we have adopted to date. The paper proposes a number of ways forward. These include working effectively in partnership with the communities we want to serve to mobilise support for change, and to reinforce this by working more effectively at influencing broader public opinion through the media. The active engagement of clinical health professionals is also identified as crucial to achieving sustainable change. Finally we recognize that by working in partnership with like-minded advocacy organizations, the IUHPE could put its significant knowledge and experience to work in leading action to

  7. Fracture Resistance of a Zirconium Alloy with Reoriented Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; He, Xihua; Pan, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium alloy cladding materials typically contain circumferential hydrides that may be reoriented to align along the radial direction when the cladding tubes are heated above and then cooled below the solvus temperature. The objectives of this study were to investigate the critical stress levels required to cause hydride reorientation (HRT) and to characterize the fracture resistance of Zircaloy-2 after hydride reorientation. HRT heat-treatment was performed on hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-2 specimens at 593 K (320 °C) or 623 K (350 °C) for 1 to 2 hours, followed by cooling to 473 K (200 °C). Fracture testing was conducted on hydride-reoriented three-point bend specimens at 473 K (200 °C) using an in situ loading stage inside a scanning electron microscope. Direct observations indicated that the reoriented hydrides, which ranged from ≈1 to 22 μm in lengths, were more prone to fracture at larger sizes (>10 μm) compared to smaller sizes (<0.5 μm). The reoriented hydrides reduced fracture resistance through a void nucleation, growth, and coalescence process at the crack tip. The resulting crack-resistance curves for Zircaloy-2 with reoriented hydrides decrease from 38 to 21 MPa(m)1/2 with increasing hydrogen contents from 51 to 1265 wt ppm hydrogen.

  8. Global reorientation and its effect on tectonic patterns on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Head, J. W.

    1986-04-01

    The basins of Ganymede are studied in order to examine the effects of global reorientation on the grooves and furrows of the satellite. An impact basin and the global reorientation of Ganymede were modeled. The damping time, the time for relaxation of tidal bulge, and the time for isostatic adjustment of craters are significant in calculating the duration and amount of global reorientation. The regional global control of groove orientation is examined; the data reveal that the tidal despinning and furrow formation created the reactivated zones of weakness in which the groove sets were formed. It is observed that the grooved terrain emplacement caused a 15 deg shift in the paleopole.

  9. Reorientation of elongated particles at density interfaces.

    PubMed

    Doostmohammadi, A; Ardekani, A M

    2014-09-01

    Density interfaces in the water column are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes. Interaction of settling particles with pycnoclines plays a pivotal function in nutrient transport between ocean layers and settling rates of marine particles. We perform direct numerical simulations of an elongated particle settling through a density interface and scrutinize the role of stratification on the settling dynamics. It is found that the presence of the density interface tends to turn the long axis of an elongated particle parallel to the settling direction, which is dramatically different from its counterpart in a homogeneous fluid. Although broadside-on settling of the elongated particle is enhanced upon approaching the interface, the long axis rotates toward the settling direction as the particle passes through the interface. We quantify turning couples due to stratification effects, which counteract the pressure-induced torques due to the fluid inertia. A similar behavior is observed for different initial orientations of the particle. It is shown that the reorientation of an elongated particle occurs in both sharp and linear density stratifications. PMID:25314535

  10. Optimal Intermittent Reorientation in Insect Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Orit; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan; Applied Math Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    The process of navigation is often accompanied by several cognitive demanding activities, such as motor control, locomotion planning, and multi-sensory acquisition and integration. Organisms with limited cognitive resources must therefore multitask and develop optimal schemes to dynamically allocate resources to the different tasks. An extreme example of task alternations during navigation is the hallmark of ball rolling dung beetles. The beetles need to roll their dung-ball along a straight path away from the dung pile where intense competition occurs. Before initiating a roll, dung beetles climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This action serves as an orientation mechanism that allows them to set an initial bearing, and to regain this bearing if they experience an unintentional disturbance along the way. We developed a model inspired by the beetle's navigational scheme, where an agent performs a random walk intermittent by reorientation events, in which its heading direction is corrected. We show that the resultant paths are a characteristic of correlated diffusion in short time scale, and biased diffusion in the long time scale. We identify optimal alternation schemes and characterize their robustness upon introducing noisy sensory acquisition and rough environmental conditions.

  11. Neural mechanisms of attentional reorienting in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Weidner, Ralph; Vossel, Simone; Weiss, Peter H; Fink, Gereon R

    2012-09-26

    How the human brain reconstructs the three-dimensional (3D) world from two-dimensional (2D) retinal images has received a great deal of interest as has how we shift attention in 2D space. In contrast, it remains poorly understood how visuospatial attention is shifted in depth. In this fMRI study, by constructing a virtual 3D environment in the MR scanner and by presenting targets either close to or far from the participants in an adapted version of the Posner spatial-cueing paradigm, we investigated the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial orienting/reorienting in depth. At the behavioral level, although covering the same spatial distance, attentional reorienting to objects unexpectedly appearing closer to the observer and in the unattended hemispace was faster than reorienting to unexpected objects farther away. At the neural level, we found that in addition to the classical attentional reorienting system in the right temporoparietal junction, two additional brain networks were differentially involved in aspects of attentional reorienting in depth. First, bilateral premotor cortex reoriented visuospatial attention specifically along the third dimension of visual space (i.e., from close to far or vice versa), compared with attentional reorienting within the same depth plane. Second, a network of areas reminiscent of the human "default-mode network," including posterior cingulate cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, was involved in the neural interaction between depth and attentional orienting, by boosting attentional reorienting to unexpected objects appearing both closer to the observer and in the unattended hemispace. PMID:23015426

  12. Gravitropic microtubule reorientation can be uncoupled from growth.

    PubMed

    Himmelspach, R; Nick, P

    2001-01-01

    The causal relationship between gravitropic growth responses and microtubule reorientation has been studied. Growth and microtubule reorientation have been uncoupled during the gravitropic response of maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. Microtubule orientation and growth were measured under three different conditions: (i) a gravitropic stimulation where the growth response was allowed to be expressed (intact seedlings were displaced from the vertical position by 90 degrees), (ii) a gravitropic stimulation where the growth response was suppressed (coleoptiles were attached to microscope slides and kept in a horizontal position), (iii) suppression of growth in the absence of gravitropic stimulation (coleoptiles were attached to microscope slides and kept in a vertical position). It was found that (i) gravitropic stimulation can induce a microtubular reorientation from transverse to longitudinal in the upper (slower growing) flank of the coleoptile, and an inhibition of growth; (ii) the reorientation of microtubules precedes the inhibition of growth; (iii) the gravitropic response of microtubules is weaker, not elevated, when the inhibition of growth is artificially enhanced by attaching the coleoptiles to a slide; and (iv) artificial inhibition of growth in the absence of gravitropic stimulation cannot induce a microtubular response. Thus, the extent of microtubule reorientation is not correlated with the extent of growth inhibition. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that microtubules do not reorient passively after growth changes, but actively in response to gravitropic stimulation. PMID:11216838

  13. Gravity-induced reorientation of cortical microtubules observed in vivo.

    PubMed

    Himmelspach, R; Wymer, C L; Lloyd, C W; Nick, P

    1999-05-01

    Cortical microtubules play an important role during morphogenesis by determining the direction of cellulose deposition. Although many triggers are known that can induce the reorientation of cortical plant microtubules, the reorientation mechanism has remained obscure. In our approach, we used gravitropic stimulation which is a strong trigger for microtubule reorientation in epidermal cells of maize coleoptiles. To visualize the gravitropically induced microtubule reorientation in living cells, we injected rhodamine-conjugated tubulin into epidermal cells of intact maize coleoptiles that were exposed to gravitropic stimulation. From these in vivo observations, we propose a reorientation mechanism consisting of four different stages: (1) a transitional stage with randomly organized microtubules; (2) emergence of a few microtubules in a slightly oblique orientation; (3) co-alignment: neighbouring microtubules adopt the oblique orientation resulting in parallel organized microtubules; and (4) the angle of these parallel, organized microtubules increases gradually. Thus, the overall reorientation process could include selective stabilization/ disassembly of microtubules (stage 2) as well as movement of individual microtubules (stages 3 and 4). PMID:11536906

  14. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  15. Spin reorientation of a nonsymmetric body with energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenker, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Stable rotating semi-rigid bodies were demonstrated analytically, and verified in flights such as Explorer 1 and ATS-5 satellites. The problem arises from the two potential orientations which the final spin vector can take after large angle reorientation from minor to major axis, i.e., along the positive or negative axis of the maximum inertia. Reorientation of a satellite initially spinning about the minor axis using an energy dissipation device may require that the final spin orientation be controlled. Examples of possible applications are the Apogee Motor Assembly with Paired Satellites (AMAPS) configuration, where proper orientation of the thruster is required; and reorientation of ATS-5, where the spin sensitive nature of the despin device (yo-yo mechanism) requires that the final spin vector point is a specified direction.

  16. A modular geometric mechanism for reorientation in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2010-09-01

    Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout, cognitive accounts of this ability vary. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations, an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability, and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties of objects placed within a cylindrical space: their size, motion, dimensionality, and distance from the space's borders. Their findings support the modular theory and suggest that disoriented search behavior centers on two processes: a reorientation process based on the geometry of the 3D surface layout, and a beacon-guidance process based on the local features of objects and surface markings.

  17. Reorientation and Allied Dynamics in Water and Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laage, Damien; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Sterpone, Fabio; Rey, Rossend; Hynes, James T.

    2011-05-01

    The reorientation of a water molecule is important for a host of phenomena, ranging over—in an only partial listing—the key dynamic hydrogen-bond network restructuring of water itself, aqueous solution chemical reaction mechanisms and rates, ion transport in aqueous solution and membranes, protein folding, and enzymatic activity. This review focuses on water reorientation and related dynamics in pure water, and for aqueous solutes with hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic character, ranging from tetra-methylurea to halide ions and amino acids. Attention is given to the application of theory, simulation, and experiment in the probing of these dynamics, in usefully describing them, and in assessing the description. Special emphasis is placed on a novel sudden, large-amplitude jump mechanism for water reorientation, which contrasts with the commonly assumed Debye rotational diffusion mechanism, characterized by small-amplitude angular motion. Some open questions and directions for further research are also discussed.

  18. Tooth reorientation affects tooth function during prey processing and tooth ontogeny in the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Mason N; Ramsay, Jason B; Schaefer, Justin T

    2008-01-01

    The dental anatomy of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and relatives) creates a functional system that is more dynamic than that of mammalian dentition. Continuous dental replacement (where new teeth are moved rostrally to replace older ones) and indirect fibrous attachment of the dentition to the jaw allow teeth to reorient relative to the jaw over both long- and short-term scales, respectively. In this study, we examine the processing behavior and dental anatomy of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) to illustrate that the freedom of movement of elasmobranch dentition allows a functional flexibility that can be important for complex prey processing behaviors. From static manipulations of dissected jaws and observations of feeding events in live animals, we show that the teeth rotate during jaw protrusion, resulting in a secondary grasping mechanism that likely serves to hold prey while the buccal cavity is flushed free of sediment. The function of teeth is not always readily apparent from morphology; in addition to short-term reorientation, the long-term dental reorientation during replacement allows a given tooth to serve multiple functions during tooth ontogeny. Unlike teeth inside the mouth, the cusps of external teeth (on the portion of the tooth pad that extends past the occlusal plane) lay flat, such that the labial faces act as a functional battering surface, protecting the jaws during prey excavation.

  19. Holding Kids Accountable: Shaming with Compassion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, H. Allen; Revering, Andrew C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philosophy and procedures of Police Accountability Conferencing, a restorative justice approach in which police and school authorities, victims, offenders, and families are brought together in a process designed to hold youth accountable for their actions. Details the program's potential for reclaiming youth who have engaged in…

  20. The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial representation generally focus on flat environments and visual input. However, the world is not flat, and slopes are part of most natural environments. In a series of 4 experiments, we examined whether humans can use a slope as a source of allocentric, directional information for reorientation. A target was hidden in a corner of…

  1. A Response to Reorienting Teacher Education towards Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Ryan, Lisa; Tilbury, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    This brief article reflects on progress on reorienting teacher education toward sustainability that has taken place since the publication of the authors' 2007 "Australian Journal of Environmental Education" article, "Planning for Success: Factors Influencing Change in Teacher Education" (EJ833282). It concludes that a key…

  2. Toddlers' use of metric information and landmarks to reorient.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, A E; Newcombe, N S; Huttenlocher, J

    2001-11-01

    Mobile organisms can keep track of spatial location (both their own location and that of objects in the environment) using either an external referent system or one centered on the self and updated by information about movement through space. When the latter system is disabled (e.g., by rapid turning), aspects of the external world must be used to reestablish orientation. Recently, it has been claimed that, both for rats and for human toddlers, reorientation is achieved using a geometric module that accepts only information about the metric properties of the environment (C. R. Gallistel, 1990; L. Hermer & E. S. Spelke, 1994, 1996). In a series of experiments, this paper confirms that geometric information is used for reorientation by young children, but gives reason to doubt that the use of this information is achieved using a module impenetrable to nongeometric information.

  3. The hippocampus is not a geometric module: processing environment geometry during reorientation

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jennifer E.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus has long been known to play a role in allocentric spatial coding, but its specific involvement in reorientation, or the recalibration of a disrupted egocentric spatial representation using allocentric spatial information, has received less attention. Initially, the cognitive literature on reorientation focused on a “geometric module” sensitive to the shape formed by extended surfaces in the environment, and the neuroscience literature followed with proposals that particular MTL regions might be the seat of such a module. However, with behavioral evidence mounting that a modular cognitive architecture is unlikely, recent work has begun to directly address the issue of the neural underpinnings of reorientation. In this review, we describe the reorientation paradigm, initial proposals for the role of the MTL when people reorient, our recent work on the neural bases of reorientation, and finally, how this new information regarding neural mechanism helps to re-interpret and clarify the original behavioral reorientation data. PMID:25140145

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of heme reorientational motions in myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, E R

    1993-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of 2-ns duration were performed on carbonmonoxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin in vacuo to study the reorientational dynamics of the heme group. The heme in both simulations undergoes reorientations of approximately 5 degrees amplitude on a subpicosecond time scale, which produce a rapid initial decay in the reorientational correlation function to about 0.99. The heme also experiences infrequent changes in average orientation of approximately 10 degrees amplitude, which lead to a larger slow decay of the reorientational correlation function over a period of hundreds of picoseconds. The simulations have not converged with respect to these infrequent transitions. However, an estimate of the order parameter for rapid internal motions of the heme from those orientations which are sampled by the simulations suggests that the subnanosecond orientational dynamics of the heme accounts for at least 30% of the unresolved initial anisotropy decay observed in the nanosecond time-resolved optical absorption experiments on myoglobin reported by Ansari et al. in a companion paper (Ansari, A., C.M. Jones, E.R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and W.A. Eaton. 1992. Biophys. J. 64:852-868.). A more complete sampling of the accessible heme orientations would most likely increase this fraction further. The simulation of the liganded molecule also suggests that the conformational dynamics of the CO ligand may contribute significantly to discrepancies between the ligand conformation as probed by x-ray diffraction and by infrared-optical photoselection experiments. The protein back-bone explores multiple conformations during the simulations, with the largest structural changes appearing in the E and F helices, which are in contact with the heme. The variations in the heme orientation correlate with the conformational dynamics of the protein on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds, suggesting that the heme orientation may provide a useful probe of dynamical processes

  5. Efficient Reorientation Maneuvers for Spacecraft with Multiple Articulated Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    A final report is provided which describes the research program during the period 3 Mar. 1992 to 3 Jun. 1993. A summary of the technical research questions that were studied and of the main results that were obtained is given. The specific outcomes of the research program, including both educational impacts as well as research publications, are listed. The research is concerned with efficient reorientation maneuvers for spacecraft with multiple articulated payloads.

  6. A role of right middle frontal gyrus in reorienting of attention: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Japee, Shruti; Holiday, Kelsey; Satyshur, Maureen D.; Mukai, Ikuko; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    The right middle fontal gyrus (MFG) has been proposed to be a site of convergence of the dorsal and ventral attention networks, by serving as a circuit-breaker to interrupt ongoing endogenous attentional processes in the dorsal network and reorient attention to an exogenous stimulus. Here, we probed the contribution of the right MFG to both endogenous and exogenous attention by comparing performance on an orientation discrimination task of a patient with a right MFG resection and a group of healthy controls. On endogenously cued trials, participants were shown a central cue that predicted with 90% accuracy the location of a subsequent peri-threshold Gabor patch stimulus. On exogenously cued trials, a cue appeared briefly at one of two peripheral locations, followed by a variable inter-stimulus interval (ISI; range 0–700 ms) and a Gabor patch in the same or opposite location as the cue. Behavioral data showed that for endogenous, and short ISI exogenous trials, valid cues facilitated responses compared to invalid cues, for both the patient and controls. However, at long ISIs, the patient exhibited difficulty in reverting to top-down attentional control, once the facilitatory effect of the exogenous cue had dissipated. When explicitly cued during long ISIs to attend to both stimulus locations, the patient was able to engage successfully in top-down control. This result indicates that the right MFG may play an important role in reorienting attention from exogenous to endogenous attentional control. Resting state fMRI data revealed that the right superior parietal lobule and right orbitofrontal cortex, showed significantly higher correlations with a left MFG seed region (a region tightly coupled with the right MFG in controls) in the patient relative to controls. We hypothesize that this paradoxical increase in cortical coupling represents a compensatory mechanism in the patient to offset the loss of function of the resected tissue in right prefrontal cortex. PMID

  7. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  8. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  9. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  10. Reorientation of Isomeric Butanols: The Multiple Effects of Steric Bulk Arrangement on Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O; Vartia, Anthony A; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate OH reorientation in the four isomeric butanols in their bulk liquid state to examine the influence of the arrangement of the steric bulk on the alcohol reorientational and hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics. The results are interpreted within the extended jump model in which the OH reorientation is decomposed into contributions due to "jumps" between H-bond partners and "frame" reorientation of the intact H-bonded pair. Reorientation is fastest in iso-butanol and slowest in tert-butanol, while sec- and n-butanol have similar reorientation times. This latter result is a fortuitous cancellation between the jump and frame reorientation in the two alcohols. The extended jump model is shown to provide a quantitative description of the OH reorientation times. A detailed analysis of the jump times shows that a combination of entropic, enthalpic, and dynamical factors, including transition state recrossing effects, all play a role. A simple model based on the liquid structure is proposed to estimate the energetic and entropic contributions to the jump time. This represents the groundwork for a predictive model of OH reorientation in alcohols, but additional studies are required to better understand the frame reorientation and transition state recrossing effects.

  11. 77 FR 56210 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-1414: 1. American Heartland Bancshares, Inc., Sugar Grove, Illinois; to engage de novo through its subsidiary, American Heartland Holdings, LLC, Sugar Grove, Illinois,...

  12. Spatial re-orienting of visual attention along the horizontal or the vertical axis.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, E; Patria, F

    2007-06-01

    Neuroimaging data indicate functional segregation between voluntary and stimulus-driven control of spatial attention in dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions, respectively. While recent evidences demonstrated location-specific attentional effects in dorsal regions, little is known about any location or direction selectivity within the ventral network. Here, we used a spatial cueing paradigm to investigate stimulus-driven spatial re-orienting along different axes (horizontal or vertical). We found that re-orienting of attention activated the ventral attentional network, irrespective of axis-orientation. Statistical comparisons between homologous regions in the two hemispheres revealed significant main effects of attention re-orienting (common activation for the two hemispheres), irrespective of leftward or rightward re-orienting along the horizontal axis, or re-orienting along the vertical axis. We conclude that in healthy volunteers, a bilateral ventral network controls spatial covert re-orienting, and that this system is multidirectional.

  13. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David

    2004-01-01

    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity. PMID:15764096

  14. Domain faceting in an in-plane magnetic reorientation transition

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovo, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Sadowski, J.T.; Ablett, J.M.; Nino, M.A.; Locatelli, A.

    2010-11-04

    The microscopic structure of the 90{sup o} in-plane magnetic reorientation transition in Fe(110) films is examined using photoemission x-ray microscopy. At the nanoscale, sharp magnetic boundaries are detected. They are indicative of a first-order transition and are consistent with Fe magnetic anisotropy constants. At the micron scale, the magnetic boundary breaks up into triangular patterns whose characteristic angular dependence is revealed by experiments on conical microwedges. This effect, fully accounted by micromagnetic simulations, opens the possibility to control the sharpness of the transition at the microscopic scale.

  15. Investigations of Shape Conundra Using Reorientation-Effect Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orce, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    A recent Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect measurement at TRIUMF has enabled information on diagonal matrix elements for the 3.368 MeV high-lying first excited state in 10Be from γ-ray data. The result allows for a comparison with state-of-the-art no-core-shell-model calculations and questions our knowledge of the spin-orbit interaction. Similar experiments using 12C beams at TRIUMF are aimed at measuring the diagonal matrix element for the first 2+ state at 4.439 MeV, which is currently determined as oblate, but presents an uncertainty of over 50%. Nuclear clustering effects are also being investigated using 20Ne beams at iThemba LABS--the first `safe' reorientation-effect measurement with 20Ne beams. In addition, the occurrence of oblate shapes and shape coexistence will also be studied using 70Se beams at 5.5 MeV/u at HIE-ISOLDE. These studies will shed light on nuclear shapes and resolved some of the timely shape conundra found in nuclei.

  16. A new twist on old ideas: How sitting reorients crawlers

    PubMed Central

    Soska, Kasey C.; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, crawling and sitting are considered distinct motor behaviors with different postures and functions. Ten- to 12-month-old infants were observed in the laboratory or in their homes while being coaxed to crawl continuously over long, straight walkways (Study 1; N = 20) and during spontaneous crawling during free play (Study 2; N = 20). In every context, infants stopped crawling to sit 3-6 times per minute. Transitions from crawling to sitting frequently turned infants’ bodies away from the direction of heading; subsequent transitions back to crawling were offset by as much as 180° from the original direction of heading. Apparently, body reorientations result from the biomechanics of transitioning between crawling and sitting. Findings indicate that sustained, linear crawling is likely an epiphenomenon of how gait is studied in standard paradigms. Postural transitions between crawling and sitting are ubiquitous and can represent a functional unit of action. These transitions and the accompanying body reorientations likely have cascading effects for infants’ exploration, visual perception, and spatial cognition. PMID:25041056

  17. Tectonics of Vesta: Indication of Spin-up and Reorientation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    The first publicly released images of Vesta taken by the Dawn spacecraft reveal in detail both that which was expected based on Hubble Space Telescope studies -a probable south polar impact basin-and unexpected-large, continuous equatorial "grooves" (possible extensional graben) and ridges near the south pole. I will demonstrate based on numerical models why we may not be so surprised: that impact-induced changes to Vesta's shape and spin state can in fact produce such seemingly enigmatic features. It has been suggested that the impact event that formed the basin might have been sufficient to cause significant reorientation of Vesta's spin axis [1-3]. Such a process affects the asteroid's spin state, and can drive changes in shape that produce strains and surface tectonics. Because Vesta is silicate body and likely cooled quickly, unless the impact was early or created a significant thermal perturbation, it is difficult to produce surface tectonics that are not dominated by thermal contraction [2,3]. That at first glance Vesta's surface appears to be tectonically rich implies a significant change in Vesta's shape that may not be readily explained by an elastic response, since viscous relaxation of the body and the crater may give rise to additional strain as well as distort the feature [2]. I will show that because Vesta's equatorial bulge at its current rotation rate is so large a component of its shape (HST-derived) [1], it stabilizes the body's rotation even after a large impact. This would seem to imply that the location of the impact was indeed near to the south pole and the associated small reorientation has had little effect on Vesta's shape [2,3]. However, such an impact produces equatorial compression and polar extension, inconsistent with first images released by Dawn. De-spinning only enhances equatorial compression [3]. Reorientation and spin-up, however, CAN create the tectonic patterns observed on Vesta [2]. In this presentation I will demonstrate how

  18. A fibre reorientation model for orthotropic multiplicative growth. Configurational driving stresses, kinematics-based reorientation, and algorithmic aspects.

    PubMed

    Menzel, A

    2007-09-01

    The main goal of this contribution consists in the development of a remodelling framework for orthotropic continua whereby the underlying symmetry group is incorporated via two fibre families. Special emphasis is placed on the modelling of biological tissues at finite deformations. Besides the incorporation of a referential mass source, anisotropic growth is addressed by means of a multiplicative decomposition of the overall deformation gradient into an elastic and a growth distortion. Projected quantities of a configurational growth stress tensor are advocated as driving forces for time-dependent saturation-type evolution of the principal values of the growth distortion. Moreover, the reorientation of both fibre families, which directly affects the strain energy as well as the growth distortion itself, is guided by analyzing critical energy points. In particular, a time-dependent formulation is developed which aligns the fibre directions according to the principal stretch directions. Finally, the proposed framework is embedded into a finite element context so that representative numerical examples, examining growth and resorption in volume and density together with fibre reorientation, close this study. PMID:17149642

  19. Geometry Three Ways: An fMRI Investigation of Geometric Information Processing during Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jennifer E.; Twyman, Alexandra D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry formed by the walls of a room is known to be a potent cue in reorientation, yet little is known about the use of geometric information gleaned from other contexts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activity in adults while reorienting in 3 different environments: the typical rectangular walled room, a…

  20. Theta Oscillation Reveals the Temporal Involvement of Different Attentional Networks in Contingent Reorienting

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Fu; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Hung, Daisy L.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    In the visual world, rapidly reorienting to relevant objects outside the focus of attention is vital for survival. This ability from the interaction between goal-directed and stimulus-driven attentional control is termed contingent reorienting. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activations of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (DANs) which exhibit right hemisphere dominance, but the temporal dynamics of the attentional networks still remain unclear. The present study used event-related potential (ERP) to index the locus of spatial attention and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to acquire the time-frequency information during contingent reorienting. The ERP results showed contingent reorienting induced significant N2pc on both hemispheres. In contrast, our time-frequency analysis found further that, unlike the N2pc, theta oscillation during contingent reorienting differed between hemispheres and experimental sessions. The inter-trial coherence (ITC) of the theta oscillation demonstrated that the two sides of the attentional networks became phase-locked to contingent reorienting at different stages. The left attentional networks were associated with contingent reorienting in the first experimental session whereas the bilateral attentional networks play a more important role in this process in the subsequent session. This phase-locked information suggests a dynamic temporal evolution of the involvement of different attentional networks in contingent reorienting and a potential role of the left ventral network in the first session. PMID:27375459

  1. Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks To Reorient in an Open Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouteux, Stephane; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2001-01-01

    Eight experiments examined abilities of 3- to 4-year-olds to reorient themselves and locate a hidden object in an open circular space furnished with landmark objects. Findings showed that children failed to use geometric configuration of objects to reorient themselves. Children successfully located the object in relation to a geometric…

  2. Theta Oscillation Reveals the Temporal Involvement of Different Attentional Networks in Contingent Reorienting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Fu; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Hung, Daisy L; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    In the visual world, rapidly reorienting to relevant objects outside the focus of attention is vital for survival. This ability from the interaction between goal-directed and stimulus-driven attentional control is termed contingent reorienting. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activations of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (DANs) which exhibit right hemisphere dominance, but the temporal dynamics of the attentional networks still remain unclear. The present study used event-related potential (ERP) to index the locus of spatial attention and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to acquire the time-frequency information during contingent reorienting. The ERP results showed contingent reorienting induced significant N2pc on both hemispheres. In contrast, our time-frequency analysis found further that, unlike the N2pc, theta oscillation during contingent reorienting differed between hemispheres and experimental sessions. The inter-trial coherence (ITC) of the theta oscillation demonstrated that the two sides of the attentional networks became phase-locked to contingent reorienting at different stages. The left attentional networks were associated with contingent reorienting in the first experimental session whereas the bilateral attentional networks play a more important role in this process in the subsequent session. This phase-locked information suggests a dynamic temporal evolution of the involvement of different attentional networks in contingent reorienting and a potential role of the left ventral network in the first session. PMID:27375459

  3. School Reorientation of Children with Disabilities: A Stressful Life Event Challenging Parental Cognitive and Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Zech, Emmanuelle; Nils, Frederic; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose guidelines for counselors who notify parents of children with disabilities that a school reorientation is needed. They propose a model that integrates the predictors, moderators, and mediators of parental adjustment after school reorientation notification. The article includes the risk and resource factors associated with…

  4. Theta Oscillation Reveals the Temporal Involvement of Different Attentional Networks in Contingent Reorienting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Fu; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Hung, Daisy L; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    In the visual world, rapidly reorienting to relevant objects outside the focus of attention is vital for survival. This ability from the interaction between goal-directed and stimulus-driven attentional control is termed contingent reorienting. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activations of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (DANs) which exhibit right hemisphere dominance, but the temporal dynamics of the attentional networks still remain unclear. The present study used event-related potential (ERP) to index the locus of spatial attention and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to acquire the time-frequency information during contingent reorienting. The ERP results showed contingent reorienting induced significant N2pc on both hemispheres. In contrast, our time-frequency analysis found further that, unlike the N2pc, theta oscillation during contingent reorienting differed between hemispheres and experimental sessions. The inter-trial coherence (ITC) of the theta oscillation demonstrated that the two sides of the attentional networks became phase-locked to contingent reorienting at different stages. The left attentional networks were associated with contingent reorienting in the first experimental session whereas the bilateral attentional networks play a more important role in this process in the subsequent session. This phase-locked information suggests a dynamic temporal evolution of the involvement of different attentional networks in contingent reorienting and a potential role of the left ventral network in the first session.

  5. Reorientation by Geometric and Landmark Information in Environments of Different Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Feruglio, Marco; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2005-01-01

    It has been found that disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested domestic chicks in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and nongeometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in…

  6. Reorientation in the Real World: The Development of Landmark Use and Integration in a Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alastair D.; Gilchrist, Iain D.; Cater, Kirsten; Ikram, Naimah; Nott, Kylie; Hood, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    An influential series of studies have argued that young children are unable to use landmark information to reorient. However, these studies have used artificial experimental environments that may lead to an underestimation of the children's ability. We tested whether young children could reorient using landmarks in an ecologically valid setting.…

  7. DNA reorientation on Au nanoparticles: label-free detection of hybridization by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evanthia; Bell, Steven E J

    2011-10-21

    DNA sequences attached to Au nanoparticles via thiol linkers stand up from the surface, giving preferential enhancement of the adenine ring breathing SERS band. Non-specific binding via the nucleobases reorients the DNA, reducing this effect. This change in intensity on reorientation was utilised for label-free detection of hybridization of a molecular beacon.

  8. 77 FR 21100 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

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    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. City Holding Company, Cross Lanes, West Virginia; to acquire 100 percent of...

  9. 77 FR 60996 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

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    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. City Holding Company, Cross Lanes, West Virginia; to acquire 100 percent of...

  10. 78 FR 29134 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

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    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C...., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. HCBF Holding Company, Inc., Fort Pierce, Florida; to acquire 100 percent of...

  11. Implementation of a Basic Package of Oral Care: towards a reorientation of dental Ngos and their volunteers.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Wim van Palenstein; Benzian, Habib

    2006-02-01

    Dental NGOs and volunteers working in disadvantaged communities around the world do so with the best of intentions and with high motivation. Regrettably, the impact of this engagement on oral health at the population level remains rather low. This is mainly due to the choice of inappropriate approaches, the failure to integrate their projects within existing health care systems and the lack of sustainability. This paper proposes the concept of the Basic Package of Oral Care (BPOC) as a guiding framework for dental NGO and volunteer activities. The main components of the BPOC (Oral Urgent Treatment, Affordable Fluoride Toothpaste, Atraumatic Restorative Treatment) offer many opportunities for effective, affordable and sustainable activities that aim to improve oral health on the community and population level. Only through a reorientation of dental volunteer services and NGOs towards new roles and activities can a sustained impact on global oral health be possible. Recommendations are given that could help dental NGOs and volunteers in this process of change.

  12. Development of a computational model for astronaut reorientation.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Willcox, Karen; Newman, Dava

    2010-08-26

    The ability to model astronaut reorientations computationally provides a simple way to develop and study human motion control strategies. Since the cost of experimenting in microgravity is high, and underwater training can lead to motions inappropriate for microgravity, these techniques allow for motions to be developed and well-understood prior to any microgravity exposure. By including a model of the current space suit, we have the ability to study both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. We present several techniques for rotating about the axes of the body and show that motions performed by the legs create a greater net rotation than those performed by the arms. Adding a space suit to the motions was seen to increase the resistance torque and limit the available range of motion. While rotations about the body axes can be performed in the current space suit, the resulting motions generated a reduced rotation when compared to the unsuited configuration.

  13. Behavior learning in differential games and reorientation maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satak, Neha

    method is the Direct Approximation of Value Function (DAVF) method. In this method, unlike the CSR method, the player formulates an objective function for the opponent but does not formulates a strategy directly; rather, indirectly the player assumes that the opponent is playing optimally. Thus, a value function satisfying the HJB equation corresponding to the opponent's cost function exists. The DAVF method finds an approximate solution for the value function based on previous observations of the opponent's control. The approximate solution to the value function is then used to predict the opponent's future behavior. Game examples in which only a single player is learning its opponent's behavior are simulated. Subsequently, examples in which both players in a two-player game are learning each other's behavior are simulated. In the second part of this research, a reorientation control maneuver for a spinning spacecraft will be developed. This will aid the application of behavior learning and differential games concepts to the specific scenario involving multiple spinning spacecraft. An impulsive reorientation maneuver with coasting will be analytically designed to reorient the spin axis of the spacecraft using a single body fixed thruster. Cooperative maneuvers of multiple spacecraft optimizing fuel and relative orientation will be designed. Pareto optimality concepts will be used to arrive at mutually agreeable reorientation maneuvers for the cooperating spinning spacecraft.

  14. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment - A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.

  15. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment – A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible. PMID:26312124

  16. Low gravity reorientation in a scale-model Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, J. A.; Masica, W. J.; Lacovic, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the process of liquid reorientation from one end of a scale-model Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank to the other end by means of low-level accelerations. Prior to reorientation, the liquid was stabilized at the top of the tank at a Bond number of 15. Tanks both with and without ring baffles and with tank radii of 5.5 and 7.0 centimeters were used in the study. Reorientation acceleration values were varied to obtain Bond numbers of 200 and 450. Liquid fill levels of 20 and 70 percent were used. From the data in this study, relations were developed to estimate reorientation event times in unbaffled tanks through the point of final liquid clearing from the top of the tank. The insertion of ring baffles drastically changed the reorientation flow profiles but resulted in only minor differences in the times of tank-top uncovering and liquid collection.

  17. Tidal reorientation and the fracturing of Jupiter's moon Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The most striking characteristic of Europa is the network of long linear albedo markings over the surface, suggestive of global-scale tectonic processes. Various explanations for the fractures have been proposed: Freezing and expansion of an early liquid water ocean1, planetary expansion due to dehydration of hydrated silicates2, localization by weak points in the crust generated by impacts3, and a combination of stresses due to planetary volume change and tidal distortions from orbital recession and orbital eccentricity4,5. Calculations by Yoder6 and Greenberg and Weidenschilling7 have shown that Europa may rotate slightly more rapidly than the synchronous rate, with a rotation period (reorientation through 360??) ranging from 20 to >103 yr if a liquid mantle is present, or up to 1010 yr if the satellite is essentially solid7. Helfen-stein and Parmentier8 modelled the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation, and concluded that this could explain the long fractures in part of the anti-jovian hemisphere. In this note, I present a global map of lineaments with long arc lengths (>20?? or 550 km), and compare the lineament orientations to the tensile stress trajectories due to tidal distortions (changes in the lengths of three principal semiaxes) and to nonsynchronous rotation (longitudinal reorientation of two of the principal semiaxes). An excellent orthogonal fit to the lineaments is achieved by the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation with the axis radial to Jupiter located 25?? east of its present position. This fit suggests that nonsynchronous rotation occurred at some time in Europa's history. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. The effect of stress state on zirconium hydride reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim

    Prior to storage in a dry-cask facility, spent nuclear fuel must undergo a vacuum drying cycle during which the spent fuel rods are heated up to elevated temperatures of ≤ 400°C to remove moisture the canisters within the cask. As temperature increases during heating, some of the hydride particles within the cladding dissolve while the internal gas pressure in fuel rods increases generating multi-axial hoop and axial stresses in the closed-end thin-walled cladding tubes. As cool-down starts, the hydrogen in solid solution precipitates as hydride platelets, and if the multiaxial stresses are sufficiently large, the precipitating hydrides reorient from their initial circumferential orientation to radial orientation. Radial hydrides can severely embrittle the spent nuclear fuel cladding at low temperature in response to hoop stress loading. Because the cladding can experience a range of stress states during the thermo-mechanical treatment induced during vacuum drying, this study has investigated the effect of stress state on the process of hydride reorientation during controlled thermo-mechanical treatments utilizing the combination of in situ X-ray diffraction and novel mechanical testing analyzed by the combination of metallography and finite element analysis. The study used cold worked and stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet containing approx. 180 wt. ppm hydrogen as its material basis. The failure behavior of this material containing radial hydrides was also studied over a range of temperatures. Finally, samples from reactor-irradiated cladding tubes were examined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. To reveal the stress state effect on hydride reorientation, the critical threshold stress to reorient hydrides was determined by designing novel mechanical test samples which produce a range of stress states from uniaxial to "near-equibiaxial" tension when a load is applied. The threshold stress was determined after thermo-mechanical treatments by

  19. Time course and auxin sensitivity of cortical microtubule reorientation in maize roots.

    PubMed

    Blancaflor, E B; Hasenstein, K H

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of MT [microtubule] reorientation in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Merit, were examined 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after horizontal positioning. Confocal microscopy of longitudinal tissue sections showed no change in MT orientation 15 and 30 min after horizontal placement. However, after 45 and 60 min, MTs of the outer 4-5 cortical cell layers along the lower side were reoriented. In order to test whether MT reorientation during graviresponse is caused by an auxin gradient, we examined the organization of MTs in roots that were incubated for 1 h in solutions containing 10(-9) to 10(-6) M IAA. IAA treatment at 10(-8) M or less showed no major or consistent changes but 10(-7) M IAA resulted in MT reorientation in the cortex. The auxin effect does not appear to be acid-induced since benzoic acid (10(-5) M) did not cause MT reorientation. The region closest to the maturation zone was most sensitive to IAA. The data indicate that early stages of gravity induced curvature occur in the absence of MT reorientation but sustained curvature leads to reoriented MTs in the outer cortex. Growth inhibition along the lower side of graviresponding roots appears to result from asymmetric distribution of auxin following gravistimulation. PMID:11541297

  20. Time course and auxin sensitivity of cortical microtubule reorientation in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of MT [microtubule] reorientation in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Merit, were examined 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after horizontal positioning. Confocal microscopy of longitudinal tissue sections showed no change in MT orientation 15 and 30 min after horizontal placement. However, after 45 and 60 min, MTs of the outer 4-5 cortical cell layers along the lower side were reoriented. In order to test whether MT reorientation during graviresponse is caused by an auxin gradient, we examined the organization of MTs in roots that were incubated for 1 h in solutions containing 10(-9) to 10(-6) M IAA. IAA treatment at 10(-8) M or less showed no major or consistent changes but 10(-7) M IAA resulted in MT reorientation in the cortex. The auxin effect does not appear to be acid-induced since benzoic acid (10(-5) M) did not cause MT reorientation. The region closest to the maturation zone was most sensitive to IAA. The data indicate that early stages of gravity induced curvature occur in the absence of MT reorientation but sustained curvature leads to reoriented MTs in the outer cortex. Growth inhibition along the lower side of graviresponding roots appears to result from asymmetric distribution of auxin following gravistimulation.

  1. Modelling and analysis of bacterial tracks suggest an active reorientation mechanism in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Gabriel; Baker, Ruth E.; Armitage, Judith P.; Fletcher, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Most free-swimming bacteria move in approximately straight lines, interspersed with random reorientation phases. A key open question concerns varying mechanisms by which reorientation occurs. We combine mathematical modelling with analysis of a large tracking dataset to study the poorly understood reorientation mechanism in the monoflagellate species Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The flagellum on this species rotates counterclockwise to propel the bacterium, periodically ceasing rotation to enable reorientation. When rotation restarts the cell body usually points in a new direction. It has been assumed that the new direction is simply the result of Brownian rotation. We consider three variants of a self-propelled particle model of bacterial motility. The first considers rotational diffusion only, corresponding to a non-chemotactic mutant strain. Two further models incorporate stochastic reorientations, describing ‘run-and-tumble’ motility. We derive expressions for key summary statistics and simulate each model using a stochastic computational algorithm. We also discuss the effect of cell geometry on rotational diffusion. Working with a previously published tracking dataset, we compare predictions of the models with data on individual stopping events in R. sphaeroides. This provides strong evidence that this species undergoes some form of active reorientation rather than simple reorientation by Brownian rotation. PMID:24872500

  2. Jet-Reorientation in X-shaped Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmann, H.

    2001-08-01

    The thesis set out to investigate the nature and genesis of the peculiar class of X-shaped radio galaxies. X-shaped sources are puzzling because of the extremely low number of objects of that type. Three scenarios were investigated: 1) X-shaped sources are a class by itself and are formed through a mechanisms unlike normal radio galaxies. 2) X-shaped sources are normal radio galaxies but they are currently in an unusual and/or short lived phase. 3) X-shaped sources are numerous, but selection effects keep us from identifying more of them. The backbone of this work is the multi-frequency spectral analysis. Magnetic fields were calculated using the standard minimum energy assumptions. Break frequencies were determined from the synchrotron spectra by fitting spectral models. The break frequencies were then used to calculate spectral ages. In nearly all sources we have found a gradient of decreasing magnetic fields and spectral indices from the primary towards the secondary lobes. Furthermore, the trend of spectral age clearly indicates increasing ages towards the tips of the secondary lobes. Spectral ages of the secondary lobes have been found to be of the order of a few 10^7 years, which is rather typical for the lobes of 'normal' radio galaxies. Some of the primary lobes (3C223.1, 3C403, NGC326) however are quite young (10^6 years). The young spectral ages of these sources and the short lengths of their primary lobes indicates that possibly the reorientation of their jets is ongoing or has finished only recently. The spectral ages have been used to test the proposed formation scenarios. The required flow speeds in the case of the buoyancy and backflow models is inconsistent with the calculated spectral ages. The predictions of the jet reorientation mechanisms are in excellent agreement with the inferred spectral ages. In the following we have compared the theoretical distribution of projected source angles for a randomly oriented sample of X-shaped sources with the

  3. 77 FR 285 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  6. 78 FR 77465 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  7. 78 FR 26032 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  8. 78 FR 11648 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  9. 78 FR 8534 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  10. 77 FR 4560 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  11. 76 FR 78658 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  12. 78 FR 52531 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  13. 77 FR 14015 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  14. 78 FR 35271 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  15. 77 FR 7163 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 ] CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or...

  16. 77 FR 12304 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  17. 77 FR 75633 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y (12 CFR part 225), to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  18. 77 FR 39494 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  19. 78 FR 42524 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  20. 77 FR 27061 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  1. 78 FR 61845 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  2. 77 FR 33460 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  3. 77 FR 8258 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  4. 77 FR 1072 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  5. 78 FR 62303 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  6. 78 FR 67147 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  7. 78 FR 52768 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  8. 78 FR 30302 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  9. 77 FR 6564 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  10. 78 FR 70946 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  11. 77 FR 60119 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  12. 78 FR 52915 - Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  13. 78 FR 11186 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  14. 78 FR 24201 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  15. 78 FR 27239 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  16. 76 FR 71344 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  17. 77 FR 45352 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  18. 76 FR 76413 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  19. 77 FR 43285 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  20. 77 FR 64994 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  1. 76 FR 81940 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Notice of Proposals to Engage in or to Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  2. 77 FR 66464 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  3. 77 FR 285 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  4. 78 FR 1212 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  5. 77 FR 46437 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  6. 78 FR 26369 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  7. 78 FR 9051 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  8. 77 FR 52033 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Notice of Proposals To Engage in or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843) (BHC Act) and Regulation Y, (12 CFR Part 225) to engage de novo, or to acquire or control...

  9. Structure-induced spin reorientation in magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Alexander; Frauen, Axel; Vollmers, Julian; Meyer, Andreas; Oepen, Hans Peter

    2016-09-01

    We report on structuring-induced changes of the magnetic anisotropy of cylindrical nanostructures which are carved out of thin Pt/Co/Pt films. The magnetic properties of films and structures with a diameter of about 34 nm were investigated via magneto-optic Kerr effect. The magnetic anisotropy is determined for both films and nanostructures for varying Co thicknesses (0.5-7 nm). In general, the nanostructures exhibit larger perpendicular anisotropy than the films. On thickness increase of the Co layer two spin reorientation transitions at about 2.2 and 5 nm are found. At 2.2 nm the nanostructures exhibit the transition from perpendicular to in-plane orientation of magnetization while at 5 nm the reversed transition is found. The variation of the magnetic anisotropy of the Co nanostructures is not solely caused by the change of shape anisotropy. The net change, corrected for the shape, reveals a reduction of strain in the thinnest Co layers while the increase of the anisotropy of the nanostructures at higher Co thicknesses is caused by a transformation of the Co lattice from fcc to hcp.

  10. Resolving coiled shapes reveals new reorientation behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Broekmans, Onno D; Rodgers, Jarlath B; Ryu, William S; Stephens, Greg J

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the reduced space of C. elegans postures to develop a novel tracking algorithm which captures both simple shapes and also self-occluding coils, an important, yet unexplored, component of 2D worm behavior. We apply our algorithm to show that visually complex, coiled sequences are a superposition of two simpler patterns: the body wave dynamics and a head-curvature pulse. We demonstrate the precise Ω-turn dynamics of an escape response and uncover a surprising new dichotomy in spontaneous, large-amplitude coils; deep reorientations occur not only through classical Ω-shaped postures but also through larger postural excitations which we label here as δ-turns. We find that omega and delta turns occur independently, suggesting a distinct triggering mechanism, and are the serpentine analog of a random left-right step. Finally, we show that omega and delta turns occur with approximately equal rates and adapt to food-free conditions on a similar timescale, a simple strategy to avoid navigational bias. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17227.001 PMID:27644113

  11. Resolving coiled shapes reveals new reorientation behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Broekmans, Onno D; Rodgers, Jarlath B; Ryu, William S; Stephens, Greg J

    2016-09-20

    We exploit the reduced space of C. elegans postures to develop a novel tracking algorithm which captures both simple shapes and also self-occluding coils, an important, yet unexplored, component of 2D worm behavior. We apply our algorithm to show that visually complex, coiled sequences are a superposition of two simpler patterns: the body wave dynamics and a head-curvature pulse. We demonstrate the precise Ω-turn dynamics of an escape response and uncover a surprising new dichotomy in spontaneous, large-amplitude coils; deep reorientations occur not only through classical Ω-shaped postures but also through larger postural excitations which we label here as δ-turns. We find that omega and delta turns occur independently, suggesting a distinct triggering mechanism, and are the serpentine analog of a random left-right step. Finally, we show that omega and delta turns occur with approximately equal rates and adapt to food-free conditions on a similar timescale, a simple strategy to avoid navigational bias.

  12. Resolving coiled shapes reveals new reorientation behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Broekmans, Onno D; Rodgers, Jarlath B; Ryu, William S; Stephens, Greg J

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the reduced space of C. elegans postures to develop a novel tracking algorithm which captures both simple shapes and also self-occluding coils, an important, yet unexplored, component of 2D worm behavior. We apply our algorithm to show that visually complex, coiled sequences are a superposition of two simpler patterns: the body wave dynamics and a head-curvature pulse. We demonstrate the precise Ω-turn dynamics of an escape response and uncover a surprising new dichotomy in spontaneous, large-amplitude coils; deep reorientations occur not only through classical Ω-shaped postures but also through larger postural excitations which we label here as δ-turns. We find that omega and delta turns occur independently, suggesting a distinct triggering mechanism, and are the serpentine analog of a random left-right step. Finally, we show that omega and delta turns occur with approximately equal rates and adapt to food-free conditions on a similar timescale, a simple strategy to avoid navigational bias. PMID:27644113

  13. Shape-assisted body reorientation enhances trafficability through cluttered terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew; Haldane, Duncan; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Many birds and fishes have slender, streamlined bodies that reduce fluid dynamic drag and allow fast and efficient locomotion. Similarly, numerous terrestrial animals run through cluttered terrain where 3-D, multi-component obstacles like grass, bushes, trees, walls, doors, and pillars also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role. Here, we challenged discoid cockroaches that possess a rounded, thin, nearly ellipsoidal body to run through tall, narrowly spaced, grass-like beams. The animals primarily rolled their body to the side to maneuver through the obstacle gaps. Reduction of body roundness by artificial shells inhibited this side roll maneuver, resulting in a lower traversal probability and a longer traversal time (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Inspired by this discovery, we added a cockroach-like, rounded exoskeleton shell to a legged robot of a nearly cuboidal body. The rounded shell enabled the robot to use passive side rolling to maneuver through beams. To explain the mechanism, we developed a simple physics model to construct an energy landscape of the body-terrain interaction, which allowed estimation of body forces and torques exerted by the beams. Our model revealed that, by passive interaction with the terrain, a rounded body (ellipsoid) rolled more easily than an angular body (cuboid) to access energy valleys between energy barriers caused by obstacles. Our study is the first to demonstrate that a terradynamically ``streamlined'' shape can reduce terrain resistance and enhance trafficability by assisting body reorientation.

  14. FREQUENT SPIN REORIENTATION OF GALAXIES DUE TO LOCAL INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-10

    We study the evolution of angular momenta of M {sub *} = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} galaxies utilizing large-scale ultra-high resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and find that the spin of the stellar component changes direction frequently because of interactions with nearby systems, such as major mergers, minor mergers, significant gas inflows, and torques. The rate and nature of change of spin direction cannot be accounted for by large-scale tidal torques, because the rates of the latter fall short by orders of magnitude and because the apparent random swings of the spin direction are inconsistent with the alignment by linear density field. The implications for galaxy formation as well as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies are profound. Assuming the large-scale tidal field is the sole alignment agent, a new picture emerging is that intrinsic alignment of galaxies would be a balance between slow large-scale coherent torquing and fast spin reorientation by local interactions. What is still open is whether other processes, such as feeding galaxies with gas and stars along filaments or sheets, introduce coherence for spin directions of galaxies along the respective structures.

  15. Observation of polarization current accompanying smectic A electroclinic reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Renfan; Wang, Lixing; Jones, Christopher D.; Coleman, David A.; Nguyen, Duong; Nakata, Michi; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Rudquist, Per; Walba, David M.; Clark, Noel A.

    2006-03-01

    We have been studying the liquid crystalline material W530, and report observations of polarization current of the field-induced molecular reorientation in the SmA phase. W530 exhibits the following phase diagram on cooling: isotropic -- SmA -- uncharacterized Sm'X' -- metastable SmC -- crystal. The temperature range of the SmA and SmX phases is ˜50 C, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows very little layer spacing change throughout the width of these two phases, while the SmC fractional layer compression is ˜5%. The SmX is nearly identical in appearance to the SmA phase under depolarized light microscopy (DPLM). However, when measuring polarization current while cooling from SmA to SmX, two polarization peaks appear throughout the range of the SmX phase. By adapting the Langevin model for deVries SmA, we are able to explain the two polarization peaks. Through a combination of DPLM cone angle and birefringence measurements, dielectric spectroscopy measurements, aligned sample and powder XRD experiments, and freely suspended film observations, we are able to show that the previously uncharacterized phase is a deVries SmA. Work supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0213918.

  16. 75 FR 41523 - Delphi Corporation, a Subsidiary of Delphi Holdings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Janitorial Services and HSS Material Management Solutions, Flint, Michigan. The notice was published in the... Automotive Holding Group, Flint, Michigan, engaged in the production of instrument clusters, separated from... Holding Group, Flint, Michigan, engaged in the production of fuel modules and air meters, separated...

  17. Spin reorientation transition process in single crystal NdFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gaibei; Jiang, Junjie; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun

    2015-06-01

    The spin reorientation transition in single crystal NdFeO3 is studied using AC magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, and polarized terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy measurements. Different frequency dependence behaviors of AC susceptibility reflect that the dynamic response of magnetization inside the spin reorientation region differs from the phase outside the transition region. The magnetization hysteresis loops at different temperatures reveal that domains formed during the spin reorientation process, which coincides with the abrupt increase of AC magnetic susceptibility during the transition. In addition, temperature dependent THz wave excitation of quasi-antiferromagnetic mode indicates the process of spin reorientation as a continuous rotation of Fe3+ spins rather than a mixed phase of Γ4 and Γ2.

  18. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  19. Reorientation dynamics of ferroelectric liquid-crystal molecules near the smectic-A-smectic-C* transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'brien, J. P.; Moses, T.; Chen, W.; Freysz, E.; Ouchi, Y.; Shen, Y. R.

    1993-04-01

    A transient optical Kerr measurement is used to study molecular reorientation about the long molecular axis of chiral and nonchiral smectic-A liquid crystals. Two relaxation components were identified, associated with individual and collective molecular motions. In contradiction with a recent report [J. R. Lalanne et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 3046 (1989); Phys. Rev. A 44, 6632 (1991)], no critical behavior of this reorientation was observed as the transition to the ferroelectric smectic-C* phase was approached.

  20. Holding services to account

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, the frequency of audit inspections of health services for people with intellectual disability (ID) in the UK has increased, from occasional inquiries to a systematic audit of all services. From 2008, a process of continuous audit ‘surveillance’ of specialist health services is to be introduced. Similar regimes of inspection are in place for social care services. Aim To explore the conceptual positions which inform audit, through detailed examination of the investigation into the learning disability service at Sutton and Merton. Findings Audit is distinct from evaluation because it neither provides opportunities for service staff to give an account of their work nor represents a search for knowledge. Audit investigates adherence to government policy. In ID, audits measure aspirations derived from normalisation, despite research showing that some of these aspirations have not been achieved by any service. As audit consumes significant public resource, it is questionable whether the dominant finding of the Healthcare Commission's investigation into Sutton and Merton, that the ID service was chronically under-funded, represents value for money. Discussion and conclusions While basic checks on minimum standards will always be necessary, service excellence requires not audit but research-driven evaluation. Audits inhibit rather than open-up debate about improving support to people with ID. They impose an ideology, squander resource, and demoralise carers and staff. Evaluations challenge the implicit management-versus-professional binary enacted by audit, and can inform new care systems which make effective use of all those engaged with people with ID. PMID:18498335

  1. Engaging Faculty in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Glynis A.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers endorse the integration of community engagement (CE) into higher education as a way to improve the relevance of education, address community needs, and forge university-community partnerships (Zlotkowski, 1996). CE can help create stronger ties between universities and their communities and provide students with experiential learning…

  2. SPHERES Smartphone Workbench

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Smart SPHERES space robot (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) equipped with an Android smartphone performs a video survey inside of the International Space S...

  3. ISS Update: SPHERES with Telerobotics Project Manager Terry Fong

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Terry Fong, Telerobotics Project Manager, about how the Synchronized Position, Hold, Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES, are ...

  4. Android in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Can smartphones control robots in space? The Nexus-S upgrade of Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites -- SPHERES -- makes this a reality. By connecting a smartphone ...

  5. The reorientation of cell nucleus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity in migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maninová, Miloslava; Klímová, Zuzana; Parsons, J Thomas; Weber, Michael J; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The establishment of cell polarity is an essential step in the process of cell migration. This process requires precise spatiotemporal coordination of signaling pathways that in most cells create the typical asymmetrical profile of a polarized cell with nucleus located at the cell rear and the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) positioned between the nucleus and the leading edge. During cell polarization, nucleus rearward positioning promotes correct microtubule organizing center localization and thus the establishment of front-rear polarity and directional migration. We found that cell polarization and directional migration require also the reorientation of the nucleus. Nuclear reorientation is manifested as temporally restricted nuclear rotation that aligns the nuclear axis with the axis of cell migration. We also found that nuclear reorientation requires physical connection between the nucleus and cytoskeleton mediated by the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex. Nuclear reorientation is controlled by coordinated activity of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-mediated activation of GTPase Rho and the activation of integrin, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling pathway. Integrin signaling is spatially induced at the leading edge as FAK and p190RhoGAP are predominantly activated or localized at this location. We suggest that integrin activation within lamellipodia defines cell front, and subsequent FAK, Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling represents the polarity signal that induces reorientation of the nucleus and thus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity.

  6. Dissecting the geometric module: a sense linkage for metric and landmark information in animals' spatial reorientation.

    PubMed

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    Disoriented children can use geometric information in combination with featural information to reorient themselves in large but not in small spaces; somewhat similar effects have been found in nonhuman animals. These results call for an explanation. We trained young chicks to reorient to find food in a corner of a small or a large rectangular room with a distinctive featural cue (a blue wall) -- a task similar to that used with children. Then we tested the chicks after displacement of the feature to an adjacent wall. In the large enclosure, chicks chose the corner that maintained the correct arrangement of the featural cue with respect to sense, whereas in the small enclosure, they chose the corner that maintained the correct metrical arrangement of the walls with respect to sense. On the basis of these findings, we propose a simple model that can explain the effects of room size on spatial reorientation.

  7. Magnetization process in holmium: easy axis spin reorientation induced by the magnetostrictive basal plane distortion.

    PubMed

    Benito, L; Ciria, M; de la Fuente, C; Arnaudas, J I; Ward, R C C; Wells, M R

    2005-06-10

    We report on the change of the easy axis direction in holmium, from the a to the b axis, under the application of a magnetic field in the basal plane. This spin reorientation is observed by measuring the magnetic torque in Ho(n)/Lu(15) superlattices (n and 15 are the number of atomic planes in the Ho and Lu blocks). We also observe that, at the field H0 and temperature at which the reorientation occurs, both axes are easy directions. Based on the fact that the field H0 depends on n in the same way as the field-induced magnetoelastic distortion does, we propose that this spin reorientation originates from the strong field-induced magnetoelastic deformation within the basal plane. The modulation of the alpha strains with sixfold symmetry originates a 12-fold term in the magnetic anisotropy energy.

  8. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M; Geday, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  9. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M; Geday, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  10. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  11. Reorientation Response of Magnetic Microspheres Attached to Gold Electrodes Under an Applied Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Dominguez, A. Bustamante; Aguiar, J. Albino; Reeve, R. M.; Mitrelias, T.; Langford, R. M.; Azuma, Y.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Majima, Y.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we report the mechanical reorientation of thiolated ferromagnetic microspheres bridging a pair of gold electrodes under an external magnetic field. When an external magnetic field (7 kG) is applied during the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of a carboxyl ferromagnetic microsphere (4 μm diameter) attached to two gold electrodes by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octane dithiol (C8H18S2), the current signal is distorted. Rather than due to magnetoresistance, this effect is caused by a mechanical reorientation of the ferromagnetic sphere, which alters the number of SAMs between the sphere and the electrodes and therefore affects conduction. To study the physical reorientation of the ferromagnetic particles, we measure their hysteresis loops while suspended in a liquid solution.

  12. Reorientation phenomena in imidazolium methyl sulfonate as probed by advanced solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Goward, Gillian R; Saalwächter, Kay; Fischbach, Ingrid; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for reorientation of imidazolium rings in imidazolium methylsulfonate is demonstrated using solid-state NMR. This material is a model system for exciting new proton-conducting materials based on imidazole. Two advanced NMR methods, including 1H-13C and 1H-15N recoupled polarization transfer with dipolar sideband pattern analysis and analysis of the coalescence of 13C lineshapes are used to characterize the ring reorientation. The process is found to occur at temperatures well below the melting point of the salt, between 240 and 380 K, and is described by a single activation energy, of 38+/-5 kJ/mol. This material is considered as a model system for quantifying the ring reorientation process, which is often proposed to be the rate-limiting step in proton transport in imidazole-based proton conducting materials.

  13. Vise holds specimens for microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greule, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Convenient, miniature, spring-loaded clamp holds specimens for scanning electron microscope. Clamp is made out of nesting sections of studded angle-aluminum. Specimens are easier to mount and dismount with vise than with conductive adhesive or paint.

  14. Separate geometric and non-geometric modules for spatial reorientation: evidence from a lopsided animal brain.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Pagni, Piero; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2004-04-01

    Research has proved that disoriented children and nonhuman animals can reorient themselves using geometric and nongeometric features of the environment, showing conjoined use of both types of information to different degree depending on species and developmental level. Little is known of the neurobiological bases of these spatial reorientation processes. Here we take advantage of the neuroanatomical peculiarities of the visual system of birds (showing segregation of information between the two sides of the brain to a considerable degree) to investigate the way in which geometric and nongeometric information is encoded and used by the left and right hemispheres. Domestic chicks were trained binocularly in an environment with a distinctive geometry (a rectangular cage) with panels at the corners providing nongeometric cues. Between trials, chicks were passively disoriented to disable dead reckoning. When tested after removal of the panels, left-eyed chicks, but not right-eyed chicks, reoriented using the residual information provided by the geometry of the cage. When tested after removal of geometric information (i.e., in a square-shaped cage), both right- and left-eyed chicks reoriented using the residual nongeometric information provided by the panels. When trained binocularly with only geometric information, at test, left-eyed chicks reoriented better than right-eyed chicks. Finally, when geometric and nongeometric cues provided contradictory information, left-eyed chicks showed more reliance on geometric cues, whereas right-eyed chicks showed more reliance on nongeometric cues. The results suggest separate mechanisms for dealing with spatial reorientation problems, with the right hemisphere taking charge of large-scale geometry of the environment and with both hemispheres taking charge of local, nongeometric cues when available in isolation, but with a predominance of the left hemisphere when competition between geometric and non-geometric information occurs

  15. Medium-frequency impulsive-thrust-excited slosh waves during propellant reorientation with a geyser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Slosh wave excitation induced by a resettling flowfield activated by 1.0-Hz impulsive thrust during the course of liquid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid-fill levels of 30, 50, 65, 70, and 80 percent has been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves of various frequencies excited by the resettling flowfield are discussed. Slosh wave excitations shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variations in spacecraft moment of inertia. This information is important for spacecraft control during the course of liquid reorientation.

  16. Orbital magnetic moment instability at the spin reorientation transition of Nd2Fe14B

    PubMed

    Garcia; Chaboy; Bartolome; Goedkoop

    2000-07-10

    Highly accurate soft-XMCD data recorded on a Nd2Fe14B single crystal, through the spin reorientation transition show that the average Fe orbital moment (a) is proportional to the macroscopic Fe anisotropy constant, and (b) diverges 15 K below the reorientation transition temperature. This divergence is indicative of a critical behavior and it is related to a tetragonal distortion. These results give experimental evidence of the mutual dependence between orbital moment, macroscopic magnetic anisotropy, and tetragonal distortion. Furthermore, it is argued that the critical behavior of the orbital moment is at the origin of similar divergences previously observed in Mossbauer and Hall-effect data.

  17. Temperature-pressure-induced solid-solid <100> to <110> reorientation in FCC metallic nanowire: a molecular dynamic study.

    PubMed

    Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar; Roy Mahapatra, D; Pillai, A C R

    2012-01-11

    Atomistic simulation of initial <100> oriented FCC Cu nanowires shows a novel coupled temperature-pressure dependent reorientation from <100> to <110> phase. A temperature-pressure-induced solid-solid <100> to <110> reorientation diagram is generated for Cu nanowire with varying cross-sectional sizes. A critical pressure is reported for Cu nanowires with varying cross-sectional sizes, above which an initial <100> oriented nanowire shows temperature independent reorientation into the <110> phase. The effect of surface stresses on the <100> to <110> reorientation is also studied. The results indicate that above a critical cross-sectional size for a given temperature-pressure, <100> to <110> reorientation is not possible. It is also reported here that for a given applied pressure, an increase in temperature is required for the <100> to <110> reorientation with increasing cross-sectional size of the nanowire. The temperature-pressure-induced solid-solid <100> to <110> reorientation diagram reported in the present paper could further be used as guidelines for controlling the reorientations/shape memory in nano-scale applications of FCC metallic nanowires.

  18. Animals' Use of Landmarks and Metric Information to Reorient: Effects of the Size of the Experimental Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested fish in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and non-geometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in both the large and the small space…

  19. Reorienting when cues conflict: evidence for an adaptive-combination view.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Kristin R; Newcombe, Nora S

    2008-12-01

    Proponents of a geometric module claim that human adults accomplish spatial reorientation in a fundamentally different way than young children and nonhuman animals do. However, reporting two experiments that used a conflict paradigm, this article shows striking similarities between human adults and young children, as well as nonhuman animals. Specifically, Experiment 1 demonstrates that adults favor geometric information in a small room and rely on features in a larger room, whereas Experiment 2 demonstrates that experience in a larger room produces dominance of features over geometric cues in a small room-the first human case of reliance on features that contradict geometric information. Thus, use of features during reorientation depends on the size of the environment and learning history. These results clearly undermine the modularity claim and the view that feature use during reorientation is purely associative, and we discuss the findings within an adaptive-combination view, according to which a weighting system determines use of feature or geometric cues during reorientation.

  20. Why Size Counts: Children's Spatial Reorientation in Large and Small Enclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learmonth, Amy E.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Sheridan, Natalie; Jones, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    When mobile organisms are spatially disoriented, for instance by rapid repetitive movement, they must re-establish orientation. Past research has shown that the geometry of enclosing spaces is consistently used for reorientation by a wide variety of species, but that non-geometric features are not always used. Based on these findings, some…

  1. Use of Geometry for Spatial Reorientation in Children Applies Only to Symmetric Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Gibbons, Bryony; Murphy, Caroline; Bremner, J. Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of the geometric module hypothesis argue that following disorientation, many species reorient by use of macro-environment geometry. It is suggested that attention to the surface layout geometry of natural terrain features may have been selected for over evolutionary time due to the enduring and unambiguous location information it…

  2. Reorientation in a Rhombic Environment: No Evidence for an Encapsulated Geometric Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, A.; Nadel, L.

    2005-01-01

    Reorientation behavior of young children has been described as dependent upon a geometric module that is incapable of interacting with landmark information. Whereas previous studies typically used rectangular spaces that provided geometric information about distance, we used a rhombic space that allowed us to explore the way children use geometric…

  3. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Zuanming; Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4 T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R = Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  4. The Influence of Cue Reliability and Cue Representation on Spatial Reorientation in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Ratliff, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of children's reorientation have focused on cue representation (e.g., whether cues are geometric) as a predictor of performance but have not addressed cue reliability (the regularity of the relation between a given cue and an outcome) as a predictor of performance. Here we address both factors within the same series of…

  5. Use of Geometric Properties of Landmark Arrays for Reorientation Relative to Remote Cities and Local Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2014-01-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then…

  6. Physical strain-mediated microtubule reorientation in the epidermis of gravitropically or phototropically stimulated maize coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Schopfer, P

    1998-07-01

    During gravitropic and phototropic curvature of the maize coleoptile, the cortical microtubules (MTs) adjacent to the outer epidermal cell wall assume opposite orientations at the two sides of the organ. Starting from a uniformly random pattern during straight growth in darkness, the MTs reorientate perpendicularly to the organ axis at the outer (faster growing) side and parallel to the organ axis at the inner (slower growing) side. As similar reorientations can be induced during straight growth by increasing or decreasing the effective auxin concentration, it has been proposed that these reorientations may be used as a diagnostic test for assessing the auxin status of the epidermal cells during tropic curvature. This idea was tested by determining the MT orientations in the coleoptile of intact maize seedlings in which the gravitropic or phototropic curvature was prevented or inversed by an appropriate mechanical counterforce. Forces that just prevented the coleoptile from curving in a gravity or light field prevented reorientations of the MTs. Forces strong enough to overcompensate the tropic stimuli by enforcing curvature in the opposite direction induced reorientations of the MTs opposite to those produced by tropic stimulation. These results show that the MTs at the outer surface of the coleoptile respond to changes in mechanical tissue strain rather than to gravitropic or phototropic stimuli and associated changes at the level of auxin or any other element in the signal transduction chain between perception of tropic stimuli and asymmetric growth response. It is proposed that cortical MTs can act as strain gauges in a positive feed-back regulatory circle utilized for amplification and stabilization of environmentally induced changes in the direction of elongation growth. PMID:11536886

  7. Use of geometric properties of landmark arrays for reorientation relative to remote cities and local objects.

    PubMed

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L

    2014-03-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then participants were disoriented and pointed to targets with the presence of the proximal poles or the distal poles. Participants' orientation was estimated by the mean of their pointing error across targets. The targets could be 7 objects in the immediate local environment in which the poles were located or 7 cities around Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) where the experiments occurred. The directions of the 7 cities could be learned from reading a map first and then from pointing to the cities when the poles were presented. The directions of the 7 cities could also be learned from viewing labels of cities moving back and forth in the specific direction in the immediate local environment in which the poles were located. The shape of the array of the distal poles varied in salience by changing the number of poles on each edge of the rectangle (2 vs. 34). The results showed that participants regained their orientation relative to local objects using the distal poles with 2 poles on each edge; participants could not reorient relative to cities using the distal pole array with 2 poles on each edge but could reorient relative to cities using the distal pole array with 34 poles on each edge. These results indicate that use of cues in reorientation depends not only on the cue salience but also on which environment people need to reorient to.

  8. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... adopts FHFA's interim final rule on portfolio holdings, without change. See 74 FR 5609, January 30, 2009...: Effective December 28, 2010, the interim final rule published on January 30, 2009 (74 FR 5609), which was... final regulation which added new subchapter C of part 1252 to 12 CFR Chapter XII. See 74 FR 5609....

  9. Paleomagnetic Reorientation of Structural Elements in Drill Cores: an example from Tolhuaca Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Flores, P.; Veloso, E. E.; Cembrano, J. M.; Sánchez, P.; Iriarte, S.; Lohmar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reorientation of mesoscopic faults, veins and fractures recovered from drilling is critical to construct reliable structural models that can account for their architecture and deformation regime. However, oriented cores are expensive and time consuming to drill. Some techniques achieve reorientation by introducing tools into the borehole. Problems arise when boreholes are unstable or collapse. One alternative technique allowing reorientation is to obtain reliable paleomagnetic vectors to reorient each core piece after drilling. Here, we present stable and reliable remnant magnetic vectors calculated from the Tol-1 core to analyze the geometry of the fracture network and its relationship to regional tectonic. Tol-1 core is a vertical, 1073 m deep geothermal well, drilled at the Tolhuaca Geothermal Field in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes by MRP Geothermal Chile Ltda (formerly GGE Chile SpA) in 2009. The core consists of basaltic/andesitic volcanic rocks with subordinate pyroclastic/volcaniclastic units, with probable Pleistocene age. Fault planes with slickenlines and mineral fiber kinematic indicators are common in the upper 700 m of the core. Calcite, quartz and calcite-quartz veins are recognized along of entire core, whereas epidote-quartz and calcite-epidote veins occur in the last 350 m, minor chlorite, anhydrite and clay-minerals are present. Orientations of structural features in the core were measured with a goniometer using the core's axis and a false north for each piece; hence, orientation data has a false strike but a real dip. To achieve total reorientation of the pieces, we collected 200 standard-size paleomagnetic specimens, ensuring that at least four of them were recovered from continuous pieces. Thermal (up to 700°C) and alternating field demagnetization (up to 90mT on steps of 2mT) methods were used to isolate a stable remnant magnetization (RM) vector, and each technique yielded similar results. RM vectors were recovered between 0 to 25

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Brassica rapa Roots After Reorientation and Clinorotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Seedlings align their growth axes parallel to the gravity vector. Any growth adjustment affects genes. We examined these changes in Brassica rapa roots that were reoriented and clinorotated. Gene expression levels related to the actin cytoskeleton (ACT7 and ADK1) and auxin transport (IAA5, PIN1, PIN3, AGR1, ARG1) were assessed in roots grown for 42 hours and then either reoriented to 90° for 15 min, 1, 2 and 3 hours or clinorotated vertically or horizontally for 42 hrs at 2 rpm. After these treatments, roots from 20 seedlings were divided into three sections, the root tip, elongation zone, and maturation zone. The samples from corresponding treatments were combined for RNA extraction, reverse transcription and analysis by quantitative PCR. The results show that gene expression changes in response to duration of reorientation and orientation during clinorotation. All genes, except PIN1 and AGR1 were upregulated in the tip after 2 hours of reorientation. Expression of genes also varied between the root sections except for PIN1, which was uniformly expressed. ADK1 was the only gene that showed consistent down-regulation in all three root regions in vertically and horizontally clinorotated roots (ca 30% of controls). In contrast, ADK1 was upregulated (more than 150 fold) in the tip of roots that were reoriented for 2 hours but little upregulation after one hour (less than 2 fold compared to controls). Our results indicate that gene expression during the gravitropic response changes over time with the tip region being the most dynamic tissue in the root. The large upregulation of ADK1 at 2 h after reorientation may be related to the persistence of the gravitropic response. Because of the variability of the expression profiles, analyses that are based on the entire root miss tissue specific changes in gene expression. Differences in gene expression after vertical and horizontal clinorotation indicates that the graviresponse system is sensitive not just to the magnitude

  11. Holding on to Gen Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Zuckerman, Sarah; McKelvey, Lee Anne

    2010-01-01

    Young teacher applicants to the Teach Plus Policy Fellows Program indicate that contrary to the opinions of those who believe they are in teaching only for the short term, they actually want to find a way to continue teaching. Their description of the profession they seek--one that makes a difference, challenges them, engages them as leaders, and…

  12. Treatment of Chronic Breath-Holding in an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Derek D.; Martens, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a clinical case study surrounding the behavioral assessment and operant treatment of, an adult with severe mental retardation who engaged in chronic breath-holding. In this clinical case, previous neurological and medical testing had ruled out biological bases for the individual's breath-holding. A functional behavioral assessment…

  13. Effect of thermo-mechanical cycling on zirconium hydride reorientation studied in situ with synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, Kimberly B.; Motta, Arthur T.; Daymond, Mark R.; Almer, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The circumferential hydrides normally present in nuclear reactor fuel cladding after reactor exposure may dissolve during drying for dry storage and re-precipitate when cooled under load into a more radial orientation, which could embrittle the fuel cladding. It is necessary to study the rates and conditions under which hydride reorientation may happen in order to assess fuel integrity in dry storage. The objective of this work is to study the effect of applied stress and thermal cycling on the hydride morphology in cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 by combining conventional metallography and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. Metallography is used to study the evolution of hydride morphology after several thermo-mechanical cycles. In situ X-ray diffraction performed at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron provides real-time information on the process of hydride dissolution and precipitation under stress during several thermal cycles. The detailed study of diffracted intensity, peak position and full-width at half-maximum provides information on precipitation kinetics, elastic strains and other characteristics of the hydride precipitation process. The results show that thermo-mechanical cycling significantly increases the radial hydride fraction as well as the hydride length and connectivity. The radial hydrides are observed to precipitate at a lower temperature than circumferential hydrides. Variations in the magnitude and range of hydride strains due to reorientation and cycling have also been observed. These results are discussed in light of existing models and experiments on hydride reorientation. The study of hydride elastic strains during precipitation shows marked differences between circumferential and radial hydrides, which can be used to investigate the reorientation process. Cycling under stress above the threshold stress for reorientation drastically increases both the reoriented hydride fraction and the hydride size. The reoriented hydride

  14. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money.

  15. Medium-frequency impulsive-thrust-activated liquid hydrogen reorientation with Geyser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient technique are studied for accomplishing propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage through impulsive thrust. A comparison between the use of constant-thrust and impulsive-thrust accelerations for the activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive thrust is superior to constant thrust for liquid reorientation in a reduced-gravity environment. This study shows that when impulsive thrust with 0.1-1.0-, and 10-Hz frequencies for liquid-fill levels in the range between 30-80 percent is considered, the selection of 1.0-Hz-frequency impulsive thrust over the other frequency ranges of impulsive thrust is the optimum. Characteristics of the slosh waves excited during the course of 1.0-Hz-frequency impulsive-thrust liquid reorientation were also analyzed.

  16. Stimulus-driven reorienting in the ventral frontoparietal attention network: the role of emotional content

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David W.; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Activity in the human temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is hypothesized to underlie stimulus-driven, or “bottom-up” attention reorienting. Demanding tasks require focused attention, and as task difficulty increases, activity suppression in the ventral network correlates positively with task performance, an effect thought to reflect the gating of irrelevant cues. However, activation in these structures is elicited by a range of stimulus features and task demands that vary across multiple characteristics, complicating the interpretation of the functional role of this pathway. Consideration of several current studies suggests that, in addition to task difficulty, the motivational relevance or emotional intensity of distractor stimuli may supersede ongoing task priority, and evoke ventral network activation. Support for this possibility is offered from a review of recent reports, and the import of this perspective for models of attention reorienting is discussed. PMID:22557960

  17. Effect of dopant nanoparticles on reorientation process in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, K. V.; Zharkova, G. M.; Syzrantsev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data of the nanoscale powders application for doping polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) was represented in this work. A model based on the separation of the liquid crystals reorientation process on the surface mode and the volume mode was proposed and tested. In the research the wide-spread model mixture PDLC were used. But alumina nanoparticles were the distinctive ones obtained by electron beam evaporation. The proposed model allowed to conclude that the nanoparticles localization at the surface of the droplets (as in the Pickering emulsion) lead to the variation of the connection force between the liquid crystals and the polymer. The effect of nanoparticles resulted in an acceleration of the reorientation process near the surface when the control field is turned on and in a deceleration when it is turned off. The effect for the different size particles was confirmed.

  18. A structured continuum modelling framework for martensitic transformation and reorientation in shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Davide; Pence, Thomas J

    2016-04-28

    Models for shape memory material behaviour can be posed in the framework of a structured continuum theory. We study such a framework in which a scalar phase fraction field and a tensor field of martensite reorientation describe the material microstructure, in the context of finite strains. Gradients of the microstructural descriptors naturally enter the formulation and offer the possibility to describe and resolve phase transformation localizations. The constitutive theory is thoroughly described by a single free energy function in conjunction with a path-dependent dissipation function. Balance laws in the form of differential equations are obtained and contain both bulk and surface terms, the latter in terms of microstreses. A natural constraint on the tensor field for martensite reorientation gives rise to reactive fields in these balance laws. Conditions ensuring objectivity as well as the relation of this framework to that provided by currently used models for shape memory alloy behaviour are discussed.

  19. Hydride reorientation in Zircaloy-4 examined by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekes, H. E.; Jones, N. G.; Lindley, T. C.; Dye, D.

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of stress-reorientation has been investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction during the thermomechanical cycling of hydrided Zircaloy-4 tensile specimens. Results have shown that loading along a sample's transverse direction (TD) leads to a greater degree of hydride reorientation when compared to rolling direction (RD)-aligned samples. The elastic lattice micro-strains associated with radially oriented hydrides have been revealed to be greater than those oriented circumferentially, a consequence of strain accommodation. Evidence of hydride redistribution after cycling, to α-Zr grains oriented in a more favourable orientation when under an applied stress, has also been observed and its behaviour has been found to be highly dependent on the loading axis. Finally, thermomechanical loading across multiple cycles has been shown to reduce the difference in terminal solid solubility of hydrogen during dissolution (TSSD,H) and precipitation (TSSP,H).

  20. A structured continuum modelling framework for martensitic transformation and reorientation in shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Davide; Pence, Thomas J

    2016-04-28

    Models for shape memory material behaviour can be posed in the framework of a structured continuum theory. We study such a framework in which a scalar phase fraction field and a tensor field of martensite reorientation describe the material microstructure, in the context of finite strains. Gradients of the microstructural descriptors naturally enter the formulation and offer the possibility to describe and resolve phase transformation localizations. The constitutive theory is thoroughly described by a single free energy function in conjunction with a path-dependent dissipation function. Balance laws in the form of differential equations are obtained and contain both bulk and surface terms, the latter in terms of microstreses. A natural constraint on the tensor field for martensite reorientation gives rise to reactive fields in these balance laws. Conditions ensuring objectivity as well as the relation of this framework to that provided by currently used models for shape memory alloy behaviour are discussed. PMID:27002064

  1. Paleomagnetic reorientation of San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pares, J.M.; Schleicher, A.M.; van der Pluijm, B.A.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protocol for using paleomagnetic analysis to determine the absolute orientation of core recovered from the SAFOD borehole. Our approach is based on determining the direction of the primary remanent magnetization of a spot core recovered from the Great Valley Sequence during SAFOD Phase 2 and comparing its direction to the expected reference field direction for the Late Cretaceous in North America. Both thermal and alternating field demagnetization provide equally resolved magnetization, possibly residing in magnetite, that allow reorientation. Because compositionally similar siltstones and fine-grained sandstones were encountered in the San Andreas Fault Zone during Stage 2 rotary drilling, we expect that paleomagnetic reorientation will yield reliable core orientations for continuous core acquired from directly within and adjacent to the San Andreas Fault during SAFOD Phase 3, which will be key to interpretation of spatial properties of these rocks. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Pluto followed its heart: reorientation and faulting of Pluto due to volatile loading in Sputnik Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle Keane, James; Matsuyama, Isamu; Kamata, Shunichi; Steckloff, Jordan

    2016-10-01

    The New Horizons flyby of Pluto revealed the dwarf planet to be a strikingly diverse, geologically active world. Perhaps the most intriguing feature on the New Horizons encounter hemisphere is Sputnik Planum—a 1000 km diameter, probable impact basin, filled with several kilometers of actively convecting volatile ices (N2, CH4, CO). One salient characteristic of Sputnik Planum is its curious alignment with the Pluto-Charon tidal axis. The alignment of large geologic features with principal axis of inertia (such as the tidal axis) is the hallmark of global reorientation, i.e. true polar wander. Here we show that the present location of Sputnik Planum is a natural consequence of loading of 1-2 km of volatile ices within the Sputnik Planum basin. Larger volatile ice thicknesses (like those inferred from studies of ice convection within Sputnik Planum) betray an underlying negative gravity anomaly associated with the basin. As Pluto reoriented in response to the loading of volatile ices within Sputnik Planum, stresses accumulated within the lithosphere (as each geographic location experiences a change in tidal/rotational potential). These reorientation stresses, coupled with loading stresses, and stresses from the freezing of a subsurface ocean resulted in the fracturing of Pluto's lithosphere in a characteristic, global pattern of extensional faults. Our predicted pattern of extensional faults due to this reorientation closely replicates the observed distribution of faults on Pluto (more so than global expansion, orbit migration, de-spinning, or loading alone). Sputnik Planum likely formed ~60° northwest of its present location, and was loaded with volatile ices over millions of years due to seasonal volatile transport cycles. This result places Pluto in a truly unique category of planetary bodies where volatiles are not only controlling surface geology and atmospheric processes, but they are also directly controlling the orientation of the entire dwarf planet

  3. Spontaneous polarization-vector-reorientation photorefractive effect in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Takeo; Kino, Yuji; Shibata, Minoru; Mizusaki, Naoko; Katsuragi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Yoshimi, Takeshi

    2001-06-25

    The photorefractive effect of a ferroelectric liquid crystal doped with a photoconductive compound was investigated. The photorefractive effect appeared only at the temperature at which the sample exhibits ferroelectricity. The refractive index grating formation time was measured to be {similar_to}30ms. In the ferroelectric phase, reorientation of the spontaneous polarization vector was found to be induced by the internal space-charge field. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Efficient reorientation of a deformable body in space: A free-free beam example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the planar reorientation of a free-free beam in zero gravity space can be accomplished by periodically changing the shape of the beam using internal actuators. A control scheme is proposed in which electromechanical actuators excite the flexible motion of the beam so that it rotates in the desired manner with respect to a fixed inertial reference. The results can be viewed as an extension of previous work to a distributed parameter case.

  5. Simulation of frequency dependence of dielectric susceptibility for description of director reorientation dynamics of nematic LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulin, D. A.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of the liquid crystal behavior in an external electric field allows to determine the characteristics of the LC device for specific control signal. The reorientation of director tilt angles is described by the Frank-Oseen elasticity theory, by the Leslie-Ericksen hydrodynamics theory and also by Maxwell system of electromagnetic equations. Due to the fact that it is difficult to obtain analytical solution of dependencies polar and azimuthal angles on time it is necessary to use numerical methods. The numerical solution allows to determine the characteristics of the LC device for specific control signal, but it does not allow to solve the inverse problem. It is determining the necessary parameters of the control signal. To solve this problem, we obtained an approximate analytical solution of the dynamics equations of the director reorientation under the electric field for arbitrary values of the elastic constants and boundary conditions. The results of numerical simulation of the director reorientation under the electric field in hybrid-oriented structure of a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal were obtained. It is shown that results of analytical solution are in good agreement with the results of computer simulation and experiment in case of small deformations of the LC layer and used approximations.

  6. Why size counts: children's spatial reorientation in large and small enclosures.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Amy E; Newcombe, Nora S; Sheridan, Natalie; Jones, Meredith

    2008-05-01

    When mobile organisms are spatially disoriented, for instance by rapid repetitive movement, they must re-establish orientation. Past research has shown that the geometry of enclosing spaces is consistently used for reorientation by a wide variety of species, but that non-geometric features are not always used. Based on these findings, some investigators have postulated a species-universal 'geometric module' that is transcended by the acquisition of spatial language at 6 years. This conclusion has been challenged, however, by findings that children as young as 18 months actually do use features to reorient in larger enclosures than those used in the original experiments. The reason for the room size effect is explored here in five experiments. Collectively, the data on age at which features are first used point to the importance of both restriction of movement in the small space and the fact that features are closer in the small space. In addition, success is seen at younger ages when the target object is adjacent to the feature. These results favor an adaptive combination model of spatial reorientation over a 'module-plus-language' view.

  7. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation.

  8. Enhanced spin - Reorientation temperature and origin of magnetocapacitance in HoFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnana, Ganesh; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2016-11-01

    We report on the increase in the spin reorientation temperature in HoFe0.5Cr0.5O3 compound by isovalent substitution (Cr3+) at the Fe-site and the magnetocapacitance in the HoFeO3 compound. Spin reorientation transition is evident around 50 K and 150 K for the x=0 and x=0.5 compounds respectively. The increase in the spin reorientation transition temperature in case of x=0.5 compound can be attributed to the domination of the Ho3+-Fe3+ interaction over the Fe3+-Fe3+ interaction. Decrease in Néel temperature from 643 K (x=0) to 273 K (x=0.5) can be ascribed to the decrease in the interaction between antiferromagnetically aligned Fe3+ moments as a result of the dilution of the Fe3+ moments with the Cr3+ addition. From the magnetization M vs. magnetic field H variation it is evident that the coercivity, HC decreases for x=0.5 compound, hinting the magnetic softening of the HoFeO3 compound. Observed magnetocapacitance could be due to lossy dielectric mechanism in the present compound. Indeed, present results would be helpful in understanding the physics behind rare-earth orthoferrites.

  9. Molecular Reorientation Dynamics Govern the Glass Transitions of the Amorphous Ices.

    PubMed

    Shephard, J J; Salzmann, C G

    2016-06-16

    The glass transitions of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are the topic of controversial discussions. Understanding their exact nature may be the key to explaining the anomalies of liquid water but has also got implications in the general context of polyamorphism, the occurrence of multiple amorphous forms of the same material. We first show that the glass transition of hydrogen-disordered ice VI is associated with the kinetic unfreezing of molecular reorientation dynamics by measuring the calorimetric responses of the corresponding H2O, H2(18)O, and D2O materials in combination with X-ray diffraction. Well-relaxed LDA and HDA show identical isotopic-response patterns in calorimetry as ice VI, and we conclude that the glass transitions of the amorphous ices are also governed by molecular reorientation processes. This "reorientation scenario" seems to resolve the previously conflicting viewpoints and is consistent with the fragile-to-strong transition from water to the amorphous ices.

  10. Highly-sensitive liquid crystal biosensor based on DNA dendrimers-mediated optical reorientation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Li, Xia; Liao, Shuzhen; Yu, Ruqin; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2014-12-15

    A novel highly-sensitive liquid crystal (LC) biosensing approach based on target-triggering DNA dendrimers was developed for the detection of p53 mutation gene segment at the LC-aqueous interface. In this study, the mutant-type p53 gene segment was the target to trigger the formation of DNA dendrimers from hairpin DNA probes by hybridization chain reaction, and the latter as a 'signal enhancement element' further induced the LC reorientation from tilted to homeotropic alignment, resulting in a corresponding optical changes of LC biosensors from birefringent to honeycombed textures or dark framework. The distinct optical reorientational appearances can serve as a characteristic signal to distinguish target concentrations ranging from 0.08 nM to 8 nM. Moreover, these optical phenomena suggest that the LC reorientation is related to the electric-dipole coupling between the adsorbed DNA and LC molecules, the conformational constraints of DNA and the internal electric field induction upon hybridization. This label-free LC biosensing strategy can open up a new platform for the sensitive detection of specific DNA sequences and enrich the application scope of an LC biosensing technique. PMID:24984288

  11. Reorientation dynamics of nematics encapsulated in microscopic volumes in a strong electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.; Pasechnik, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically describe a new regime of reorientation of the director field widehat n and velocity v of a nematic liquid crystal (LC) encapsulated in a rectangular cell under the action of strong electric field E directed at angle α ( π/2) to the horizontal surfaces bounding the LC cell. The numerical calculations in the framework of nonlinear generalization of the classical Eriksen-Leslie theory showed that at certain relations between the torques and momenta affecting the unit LC volume and E ≫ E th, transition periodic structures can arise during reorientation of widehat n, if the corresponding distortion mode has the fastest response and, thus, suppresses all the rest of the modes, including uniform ones. The position of sites of these periodic structures is affected by the value of field E, angle α, and the character of anchoring of LC molecules to the bounding surfaces. The calculations performed for the nematic formed by 4-n-penthyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl showed that several vortexes can form in an LC cell under the action of reorientation of the nematic field; the boundaries of these vortexes are determined by the positions of periodic structure sites.

  12. Dual reorientation relaxation routes of water molecules in oxyanion's hydration shell: A molecular geometry perspective.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Yang, Yi Isaac; Gao, Yi Qin

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we examine how complex ions such as oxyanions influence the dynamic properties of water and whether differences exist between simple halide anions and oxyanions. Nitrate anion is taken as an example to investigate the hydration properties of oxyanions. Reorientation relaxation of its hydration water can occur through two different routes: water can either break its hydrogen bond with the nitrate to form one with another water or switch between two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate. The latter molecular mechanism increases the residence time of oxyanion's hydration water and thus nitrate anion slows down the translational motion of neighbouring water. But it is also a "structure breaker" in that it accelerates the reorientation relaxation of hydration water. Such a result illustrates that differences do exist between the hydration of oxyanions and simple halide anions as a result of different molecular geometries. Furthermore, the rotation of the nitrate solute is coupled with the hydrogen bond rearrangement of its hydration water. The nitrate anion can either tilt along the axis perpendicularly to the plane or rotate in the plane. We find that the two reorientation relaxation routes of the hydration water lead to different relaxation dynamics in each of the two above movements of the nitrate solute. The current study suggests that molecular geometry could play an important role in solute hydration and dynamics.

  13. Ultrafast Reorientational Dynamics of Leucine at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael A; Yimer, Yeneneh Y; Pfaendtner, Jim; Backus, Ellen H G; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-04-27

    Ultrafast dynamics of protein side chains are involved in important biological processes such as ligand binding, protein folding, and hydration. In addition, the dynamics of a side chain can report on local environments within proteins. While protein side chain dynamics have been probed for proteins in solution with nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared methods for decades, information about side chain dynamics at interfaces is lacking. At the same time, the dynamics and motions of side chains can be particularly important for interfacial binding and protein-driven surface manipulation. We here demonstrate that ultrafast reorientation dynamics of leucine amino acids at interfaces can be recorded in situ and in real time using polarization- and time-resolved pump-probe sum frequency generation (SFG). Combined with molecular dynamics simulations, time-resolved SFG was used to probe the reorientation of the isopropyl methyl groups of l-leucine at the air-water interface. The data show that the methyl units reorient diffusively at an in plane rate of Dφ = 0.07 rad(2)/ps and an out of plane rate of Dθ = 0.05 rad(2)/ps. PMID:27057584

  14. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. PMID:25462036

  15. Rotational reorientation dynamics at high pressures: rhodamine 6G in ethanol from 1 bar to 6 kbar

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, L.A.; Webb, S.P.; Yeh, S.W.; Clark, J.H.

    1985-01-03

    Picosecond, time-resolved fluorescence depolarization spectroscopy has been used to measure the rotational reorientation time (tau/sub or/) of electronically excited rhodamine 6G. When the dependence of tau/sub or/ on solvent viscosity for a series of linear alcohols is compared with that for ethanol as a function of pressure over the range from 1 bar to 6 kbar, substantially different rotational reorientation dynamics are found for identical macroscopic viscosities. 31 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  17. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  18. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  19. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  20. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  1. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  2. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  3. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  4. Functional analysis and intervention for breath holding.

    PubMed

    Kern, L; Mauk, J E; Marder, T J; Mace, F C

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome. The results showed that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. The intervention, consisting of extinction, scheduled attention, and use of a picture card communication system, resulted in decreased breath holding.

  5. A Dialogue for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Student engagement is perhaps the key element for almost any learning context. When engaged, learners are enthusiastic and excited about the subject. Their work is informed by the enjoyment of discovery. Engaged learners work willingly, instead of by coercion, and approach their assignments as something that matters to them personally. The spirit…

  6. Engaging Scholarship with Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Guillermina Gina

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogy of engagement links faculty and students to the needs of local communities while promoting academic success through higher retention and graduation rates in higher education. This work describes engaged scholarship and shares guidelines for documenting student engagement and critical reflection across the higher education curriculum.…

  7. Engaging Your Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Teachers love to see the spark of engagement when students eagerly engage in learning. But when teachers work with English language learners in the earliest stages of language acquisition, they're often unsure how to foster challenge and engagement with students who know such sparse English. Hill shares six key do's and don'ts for classroom…

  8. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  9. Improving Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim; Taylor, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement to discover curricular and pedagogical ideas educators might successfully use to better engage student learning. Student engagement has historically focused upon increasing achievement, positive behaviors, and a sense of belonging to help students remain in school. The…

  10. 76 FR 27669 - Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 65514). The workers are engaged in employment related to the production of interior... Employment and Training Administration Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Ford Company,...

  11. Sharp steepness of molecular reorientation for nematics containing liquid crystalline polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Kibe, Shigeru; Kajiyama, Tisato

    1995-04-01

    The reorientational steepness of nematic liquid crystalline molecules is strongly dependent on the elastic constants of the liquid crystalline director. The steepness increases with decreasing the ratio of elastic constants of the bend mode to the splay one, K3/K1 when the homogeneous or twisted alignment of nematics is transformed to the homeotropic one. It has been suggested that the elastic constants are affected by the geometrical shape of a liquid crystalline molecule and a short-range ordering for the alignment of liquid crystalline molecules. The composite systems films being composed of side-chain type liquid crystalline polymer (PS6EC) and low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (E7) were prepared by a solvent cast method. The phase transition behaviors and the aggregation state of the composite system were investigated on the basis of the DSC, polarizing optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies. The magnitude of K3/K1 and the reorientational steepness were evaluated by an electric capacitance measurement of the homogeneous cell. It became apparent from x-ray diffraction studies that the smectic-like short-range ordering among mesogenic molecules increases with increasing the fraction of PS6EC even in a nematic state of the composite system. The magnitude of K3/K1 was anomalously small, nearly zero, in an intermediate region between the smectic and the nematic phases for the (PS6EC/E7) composite system. At that region, furthermore, a discontinuous jump in the reorientation of liquid crystalline molecules, i.e., sharp steepness in an electro-optical switching, was successfully achieved.

  12. A nonlinear biphasic fiber-reinforced porohyperviscoelastic model of articular cartilage incorporating fiber reorientation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Seifzadeh, A; Wang, J; Oguamanam, D C D; Papini, M

    2011-08-01

    A nonlinear biphasic fiber-reinforced porohyperviscoelastic (BFPHVE) model of articular cartilage incorporating fiber reorientation effects during applied load was used to predict the response of ovine articular cartilage at relatively high strains (20%). The constitutive material parameters were determined using a coupled finite element-optimization algorithm that utilized stress relaxation indentation tests at relatively high strains. The proposed model incorporates the strain-hardening, tension-compression, permeability, and finite deformation nonlinearities that inherently exist in cartilage, and accounts for effects associated with fiber dispersion and reorientation and intrinsic viscoelasticity at relatively high strains. A new optimization cost function was used to overcome problems associated with large peak-to-peak differences between the predicted finite element and experimental loads that were due to the large strain levels utilized in the experiments. The optimized material parameters were found to be insensitive to the initial guesses. Using experimental data from the literature, the model was also able to predict both the lateral displacement and reaction force in unconfined compression, and the reaction force in an indentation test with a single set of material parameters. Finally, it was demonstrated that neglecting the effects of fiber reorientation and dispersion resulted in poorer agreement with experiments than when they were considered. There was an indication that the proposed BFPHVE model, which includes the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the nonfibrillar matrix (proteoglycan), might be used to model the behavior of cartilage up to relatively high strains (20%). The maximum percentage error between the indentation force predicted by the FE model using the optimized material parameters and that measured experimentally was 3%. PMID:21950897

  13. Large noncollinearity and spin reorientation in the novel Mn2RhSn Heusler magnet.

    PubMed

    Meshcheriakova, O; Chadov, S; Nayak, A K; Rößler, U K; Kübler, J; André, G; Tsirlin, A A; Kiss, J; Hausdorf, S; Kalache, A; Schnelle, W; Nicklas, M; Felser, C

    2014-08-22

    Noncollinear magnets provide essential ingredients for the next generation memory technology. It is a new prospect for the Heusler materials, already well known due to the diverse range of other fundamental characteristics. Here, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of novel noncollinear tetragonal Mn(2)RhSn Heusler material exhibiting unusually strong canting of its magnetic sublattices. It undergoes a spin-reorientation transition, induced by a temperature change and suppressed by an external magnetic field. Because of the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange and magnetic anisotropy, Mn(2)RhSn is suggested to be a promising candidate for realizing the Skyrmion state in the Heusler family.

  14. Reaction and reorientation of electronically excited H[sub 2](B)

    SciTech Connect

    Pibel, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The room temperature rate (TR) constants for fluorescence quenching fluorescence of H[sub 2], HD, and D[sub 2] B [sup 1][Sigma][sub u][sup +] by [sup 4]He were measured as a function of the initially excited rotational and vibrational level of the hydrogen molecule, and the RT rate constants for molecular angular momentum reorientation of H[sub 2], HD and D[sub 2] (B [sup 1][Sigma][sub u][sup +]. v[prime]=0, J[prime]=1, M[sub J]=0) in collisions with He, Ne, Ar and H[sub 2](X [sup 1][Sigma][sub g][sup +]) were also measured. Vibrational state dependence of the quenching cross sections fits a vibrationally adiabatic model of the quenching process. From the vibrational state dependence of the quenching cross section, the barrier height for the quenching reaction is found to be 250[plus minus]40 cm[sup [minus]1], and the difference in the H-H stretching frequencies between H[sub 2](B) and the H[sub 2]-He complex at the barrier to reaction is 140[plus minus]80 cm[sup [minus]1]. The effective cross sections for angular momentum reorientation in collisions of H[sub 2], HD, D[sub 2] with He and Ne were found to be about 30 [Angstrom][sup 2] and were nearly the same for each isotope and with He and Ne as collision partners. Cross sections forreorientation of HD and D[sub 2] in collisions with Ar were 10.6[plus minus]2.0 and 13.9[plus minus]3.0 [Angstrom][sup 2], respectively. Reorientation of D[sub 2](B) in collisions with room temperature H[sub 2](X) occurs with a 7.6[plus minus]3.4 [Angstrom][sup 2] cross section. Calculated cross sections using semiclassical and quantum close coupled methods give cross sections for reorientation of H[sub 2](B) and D[sub 2](B) in collisions with He that agree quantitatively with experiment. Discrepancy between the calculated and experimental cross sections for HD(B)-HE are likely due to rotational relaxation in HD a Turbo PASCAL version of the data-taking program is included.

  15. Reaction and reorientation of electronically excited H{sub 2}(B)

    SciTech Connect

    Pibel, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The room temperature rate (TR) constants for fluorescence quenching fluorescence of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} B {sup 1}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} by {sup 4}He were measured as a function of the initially excited rotational and vibrational level of the hydrogen molecule, and the RT rate constants for molecular angular momentum reorientation of H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} (B {sup 1}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}. v{prime}=0, J{prime}=1, M{sub J}=0) in collisions with He, Ne, Ar and H{sub 2}(X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) were also measured. Vibrational state dependence of the quenching cross sections fits a vibrationally adiabatic model of the quenching process. From the vibrational state dependence of the quenching cross section, the barrier height for the quenching reaction is found to be 250{plus_minus}40 cm{sup {minus}1}, and the difference in the H-H stretching frequencies between H{sub 2}(B) and the H{sub 2}-He complex at the barrier to reaction is 140{plus_minus}80 cm{sup {minus}1}. The effective cross sections for angular momentum reorientation in collisions of H{sub 2}, HD, D{sub 2} with He and Ne were found to be about 30 {Angstrom}{sup 2} and were nearly the same for each isotope and with He and Ne as collision partners. Cross sections forreorientation of HD and D{sub 2} in collisions with Ar were 10.6{plus_minus}2.0 and 13.9{plus_minus}3.0 {Angstrom}{sup 2}, respectively. Reorientation of D{sub 2}(B) in collisions with room temperature H{sub 2}(X) occurs with a 7.6{plus_minus}3.4 {Angstrom}{sup 2} cross section. Calculated cross sections using semiclassical and quantum close coupled methods give cross sections for reorientation of H{sub 2}(B) and D{sub 2}(B) in collisions with He that agree quantitatively with experiment. Discrepancy between the calculated and experimental cross sections for HD(B)-HE are likely due to rotational relaxation in HD a Turbo PASCAL version of the data-taking program is included.

  16. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.

    PubMed

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-20

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  17. Continuous spin reorientation transition in epitaxially grown antiferromagnetic NiO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Arenholz, E.; Meng, Y.; Tan, A.; Park, J.; Jin, E.; Son, H.; Wu, J.; Jenkins, C. A.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-03-01

    Fe/NiO/MgO/Ag(001) films were grown epitaxially, and the Fe and NiO spin orientations were determined using x-ray magnetic dichroism. We find that the NiO spins are aligned perpendicularly to the in-plane Fe spins. Analyzing both the in-plane and out-of-plane spin components of the NiO layer, we demonstrate unambiguously that the antiferromagnetic NiO spins undergo a continuous spin reorientation transition from the in-plane to out-of-plane directions with increasing of the MgO thickness.

  18. Slosh wave excitation due to cryogenic liquid reorientation in space-based propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquistion or positioning of liquid and vapor within a tank in reduced gravity to enable liquid outflow or vapor venting. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flow field activated by 1.0 Hz medium frequency impulsive reverse gravity acceleration during the course of liquid fluid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid filled levels of 30, 50, and 80 percent have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed.

  19. Switching of bacterial adhesion to a glycosylated surface by reversible reorientation of the carbohydrate ligand.

    PubMed

    Weber, Theresa; Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Stamer, Insa; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Terfort, Andreas; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2014-12-22

    The surface recognition in many biological systems is guided by the interaction of carbohydrate-specific proteins (lectins) with carbohydrate epitopes (ligands) located within the unordered glycoconjugate layer (glycocalyx) of cells. Thus, for recognition, the respective ligand has to reorient for a successful matching event. Herein, we present for the first time a model system, in which only the orientation of the ligand is altered in a controlled manner without changing the recognition quality of the ligand itself. The key for this orientational control is the embedding into an interfacial system and the use of a photoswitchable mechanical joint, such as azobenzene.

  20. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-01

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV /u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  1. Reorientation of the Stripe Phase of 2D Electrons by a Minute Density Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueed, M. A.; Hossain, Md. Shafayat; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Interacting two-dimensional electrons confined in a GaAs quantum well exhibit isotropic transport when the Fermi level resides in the first excited (N =1 ) Landau level. Adding an in-plane magnetic field (B||) typically leads to an anisotropic, stripelike (nematic) phase of electrons with the stripes oriented perpendicular to the B|| direction. Our experimental data reveal how a periodic density modulation, induced by a surface strain grating from strips of negative electron-beam resist, competes against the B||-induced orientational order of the stripe phase. Even a minute (<0.25 %) density modulation is sufficient to reorient the stripes along the direction of the surface grating.

  2. A three-dimensional model of magneto-mechanical behaviors of martensite reorientation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Moumni, Ziad; He, Yongjun; Zhang, Weihong

    2014-03-01

    The large strain in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) is due to the martensite reorientation driven by mechanical stresses and/or magnetic fields. Although most experiments studying the martensite reorientation in FSMA are under 1D condition (uniaxial stress plus a perpendicular magnetic field), it has been shown that the 2D/3D configurations can improve the working stress and give much flexibility of the material's applications [He, Y.J., Chen, X., Moumni, Z., 2011. Two-dimensional analysis to improve the output stress in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Journal of Applied Physics 110, 063905]. To predict the material's behaviors in 3D loading conditions, a constitutive model is developed in this paper, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with internal variables. All the martensite variants are considered in the model and the temperature effect is also taken into account. The model is able to describe all the behaviors of martensite reorientation in FSMA observed in the existing experiments: rotating/non-rotating magnetic-field-induced martensite reorientation, magnetic-field-assisted super-elasticity, super-elasticity under biaxial compressions and temperature-dependence of martensite reorientation. The model is further used to study the nonlinear bending behaviors of FSMA beams and provides some basic guidelines for designing the FSMA-based bending actuators.

  3. Intragranular twinning, detwinning, and twinning-like lattice reorientation in magnesium alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Li, Nan; Parish, Chad M.; Liu, Wenjun; Liaw, Peter K.; An, Ke

    2016-09-11

    We present that deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hexagonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin interactions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning- detwinning process, the twinning-like lattice reorientation process was captured within an individual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reorientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculationmore » of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. In conclusion, the study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.« less

  4. An analytical study of reduced-gravity liquid reorientation using a simplified marker and cell technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, W. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program called HOPI was developed to predict reorientation flow dynamics, wherein liquids move from one end of a closed, partially filled, rigid container to the other end under the influence of container acceleration. The program uses the simplified marker and cell numerical technique and, using explicit finite-differencing, solves the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid. The effects of turbulence are also simulated in the program. HOPI can consider curved as well as straight walled boundaries. Both free-surface and confined flows can be calculated. The program was used to simulate five liquid reorientation cases. Three of these cases simulated actual NASA LeRC drop tower test conditions while two cases simulated full-scale Centaur tank conditions. It was concluded that while HOPI can be used to analytically determine the fluid motion in a typical settling problem, there is a current need to optimize HOPI. This includes both reducing the computer usage time and also reducing the core storage required for a given size problem.

  5. Symmetry-lowering lattice distortion at the spin reorientation in MnBi single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGuire, Michael A.; Cao, Huibo; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Sales, Brian C.

    2014-11-18

    Here we report structural and physical properties determined by measurements on large single crystals of the anisotropic ferromagnet MnBi. The findings support the importance of magnetoelastic effects in this material. X-ray diffraction reveals a structural phase transition at the spin reorientation temperature TSR = 90 K. The distortion is driven by magneto-elastic coupling, and upon cooling transforms the structure from hexagonal to orthorhombic. Heat capacity measurements show a thermal anomaly at the crystallographic transition, which is suppressed rapidly by applied magnetic fields. Effects on the transport and anisotropic magnetic properties of the single crystals are also presented. Increasing anisotropy ofmore » the atomic displacement parameters for Bi with increasing temperature above TSR is revealed by neutron diffraction measurements. It is likely that this is directly related to the anisotropic thermal expansion in MnBi, which plays a key role in the spin reorientation and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Finally, the identification of the true ground state crystal structure reported here may be important for future experimental and theoretical studies of this permanent magnet material, which have to date been performed and interpreted using only the high temperature structure.« less

  6. Rotational reorientation dynamics of Aerosol-OT reverse micelles formed in near-critical propane

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, M.P.; Bright, F.V.

    1996-06-01

    The rotational reorientation kinetics of two fluorescent solutes (rhodamine 6G, R6G, and rhodamine 101, R101) have been determined in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT, AOT) reverse micelles formed in liquid and near-critical propane. We show that the amount of water loading ([water]/[AOT], R), continuous phase density, and temperature all influence the solute rotational dynamics. In all cases, the decay of anisotropy data (i.e., frequency-dependent differential polarized phase angle and polarized modulation ratio) are well described by a bi-exponential decay law. We find that the faster rotational correlation times are similar to but slightly less than the values predicted for an individual AOT reverse micelle rotating in propane. The recovered rotational correlation times range from 200 to 500 ps depending on experimental conditions. This faster rotational process is explained in terms of lateral diffusion of the fluorophore along the water/headgroup interfacial region within the reverse micelle. The recovered values for the slower rotational correlation times range from 7 to 18 ns. These larger rotational reorientation times are assigned to varying micelle-micelle (i.e., tail-tail) interactions in the low-density, highly compressible fluid region. We also quantify the contribution of the reverse micellar {open_quotes}aggregate{close_quotes} to the total decay of anisotropy. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  7. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. PMID:27044753

  8. Polarization Sensitive Measurements of Molecular Reorientation in a Glass Capacitor Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nathan; Lawhead, Carlos; Anderson, Josiah; Shiver, Tegan; Prayaga, Chandra; Ujj, Laszlo

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that molecules having a permanent dipole moment tend to orient in the direction of the electric field at room temperature. The reorientation can be probed with the help of linear spectroscopy methods such as fluorescence anisotropy measurements. We have used nonlinear polarization sensitive Raman scattering spectroscopy to quantify the orientation effect of the dipoles. Vibrational spectra of the molecules has been recorded as a function of the external electric field. The polarization changes observed during the measurement are directly linked to the molecular reorientation rearrangement. Spectra has been recorded with a laser spectrometer comprised of a Nd:YAG laser and an optical parametric oscillator and an imaging spectrometer with a CCD detector. In order to make this measurement we have constructed a glass capacitor cell coated in TiO and applied a significant electric field (0-3 kV/mm) to the sample. Our measurements showed that the orientation effect is most significant for liquid crystals as observed previously with non-polarization sensitive CARS spectroscopy.

  9. Re-orientations of the large scale flow in turbulent convection with cubic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroozani, Najmeh; Niemela, Joseph; Armenio, Vincenzo; Sreenivasan, Katepalli

    2015-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection were conducted with a fluid of Prandtl number Pr = 0 . 7 in a fully three dimensional cubic confinement of characteristic width-to-height aspect ratio unity for Ra = 106 and 108. The model solves the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation, using a dynamic Smagorinsky model with a Lagrangian averaging technique for the subgrid scale terms. Under fully developed conditions the flow topology is characterized by a large scale circulation (LSC) or mean wind developing in a plane containing one of the diagonals of the cell, while two counter-rotating vortices develop in the other diagonal plane, resulting in inflow at the midplane. This flow structure is not stable in time, undergoing non-periodic re-orientation or switching between the two diagonal planes. The time-interval over which the flow maintains a particular orientation is not constant. We contrast the three-dimensional time-averaged flow structures with single point measurements (time-series) to shed light on the dynamics of the re-orientations. We observe that as Ra increases the LSC becomes more robust and attains a more squarish-like shape.

  10. Symmetry-lowering lattice distortion at the spin reorientation in MnBi single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A.; Cao, Huibo; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Sales, Brian C.

    2014-11-18

    Here we report structural and physical properties determined by measurements on large single crystals of the anisotropic ferromagnet MnBi. The findings support the importance of magnetoelastic effects in this material. X-ray diffraction reveals a structural phase transition at the spin reorientation temperature TSR = 90 K. The distortion is driven by magneto-elastic coupling, and upon cooling transforms the structure from hexagonal to orthorhombic. Heat capacity measurements show a thermal anomaly at the crystallographic transition, which is suppressed rapidly by applied magnetic fields. Effects on the transport and anisotropic magnetic properties of the single crystals are also presented. Increasing anisotropy of the atomic displacement parameters for Bi with increasing temperature above TSR is revealed by neutron diffraction measurements. It is likely that this is directly related to the anisotropic thermal expansion in MnBi, which plays a key role in the spin reorientation and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Finally, the identification of the true ground state crystal structure reported here may be important for future experimental and theoretical studies of this permanent magnet material, which have to date been performed and interpreted using only the high temperature structure.

  11. Symmetry-lowering lattice distortion at the spin reorientation in MnBi single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Cao, Huibo; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Sales, Brian C.

    2014-11-01

    Structural and physical properties determined by measurements on large single crystals of the anisotropic ferromagnet MnBi are reported. The findings support the importance of magnetoelastic effects in this material. X-ray diffraction reveals a structural phase transition at the spin reorientation temperature TS R=90 K. The distortion is driven by magnetoelastic coupling, and upon cooling transforms the structure from hexagonal to orthorhombic. Heat capacity measurements show a thermal anomaly at the crystallographic transition, which is suppressed rapidly by applied magnetic fields. Effects on the transport and anisotropic magnetic properties of the single crystals are also presented. Increasing anisotropy of the atomic displacement parameters for Bi with increasing temperature above TS R is revealed by neutron diffraction measurements. It is likely that this is directly related to the anisotropic thermal expansion in MnBi, which plays a key role in the spin reorientation and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The identification of the true ground-state crystal structure reported here may be important for future experimental and theoretical studies of this permanent magnet material, which have to date been performed and interpreted using only the high-temperature structure.

  12. Doping controlled spin reorientation in dysprosium-samarium orthoferrite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Weiyao; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most important phase transitions, spin reorientation (SR) in rare earth transition metal oxides draws much attention of emerging materials technologies. The origin of SR is the competition between different spin configurations which possess different free energy. We report the control of spin reorientation (SR) transition in perovskite rare earth orthoferrite Dy1-xSmxFeO3, a whole family of single crystals grown by optical floating zone method from x =0 to 1. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations under zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) processes are studied. We have found a remarkable linear change of SR transition temperature in Sm-rich samples for x>0.2, which covers an extremely wide temperature range including room temperature. The a-axis magnetization curves under FCC process bifurcate from and then jump down to that of warming process (ZFC and FCW curves) in single crystals when x =0.5-0.9, suggesting complicated 4f-3d electron interactions among Dy3+-Sm3+, Dy3+-Fe3+, and Sm3+-Fe3+ sublattices of diverse magnetic configurations for materials physics and design. The magnetic properties and the doping effect on SR transition temperature in these single crystals might be useful in the spintronics device application. This work is supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921600), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Nos. 51372149, 50932003, 11274222).

  13. Spontaneous reorientations of meta-atoms and electromagnetic spatial solitons in a liquid metacrystal.

    PubMed

    Zharov, Alexander A; Zharov, Alexander A; Zharova, Nina A

    2014-08-01

    We show that transverse electromagnetic waves propagating along an external static electric field in liquid metacrystal (LMC) can provoke spontaneous rearrangement of elongated meta-atoms that changes the direction of the anisotropy axis of the LMC. This kind of instability may reorient the meta-atoms from the equilibrium state parallel to a static field to the state along a high-frequency field and back at the different threshold intensities of electromagnetic waves in such a way that bistability in the system takes place. Reorientation of meta-atoms causes a change in the effective refraction index of LMC that creates, in turn, the conditions for the formation of bright spatial solitons. Such spatial solitons are the self-consistent domains of redirected meta-atoms with trapped photons. We find that the instability thresholds as well as energy flux captured by the spatial soliton can be easily managed by variation of the static electric field applied to the LMC. We study the effects of soliton excitation and collisions via numerical simulations.

  14. The influence of stress state on the reorientation of hydrides in a zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N.; Koss, Donald A.; Motta, Arthur T.

    2016-08-01

    Hydride reorientation can occur in spent nuclear fuel cladding when subjected to a tensile hoop stress above a threshold value during cooling. Because in these circumstances the cladding is under a multiaxial stress state, the effect of stress biaxiality on the threshold stress for hydride reorientation is investigated using hydrided CWSR Zircaloy-4 sheet specimens containing ∼180 wt ppm of hydrogen and subjected to a two-cycle thermo-mechanical treatment. The study is based on especially designed specimens within which the stress biaxiality ratios range from uniaxial (σ2/σ1 = 0) to "near-equibiaxial" tension (σ2/σ1 = 0.8). The threshold stress is determined by mapping finite element calculations of the principal stresses and of the stress biaxiality ratio onto the hydride microstructure obtained after the thermo-mechanical treatment. The results show that the threshold stress (maximum principal stress) decreases from 155 to 75 MPa as the stress biaxiality increases from uniaxial to "near-equibiaxial" tension.

  15. Ion induced magnetization reorientation in Co/Pt multilayers for patterned media

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, D.; Baglin, J.E.E.; Kellock, A.J.; Hannibal, K.A.; Toney, M.F.; Kusinski, G.; Lang, S.; Best, M.E.; Terris, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Co/Pt multilayer films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and large out-of-plane coercivities of 3.9 - 8.5 kOe have been found to undergo a spin reorientation transition from out-of-plane to in-plane upon irradiation with 700 keV nitrogen ions. X-ray reflectivity experiments show that the multilayer structure gets progressively disrupted with increasing ion dose, providing direct evidence for local atomic displacements at the Co/Pt interfaces. This effectively destroys the magnetic interface anisotropy, which was varied by about a factor of two, between KS@ 0.4 erg/cm2 and KS@ 0.85 erg/cm2 for two particular films. The dose required to initiate spin-reorientation, 6x1014 N+/cm2 and 1.5x1015 N+/cm2, respectively, scales with KS. It is roughly equal to the number of Co interface atoms per unit interface area contributing to KS.

  16. Low speed maneuvering flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo (Eolophus roseicapillus). II. Inertial and aerodynamic reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, T L; Usherwood, J R; Biewener, A A

    2007-06-01

    The reconfigurable, flapping wings of birds allow for both inertial and aerodynamic modes of reorientation. We found evidence that both these modes play important roles in the low speed turning flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus. Using three-dimensional kinematics recorded from six cockatoos making a 90 degrees turn in a flight corridor, we developed predictions of inertial and aerodynamic reorientation from estimates of wing moments of inertia and flapping arcs, and a blade-element aerodynamic model. The blade-element model successfully predicted weight support (predicted was 88+/-17% of observed, N=6) and centripetal force (predicted was 79+/-29% of observed, N=6) for the maneuvering cockatoos and provided a reasonable estimate of mechanical power. The estimated torque from the model was a significant predictor of roll acceleration (r(2)=0.55, P<0.00001), but greatly overestimated roll magnitude when applied with no roll damping. Non-dimensional roll damping coefficients of approximately -1.5, 2-6 times greater than those typical of airplane flight dynamics (approximately -0.45), were required to bring our estimates of reorientation due to aerodynamic torque back into conjunction with the measured changes in orientation. Our estimates of inertial reorientation were statistically significant predictors of the measured reorientation within wingbeats (r(2) from 0.2 to 0.37, P<0.0005). Components of both our inertial reorientation and aerodynamic torque estimates correlated, significantly, with asymmetries in the activation profile of four flight muscles: the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, biceps brachii and extensor metacarpi radialis (r(2) from 0.27 to 0.45, P<0.005). Thus, avian flight maneuvers rely on production of asymmetries throughout the flight apparatus rather than in a specific set of control or turning muscles. PMID:17515417

  17. Separation of experimental 2D IR frequency-frequency correlation functions into structural and reorientation-induced contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Patrick L.; Nishida, Jun; Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-09-01

    A vibrational transition frequency can couple to its environment through a directional vector interaction. In such cases, reorientation of the vibrational transition dipole (molecular orientational relaxation) and its frequency fluctuations can be strongly coupled. It was recently shown [Kramer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 184505 (2015)] that differing frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) decays, due to reorientation-induced spectral diffusion (RISD), are observed with different two-dimensional infrared polarization configurations when such strong coupling is present. The FFC functional forms were derived for the situation in which all spectral diffusion is due to reorientational motion. We extend the previous theory to include vibrational frequency evolution (spectral diffusion) caused by structural fluctuations of the medium. Model systems with diffusive reorientation and several regimes of structural spectral diffusion rates are analyzed for first order Stark effect interactions. Additionally, the transition dipole reorientational motion in complex environments is frequently not completely diffusive. Several periods of restricted angular motion (wobbling-in-a-cone) may precede the final diffusive orientational randomization. The polarization-weighted FFCF decays are presented in this case of restricted transition dipole wobbling. With these extensions to the polarization-dependent FFCF expressions, the structural spectral diffusion dynamics of methanol in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate can be separated quantitatively from RISD using the experimental center line slope data. In addition, prior results on the spectral diffusion of water, methanol, and ethanol in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are re-examined to elucidate the influence of reorientation on the data, which were interpreted in terms of structural fluctuations.

  18. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury: Effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.; Nimmo, F.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect of spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation on Mercury's gravity and tectonic pattern. Large variations of the gravity and shape coefficients from the synchronous rotation and zero eccentricity values, J 2/C 22 = 10/3 and (b - c)/(a - c) = 1/4, arise because of nonsynchronous rotation and nonzero eccentricity even in the absence of reorientation or despinning. Reorientation or despinning induces additional variations. The large gravity coefficients J 2 = (6 +/- 2) × 10-5 and C 22 = (1 +/- 0.5) × 10-5 estimated from the Mariner 10 flybys cannot be attributed to Caloris alone since the required mass excess in this case would have caused Caloris to migrate to one of Mercury's hot poles. Similarly, a large remnant bulge due to a smaller semimajor axis and spin-orbit resonance can be dismissed since the required semimajor axis is unphysically small (<0.1 AU). Reorientation of a large remnant bulge recording an epoch of faster rotation (without significant semimajor axis variations) can explain the large gravity coefficients. This requires initial rotation rates $\\gtrsim$20 times the present value and a positive gravity anomaly associated with Caloris capable of driving ~10°-45° equatorward reorientation. The required gravity anomaly can be explained by infilling of the basin with material of thicknesses $\\gtrsim$7 km or an annulus of volcanic plains emplaced around the basin with an annulus width ~1200 km and fill thicknesses $\\gtrsim$2 km. The predicted tectonic pattern due to these despinning and reorientation scenarios, including some radial contraction, is in good agreement with the lobate scarp pattern observed by Mariner 10. We also predict that lobate scarps will follow a NE-SW orientation in the eastern hemisphere and a positive gravity anomaly (of a few hundred mGal) associated with Caloris.

  19. Should software hold data hostage?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.; Michaels, George S.

    2004-08-01

    Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them into proprietary file and data formats. Although this might make sense from a business perspective, it violates fundamental principles of data ownership and control. Such tactics should not be tolerated by the scientific community. The future of data-intensive biology depends on ensuring open data standards and freely exchangeable file formats. Compared to the engineering and chemistry fields, computers are a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of biological tools. Thus the pool of potential users of biology-oriented software is comparatively small. Biology itself is a broad field with many sub-disciplines, such as neurobiology, biochemistry, genomics and cell biology. This creates the need for task-oriented software tools that necessarily have a small user base. Simultaneously, the task of developing software has become more complex with the need for multi-platform software and increasing user expectations of sophisticated interfaces and a high degree of usability. Writing successful software in such an environment is very challenging, but progress in biology will increasingly depend on the success of companies and individuals in creating powerful new software tools. The trend to open source software could have an enormous impact on biology by providing the large number of specialized analysis tools that are required. Indeed, in the field of bioinformatics, open source software has become pervasive, largely because of the high degree of computer skill necessary for workers in this field. For these tools to be usable by non-specialists, however, requires the

  20. From Engaging Liaison Librarians to Engaging Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    Kara J. Malenfant wrote in her 2010 article "Leading Change in the System of Scholarly Communication: A Case Study of Engaging Liaison Librarians for Outreach to Faculty" that it would be interesting to revisit the University of Minnesota (UMN) Libraries in three years and see how they are doing. Malenfant had documented a culture shift…

  1. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants.

    PubMed

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21-29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51-64 years old; and (3) Old: 65-84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups-an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of attention to

  2. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S.; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21–29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51–64 years old; and (3) Old: 65–84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups—an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of

  3. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  4. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  5. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  6. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  7. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  8. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  9. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  10. The Impact of Task Difficulty and Performance Scores on Student Engagement and Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Raymond; Patten, James Vincent; Hennessy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article considers the impact of differential task difficulty on student engagement and progression within an Irish primary school context. Gaining and maintaining student engagement during learning tasks such as homework is a significant and understandable on-going challenge for teachers. The findings of this study hold the…

  11. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... Biodefense Science Board's (NBSB) Anthrax Vaccine (AV) Working Group (WG) will hold a public engagement workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to...

  12. Civic Learning and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the US education system has failed to adequately combat a decline of civic engagement and awareness, resulting in what many are now calling a "civics recession." The good news is that there is growing awareness, at all levels, that we need new and concerted efforts to make civic learning and engagement a core component of every…

  13. Improving Student Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuscher, Shonna; Keuer, Lynn; Muehlich, Sharon; Tyra, Carol

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for improving student engagement in the learning process. The targeted population consisted of first, third, and fifth grade students in a small, traditional, middle class community, located in central Illinois. Evidence of non-engaged behaviors were documented from teacher…

  14. Engaging with Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a multi-site global, ethnographic, and mixed methods study on student engagement. Our research has closely examined how engagement and disengagement operate subtly, simultaneously and relationally in the places and spaces where drama is made. Through years of qualitative time in high school classrooms and two different…

  15. Student Engagement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Teachers, more than any other person in the school, have the greatest potential to get students engaged in school and in learning. Creating student-directed learning experiences that challenge, stimulate, and engage kids not only raises test scores, it also fosters life-long learners prepared for success in today's globally connected world. This…

  16. Defining Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, Rick D.; Flick, Arend

    2011-01-01

    Few terms in the lexicon of higher education today are invoked more frequently, and in more varied ways, than "engagement". The phrase "student engagement" has come to refer to how "involved" or "interested" students appear to be in their learning and how "connected" they are to their classes, their institutions, and each other. As measured by…

  17. Engagement Means Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  18. 78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Immtech...

  19. Young Children's Use of Features to Reorient Is More than Just Associative: Further Evidence against a Modular View of Spatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Shallcross, Wendy L.; Twyman, Alexandra D.

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of a geometric module have argued that instances of young children's use of features as well as geometry to reorient can be explained by a two-stage process. In this model, only the first stage is a true reorientation, accomplished by using geometric information alone; features are considered in a second stage using association (Lee,…

  20. Design and development of a brushless, direct drive solar array reorientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    This report covers the design and development of the laboratory model, and is essentially a compilation of reports covering the system and its various parts. To enhance completeness, the final report of Phase 1 covering circuit development of the controller is also included. A controller was developed for a brushless, direct-drive, single axis solar array reorientation system for earth-pointed, passively-stabilized spacecraft. A control systems was designed and breadboard circuits were built and tested for performance. The controller is designed to take over automatic control of the array on command after the spacecraft is stabilized in orbit. The controller will orient the solar array to the sun vector and automatically track to maintain proper orientation. So long as the orbit is circular, orientation toward the sun is maintained even though the spacecraft goes into the shadow of the earth. Particular attention was given in the design to limit reaction between the array and the spacecraft.

  1. Reorientation of rotating fluid in microgravity environment with and without gravity jitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Shyu, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellant transfer. The requirement to settle or to position liquid fuel over the outlet end of the spacecraft propellant tank prior main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellant resettling have been carried out through the execution of supercomputer CRAY X-MP to simulate the fluid management in a microgravity environment. Results show that the resettlement of fluid can be accomplished more efficiently for fluid in rotating tank than in nonrotating tank, and also better performance for gravity jitters imposed on fluid settlement than without gravity jitters based on the amount of time needed to carry out resettlement period of time between the initiation and termination of geysering.

  2. Light-induced reorientation and birefringence in polymeric dispersions of nano-sized crystals.

    PubMed

    Termine, Roberto; Aiello, Iolinda; Godbert, Nicolas; Ghedini, Mauro; Golemme, A

    2008-05-12

    Nanocrystals (50-250 nm) of a Palladium complex within a polyisobutylmethacrylate matrix were prepared by a phase separation method. In these dispersions, a light-induced birefringence with Deltan approximately 10(-3) was induced, without the application of an electric field. This effect was related to the photoconducting properties of the dispersion. Evidence for charge photogeneration without any applied field was obtained. The photorefractive behaviour of the material confirmed that the nanocrystals reorientation is a consequence of photoconducting properties. A light-generated electric field approximaely E 3 V/microm was estimated. These results illustrate the potential of materials with a nano-crystalline dispersion morphology as light-responsive media.

  3. Communication: On the origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior in water reorientation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, Guillaume; Laage, Damien

    2012-07-21

    We combine molecular dynamics simulations and analytic modeling to determine the origin of the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of liquid water's reorientation and hydrogen-bond dynamics between 235 K and 350 K. We present a quantitative model connecting hydrogen-bond exchange dynamics to local structural fluctuations, measured by the asphericity of Voronoi cells associated with each water molecule. For a fixed local structure the regular Arrhenius behavior is recovered, and the global anomalous temperature dependence is demonstrated to essentially result from a continuous shift in the unimodal structure distribution upon cooling. The non-Arrhenius behavior can thus be explained without invoking an equilibrium between distinct structures. In addition, the large width of the homogeneous structural distribution is shown to cause a growing dynamical heterogeneity and a non-exponential relaxation at low temperature.

  4. Observation of second spin reorientation transition within ultrathin region in Fe films on Ag(001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Khim, T.-Y.; Shin, M.; Lee, H. E-mail: jhp@postech.ac.kr; Park, B.-G.; Park, J.-H. E-mail: jhp@postech.ac.kr

    2014-06-21

    We acquired direct measurements for in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic moments of Fe films using an x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique with increase of the Fe thickness (up to 40 Å) on the Ag(001) surface. Epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) films were grown in situ with the thickness varying from 2 Å to 40 Å, and the magnetic anisotropy was carefully investigated as a function of the film thickness. We found re-entrance of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in ultrathin region. The results manifest that the epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) film undergoes two distinct spin reorientation transitions from in-plane to out-of-plane at the film thickness t ≈ 9 Å and back to in-plane at t ≈ 18 Å as t increases.

  5. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  6. Temperature-dependent magnetostriction as the key factor for martensite reorientation in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L’vov, Victor A.; Kosogor, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic field application leads to spatially inhomogeneous magnetostriction of twinned ferromagnetic martensite. When the increasing field and magnetostrictive strain reach certain threshold values, the motion of twin boundaries and magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) of twinned martensite start. The MIR leads to giant magnetically induced deformation of twinned martensite. In the present article, the threshold field (TF) and temperature range of observability of MIR were calculated for the Ni–Mn–Ga martensite assuming that the threshold strain (TS) is temperature-independent. The calculations show that if the TS is of the order of 10‑4, the TF strongly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed only above the limiting temperature (~220 K). If the TS is of the order of 10‑6, the TF weakly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed at extremely low temperatures. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with available experimental data.

  7. Dependence of cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber reorientation on stretch waveform.

    PubMed

    Tondon, Abhishek; Hsu, Hui-Ju; Kaunas, Roland

    2012-03-15

    Cyclic uniaxial stretching of adherent nonmuscle cells induces the gradual reorientation of their actin stress fibers perpendicular to the stretch direction to an extent dependent on stretch frequency. By subjecting cells to various temporal waveforms of cyclic stretch, we revealed that stress fibers are much more sensitive to strain rate than strain frequency. By applying asymmetric waveforms, stress fibers were clearly much more responsive to the rate of lengthening than the rate of shortening during the stretch cycle. These observations were interpreted using a theoretical model of networks of stress fibers with sarcomeric structure. The model predicts that stretch waveforms with fast lengthening rates generate greater average stress fiber tension than that generated by fast shortening. This integrated approach of experiment and theory provides new insight into the mechanisms by which cells respond to matrix stretching to maintain tensional homeostasis.

  8. Performance evaluation of the inverse dynamics method for optimal spacecraft reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Jacopo; Romano, Marcello; Walter, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the application of the inverse dynamics in the virtual domain method to Euler angles, quaternions, and modified Rodrigues parameters for rapid optimal attitude trajectory generation for spacecraft reorientation maneuvers. The impact of the virtual domain and attitude representation is numerically investigated for both minimum time and minimum energy problems. Owing to the nature of the inverse dynamics method, it yields sub-optimal solutions for minimum time problems. Furthermore, the virtual domain improves the optimality of the solution, but at the cost of more computational time. The attitude representation also affects solution quality and computational speed. For minimum energy problems, the optimal solution can be obtained without the virtual domain with any considered attitude representation.

  9. Temperature-dependent magnetostriction as the key factor for martensite reorientation in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, Victor A.; Kosogor, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic field application leads to spatially inhomogeneous magnetostriction of twinned ferromagnetic martensite. When the increasing field and magnetostrictive strain reach certain threshold values, the motion of twin boundaries and magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) of twinned martensite start. The MIR leads to giant magnetically induced deformation of twinned martensite. In the present article, the threshold field (TF) and temperature range of observability of MIR were calculated for the Ni-Mn-Ga martensite assuming that the threshold strain (TS) is temperature-independent. The calculations show that if the TS is of the order of 10-4, the TF strongly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed only above the limiting temperature (~220 K). If the TS is of the order of 10-6, the TF weakly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed at extremely low temperatures. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with available experimental data.

  10. Dynamic selective switching in antiferromagnetically-coupled bilayers close to the spin reorientation transition

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Pacheco, A. Mansell, R.; Petit, D.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.; Ummelen, F. C.; Swagten, H. J. M.

    2014-09-01

    We have designed a bilayer synthetic antiferromagnet where the order of layer reversal can be selected by varying the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. The system is formed by two ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers with different proximities to the spin reorientation transition, coupled antiferromagnetically using Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. The different dynamic magnetic reversal behavior of both layers produces a crossover in their switching fields for field rates in the kOe/s range. This effect is due to the different effective anisotropy of both layers, added to an appropriate asymmetric antiferromagnetic coupling between them. Field-rate controlled selective switching of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy layers as shown here can be exploited in sensing and memory applications.

  11. The Reorienting System of the Human Brain: From Environment to Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Patel, Gaurav; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    Survival can depend on the ability to change a current course of action to respond to potentially advantageous or threatening stimuli. This “reorienting” response involves the coordinated action of a right hemisphere dominant ventral frontoparietal network that interrupts and resets ongoing activity and a dorsal frontoparietal network specialized for selecting and linking stimuli and responses. At rest, each network is distinct and internally correlated, but when attention is focused, the ventral network is suppressed to prevent reorienting to distracting events. These different patterns of recruitment may reflect inputs to the ventral attention network from the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine system. While originally conceptualized as a system for redirecting attention from one object to another, recent evidence suggests a more general role in switching between networks, which may explain recent evidence of its involvement in functions such as social cognition. PMID:18466742

  12. Early mammalian development under conditions of reorientation relative to the gravity vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A clinostat was used to assess the effects of reorientation relative to the gravity vector on mammalian germ cells cultured in vitro. Previous studies using this system revealed an inhibition of meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. In the present study, the effects of clinostat rotation on in vitro fertilization were examined. The frequency of fertilization of experimental cultures did not vary from that of the clinostat vertical control cultures at either of the rotation rates examined. Importantly, no abnormalities of fertilization, such as parthenogenetic activation, fragmentation, or polyspermy were seen. It is concluded that the initial events of fertilization were unaffected by this treatment, although the developmental potential of these embryos remains to be assessed.

  13. Electric method for studying reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid crystal director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, D. P.; Vakulin, D. A.; Konshina, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method has been proposed for studying the reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) director using the results of measurements of the electric response of an LC cell. The simulation of the time dependences of the current in an LC cell with a homogeneous orientation is carried out upon variation of the applied voltage, the initial tilt angle of the director, dielectric anisotropy, and the elasticity coefficient, as well as the dynamic viscosity, density, and ion mobility in the NLC. A comparison of the experimental and computational curves of the electric response for NLC 5CB shows their good agreement. The method makes it possible to monitor the steady-state current, the density, and the ion mobility in NLCs.

  14. Spin reorientation and Ce-Mn coupling in antiferromagnetic oxypnictide CeMnAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Wei; Peterson, Spencer G.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Vaknin, David

    2015-02-01

    Structure and magnetic properties of high-quality polycrystlline CeMnAsO, a parent compound of the "1111"-type oxypnictides, have been investigated using neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. We find that CeMnAsO undergoes a C-type antiferromagnetic order with Mn2 +(S =5 /2 ) moments pointing along the c axis below a relatively high Néel temperature of TN=347 (1 ) K. Below TSR=35 K, two simultaneous transitions occur where the Mn moments reorient from the c axis to the a b plane preserving the C-type magnetic order, and Ce moments undergo long-range AFM ordering with antiparallel moments pointing in the a b plane. Another transition to a noncollinear magnetic structure occurs below 7 K. The ordered moments of Mn and Ce at 2 K are 3.32(4) μB and 0.81(4)μB, respectively. We find that CeMnAsO primarily falls into the category of a local-moment antiferromagnetic insulator in which the nearest-neighbor interaction (J1) is dominant with J2reorientation transition driven by the coupling between Ce and the transition metal seems to be common to Mn, Fe, and Cr ions, but not to Co and Ni ions in the isostructural oxypnictides. A schematic illustration of magnetic structures in Mn and Ce sublattices in CeMnAsO is presented.

  15. Spin reorientation and Ce-Mn coupling in antiferromagnetic oxypnictide CeMnAsO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Wei; Peterson, Spencer G.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Vaknin, David

    2015-02-18

    Structure and magnetic properties of high-quality polycrystlline CeMnAsO, a parent compound of the “1111”-type oxypnictides, have been investigated using neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. We find that CeMnAsO undergoes a C-type antiferromagnetic order with Mn2+(S = 5/2) moments pointing along the c axis below a relatively high Néel temperature of TN = 347(1) K. Below TSR = 35 K, two simultaneous transitions occur where the Mn moments reorient from the c axis to the ab plane preserving the C-type magnetic order, and Ce moments undergo long-range AFM ordering with antiparallel moments pointing in the ab plane. Another transition to a noncollinear magnetic structure occurs below 7 K. The ordered moments of Mn and Ce at 2 K are 3.32(4) μB and 0.81(4)μB, respectively. We find that CeMnAsO primarily falls into the category of a local-moment antiferromagnetic insulator in which the nearest-neighbor interaction (J1) is dominant with J2 < J1/2 in the context of J1 – J2 – Jc model. The spin reorientation transition driven by the coupling between Ce and the transition metal seems to be common to Mn, Fe, and Cr ions, but not to Co and Ni ions in the isostructural oxypnictides. As a result, a schematic illustration of magnetic structures in Mn and Ce sublattices in CeMnAsO is presented.

  16. Studying Dynamic Myofiber Aggregate Reorientation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T.; Razavi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background— The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Methods and Results— Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Conclusions— Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:27729361

  17. Spin reorientation and Ce-Mn coupling in antiferromagnetic oxypnictide CeMnAsO

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Wei; Peterson, Spencer G.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Vaknin, David

    2015-02-18

    Structure and magnetic properties of high-quality polycrystlline CeMnAsO, a parent compound of the “1111”-type oxypnictides, have been investigated using neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. We find that CeMnAsO undergoes a C-type antiferromagnetic order with Mn2+(S = 5/2) moments pointing along the c axis below a relatively high Néel temperature of TN = 347(1) K. Below TSR = 35 K, two simultaneous transitions occur where the Mn moments reorient from the c axis to the ab plane preserving the C-type magnetic order, and Ce moments undergo long-range AFM ordering with antiparallel moments pointing in the ab plane. Another transition tomore » a noncollinear magnetic structure occurs below 7 K. The ordered moments of Mn and Ce at 2 K are 3.32(4) μB and 0.81(4)μB, respectively. We find that CeMnAsO primarily falls into the category of a local-moment antiferromagnetic insulator in which the nearest-neighbor interaction (J1) is dominant with J2 < J1/2 in the context of J1 – J2 – Jc model. The spin reorientation transition driven by the coupling between Ce and the transition metal seems to be common to Mn, Fe, and Cr ions, but not to Co and Ni ions in the isostructural oxypnictides. As a result, a schematic illustration of magnetic structures in Mn and Ce sublattices in CeMnAsO is presented.« less

  18. Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions. Methods Study methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites. Results A series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition. Conclusion The reorientation of Zambia’s health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process. PMID:25005125

  19. Leveraging low-dimensional postures to resolve coiled shapes reveals new reorientation behaviors in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Greg; Broekmans, Onno; Ryu, William

    Low-dimensionality is both a fundamental property of many living systems and an aid in their quantitative analysis. Here, we exploit the low-dimensionality of C. elegans body shape to develop a novel postural tracking algorithm which captures both simple worm shapes and also complex, self-occluding coils. We apply our algorithm to a thermally-evoked escape response with relatively simple coils and to more complex, spontaneous turns which occur during foraging. We divide the escape response into three post-stimulus phases, reversal, turn and post-turn, and find that the full distribution of reorientation angles is shaped by independent and significant contributions from all three phases, a result consistent with the release and presence of the monoamine tyramine during the entire response. In spontaneous coils we find two separable peaks of turning posture amplitudes, indicating distinct reorientation behaviors of large-amplitude ventral-side turns; large ventral bearing reorientations occur through a shape sequence similar to the escape response while large dorsal bearing reorientations are accomplished by overturning across the ventral side. We find that these large-amplitude turning events occur independently but with approximately matched rates that adapt on a similar timescale.

  20. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hun; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. Materials and Methods CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. Results In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. Conclusion The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions. PMID:27358821

  1. Are we ready for sexual reorientation therapy in the U.S. military? A response to David W. Lutz.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In his paper "The Catholic Church, the American Military, and Homosexual Reorientation Therapy," David W. Lutz ultimately concludes that it is "appropriate, and highly ethical" for the American military to offer reorientation therapy to help homosexuals overcome "the vice of sodomy." The major thrust of his paper, however, is to call for abandonment of the "Don't Ask/Don't Tell" policy currently in place in the military. Lutz's paper covers much ground, and this review begins by examining whether such a wide view is necessary for the ultimate conclusions. It goes on to ask whether Lutz has omitted to mention important considerations bearing on this issue, and whether Lutz's call for the introduction of reorientation therapy is a serious call or a symbolic response to homosexual activities. Lutz fails to address essential issues such as the actual experiences of other nations having homosexuals in the military, and issues regarding what constitutes "reorientation therapy," the latter leading to questions about how such a therapy would actually be implemented. PMID:15764097

  2. Nuclear Overhauser effect as a probe of molecular structure, dynamics and order of axially reorienting molecules in membranes.

    PubMed

    Davis, James H; Komljenović, Ivana

    2016-02-01

    The location, orientation, order and dynamics of cholesterol in model membranes have been well characterized, therefore cholesterol is an ideal molecule for developing new methods for studying structured molecules undergoing rapid axially symmetric reorientation. The use of (13)C filtering via short contact cross polarization transfer to (1)H allows the recovery of the weak cholesterol (1)H magic angle spinning NMR signals from beneath the strong phospholipid background in bicelles composed of chain perdeuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/dicaproyl phosphatidylcholine/[3,4-(13)C]-cholesterol. Measurements of the nuclear Overhauser enhancement for (1)H nuclei located in the first ring of cholesterol are interpreted in terms of a simple two motion model consisting of axial reorientation, with a correlation time τ∥, and a slower reorientation of the diffusion axis relative to the bilayer normal, with correlation time τ⊥. This approach can be extended to other molecules which undergo rapid axial reorientation such as small membrane associated peptides. PMID:26607012

  3. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  4. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness < B > = - 0.2 and memory < M > = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  5. What's a Degree Got to Do with It? The Civic Engagement of Associate's and Bachelor's Degree Holders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mallory Angeli

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the civic engagement of adults holding an associate's degree compared to those holding a bachelor's degree. Most prior research has focused on individuals who hold 4-year degrees; the present study, however, sought to understand differences between holders of 2-year degrees and 4-year degrees. Descriptive statistics…

  6. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  7. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  8. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  9. Fast gaze reorientations by combined movements of the eye, head, trunk and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Naushahi, J; Sklavos, Sokratis; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2015-05-01

    Large reorientations of the line of sight, involving combined rotations of the eyes, head, trunk and lower extremities, are executed either as fast single-step or as slow multiple-step gaze transfers. In order to obtain more insight into the mechanisms of gaze and multisegmental movement control, we have investigated time-optimal gaze shifts (i.e. with the instruction to move as fast as possible) during voluntary whole-body rotations to remembered targets up to 180° eccentricity performed by standing healthy humans in darkness. Fast, accurate, single-step movement patterns occurred in approximately 70 % of trials, i.e. considerably more frequently than in previous studies with the instruction to turn at freely chosen speed (30 %). Head-in-space velocity in these cases was significantly higher than during multiple-step transfers and displayed a conspicuously regular bell-shaped profile, increasing smoothly to a peak and then decreasing slowly until realignment with the target. Head-in-space acceleration was on average not different during reorientations to the different target eccentricities. In contrast, head-in-space velocity increased with target eccentricity due to the longer duration of the acceleration phase implemented during trials to more distant targets. Eye saccade amplitude approached the eye-in-orbit mechanical limit and was unrelated to eye/head velocity, duration or target eccentricity. Overall, the combined movement was stereotyped such that the first two principal components accounted for data variance almost up to gaze shift end, suggesting that the three mechanical degrees of freedom under consideration (eye-in-orbit, head-on-trunk and trunk-in-space) are on average reduced to two kinematic degrees of freedom (i.e. eye, head-in-space). Synchronous EMG activity in the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles preceded the onset of eye rotation. Since the magnitude and timing of peak head-in-space velocity were scaled with target eccentricity and

  10. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  11. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  12. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  13. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports…

  15. 78 FR 21151 - Boise White Paper, LLC, A Subsidiary of Boise Paper Holdings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2013 (78 FR 8590). Workers are engaged in... Employment and Training Administration Boise White Paper, LLC, A Subsidiary of Boise Paper Holdings, LLC... Electric, Mitech, and Anne Elisabeth Elsey, St. Helens, OR; Boise White Paper, LLC, A Subsidiary of...

  16. Extreme human breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G

    2001-04-01

    In this paper, the respiratory, circulatory and metabolic adjustments to human extreme breath-hold diving are reviewed. A survey of the literature reveals that in extreme divers, adaptive mechanisms take place that allow prolongation of apnoea beyond the limits attained by non-diving subjects, and preservation of oxygen stores during the dives. The occurrence of a diving response, including peripheral vasoconstriction, increased arterial blood pressure, bradycardia and lowered cardiac output, is strongly implicated. Some peripheral regions may be excluded from perfusion, with consequent reliance on anaerobic metabolism. In addition, extreme breath-hold divers show a blunted ventilatory response to carbon dioxide breathing, possibly as a consequence of frequent exposure to high carbon dioxide partial pressures during the dives. These mechanisms allow the attainment of particularly low alveolar oxygen (< 30 mmHg) and high alveolar carbon dioxide (> 50 mmHg) partial pressures at the end of maximal dry breath-holds, and reduce oxygen consumption during the dive at the expense of increased anaerobic glycolysis (rate of blood lactate accumulation > 0.04 mM.s-1). The current absolute world record for depth in breath-hold diving is 150 m. Its further improvement depends upon how far the equilibrium between starting oxygen stores, the overall rate of energy expenditure, the fraction of energy provided by anaerobic metabolism and the diving speed can be pushed, with consciousness upon emersion. The ultimate limit to breath-hold diving records may indeed be imposed by an energetic constraint. PMID:11374109

  17. Teaching-Service integration within the National Professional Health Education Reorientation Program.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Carine; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Kleba, Maria Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    This integrative literature review aimed at identifying the characteristics and describing how teaching-service integration is expressed in studies on Pró-Saúde (Charitable institution for social and hospital assistance) published in Brazil in the period 2007-2012. For the search, the term National Professional Health Education Reorientation Program was entered in the following databases: Virtual Health Library (BVS), Google Scholar and the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). Forty-one publications were selected with the following inclusion criteria: scientific papers; theses and dissertations; studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish. The critical review of studies was performed through a comprehensive reading of the texts. Outcomes are presented in two categories: Dialogue and partnership as tools for teaching-service integration and Movements of change in teaching-service through Pró-Saúde. Studies have shown that changes in professional education and practice are possible and necessary, especially when supported by strategies that encourage active participation of subjects and confirm teaching-service integration as opportunity for dialogue, promoted by this inducing policy.

  18. Stochastic and Deterministic Flagellar Dynamics Provide a Mechanism for Eukaryotic Swimming Reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2009-03-01

    The biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a good model organism to study the origin of flagellar synchronization. Here we employ high-speed imaging to study the beating of the two flagella of Chlamydomonas, and show that a single cell can alternate between two distinct dynamical regimes: asynchronous and synchronous. The asynchronous state is characterized by a large interflagellar frequency difference. In the synchronous state, the flagella beat in phase for lengthy periods, interrupted episodically by an extra beat of either flagellum. The statistics of these events are consistent with a model of hydrodynamically coupled noisy oscillators. Previous observations have suggested that the two flagella have well separated intrinsic beat frequencies, and are synchronized by their mutual coupling. Our analysis shows instead that the synchronized state is incompatible with coupling-induced synchronization of flagella with those intrinsic frequencies. This suggests that the beat frequencies themselves are under the control of the cell. Moreover, high-resolution three-dimensional tracking of swimming cells provides strong evidence that these dynamical states are related to non-phototactic reorientation events in the trajectories, yielding a eukaryotic equivalent of the ``run and tumble'' motion of peritrichously flagellated bacteria.

  19. Teaching-Service integration within the National Professional Health Education Reorientation Program.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Carine; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Kleba, Maria Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    This integrative literature review aimed at identifying the characteristics and describing how teaching-service integration is expressed in studies on Pró-Saúde (Charitable institution for social and hospital assistance) published in Brazil in the period 2007-2012. For the search, the term National Professional Health Education Reorientation Program was entered in the following databases: Virtual Health Library (BVS), Google Scholar and the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). Forty-one publications were selected with the following inclusion criteria: scientific papers; theses and dissertations; studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish. The critical review of studies was performed through a comprehensive reading of the texts. Outcomes are presented in two categories: Dialogue and partnership as tools for teaching-service integration and Movements of change in teaching-service through Pró-Saúde. Studies have shown that changes in professional education and practice are possible and necessary, especially when supported by strategies that encourage active participation of subjects and confirm teaching-service integration as opportunity for dialogue, promoted by this inducing policy. PMID:27653080

  20. Organic heterojunctions: Contact-induced molecular reorientation, interface states, and charge re-distribution

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Andreas; Wilke, Andreas; Amsalem, Patrick; Oehzelt, Martin; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Hörmann, Ulrich; Hansson, Rickard; Moons, Ellen; Koch, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the rather complex interplay of contact-induced re-orientation and interfacial electronic structure – in the presence of Fermi-level pinning – at prototypical molecular heterojunctions comprising copper phthalocyanine (H16CuPc) and its perfluorinated analogue (F16CuPc), by employing ultraviolet photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For both layer sequences, we find that Fermi-level (EF) pinning of the first layer on the conductive polymer substrate modifies the work function encountered by the second layer such that it also becomes EF-pinned, however, at the interface towards the first molecular layer. This results in a charge transfer accompanied by a sheet charge density at the organic/organic interface. While molecules in the bulk of the films exhibit upright orientation, contact formation at the heterojunction results in an interfacial bilayer with lying and co-facial orientation. This interfacial layer is not EF-pinned, but provides for an additional density of states at the interface that is not present in the bulk. With reliable knowledge of the organic heterojunction’s electronic structure we can explain the poor performance of these in photovoltaic cells as well as their valuable function as charge generation layer in electronic devices. PMID:26887445

  1. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.

  2. Organic heterojunctions: Contact-induced molecular reorientation, interface states, and charge re-distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Wilke, Andreas; Amsalem, Patrick; Oehzelt, Martin; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Hörmann, Ulrich; Hansson, Rickard; Moons, Ellen; Koch, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    We reveal the rather complex interplay of contact-induced re-orientation and interfacial electronic structure – in the presence of Fermi-level pinning – at prototypical molecular heterojunctions comprising copper phthalocyanine (H16CuPc) and its perfluorinated analogue (F16CuPc), by employing ultraviolet photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For both layer sequences, we find that Fermi-level (EF) pinning of the first layer on the conductive polymer substrate modifies the work function encountered by the second layer such that it also becomes EF-pinned, however, at the interface towards the first molecular layer. This results in a charge transfer accompanied by a sheet charge density at the organic/organic interface. While molecules in the bulk of the films exhibit upright orientation, contact formation at the heterojunction results in an interfacial bilayer with lying and co-facial orientation. This interfacial layer is not EF-pinned, but provides for an additional density of states at the interface that is not present in the bulk. With reliable knowledge of the organic heterojunction’s electronic structure we can explain the poor performance of these in photovoltaic cells as well as their valuable function as charge generation layer in electronic devices.

  3. Quantifying Signaling-Induced Reorientation of TCR's During Immunological Synapse Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Irvine, D J; Davis, M M; Krummel, M F

    2002-10-17

    Productive T cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is normally accompanied by the formation of a cell-cell contact called the 'immunological synapse.' Our understanding of the steps leading up to this formation has been limited by the absence of tools for analyzing 3D surfaces and surface distributions as they change over time. Here we use a 3D fluorescence quantitation method to show that T cell receptors are recruited in bulk within the first minute after the onset of activation and with velocities ranging from 0.04 to 0.1 {micro}m/s; a speed significantly greater than unrestricted diffusion. Our method reveals a second feature of this reorientation: a conformational change as the T cell pushes more total membrane into the interface creating a larger contact area for additional receptors. Analysis of individual T cell receptor velocities using a single-particle tracking method confirms our velocity measurement. This method should permit the quantitation of other dynamic membrane events and the associated movement of cell-surface molecules.

  4. Er2Fe14B single crystal as magnetic refrigerant at the spin reorientation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Vittorio; Sasso, Carlo P.; Küpferling, Michaela; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we study the specific heat under magnetic field cp(Ha,T) and the magnetic field induced isothermal entropy change Δs(Ha,T) of Er2Fe14B by direct calorimetry and magnetic measurements. We find that the spin reorientation temperature is TSR=322.8±0.1 K and the entropy change is Δs =0.735±0.005J kg -1K-1. The measured data are interpreted by a model of the magnetization process taking into account a temperature-dependent uniaxial anisotropy constant K1(T), the magnetic field energy, and the effect of the demagnetizing field. The model is able to describe the essential features of the measured Δs(Ha,T) in terms of reversible rotation of the magnetization induced by the magnetic field. From the model we find that the entropy change has a magnetic field independent saturation value: ΔsK(T)=0.735-5.5×10-3(T -TSR) and that the magnetic field amplitude increases the temperature range over which the effect is observed as ΔT =βμ0H with β =54 KT-1.

  5. Organic heterojunctions: Contact-induced molecular reorientation, interface states, and charge re-distribution.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Andreas; Wilke, Andreas; Amsalem, Patrick; Oehzelt, Martin; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Rabe, Jürgen P; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Hörmann, Ulrich; Hansson, Rickard; Moons, Ellen; Koch, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the rather complex interplay of contact-induced re-orientation and interfacial electronic structure - in the presence of Fermi-level pinning - at prototypical molecular heterojunctions comprising copper phthalocyanine (H16CuPc) and its perfluorinated analogue (F16CuPc), by employing ultraviolet photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For both layer sequences, we find that Fermi-level (EF) pinning of the first layer on the conductive polymer substrate modifies the work function encountered by the second layer such that it also becomes EF-pinned, however, at the interface towards the first molecular layer. This results in a charge transfer accompanied by a sheet charge density at the organic/organic interface. While molecules in the bulk of the films exhibit upright orientation, contact formation at the heterojunction results in an interfacial bilayer with lying and co-facial orientation. This interfacial layer is not EF-pinned, but provides for an additional density of states at the interface that is not present in the bulk. With reliable knowledge of the organic heterojunction's electronic structure we can explain the poor performance of these in photovoltaic cells as well as their valuable function as charge generation layer in electronic devices. PMID:26887445

  6. Organic heterojunctions: Contact-induced molecular reorientation, interface states, and charge re-distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Wilke, Andreas; Amsalem, Patrick; Oehzelt, Martin; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Hörmann, Ulrich; Hansson, Rickard; Moons, Ellen; Koch, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    We reveal the rather complex interplay of contact-induced re-orientation and interfacial electronic structure - in the presence of Fermi-level pinning - at prototypical molecular heterojunctions comprising copper phthalocyanine (H16CuPc) and its perfluorinated analogue (F16CuPc), by employing ultraviolet photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For both layer sequences, we find that Fermi-level (EF) pinning of the first layer on the conductive polymer substrate modifies the work function encountered by the second layer such that it also becomes EF-pinned, however, at the interface towards the first molecular layer. This results in a charge transfer accompanied by a sheet charge density at the organic/organic interface. While molecules in the bulk of the films exhibit upright orientation, contact formation at the heterojunction results in an interfacial bilayer with lying and co-facial orientation. This interfacial layer is not EF-pinned, but provides for an additional density of states at the interface that is not present in the bulk. With reliable knowledge of the organic heterojunction’s electronic structure we can explain the poor performance of these in photovoltaic cells as well as their valuable function as charge generation layer in electronic devices.

  7. Processing of organic electro-optic materials: solution-phase assisted reorientation of chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, Benjamin C.; Eng, David L. K.; Kozacik, Stephen T.; Ross, Dylan; Prather, Dennis W.

    2013-03-01

    Organic EO materials, sometimes called EO polymers, offer a variety of very promising properties that have improved at remarkable rates over the last decade, and will continue to improve. However, these materials rely on a "poling" process to afford EO activity, which is commonly cited as the bottleneck for the widespread implementation of organic EO material-containing devices. The Solution Phase-Assisted Reorientation of Chromophores (SPARC) is a process that utilizes the mobility of chromophores in the solution phase to afford acentric molecular order during deposition. The electric field can be generated by a corona discharge in a carefully-controlled gas environment. The absence of a poling director during conventional spin deposition forms centric pairs of chromophores which may compromise the efficacy of thermal poling. Direct spectroscopic evidence of linear dichroism in modern organic EO materials has estimated the poling-induced order of the chromophores to be 10-15% of its theoretical maximum, offering the potential for a manyfold enhancement in EO activity if poling is improved. SPARC is designed to overcome these limitations and also to allow the poling of polymeric hosts with temporal thermal (alignment) stabilities greater than the decomposition temperature of the guest chromophore. In this report evidence supporting the theory motivating the SPARC process and the resulting EO activities will be presented. Additionally, the results of trials towards a device demonstration of the SPARC process will be discussed.

  8. Evidence of water reorientation on model electrocatalytic surfaces from nanosecond-laser-pulsed experiments.

    PubMed

    García-Aráez, Nuria; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M

    2008-03-26

    The behavior of water at the interface formed between a quasi-perfect Pt(111) single-crystal electrode and an aqueous electrolyte solution is studied by means of the laser-induced temperature jump method. This method is based on the use of nanosecond laser pulses to suddenly increase the temperature at the interface. The measurement of the response of the interface toward the laser heating under coulostatic conditions provides evidence on the net orientation of water at the interface. Especially interesting is the study of the effect on the interfacial water caused by the selective deposition of foreign metal adatoms, because these bimetallic systems usually exhibit appealing electrocatalytic properties. The T-jump methodology shows that the surface composition strongly affects the interaction of water with the surface. The most representative parameter to characterize this interaction is the potential where water reorientation occurs; this potential shifts in different directions, depending on the relative values of the electronegativity of the adatom and the substrate. These results are discussed in the light of available information about the effect of adatom deposition on the work function and the surface potential of the modified surface. Finally, some implications on the enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity are briefly discussed. PMID:18321095

  9. Tuning cytokine receptor signaling by re-orienting dimer geometry with surrogate ligands.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ignacio; Wernig, Gerlinde; Wilmes, Stephan; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Richter, Christian P; Hong, Wan-Jen; Sinha, Rahul; Guo, Feng; Fabionar, Hyna; Wehrman, Tom S; Krutzik, Peter; Demharter, Samuel; Plo, Isabelle; Weissman, Irving L; Minary, Peter; Majeti, Ravindra; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Piehler, Jacob; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-03-12

    Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to "tune" signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to dimerize EpoR ectodomains in non-native architectures. Diabody-induced signaling amplitudes varied from full to minimal agonism, and structures of these DA/EpoR complexes differed in EpoR dimer orientation and proximity. Diabodies also elicited biased or differential activation of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles compared to EPO. Non-signaling diabodies inhibited proliferation of erythroid precursors from patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm due to a constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation. Thus, intracellular oncogenic mutations causing ligand-independent receptor activation can be counteracted by extracellular ligands that re-orient receptors into inactive dimer topologies. This approach has broad applications for tuning signaling output for many dimeric receptor systems. PMID:25728669

  10. Tuning cytokine receptor signaling by re-orienting dimer geometry with surrogate ligands.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ignacio; Wernig, Gerlinde; Wilmes, Stephan; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Richter, Christian P; Hong, Wan-Jen; Sinha, Rahul; Guo, Feng; Fabionar, Hyna; Wehrman, Tom S; Krutzik, Peter; Demharter, Samuel; Plo, Isabelle; Weissman, Irving L; Minary, Peter; Majeti, Ravindra; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Piehler, Jacob; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-03-12

    Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to "tune" signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to dimerize EpoR ectodomains in non-native architectures. Diabody-induced signaling amplitudes varied from full to minimal agonism, and structures of these DA/EpoR complexes differed in EpoR dimer orientation and proximity. Diabodies also elicited biased or differential activation of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles compared to EPO. Non-signaling diabodies inhibited proliferation of erythroid precursors from patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm due to a constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation. Thus, intracellular oncogenic mutations causing ligand-independent receptor activation can be counteracted by extracellular ligands that re-orient receptors into inactive dimer topologies. This approach has broad applications for tuning signaling output for many dimeric receptor systems.

  11. Antiferromagnetic Spin Reorientation Transition induced by the coupling at NiO/CoO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Qian; Li, Junxue; Ding, Zhao; Liang, Jianhui; Xiao, Xia; Wu, Yizheng; Hua, C. Y.; Huang, M. J.; Lin, H.-J.; Department of Physics, Fudan University Collaboration; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Manipulating the antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin orientation is important for spitronic researches. But AFM spin-reorientation transition (SRT) can be realized only through limited mechanisms. In this contribution, we realized an in-plane to out-of-plane AFM SRT in NiO/CoO/MgO(001) system through a new mechanism, i.e., the exchange coupling between AFM spins. NiO and CoO spin orientations were determined by X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) measurements. The CoO spin was fixed in-plane below Néel temperature (TN) , while the NiO spin undergoes an in-plane to out-of-plane SRT above a critical NiO thickness. The SRT is attributed to the competition between NiO out-of-plane anisotropy from expansive strain and in-plane anisotropy from interfacial coupling with CoO spin. The SRT was influenced by CoO AFM ordering modulated by temperature, CoO thickness and interfacial coupling strength tuned by the thickness of MgO layer inserted between NiO and CoO. Besides, temperature-dependent XMLD measurement indicated a rise of CoO TN by 80K with the proximity effect from NiO. Our experimental results can be further understood by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Superelasticity by reversible variant reorientation in a Ni-Mn-Ga microwire with bamboo grains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Z. L.; Zheng, P.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Mullner, P.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-08-26

    The link between microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated for a superelastic Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with 226 μm diameter, created by solidification via the Taylor method. The wire, which consists of bamboo grains with tetragonal martensite matrix and coarse γ precipitates, exhibits fully reversible superelastic behavior up to 4% tensile strain. Upon multiple tensile load–unload cycles, reproducible stress fluctuations of ~3 MPa are measured on the loading superelastic stress plateau of ~50 MPa. During cycles at various temperatures spanning -70 to 55 °C, the plateau stress decreases from 58 to 48 MPa near linearly with increasing temperature. Based on in situmore » synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, we conclude that this superelastic behavior is due to reversible martensite variants reorientation (i.e., reversible twinning) with lattice rotation of ~13°. The reproducible stress plateau fluctuations are assigned to reversible twinning at well-defined locations along the wire. The strain recovery during unloading is attributed to reverse twinning, driven by the internal stress generated on loading between the elastic γ precipitates and the twinning martensite matrix. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the twining stress on loading is related to the change in tetragonality of the martensite, as measured by X-ray diffraction.« less

  13. Superelasticity by reversible variant reorientation in a Ni-Mn-Ga microwire with bamboo grains

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. L.; Zheng, P.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Mullner, P.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-08-26

    The link between microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated for a superelastic Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with 226 μm diameter, created by solidification via the Taylor method. The wire, which consists of bamboo grains with tetragonal martensite matrix and coarse γ precipitates, exhibits fully reversible superelastic behavior up to 4% tensile strain. Upon multiple tensile load–unload cycles, reproducible stress fluctuations of ~3 MPa are measured on the loading superelastic stress plateau of ~50 MPa. During cycles at various temperatures spanning -70 to 55 °C, the plateau stress decreases from 58 to 48 MPa near linearly with increasing temperature. Based on in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, we conclude that this superelastic behavior is due to reversible martensite variants reorientation (i.e., reversible twinning) with lattice rotation of ~13°. The reproducible stress plateau fluctuations are assigned to reversible twinning at well-defined locations along the wire. The strain recovery during unloading is attributed to reverse twinning, driven by the internal stress generated on loading between the elastic γ precipitates and the twinning martensite matrix. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the twining stress on loading is related to the change in tetragonality of the martensite, as measured by X-ray diffraction.

  14. Intragranular Twinning, Detwinning, and Twinning-Like Lattice Reorientation in Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Li, Nan; Parish, Chad M; Liu, Wenjun; Liaw, Peter K; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hex- agonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin in- teractions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning- detwinning process, the twinning-like lattice reorientation process was captured within an individ- ual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reor- ientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculation of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. The study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.

  15. Transfer of spin reorientation in a NdCo5/Fe bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, B. M. S.; Timopheev, A. A.; Schmidt, R.; Soares, M. R.; Seifert, M.; Neu, V.; Sobolev, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    A NdCo5 (37 nm)/Fe (22 nm) hard/soft bilayer was grown by pulsed laser deposition on a MgO (1 1 0) substrate, and investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Due to the direct exchange coupling at the NdCo5/Fe interface, the spin reorientation transition (SRT) typical of NdCo5 is observed also in the bilayer by means of global magnetometry. Concerning the magnetization dynamics, the interlayer magnetic coupling is weak, thus allowing the identification of the FMR signals in the sample as those originating mainly from the individual responses of the Fe and NdCo5 layers. In the NdCo5 layer, the effective coupling field is negligible compared to the internal anisotropy, and the magnetization precession is similar to the one found in a NdCo5 single layer. In the magnetically soft Fe layer, however, the precession of the moments occurs in the exchange field stemming from the dynamically fixed NdCo5 layer, giving rise to a partial transfer of magnetic anisotropy from the latter and enabling us to follow the SRT of NdCo5 by measuring the Fe FMR peak field position. Controlling the anisotropy direction in the soft layer by making use of the SRT in the hard layer can find applications in future spintronic devices.

  16. Canted stripe phase evolution due to a spin reorientation transition in Fe films grown on Ag(001) vicinal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, M.; Cinal, M.; Przybylski, M.; Chen, G.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Schmid, A. K.; Kirschner, J.

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of the domain structure with the thickness of bcc Fe films deposited on the Ag(116) vicinal surface is studied by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy. We show that a spin reorientation transition proceeds via two mechanisms: continuous rotation of magnetization within the vertical plane perpendicular to the steps and discontinuous reorientation of the in-plane component of magnetization, leading to splitting of the domains. In contrast to previously investigated systems with stripe domains, we reveal that in the case of a vicinal ferromagnetic surface, the domain width increases while changing the orientation of the magnetization from a canted out-of-plane state into an in-plane state. A theoretical model developed in this work successfully describes the domain structure behavior observed in our experiments and can be equally applied to other ferromagnetic films grown on vicinal surfaces.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Transient Reorientation of a Doped Liquid Crystal System under a Short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Xiang, Ying; Liu, Yi-Kun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Shun-Lin

    2009-08-01

    The transient optical nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal doped with azo-dye DR19 is examined. The optical reorientation threshold of a 25-μm-thick planar-aligned sample of 5CB using a 50 ns pulse duration 532 nm YAG laser pulse is observed to decrease from 800 mJ/mm2 to 0.6 mJ/mm2 after the addition of 1 vol% azo dopant, a reduction of three orders of magnitude. When using a laser pulse duration of 10 ns, no such effect is observed. Experimental results indicate that the azo dopant molecules undergo photoisomerization from trans-isomer to cis-isomer under exposure to light, and this conformation change reorients the 5CB molecules via intermolecular coupling between guest and host. This guest-host coupling also affects the azo photoisomerization process.

  18. Engagement and Education

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Shah, Umair A.; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination

  19. Observation of re-entrant spin reorientation in TbFe1-xMnxO3.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yifei; Yang, Ya; Liu, Xinzhi; Kang, Jian; Hao, Lijie; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Sun, Guangai; Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Wang, Chin-Wei; Cao, Yiming; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng; Cao, Shixun; Lin, Chengtian; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Jincang

    2016-01-01

    We report a spin reorientation from Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) to Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) magnetic configuration near room temperature and a re-entrant transition from Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) to Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) at low temperature in TbFe1-xMnxO3 single crystals by performing both magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The Γ4 - Γ1 spin reorientation temperature can be enhanced to room temperature when x is around 0.5 ~ 0.6. These new transitions are distinct from the well-known Γ4 - Γ2 transition observed in TbFeO3, and the sinusoidal antiferromagnetism to complex spiral magnetism transition observed in multiferroic TbMnO3. We further study the evolution of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM) versus Mn concentration to reveal the mechanism of the re-entrant spin reorientation behavior and the complex magnetic phase at low temperature. The variation of -ΔSM between a and c axes indicates the significant change of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the TbFe1-xMnxO3 system. Furthermore, as Jahn-Teller inactive Fe(3+) ions coexist with Jahn-Teller active Mn(3+) ions, various anisotropy interactions, compete with each other, giving rise to a rich magnetic phase diagram. The large magnetocaloric effect reveals that the studied material could be a potential magnetic refrigerant. These findings expand our knowledge of spin reorientation phenomena and offer the alternative realization of spin-switching devices at room temperature in the rare-earth orthoferrites. PMID:27634299

  20. Observation of re-entrant spin reorientation in TbFe1‑xMnxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yifei; Yang, Ya; Liu, Xinzhi; Kang, Jian; Hao, Lijie; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Sun, Guangai; Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Wang, Chin-Wei; Cao, Yiming; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng; Cao, Shixun; Lin, Chengtian; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Jincang

    2016-09-01

    We report a spin reorientation from Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) to Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) magnetic configuration near room temperature and a re-entrant transition from Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) to Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) at low temperature in TbFe1‑xMnxO3 single crystals by performing both magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The Γ4 ‑ Γ1 spin reorientation temperature can be enhanced to room temperature when x is around 0.5 ~ 0.6. These new transitions are distinct from the well-known Γ4 ‑ Γ2 transition observed in TbFeO3, and the sinusoidal antiferromagnetism to complex spiral magnetism transition observed in multiferroic TbMnO3. We further study the evolution of magnetic entropy change (‑ΔSM) versus Mn concentration to reveal the mechanism of the re-entrant spin reorientation behavior and the complex magnetic phase at low temperature. The variation of ‑ΔSM between a and c axes indicates the significant change of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the TbFe1‑xMnxO3 system. Furthermore, as Jahn-Teller inactive Fe3+ ions coexist with Jahn-Teller active Mn3+ ions, various anisotropy interactions, compete with each other, giving rise to a rich magnetic phase diagram. The large magnetocaloric effect reveals that the studied material could be a potential magnetic refrigerant. These findings expand our knowledge of spin reorientation phenomena and offer the alternative realization of spin-switching devices at room temperature in the rare-earth orthoferrites.

  1. Pressure-driven orbital reorientations and coordination-sphere reconstructions in [CuF2(H2O)2(pyz)

    SciTech Connect

    Prescimone, A.; Morien, C.; Allan, D.; Schlueter, J.; Tozer, S.; Manson, J. L.; Parsons, S.; Brechin, E. K.; Hill, S.

    2012-07-23

    Successive reorientations of the Jahn-Teller axes associated with the Cu{sup II} ions accompany a series of pronounced structural transitions in the title compound, as is shown by X-ray crystallography and high-frequency EPR measurements. The second transition forces a dimerization involving two thirds of the Cu{sup II} sites due to ejection of one of the water molecules from the coordination sphere

  2. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Orekhova, Elena V.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response—automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,—found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, “sensory gating” studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions. PMID:24567709

  3. Effects of head immobilization on the coordination and control of head and body reorientation and translation during steering.

    PubMed

    Hollands, M A; Sorensen, K L; Patla, A E

    2001-09-01

    Changing the direction of locomotion involves lateral translation of the body in addition to body reorientation to align with the new travel direction. We designed this study to investigate the CNS control of these postural adjustments. The specific aims of the study were: first, to test the hypothesis that anticipatory head movements towards the new travel path are proactively controlled by the CNS to provide a stable frame of reference for body reorientation and, second, to investigate the relative contribution of foot placement and other mechanisms to the control of lateral body translation during steering. We achieved these aims by carrying out a comprehensive biomechanical analysis of participants performing a steering paradigm and observing the effects of immobilizing the head (by fixing it to the trunk) on postural control and the sequencing of body segment reorientation. Participants performed a task whereby they were visually cued to change their direction of walking by 30 degrees or 60 degrees, left or right, at the midpoint of a 9-m path. The temporal sequence of body reorientation was consistent with previous findings that the head starts to turn in the direction of travel before the rest of the body. Translation of the centre of mass (COM) in the new travel direction was achieved both through alternate placement of the contralateral foot prior to the turn step and use of a hip strategy to control the body pendulum during swing. Immobilizing the head resulted in the following significant changes: earlier onset of trunk yaw with respect to cue delivery, later trunk roll onset and a reduction in trunk roll amplitude. These results provide valuable information regarding the biomechanics of steering and support the hypothesis that aligning the head with motor or locomotor goals using vision provides the CNS with a stable frame of reference, independent of gaze, that can be used to control the repositioning of the body in space.

  4. Observation of re-entrant spin reorientation in TbFe1−xMnxO3

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yifei; Yang, Ya; Liu, Xinzhi; Kang, Jian; Hao, Lijie; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Sun, Guangai; Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Wang, Chin-Wei; Cao, Yiming; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng; Cao, Shixun; Lin, Chengtian; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Jincang

    2016-01-01

    We report a spin reorientation from Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) to Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) magnetic configuration near room temperature and a re-entrant transition from Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) to Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) at low temperature in TbFe1−xMnxO3 single crystals by performing both magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The Γ4 − Γ1 spin reorientation temperature can be enhanced to room temperature when x is around 0.5 ~ 0.6. These new transitions are distinct from the well-known Γ4 − Γ2 transition observed in TbFeO3, and the sinusoidal antiferromagnetism to complex spiral magnetism transition observed in multiferroic TbMnO3. We further study the evolution of magnetic entropy change (−ΔSM) versus Mn concentration to reveal the mechanism of the re-entrant spin reorientation behavior and the complex magnetic phase at low temperature. The variation of −ΔSM between a and c axes indicates the significant change of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the TbFe1−xMnxO3 system. Furthermore, as Jahn-Teller inactive Fe3+ ions coexist with Jahn-Teller active Mn3+ ions, various anisotropy interactions, compete with each other, giving rise to a rich magnetic phase diagram. The large magnetocaloric effect reveals that the studied material could be a potential magnetic refrigerant. These findings expand our knowledge of spin reorientation phenomena and offer the alternative realization of spin-switching devices at room temperature in the rare-earth orthoferrites. PMID:27634299

  5. Reorientable dipolar CuCa antisite and anomalous screening in CaCu3Ti4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delugas, Pietro; Alippi, Paola; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Raineri, Vito

    2010-02-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we show that the abundant CuCa antisite defect contributes sizably to dielectric screening in single-crystal CaCu3Ti4O12 . CuCa has a multi-minimum off-center equilibrium configuration, whereby it possesses a large and easily reorientable dipole moment. The low-temperature and frequency cut-off behavior of CuCa -induced response is consistent with experiment.

  6. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  7. What Happened to the Promise? A Critical (Re)Orientation of Two Sociocultural Learning Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewolny, Kim L.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    Cleary it is no longer possible to think about learning without context. Although context cannot be ignored anymore, educators often struggle to explain how people learn in "and" with various contexts. Situated cognition and cultural--historical activity theory (CHAT) hold promise for understanding how adult learners are cultural and historical…

  8. Reorienting health care in Africa--can the élite believe in equity?

    PubMed

    Einterz, E

    1996-01-01

    Those who have advantages try to hold on to them, but in doing so they often work to the disadvantage of everyone, including themselves. Health workers can play a key role in correcting some of the misconceptions about health produced by a combination of élitism and the unscrupulous marketing of health products. PMID:8756130

  9. Dual reorientation relaxation routes of water molecules in oxyanion’s hydration shell: A molecular geometry perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wen Jun; Yang, Yi Isaac; Gao, Yi Qin

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we examine how complex ions such as oxyanions influence the dynamic properties of water and whether differences exist between simple halide anions and oxyanions. Nitrate anion is taken as an example to investigate the hydration properties of oxyanions. Reorientation relaxation of its hydration water can occur through two different routes: water can either break its hydrogen bond with the nitrate to form one with another water or switch between two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate. The latter molecular mechanism increases the residence time of oxyanion’s hydration water and thus nitrate anion slows down the translational motion of neighbouring water. But it is also a “structure breaker” in that it accelerates the reorientation relaxation of hydration water. Such a result illustrates that differences do exist between the hydration of oxyanions and simple halide anions as a result of different molecular geometries. Furthermore, the rotation of the nitrate solute is coupled with the hydrogen bond rearrangement of its hydration water. The nitrate anion can either tilt along the axis perpendicularly to the plane or rotate in the plane. We find that the two reorientation relaxation routes of the hydration water lead to different relaxation dynamics in each of the two above movements of the nitrate solute. The current study suggests that molecular geometry could play an important role in solute hydration and dynamics.

  10. Spin reorientation driven by the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and Hund's rule coupling in iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Morten H.; Kang, Jian; Andersen, Brian M.; Eremin, Ilya; Fernandes, Rafael M.

    2015-12-01

    In most magnetically-ordered iron pnictides, the magnetic moments lie in the FeAs planes, parallel to the modulation direction of the spin stripes. However, recent experiments in hole-doped iron pnictides have observed a reorientation of the magnetic moments from in-plane to out-of-plane. Interestingly, this reorientation is accompanied by a change in the magnetic ground state from a stripe antiferromagnet to a tetragonal nonuniform magnetic configuration. Motivated by these recent observations, here we investigate the origin of the spin anisotropy in iron pnictides using an itinerant microscopic electronic model that respects all the symmetry properties of a single FeAs plane. We find that the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the Hund's rule coupling can account for the observed spin anisotropies, including the spin reorientation in hole-doped pnictides, without the need to invoke orbital or nematic order. Our calculations also reveal an asymmetry between the magnetic ground states of electron- and hole-doped compounds, with only the latter displaying tetragonal magnetic states.

  11. Group reorientation and migration of amphiphilic polymer bearing phosphorylcholine functionalities on surface of cellular membrane mimicking coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Winnik, Françoise M; Mwale, Fackson; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2008-03-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing phosphorylcholine (PC) groups can form films of interfacial structure similar to that of the outer membrane of living cells. The films, as prepared, present PC groups to the external aqueous environment and exhibit good biocompatibility. However, under certain conditions, the surface structure can change irreversibly due to the reorientation and deep migration of the surface groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle measurements, and cell culture experiments were used to investigate the reorientation and migration of the surface groups of an amphiphilic PC-polymer coating. When the polymer surface is immersed into or drawn out of water, significant reorientation and group migration occurs, as suggested by the large difference between the advancing and receding contact angles. Angle-resolved XPS measurements indicate that the hydrophobic groups move to the air/film interface while the hydrophilic groups migrate towards the bulk of the polymer coating. Long periods of aging may result in irreversible changes of the surface structure and decrease the biocompatibility of the materials.

  12. A theoretical and experimental investigation of power harvesting using the NiMnGa martensite reorientation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Nickolaus M.; Ciocanel, Constantin; Feigenbaum, Heidi P.; Waldauer, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) can exhibit the shape memory effect when there is a magnetic field in the vicinity of a material point. The microstructure of the MSMAs is comprised of tetragonal martensite variants, each with their preferred internal magnetization orientation. Starting from a random variant orientation, the application of a large enough magnetic field will cause the variants to reorient so that the internal magnetization vectors align with the external field. Then, keeping the magnetic field constant and adding a variable compressive stress in a direction normal to that of the magnetic field, some or all of the martensitic variants may rotate into a stress preferred state. As the variants reorient, the internal magnetization vectors rotate, and the material’s magnetization changes. For power harvesting and sensing applications, the change in magnetization induces a current in a pickup coil placed around the MSMA specimen, resulting in an output voltage at its terminals according to Faraday’s law of inductance. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the voltage output, both experimentally and numerically, in an attempt to assess the ability of a MSMA thermodynamic based constitutive model, used in conjunction with Faraday’s law of induction, to predict the variant reorientation induced voltage output. Assessing the accuracy of the predicted voltage is beneficial for the design of both MSMA based power harvesting devices and MSMA based displacement sensors.

  13. Protective hinge in insulin opens to enable its receptor engagement.

    PubMed

    Menting, John G; Yang, Yanwu; Chan, Shu Jin; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Whittaker, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P; Whittaker, Linda J; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Wan, Zhu-li; Yadav, Satya P; Carroll, Julie M; Strokes, Natalie; Roberts, Charles T; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Milewski, Wieslawa; Steiner, Donald F; Chauhan, Virander S; Ward, Colin W; Weiss, Michael A; Lawrence, Michael C

    2014-08-19

    Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated "microreceptors" that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of Phe(B24) to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1-β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (Ile(A2), Val(A3), Val(B12), Phe(B24), and Phe(B25)) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function. PMID:25092300

  14. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  15. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  16. The Scholarship of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, author Ernest Boyer comes to the conclusion that scholarship of engagement has meaning at two levels: (1) connecting the university's rich resources to the most pressing social, civic, and ethical problems, making it the staging ground for action; and (2) creating a climate in which academic and civic cultures communicate more…

  17. Tools of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Alumni relations professionals need a method of measuring alumni engagement, including giving, that goes beyond counting event attendees and the number of Twitter followers. Social media are changing the way things have been done within the alumni relations profession, but that does not mean that people throw out everything they have done in the…

  18. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  19. Engagement in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttle, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and World Wide Web are transforming delivery of education and making it possible for more individuals than ever to have access to knowledge any time and place across the globe. The extent of learner engagement is key to online learning environments. Constructivist learning theory, an emerging theory of connectivity, and Merrill's…

  20. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  1. The Scholarship of Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    1996-01-01

    Scholarship of engagement has meaning at two levels: (1) connecting the university's rich resources to the most pressing social, civic, and ethical problems, making it the staging ground for action; and (2) creating a climate in which academic and civic cultures communicate more continuously and creatively, enlarging the universe of human…

  2. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R. C.; Cassini Radar Science Team, T.

    2011-12-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity between and among patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crest orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune-field patterns with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the re-orientation model presented by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well organized patterns have the longest reorientation time scales (~10^5 migration timescales), while the topographically or spatially isolated patches of dunes show the shortest reorientation times (~10

  3. Water holding capacity in poultry breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The underlying mechanisms that control water-holding capacity (WHC) in pale broiler meat are not well-established. The objectives of the two studies reported here were: 1) to determine the relationship between WHC and protein denaturation in broiler breast meat exhibiting divergent WHC attributes,...

  4. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  5. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  6. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  7. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  8. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  9. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  10. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  11. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  12. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  13. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  14. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of this part, the term “record hold” means a requirement, an order, or a directive from an... involving the Enterprise or an employee, or otherwise has actual knowledge that an issue is subject to such..., during a record hold. Such access shall be by reasonable means, consistent with the nature...

  15. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  16. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this...

  17. 76 FR 22899 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or T to Acquire Companies That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or Tto Acquire Companies That Are Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12...

  18. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Hayes, A. G.; McCormick, C.; Ballard, C.; Troy, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity among bedform patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crestline orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune crestline orientation with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the time-scale of the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the crestline re-orientation model developed by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We use Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images processed through a de-noising algorithm recently developed by Lucas et al. [LPSC, 2012] to measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well-organized patterns have the

  19. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Immersive Virtual Environments using Saccadic Suppression.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Benjamin; Lappe, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Virtual reality strives to provide a user with an experience of a simulated world that feels as natural as the real world. Yet, to induce this feeling, sometimes it becomes necessary for technical reasons to deviate from a one-to-one correspondence between the real and the virtual world, and to reorient or reposition the user's viewpoint. Ideally, users should not notice the change of the viewpoint to avoid breaks in perceptual continuity. Saccades, the fast eye movements that we make in order to switch gaze from one object to another, produce a visual discontinuity on the retina, but this is not perceived because the visual system suppresses perception during saccades. As a consequence, our perception fails to detect rotations of the visual scene during saccades. We investigated whether saccadic suppression of image displacement (SSID) can be used in an immersive virtual environment (VE) to unconsciously rotate and translate the observer's viewpoint. To do this, the scene changes have to be precisely time-locked to the saccade onset. We used electrooculography (EOG) for eye movement tracking and assessed the performance of two modified eye movement classification algorithms for the challenging task of online saccade detection that is fast enough for SSID. We investigated the sensitivity of participants to translations (forward/backward) and rotations (in the transverse plane) during trans-saccadic scene changes. We found that participants were unable to detect approximately ±0.5m translations along the line of gaze and ±5° rotations in the transverse plane during saccades with an amplitude of 15°. If the user stands still, our approach exploiting SSID thus provides the means to unconsciously change the user's virtual position and/or orientation. For future research and applications, exploiting SSID has the potential to improve existing redirected walking and change blindness techniques for unlimited navigation through arbitrarily-sized VEs by real walking.

  20. Major reorientation of tRNA substrates defines specificity of dihydrouridine synthases

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Robert T.; Jenkins, Huw T.; Peters, Daniel T.; Whelan, Fiona; Stowell, James; Aziz, Naveed; Kasatsky, Pavel; Rodnina, Marina V.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Konevega, Andrey L.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of specific uridines to dihydrouridine is one of the most common modifications in tRNA. Increased levels of the dihydrouridine modification are associated with cancer. Dihydrouridine synthases (Dus) from different subfamilies selectively reduce distinct uridines, located at spatially unique positions of folded tRNA, into dihydrouridine. Because the catalytic center of all Dus enzymes is conserved, it is unclear how the same protein fold can be reprogrammed to ensure that nucleotides exposed at spatially distinct faces of tRNA can be accommodated in the same active site. We show that the Escherichia coli DusC is specific toward U16 of tRNA. Unexpectedly, crystal structures of DusC complexes with tRNAPhe and tRNATrp show that Dus subfamilies that selectively modify U16 or U20 in tRNA adopt identical folds but bind their respective tRNA substrates in an almost reverse orientation that differs by a 160° rotation. The tRNA docking orientation appears to be guided by subfamily-specific clusters of amino acids (“binding signatures”) together with differences in the shape of the positively charged tRNA-binding surfaces. tRNA orientations are further constrained by positional differences between the C-terminal “recognition” domains. The exquisite substrate specificity of Dus enzymes is therefore controlled by a relatively simple mechanism involving major reorientation of the whole tRNA molecule. Such reprogramming of the enzymatic specificity appears to be a unique evolutionary solution for altering tRNA recognition by the same protein fold. PMID:25902496

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheel, Minakshi

    1997-01-01

    The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

  2. Career Engagement: Bridging Career Counseling and Employee Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a model of career engagement that helps bridge the gap between career counselors' focus on supporting individuals to find meaningful work and employers' desire for an engaged, productive, and committed workforce. They briefly review highlights of the employee engagement literature, introduce the Career…

  3. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company income. 1.543-1 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.543-1 Personal holding company income. (a) General rule. The term personal holding company income means the portion of the gross income...

  5. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  8. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  9. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  10. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  11. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  12. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3... COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize to become a mutual holding company, or join in a mutual holding company reorganization as an...

  13. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  14. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  15. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  16. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  17. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  18. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  19. Climate change games as tools for education and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jason S.; Lee, Joey J.

    2015-05-01

    Scientists, educators and policymakers continue to face challenges when it comes to finding effective strategies to engage the public on climate change. We argue that games on the subject of climate change are well-suited to address these challenges because they can serve as effective tools for education and engagement. Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the development of such games, many featuring innovative designs that blur traditional boundaries (for example, those that involve social media, alternative reality games, or those that involve direct action upon the real world). Here, we present an overview of the types of climate change game currently available, the benefits and trade-offs of their use, and reasons why they hold such promise for education and engagement regarding climate change.

  20. Teaching for Literacy Engagement. Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.

    2004-01-01

    In our theoretical framework, reading engagement entails multiple perspectives on reading that consist of motivational dispositions, cognitive strategies, conceptual understanding, and social discourse. Possessing these attributes, engaged readers are typically higher achievers than less engaged readers, who show fewer of these qualities or less…

  1. School Engagement: A "Danse Macabre"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shelby L.

    2011-01-01

    A recent review of research on "School Engagement" calls for clarification of the concept of engagement due to its potential for addressing problems of student apathy and low achievement. This paper responds to the request for clarification, points out some "distinctions" and "connexions" between engagement and some polarizing issues in the…

  2. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  3. Haemoptysis after breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Boussuges, A; Pinet, C; Thomas, P; Bergmann, E; Sainty, J M; Vervloet, D

    1999-03-01

    Pulmonary oedema has been described in swimmers and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba) divers. This study reports three cases of haemoptysis secondary to alveolar haemorrhage in breath-hold divers. Contributory factors, such as haemodynamic modifications secondary to immersion, cold exposure, exercise and exposure to an increase in ambient pressure, could explain this type of accident. Furthermore, these divers had taken aspirin, which may have aggravated the bleeding.

  4. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard... America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC (Celerity Holdings), and Celerity Partners IV, LLC (Celerity Partners) (collectively, Applicants) have filed an application under 49...

  5. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding...

  6. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Nicola; Kuhn, Werner; Rumor, Massimo; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS) are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals) is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a \\"schema\\" that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application \\"schema\\" of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC--INSPIRE). The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application \\"schema\\" that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community. PMID:24893036

  7. The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M I; Calltorp, J

    2000-01-01

    Sweden was an important pioneer of market-oriented reform in publicly funded health-care systems. Yet by the mid-1990s the county councils, which fund and manage most health-care, had substantially scaled back reforms based on provider competition while continuing to constrain health budgets. As policy makers faced new issues, they turned increasingly to longer-term and more cooperative contracts to define relations between hospitals and the county councils. Growing regionalization of government and hospital mergers further reconfigured acute care and limited opportunities for competition between hospitals. We seek to explain this reorientation of market-oriented reforms between 1989 and 1996 in terms of shifts in the positions taken by powerful policy actors, and in particular by county council politicians. During this period, elections moved liberal and conservative politicians, who were the most enthusiastic supporters of market-oriented reform, in and out of control of most county governments. Meanwhile many Social Democratic politicians gradually turned from initial support of competitive reform toward opposition. Politicians and county administrators from all parties were particularly concerned about controlling health expenditures during a period of recession. In addition, the public, politicians in the counties and municipalities, and health professionals resisted steps that threatened health sector employment and would have allowed market mechanisms, rather than governments, to determine the prices and distribution of health services. During the years under study Sweden's market-oriented reforms followed a course of development similar to that taken by other management and policy fashions (Abrahamson E. Management fashion, Academy of Management Review 1996;21: 254-85). At first the reforms enjoyed uncritical support by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gradually participants in the reform process recognized inherent tensions among the goals of the reform

  8. Energy harvesting using martensite variant reorientation mechanism in a NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, I.; Basaran, B.; Karaca, H. E.; Karsilayan, A. I.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys demonstrate significant potential for harvesting waste mechanical energy utilizing the Villari effect. In this study, a few milliwatts of power output are achieved taking advantage of martensite variant reorientation mechanism in Ni51.1Mn24Ga24.9 single crystals under slowly fluctuating loads (10Hz) without optimization in the power conversion unit. Effects of applied strain range, bias magnetic field, and loading frequency on the voltage output are revealed. Anticipated power outputs under moderate frequencies are predicted showing that the power outputs higher than 1W are feasible.

  9. Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory: the case of persisting differentials in educational attainment. 1996.

    PubMed

    Goldthorpe, John H

    2010-01-01

    In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of class relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to be correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon functionalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment. PMID:20092500

  10. Dynamics of a director reorientation and optical response of polymer films filled with a liquid crystal under strong electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasechnik, S. V.; Shmeleva, D. V.; Chopik, A. P.; Vakulenko, A. A.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the director reorientation in nematic liquid crystals (NLC) confined by cylindrical cavities of porous polymeric films under strong electric field E with has been investigated theoretically. The main attention was paid to the specific mode of field application characterized by abrupt changes of the applied voltage's polarity. In experiments with porous films filled with a liquid crystal 5CB such mode resulted in appearance of strong peak -like decreasing of an optical transparence of the films. Two mechanisms of such unusual response based on assumption of electrically induced motion of ions and overall motion of a liquid were considered and applied to explain experimental results.

  11. Relationship quality and student engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  12. Constructing productive engagement: pre-engagement tools for emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    te Kulve, Haico; Rip, Arie

    2011-12-01

    Engagement with stakeholders and civil society is increasingly important for new scientific and technological developments. Preparation of such engagements sets the stage for engagement activities and thus contributes to their outcomes. Preparation is a demanding task, particularly if the facilitating agent aims for timely engagement related to emerging technologies. Requirements for such preparation include understanding of the emerging science & technology and its dynamics. Multi-level analysis and socio-technical scenarios are two complementary tools for constructing productive engagement. Examination of the emergence of nanotechnologies in the food packaging sector demonstrates how these tools work. In light of recent policy demands for responsible innovation, but also more generally, the role of organizers of engagement activities is one that deserves reflection insofar as it can extend beyond that of preparation and facilitation.

  13. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts. PMID:25351730

  14. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  15. Does constraining field of view prevent extraction of geometric cues for humans during virtual-environment reorientation?

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kilday, Zachary A; Bodily, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Environment size has been shown to influence the reliance on local and global geometric cues during reorientation. Unless changes in environment size are produced by manipulating length and width proportionally, changes in environment size are confounded by the amount of the environment that is visible from a single vantage point. Yet, the influence of the amount of the environment that is visible from any single vantage point on the use of local and global geometric cues remains unknown. We manipulated the amount of an environment that was visually available to participants by manipulating field of view (FOV) in a virtual environment orientation task. Two groups of participants were trained in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure to find a location that was uniquely specified by both local and global geometric cues. One group (FOV 50°) had visually less of the environment available to them from any one perspective compared to another group (FOV 100°). Following training, we presented both groups with a control test along with three novel-shaped environments. Testing assessed the use of global geometry in isolation, in alignment with local geometry, or in conflict with local geometry. Results (confirmed by a follow-up experiment) indicated that constraining FOV prevented extraction of geometric properties and relationships of space and resulted in an inability to use either global or local geometric cues for reorientation.

  16. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy. PMID:23752528

  17. Resolving the spin reorientation and crystal-field transitions in TmFeO3 with terahertz transient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kailin; Xu, Kai; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Zeyu; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Li, Bo; Cao, Shixun; Ma, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth orthoferrites (RFeO3) exhibit abundant physical properties such as, weak macroscopic magnetization, spin reorientation transition, and magneto-optical effect, especially the terahertz magnetic response, have received lots of attention in recent years. In this work, quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic (AFM) modes arising from Fe sublattice of TmFeO3 single crystal are characterized in a temperature range from 40 to 300 K, by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The magnetic anisotropy constants in ac-plane are estimated according to the temperature-dependent resonant frequencies of both FM and AFM modes. Here, we further observe the broad-band absorptions centered ~0.52, ~0.61, and ~1.15 THz below 110 K, which are reasonably assigned to a series of crystal-field transitions (R modes) of ground multiplets (6H3) of Tm3+ ions. Specially, our finding reveals that the spin reorientation transition at a temperature interval from 93 to 85 K is driven by magnetic anisotropy, however, which plays negligible role on the electronic transitions of Tm ions in the absence of applied magnetic fields. PMID:27009361

  18. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy.

  19. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  20. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  1. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  2. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  3. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  4. Shared intentional engagement through language and phenomenal experience.

    PubMed

    Durt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of shared intentional engagement and argues that the current debate around intersubjective interaction can profit from taking that notion into account. Shared intentional engagement holds between people when they relate together to the same meaningful entities. For instance, when people talk about something, they share intentional engagement as long as they don't talk past each other. But what if the entity talked about involves perceptual experience-is the quality of one's experiences not something that cannot be conveyed to others through language? Against this widespread idea, this article takes up philosophical arguments for the intersubjectivity of, on the one hand, language, and, on the other hand, phenomenal experience. It contents that language and phenomenal experience both exhibit shared structures that enable shared intentional engagement. It then considers an example for how this result matches well with empirical research on "pop out" experiences. Because shared intentional engagement is fundamental for all kinds of human interaction, it necessitates interdisciplinary investigations that are frequently hindered by the assumption that the phenomenal experiences of humans are hidden to others.

  5. Shared intentional engagement through language and phenomenal experience

    PubMed Central

    Durt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of shared intentional engagement and argues that the current debate around intersubjective interaction can profit from taking that notion into account. Shared intentional engagement holds between people when they relate together to the same meaningful entities. For instance, when people talk about something, they share intentional engagement as long as they don't talk past each other. But what if the entity talked about involves perceptual experience—is the quality of one's experiences not something that cannot be conveyed to others through language? Against this widespread idea, this article takes up philosophical arguments for the intersubjectivity of, on the one hand, language, and, on the other hand, phenomenal experience. It contents that language and phenomenal experience both exhibit shared structures that enable shared intentional engagement. It then considers an example for how this result matches well with empirical research on “pop out” experiences. Because shared intentional engagement is fundamental for all kinds of human interaction, it necessitates interdisciplinary investigations that are frequently hindered by the assumption that the phenomenal experiences of humans are hidden to others. PMID:25339915

  6. Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science is awarded annually. Through the Prize, Europlanet aims to recognise achievements in engaging European citizens with planetary science and to raise the profile of outreach within the scientific community. It is awarded to individuals or groups who have developed innovative practices in planetary science communication and whose efforts have significantly contributed to a wider public engagement with planetary science.

  7. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  8. Dual job holding practitioners in Bangladesh: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Reinhold; Anwar, Raqibul; Begum, Tahmina; Killingsworth, James R; Normand, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the system of financial and non-financial incentives underlying job preferences of doctors in Bangladesh who work both in government health services and in private practice. The study is based on a survey of 100 government-employed doctors with private practice, across different levels of care and geographical areas. In-depth interviews were carried out in a sub-sample of 28 respondents. The study explores the beliefs and attitudes towards the arrangements of joint private/public practice, establishes profiles of fee levels and earnings and examines the options to change the incentive system in a way that ensures an increased involvement of dual job holding practitioners in the priority areas of care. Consultation fees were Tk120 on average (range Tk20-300) and found to be correlated with the qualification of the practice owner and the type of service offered. A majority of the respondents reported at least to double their government income by engaging in private practice. Significant predictors of total income included the number of patients seen in private practice (p=0.000), employment in a secondary or tertiary care facility (p=0.001) and ownership of premises for private practice (p=0.033). Age was found to be marginally significant (p=0.084). No association was found between total income and specialisation, private practice costs, level of government salary or a degree from abroad. The data suggest that doctors have adopted individual strategies to accommodate the advantages of both government employment and private practice in their career development, thus maximising benefit from the incentives provided to them e.g. status of a government job, and minimising opportunity costs of economic losses e.g. lower salaries. Commitment to government services was found to be greater among doctors in primary health care who reported they would give up private practice if paid a higher salary. Among doctors in secondary and tertiary care, the

  9. Engaging communities in tuberculosis research.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Renaud F; Seidel, Stephanie; Lessem, Erica; Pyne-Mercier, Lee; Williams, Sharon D; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Scott, Cherise; Chou, Alicia Y; Lavery, James V

    2013-06-01

    According to a growing consensus among biomedical researchers, community engagement can improve the ethics and outcomes of clinical trials. Although successful efforts to develop community engagement practices in HIV/AIDS research have been reported, little attention has been given to engagement with the community in tuberculosis research. This article aims to draw attention to some existing community engagement initiatives in tuberculosis research and to resources that might help tuberculosis researchers to establish and implement community engagement programmes for their trials. One of these resources-the good participatory practice guidelines for tuberculosis drug trials-offers a conceptual framework and practical guidance for community engagement in tuberculosis research. To build momentum and to improve community engagement, lessons need to be shared, and formal assessment strategies for community engagement initiatives need to be developed. To build successfully on the promising activities described in this personal view, research funders and sponsors should show leadership in allocation of resources for the implementation and assessment of community engagement programmes in tuberculosis trials.

  10. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; certain periods. 53.4943-9...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-9 Business holdings; certain periods. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general. For purposes...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  15. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding... Board of Governors has added a new § 225.4(g) to Regulation Y implementing its authority under section 4... otherwise exempted. Under § 225.4(g) of Regulation Y, foreign bank holding companies are exempt from...

  16. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the...

  17. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  18. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  19. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  20. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  1. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  2. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  3. Assessing Dimensions of Inquiry Practice by Middle School Science Teachers Engaged in a Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching promotes students' engagement in problem-solving and investigation as they learn science concepts. Current practice in science teacher education promotes the use of inquiry in the teaching of science. However, the literature suggests that many science teachers hold incomplete or incorrect conceptions of inquiry.…

  4. Measuring Teacher Engagement: Development of the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Yerdelen, Sündüs; Durksen, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to create and validate a brief multidimensional scale of teacher engagement--the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)--that reflects the particular characteristics of teachers' work in classrooms and schools. We collected data from three separate samples of teachers (total N = 810), and followed five steps in developing and…

  5. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers.

  6. 77 FR 48550 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 23290). The initial investigation resulted in a negative determination based on the... Corporation, Hoffman Estates, IL; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for... workers at the Hoffman Estates, Illinois facility are similarly situated as the Sears Holdings workers...

  7. 78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Procedures 1. Notice of Assessment and Appeal Procedure 2. Collection of Assessments D. Revisions to the FR Y... collect the assessment from the assessed companies. \\1\\ 78 FR 23162 (April 18, 2013). The proposal... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C); \\2\\ 12 U.S.C. 1841(a). A company that,...

  8. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, R. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  9. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transfer books for shares of the Subsidiary Holding Company shall make a complete list of the shareholders... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer books for shares of the Subsidiary Holding Company shall make a complete list of the shareholders... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  12. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN...

  13. 14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  14. Better Schools through Public Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Milan; Luther, Vicki

    It is increasingly clear that even the best schools must engage in systematic and continuous appraisal of their performance, in partnership with the community. A joint planning process could start by engaging citizens in identifying critical issues, relevant assets, and key strategies that can move the community toward a preferred future. Chapter…

  15. Collaborative Stakeholder Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Matt; Chrislip, David; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder engagement and collaboration are essential to the development of an effective state plan. Engaging a diverse group of stakeholders tasked with working together to create education policies that will have a positive, lasting impact on students is not as easy as it sounds. Experts in the field argue that the traditional stakeholder…

  16. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  17. Some Fundamentals of Engaging Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Raymond; Monroe, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that stories serve as a singularly effective replacement for direct experience, a useful but sometimes difficult environmental education technique. Argues that the effectiveness of stories is derived from their ability to engage the attention of the reader. Lists elements that can be used to create cognitively engaging stories. Contains…

  18. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  19. Student Engagement: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Paula; Corbin, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in higher education literature and policy on the concepts of student engagement and disengagement. While most academic writings recognise the significance of student engagement, they have tended to concentrate on it in relation to academic activities. Increasingly, universities are "cascading" down the need…

  20. Student Engagement through Digital Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Liz; Meriwether, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter suggests strategies and tools for student affairs professionals to leverage digital data to measure student engagement and learning outcomes, and refine programs that enhance institutional reputation and improve student persistence. The construct of student engagement is traced from its theoretical origins to recent research…

  1. Student Engagement: Buzzword of Fuzzword?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Global interest in the value of student engagement in higher education has led researchers to question whether the use of the term is clear and consistent. This article investigates the construction of the term "student engagement" at three US universities through an analysis of qualitative data. Whereas a shared understanding of the…

  2. Students Individual Engagement in GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik; Rump, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course in planning and management. The analysis shows that…

  3. Student Engagement and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors assessed student engagement during a short-term study-abroad program using the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Data were collected from a group of Canadian undergraduates spending six weeks in Mexico. Their program included a 10-day bus tour, three half-credit courses, and accommodations with local families.…

  4. Engaging scientists in outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Richardson, A.; Jasnow, M.

    2003-04-01

    According to a survey reported by the National Science Foundation only 49 percent of high school graduates and 73 percent of those with advanced degrees can correctly answer the question, "How long does it take for the Earth to go around the Sun?" Science literacy in the United States and elsewhere has reached very low levels. In spite of spectacular advances in science and engineering over the past few decades, the wonder and excitement of scientific discovery is not reaching students in the classroom. Scientists can play a critical role in outreach efforts at their home institutions and other organizations, both public and private. NASA has a very clear mission to advance young people's scientific knowledge and, at the same time, "to inspire the next generation of explorers." Acknowledging that doing science is different from teaching science, outreach efforts support scientists who help convey the marvels of science to students, educators and the public. The scientific method raises fundamental questions that can engage students by establishing a baseline of inquiry. Planning and implementing experiments can tap into prior knowledge of students challenged with answering scientific questions. These are a few of the ways that the essential knowledge of scientists can be passed on to the next generation of scientists. Some of the specific roles of scientists can play in the outreach effort include classroom visits, public lectures, high school science curriculum development, media interviews, and web site content, to name only a few.

  5. Engaging with the political imaginaries of science: Near misses and future targets.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The current economic and financial crisis is also a political crisis that requires a rethinking of public engagement with science. In the past, the dominant focus of science, technology and society (STS) has led to a blind spot: political understanding and engagement of policy-makers and politicians with science, which is an integral part of any public engagement. Arguably, it is bound to and emerges from what Ezrahi calls collective political imaginaries. These are necessary fictions, which are causative and performative. In crude form, they manifest themselves in short-term impact measurements of every unit of scientific activity with citizens as the fictitious ultimate beneficiaries. In the future, STS can gain from coming up with a workable definition of the public interest with a focus on the public value of science. It can investigate collective imaginaries as they emerge from interactions with new media. As necessary fictions they may hold answers we never imagined them to hold.

  6. Magnetic ordering and spin-reorientation transitions in TbCo{sub 3}B{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Dubman, Moshe; Caspi, El'ad N.; Ettedgui, Hanania; Keller, Lukas; Melamud, Mordechai; Shaked, Hagai

    2005-07-01

    The magnetic structure of the compound TbCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} has been studied in the temperature range 1.5 K{<=}T{<=}300 K by means of neutron powder diffraction, magnetization, magnetic ac susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. The compound is of hexagonal symmetry and is paramagnetic at 300 K, undergoes a magnetic Co-Co ordering transition at {approx}170 K, and a second magnetic Tb-Tb ordering transition at {approx}30 K. The latter induces a spin-reorientation transition, in which the magnetic axis rotates from the c axis toward the basal plane. Below this transition a symmetry decrease ({gamma} magnetostriction) sets in, leading to an orthorhombic distortion of the crystal lattice. The crystal and magnetic structures and interactions and their evolution with temperature are discussed using a microscopic physical model.

  7. Perpendicular-to-Parallel Spin Reorientation in a Mn-Doped GaAs Quantum Canting or Phase Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Reboredo, Fernando A; Brandt, Alex B; Moreno, Juana

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the magnetic anisotropy in a compressively-strained Mn-doped GaAs film changes from perpendicular to parallel with increasing hole concentration p. We study this reorientation transition at T = 0 for a quantum well with Mn impurities confined to the z = 0 plane. With increasing p, the angle 0 that minimizes the energy E increases continuously from 0 (perpendicular anisotropy) to /2 (parallel anisotropy) within some range of p. The shape of Emin(p) suggests that the quantum well becomes phase separated with regions containing low hole concentrations and perpendicular moments interspersed with other regions containing high hole concentrations and parallel moments. However, consideration of the Coulomb energy costs associated with phase separation suggests that the true magnetic state in the transition region is canted with 0 < < /2.

  8. Probing temperature-driven spin reorientation transition of GdFeCo film by Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei Liu, Hao-Liang; Cai, Jian-Wang; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Wu, Hong-Ye

    2015-01-26

    The magnetic anisotropy is of both scientific and technological interest for magneto-optical material GdFeCo film. We characterize the magnetic anisotropy of a 20 nm GdFeCo film from 265 K to 320 K via Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance. With increasing temperature, both of the first-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and shape anisotropy increase. However, the competition between them causes a temperature-driven spin reorientation transition (SRT) and the effective perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decrease from 2.22 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (288 K) to −1.56 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (317 K). The positive second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy determines an easy-cone state as the mediated state during SRT.

  9. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  10. [The Rockefeller Foundation and its efforts toward a reorientation of German medicine and public health in the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation invested substantial funds into promoting the development of public health as a discipline and a re-orientation of medical training in West Germany to support the democratization of German society. Not limiting itself to the simple provision of literature, the Foundation pursued a two-pronged strategy. Firstly, the Foundation organized a program for German university physicians and public health officers to visit various universities and teaching hospitals in the USA and Canada. A second aim was to establish training institutes for postgraduate physicians. However, rather than simply imposing the US model, the Foundation intended to adapt it to the German context, in the form of a postgraduate course for physicians that integrated practical experience with a university setting. My research to date shows that the Foundation's activities did not meet with much enthusiasm from German medical professionals. Intellectual, cultural, cognitive and political differences impaired constructive collaboration between the Foundation's staff and local practitioners and academics.

  11. Nematicons and Their Electro-Optic Control: Light Localization and Signal Readdressing via Reorientation in Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Piccardi, Armando; Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Liquid crystals in the nematic phase exhibit substantial reorientation when the molecules are driven by electric fields of any frequencies. Exploiting such a response at optical frequencies, self-focusing supports transverse localization of light and the propagation of self-confined beams and waveguides, namely “nematicons”. Nematicons can guide other light signals and interact with inhomogeneities and other beams. Moreover, they can be effectively deviated by using the electro-optic response of the medium, leading to several strategies for voltage-controlled reconfiguration of light-induced guided-wave circuits and signal readdressing. Hereby, we outline the main features of nematicons and review the outstanding progress achieved in the last twelve years on beam self-trapping and electro-optic readdressing. PMID:24108367

  12. Dynamics of the director reorientation in confined nematic liquid crystals imposed by a strong orthogonal electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasechnik, S. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the periodic distortions in confined nematic liquid crystals (LCs) has been investigated theoretically basing on the hydrodynamic theory including the director motion with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. Analysis of the numerical results for the turn-on process provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in confined LC film, only in response to the suddenly applied strong electric field. It has been shown that there is a threshold value of the amplitude of the thermal fluctuations of the director over the LC sample which provides the nonuniform rotation mode rather than the uniform one, whereas the lower values of the amplitude dominate the uniform mode. During the turn-off process the reorientation of the director to the direction preferred by the surfaces is characterized by the complex destruction of the initially periodic structure to a monodomain state.

  13. (1)H and (19)F spin-lattice relaxation and CH3 or CF3 reorientation in molecular solids containing both H and F atoms.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Peter A; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2016-04-21

    The dynamics of methyl (CH3) and fluoromethyl (CF3) groups in organic molecular (van der Waals) solids can be exploited to survey their local environments. We report solid state (1)H and (19)F spin-lattice relaxationexperiments in polycrystalline 3-trifluoromethoxycinnamic acid, along with an X-ray diffraction determination of the molecular and crystal structure, to investigate the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions that determine the properties that characterize the CF3 reorientation. The molecule is of no particular interest; it simply provides a motionless backbone (on the nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) time scale) to investigate CF3 reorientation occurring on the NMR time scale. The effects of (19)F-(19)F and (19)F-(1)H spin-spin dipolar interactions on the complicated nonexponential NMRrelaxation provide independent inputs into determining a model for CF3 reorientation. As such, these experiments provide much more information than when only one spin species (usually (1)H) is present. In Sec. IV, which can be read immediately after the Introduction without reading the rest of the paper, we compare the barrier to CH3 and CF3 reorientation in seven organic solids and separate this barrier into intramolecular and intermolecular components. PMID:27389221

  14. (1)H and (19)F spin-lattice relaxation and CH3 or CF3 reorientation in molecular solids containing both H and F atoms.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Peter A; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2016-04-21

    The dynamics of methyl (CH3) and fluoromethyl (CF3) groups in organic molecular (van der Waals) solids can be exploited to survey their local environments. We report solid state (1)H and (19)F spin-lattice relaxationexperiments in polycrystalline 3-trifluoromethoxycinnamic acid, along with an X-ray diffraction determination of the molecular and crystal structure, to investigate the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions that determine the properties that characterize the CF3 reorientation. The molecule is of no particular interest; it simply provides a motionless backbone (on the nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) time scale) to investigate CF3 reorientation occurring on the NMR time scale. The effects of (19)F-(19)F and (19)F-(1)H spin-spin dipolar interactions on the complicated nonexponential NMRrelaxation provide independent inputs into determining a model for CF3 reorientation. As such, these experiments provide much more information than when only one spin species (usually (1)H) is present. In Sec. IV, which can be read immediately after the Introduction without reading the rest of the paper, we compare the barrier to CH3 and CF3 reorientation in seven organic solids and separate this barrier into intramolecular and intermolecular components.

  15. 1H and 19F spin-lattice relaxation and CH3 or CF3 reorientation in molecular solids containing both H and F atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Peter A.; Rheingold, Arnold L.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of methyl (CH3) and fluoromethyl (CF3) groups in organic molecular (van der Waals) solids can be exploited to survey their local environments. We report solid state 1H and 19F spin-lattice relaxation experiments in polycrystalline 3-trifluoromethoxycinnamic acid, along with an X-ray diffraction determination of the molecular and crystal structure, to investigate the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions that determine the properties that characterize the CF3 reorientation. The molecule is of no particular interest; it simply provides a motionless backbone (on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) time scale) to investigate CF3 reorientation occurring on the NMR time scale. The effects of 19F-19F and 19F-1H spin-spin dipolar interactions on the complicated nonexponential NMR relaxation provide independent inputs into determining a model for CF3 reorientation. As such, these experiments provide much more information than when only one spin species (usually 1H) is present. In Sec. IV, which can be read immediately after the Introduction without reading the rest of the paper, we compare the barrier to CH3 and CF3 reorientation in seven organic solids and separate this barrier into intramolecular and intermolecular components.

  16. Achieving giant magnetically induced reorientation of martensitic variants in magnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga Films by microstructure engineering.

    PubMed

    Ranzieri, Paolo; Campanini, Marco; Fabbrici, Simone; Nasi, Lucia; Casoli, Francesca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Buffagni, Elisa; Grillo, Vincenzo; Magén, Cesar; Celegato, Federica; Barrera, Gabriele; Tiberto, Paola; Albertini, Franca

    2015-08-26

    Giant magnetically induced twin variant reorientation, comparable in intensity with bulk single crystals, is obtained in epitaxial magnetic shape-memory thin films. It is found to be tunable in intensity and spatial response by the fine control of microstructural patterns at the nanoscopic and microscopic scales. A thorough experimental study (including electron holography) allows a multiscale comprehension of the phenomenon.

  17. Reorientational motion of a cross-link junction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) network measured by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.D. ); Hoffman, D.A. ); Frank, C.W. ); Fayer, M.D. )

    1992-02-15

    The reorientational dynamics of a cross-link junction in poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks, measured by the fluorescence anisotropy decay of a chromophore tagged to the cross-link, have been investigated over a range of temperatures from {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+75 to {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+150. The probe chromophore, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene amide (dansyl amide), is pendant to a trifunctional silane that acts as a cross-linking molecule. In cyclohexanol, the fluorescence anisotropy decay is in agreement with Debye--Stokes--Einstein hydrodynamic theory (rotational diffusion) demonstrating that the cross-linker can be used as a probe of orientational relaxation. The fluorescence anisotropy decays at a rapid rate in an end-linked poly(dimethyl siloxane) network reflecting fast reorientational motion of the cross-link junction. This reorientation appears diffusive and has a temperature dependence in accord with the Williams--Landel--Ferry equation. A model is proposed that suggests that reorientation and translational motion of the cross-link occur simultaneously and are both coupled to fluctuations of the polymer chain ends.

  18. Mental models students hold of zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  19. Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time.

    PubMed

    Soule, R; Symonik, D; Jones, D; Turgeon, D; Gerbec, B

    1996-06-01

    Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 microg/liter of vinyl chloride showed progressive, increasing losses when held for 1, 2, 7, and 14 days. Due to the inherent variability of low-level laboratory results, the most statistically significant loss (alpha = 0.05) was seen for samples held for 14 days. No statistically significant differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during sample collection and handling. These results suggest that analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are needed. These findings should be considered in public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

  20. Young children's use of features to reorient is more than just associative: further evidence against a modular view of spatial processing.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Nora S; Ratliff, Kristin R; Shallcross, Wendy L; Twyman, Alexandra D

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of a geometric module have argued that instances of young children's use of features as well as geometry to reorient can be explained by a two-stage process. In this model, only the first stage is a true reorientation, accomplished by using geometric information alone; features are considered in a second stage using association (Lee, Shusterman & Spelke, 2006). This account is contradicted by the data from two experiments. Experiment 1a sets the stage for Experiment 1b by showing that young children use geometric information to reorient in a complex geometric figure without a single principal axis of symmetry (an octagon). In such a figure, there are two sets of geometrically congruent corners, with four corners in each set. The addition of a colored wall leads to the existence of three geometrically congruent but, crucially, all unmarked corners; using the colored wall to distinguish among them could not be done associatively. In Experiment 1b, both 3- and 5-year-old children showed true non-associative reorientation using features by performing at above-chance levels on all-white trials. Experiment 2 used a paradigm without distinctive geometry, modeled on Lee et al. (2006), involving an equilateral triangle of hiding places located within a circular enclosure, but with a large stable feature rather than a small moveable one. Four-year-olds (the age group studied by Lee et al.) used features at above-chance levels. Thus, features can be used to reorient, in a way not dependent on association, in contradiction to the two-stage version of the modular view.

  1. Vibrational and reorientational motions of H2O ligands, phase transition and thermal properties of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Łukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward

    2013-11-01

    One phase transition (PT) at TCh = 252.9 K (on heating) and at TCc = 226.5 K (on cooling) was detected by DSC for [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 in 123-295 K range. Thermal hysteresis of this PT equals to 26.4 K. Entropy change (ΔS) value at this first-order type phase transition equals to ca. 1.5 J mol-1 K-1. The temperature dependences of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the infrared bands associated with ρt(H2O)E and δas(HOH)E modes (at ca. 417 and 1628 cm-1, respectively) suggest that the observed phase transition is associated with a sudden change of a speed of the H2O reorientational motions. The H2O ligands in the high temperature phase reorientate quickly (correlation times 10-11-10-13 s) with the activation energy of ca. 2 kJ mol-1. Below TCc probably a part of the H2O ligands stop their reorientation, while the remainders continue their fast reorientation but with the activation energy of ca. 8 kJ mol-1. Far and middle infrared spectra indicated characteristic changes at the vicinity of PT with decreasing of temperature, which suggested lowering of the crystal structure symmetry. Splitting of the band (at 3601 cm-1) connected with vas(OH) mode near the TCc suggests lowering of the crystal lattice symmetry. All these facts suggest that the discovered PT is connected both with a change of the reorientational dynamics of the H2O ligands and with the change of the crystal structure.

  2. Vibrational and reorientational motions of H2O ligands, phase transition and thermal properties of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2.

    PubMed

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Łukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward

    2013-11-01

    One phase transition (PT) at TC(h)=252.9K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling) was detected by DSC for [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 in 123-295K range. Thermal hysteresis of this PT equals to 26.4K. Entropy change (ΔS) value at this first-order type phase transition equals to ca. 1.5Jmol(-1)K(-1). The temperature dependences of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the infrared bands associated with ρt(H2O)E and δas(HOH)E modes (at ca. 417 and 1628cm(-1), respectively) suggest that the observed phase transition is associated with a sudden change of a speed of the H2O reorientational motions. The H2O ligands in the high temperature phase reorientate quickly (correlation times 10(-11)-10(-13)s) with the activation energy of ca. 2kJmol(-1). Below TC(c) probably a part of the H2O ligands stop their reorientation, while the remainders continue their fast reorientation but with the activation energy of ca. 8kJmol(-1). Far and middle infrared spectra indicated characteristic changes at the vicinity of PT with decreasing of temperature, which suggested lowering of the crystal structure symmetry. Splitting of the band (at 3601cm(-1)) connected with vas(OH) mode near the TC(c) suggests lowering of the crystal lattice symmetry. All these facts suggest that the discovered PT is connected both with a change of the reorientational dynamics of the H2O ligands and with the change of the crystal structure.

  3. Engagement Assessment Using EEG Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic; Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods to analyze and improve an EEG-based engagement assessment approach, consisting of data preprocessing, feature extraction and engagement state classification. During data preprocessing, spikes, baseline drift and saturation caused by recording devices in EEG signals are identified and eliminated, and a wavelet based method is utilized to remove ocular and muscular artifacts in the EEG recordings. In feature extraction, power spectrum densities with 1 Hz bin are calculated as features, and these features are analyzed using the Fisher score and the one way ANOVA method. In the classification step, a committee classifier is trained based on the extracted features to assess engagement status. Finally, experiment results showed that there exist significant differences in the extracted features among different subjects, and we have implemented a feature normalization procedure to mitigate the differences and significantly improved the engagement assessment performance.

  4. Motivational processes and behavioral inhibition in breath holding.

    PubMed

    Alpher, V S; Blanton, R L

    1991-01-01

    Large individual differences in breathing performance have made it difficult to investigate the effects of psychological variables on respiratory parameters. This study uses an experimental approach to investigating the effects of attentional and motivational factors on breath-holding span in humans. The effects of shock threat (negative incentive), monetary reward (positive incentive), and mantra meditation (attentional control) on breath-holding span at functional residual capacity (FRC) were compared. Based on Jeffrey Gray's (1975, 1987) theory of behavioral inhibition, it was predicted that shock threat would extend FRC breath holding. Breath holding was increased under the shock threat condition but not under the monetary reward or mantra meditation conditions.

  5. Higher education and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Muriel

    2002-12-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between social engagement, particularly civic engagement, and education. It is well known that more highly educated people are more likely to engage in voluntary work in formalized settings. It has been difficult to disentangle the effect of higher education from that of family origin and occupational socialization. This paper examines the effects of tertiary education on the social and civic engagement of young people, using the British Household Panel Study. The social and civic activity of young people is observed in their late teens, before entering the labour market or tertiary education, and compared with that of the same young people in their early 20s, after completing tertiary education courses or gaining labour market experience. It was found that the social and civic engagement of young people who would enter higher education was higher in their late teens than that of their peers who did not enter. However, higher education had a small additional effect on civic engagement, for both young and mature students. The children of professionals were the social grouping most likely to be involved in civic activities. The relationship of higher education, professional occupations and family socialization is discussed.

  6. Clinical engagement: improving healthcare together.

    PubMed

    Riches, E; Robson, B

    2014-02-01

    Clinical engagement can achieve lasting change in the delivery of healthcare. In October 2011, Healthcare Improvement Scotland formulated a clinical engagement strategy to ensure that a progressive and sustainable approach to engaging healthcare professionals is firmly embedded in its health improvement and public assurance activities. The strategy was developed using a 90-day process, combining an evidence base of best practice and feedback from semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The strategy aims to create a culture where clinicians view working with Healthcare Improvement Scotland as a worthwhile venture, which offers a number of positive benefits such as training, career development and research opportunities. The strategy works towards developing a respectful partnership between Healthcare Improvement Scotland, the clinical community and key stakeholders whereby clinicians' contributions are recognised in a non-financial reward system. To do this, the organisation needs a sustainable infrastructure and an efficient, cost-effective approach to clinical engagement. There are a number of obstacles to achieving successful clinical engagement and these must be addressed as key drivers in its implementation. The implementation of the strategy is supported by an action and resource plan, and its impact will be monitored by a measurement plan to ensure the organisation reviews its approaches towards clinical engagement.

  7. Diving bradycardia and breath-holding time in man.

    PubMed

    Sterba, J A; Lundgren, C E

    1985-06-01

    The hypothesis that the diving response, recorded as diving bradycardia during submersed breath holding in man, would enhance his breath-holding time was tested. Five certified scuba divers served as subjects. They performed breath holds of maximal duration while nonimmersed and during submersion in cool (32 degrees C), cold (20 degrees C), and thermoneutral (35 degrees C) water. The mean breath-holding time and heart rate during the nonimmersed (control) condition were, respectively, 111.2 +/- 14.1 (SE) s and 64.1 +/- 4.7 (SE) beats/min, the relatively long breath-holding times being due primarily to the so-called short-term training effect. Compared to the control values the breath-holding time in 20 degrees C water was 54.9% shorter and heart rate 25.9% lower, in 32 degrees C water the breath-holding time was not different and heart rate was 28.1% lower, and in 35 degrees C water the breath-holding time was longer by 25.6% while there was no difference in heart rate. In all conditions the breath-hold breaking point alveolar PCO2 was the same at about 52 mmHg. The shortening of the breath holds in cold water was ascribed to a 256% increase (over nonimmersed control) in metabolic rate as well as a respiratory drive due to stimulation of skin cold receptors. As for the prolongation of breath holds in thermoneutral water, it was hypothesized that immersion caused a delay in the build-up of chemical stimuli at the chemoreceptors.

  8. Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014

  9. How people feel their engagement can have efficacy for a bio-based society.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Up till now, the transition to a bio-based economy mainly involves expert stakeholders. However, the actions required are of a collective scale necessitating public engagement for support and action. Such engagement is only successful if members of the public believe their participation holds efficacy. This belief is closely linked to their personal representation of the issue. We report findings from our Q methodology workshop that explored public's efficacy beliefs on their perceived ways for engagement with a bio-based economy. Participants were provided with stakeholders' visual representations depicting a concourse of the transition to a bio-based economy for Q sorting. We found five efficacy beliefs that differ in scale on which participants consider themselves capable for action. These results indicate that members of the public foresee distinct and shared ways and levels in how they can engage with the transition to a bio-based society that do not always concur with stakeholders' views.

  10. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  11. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. 17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken from atop the redwood holding tanks at the north end of the building, looking across at the north end of the building. Below can be seen the sluice doors through which the fish flowed to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  14. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates…

  15. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  16. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is...

  17. 35. REDUCTION PLANT HOLDING TANKS View just to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. REDUCTION PLANT - HOLDING TANKS View just to the right of Photo No. 34. Note holding tanks for fish awaiting reduction, and cement bases (in front of tanks) for dryers and power units (right). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  18. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Purpose and Rationale is to:

    To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations.

    While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provi...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Present holdings. 53.4943-4 Section 53.4943-4... Present holdings. (a) Introduction—(1) Section 4943 (c)(4) in general. (i) Paragraph (4) of section 4943(c... in corporation X (voting stock and value). On such date disqualified persons held a 16...

  20. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Present holdings. 53.4943-4 Section 53.4943-4... Present holdings. (a) Introduction—(1) Section 4943 (c)(4) in general. (i) Paragraph (4) of section 4943(c... in corporation X (voting stock and value). On such date disqualified persons held a 16...