Science.gov

Sample records for holes flying robots

  1. Toward a Flying MEMS Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    vast realm of applications for nano and micro robotics is limited only by the imagination. Realizing these novel ideas on the other hand, is limited...helicopter style flying micro air vehicle (MAV). Three different types of motor designs were developed and tested, which included circular scratch drives...7 Figure 4: Seiko Epson developed the Micro -Flying Robot-II, one of smallest rotary flying vehicles, which

  2. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  3. Issues and solutions for testing free-flying robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Carlo; Busolo, S.; Cocuzza, S.; Aboudan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bettanini, C.; Marchesi, M.; Angrilli, F.

    2007-06-01

    Space robotics currently has an important role in space operations and scientists and engineers are designing new robotic systems for space servicing missions and extra-vehicular activities. In particular, free-flying robots with extended arms have compelling applications and several prototypes have recently been developed. Testing on Earth free-flying robots is a main issue as the unconstrained environment of free space must be simulated. From the experience acquired by testing a free-flying robot prototype both in a tethered facility and during a parabolic flight campaign, and after several years of experiments using air-bearing planar systems, the authors describe and discuss methods to test free-flying robots. A recent study aimed at designing a free-flying platform suitable for an under-water environment is also presented and discussed.

  4. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground based demonstration of the extensive extravehicular activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out; (2) searches for and acquires the target; (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target; (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles; (5) reaches for and grapples the target; (6) returns to transfer the object; and (7) returns to base.

  5. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The ground-based demonstration of EVA Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out, (2) searches for and acquires the target, (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target, (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles, (5) reaches for and grapples the target, (6) returns to transfer the object, and (7) returns to base.

  6. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  7. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  8. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  9. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    To accelerate the development of multi-armed, free-flying satellite manipulators, a fixed-base cooperative manipulation facility is being developed. The work performed on multiple arm cooperation on a free-flying robot is summarized. Research is also summarized on global navigation and control of free-flying space robots. The Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Pushoff (LEAP) approach is described and progress to date is presented.

  10. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    PubMed

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-19

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot.

  11. Research in free-flying robots and flexible manipulators at the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. L.; Alder, L. J.; Chen, V. W.; Dickson, W. C.; Ullman, M. A.; Wilson, E.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed a hardware facility in which a number of space robotics issues have been, and continue to be addressed. This paper reviews two of the current ARL research areas: navigation and control of free flying space robots, and modeling and control of extremely flexible space structures.

  12. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.

    1986-01-01

    The development of and test control strategies for self-contained, autonomous free flying space robots are discussed. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots should reduce the expense and danger attending EVA both by providing assistance to astronauts and in many cases by eliminating altogether the need for human EVA, thus greatly enhancing the scope and flexibility of space assembly and repair activities. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. It is planned, in a later phase, to extend the research to three dimensions by carrying out experiments in the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  13. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Control techniques for self-contained, autonomous free-flying space robots are being tested and developed. Free-flying space robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require astronaut extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots will provide economic savings as well as improved astronaut safety by reducing and in many cases, eliminating the need for human EVA. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air-cushion-vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Current work is divided into six major projects or research areas. Fixed-base cooperative manipulation work represents our initial entry into multiple arm cooperation and high-level control with a sophisticated user interface. The floating-base cooperative manipulation project strives to transfer some of the technologies developed in the fixed-base work onto a floating base. The global control and navigation experiment seeks to demonstrate simultaneous control of the robot manipulators and the robot base position so that tasks can be accomplished while the base is undergoing a controlled motion. The multiple-vehicle cooperation project's goal is to demonstrate multiple free-floating robots working in teams to carry out tasks too difficult or complex for a single robot to perform. The Location Enhancement Arm Push-off (LEAP) activity's goal is to provide a viable alternative to expendable gas thrusters for vehicle propulsion wherein the robot uses its manipulators to throw itself from place to place. Because the successful execution of the LEAP technique requires an accurate model of the robot and payload mass properties, it was deemed an attractive testbed for adaptive control technology.

  14. A fly-by robotic tank inspection end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Girtleman, M.M.; Robertson, B.; Gascor, T.; Wightman, B.; Hughes, G.

    1996-12-31

    A robotic end effector has been developed that is capable of performing fly-by-fly, electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection of the inside of the U.S. Department of Energy`s waste storage tanks. Furthermore, the system is also capable of sizing defects through its unique NDE technique, Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM). The NDE data is recorded and logged electronically and is tagged with position data from the deploying manipulator, allowing a complete mapping of the tank walls and future return to defect sites.

  15. Motion planning for a free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Donald Leo; Hawkins, Patrick J.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is presented of motion planning combining low level control and obstacle avoidance for a free flying robot. This free flying robot is an outgrowth of the concept of an assistant for astronauts on the U.S. Space Station and Shuttle. A motion planner based on the Khatib potential field approach is described. Because of the uncluttered environment in space, it generates a path from representation of known obstacles rather than from a representation of free space. A global planner supplies the low level controller with interim points between the current position and the desired goal position so that the vehicle does not become trapped by local minima, a phenomenon of the potential field approach. Discussion of the feasibility of this system for space applications is presented.

  16. Localization from Visual Landmarks on a Free-Flying Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltin, Brian; Fusco, Jesse; Moratto, Zack; Alexandrov, Oleg; Nakamura, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the localization approach for Astrobee, a new free-flying robot designed to navigate autonomously on the International Space Station (ISS). Astrobee will accommodate a variety of payloads and enable guest scientists to run experiments in zero-g, as well as assist astronauts and ground controllers. Astrobee will replace the SPHERES robots which currently operate on the ISS, whose use of fixed ultrasonic beacons for localization limits them to work in a 2 meter cube. Astrobee localizes with monocular vision and an IMU, without any environmental modifications. Visual features detected on a pre-built map, optical flow information, and IMU readings are all integrated into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the robot pose. We introduce several modifications to the filter to make it more robust to noise, and extensively evaluate the localization algorithm.

  17. Localization from Visual Landmarks on a Free-Flying Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltin, Brian; Fusco, Jesse; Moratto, Zack; Alexandrov, Oleg; Nakamura, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the localization approach for Astrobee,a new free-flying robot designed to navigate autonomously on board the International Space Station (ISS). Astrobee will conduct experiments in microgravity, as well as assisst astronauts and ground controllers. Astrobee replaces the SPHERES robots which currently operate on the ISS, which were limited to operating in a small cube since their localization system relied on triangulation from ultrasonic transmitters. Astrobee localizes with only monocular vision and an IMU, enabling it to traverse the entire US segment of the station. Features detected on a previously-built map, optical flow information,and IMU readings are all integrated into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the robot pose. We introduce several modifications to the filter to make it more robust to noise.Finally, we extensively evaluate the behavior of the filter on atwo-dimensional testing surface.

  18. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the research is to develop and test control strategies for a self-contained, free flying space robot. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. The development of the SRSV and of some of the controller subsystems are discribed. The two-link arm was fitted to the SRSV base, and researchers explored the open-loop characteristics of the arm and thruster actuators. Work began on building the software foundation necessary for use of the on-board computer, as well as hardware and software for a local vision system for target identification and tracking.

  19. Mini AERCam: A Free-Flying Robot for Space Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a free-flying camera system for remote viewing and inspection of human spacecraft. The AERCam project team is currently developing a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam, a spherical nanosatellite 7.5 inches in diameter. Mini AERCam development builds on the success of AERCam Sprint, a 1997 Space Shuttle flight experiment, by integrating new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving these productivity-enhancing capabilities in a smaller package depends on aggressive component miniaturization. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion, rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for laboratory demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides on-orbit views of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by space-walking crewmembers.

  20. Measuring a Black Hole's Mass with Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Who needs humans? Robotic observations made by telescopes in the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT) have tracked variability in the active galaxy Arp 151 over 200 days. These observations have proven to be enough information to estimate the mass of the black hole at the galaxys center.Mapping EchoesMeasuring the masses of supermassive black holes is notoriously difficult. Except in the few cases where were able to resolve actual objects orbiting around the supermassive black hole (for instance, in the case of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way), our estimates of black-hole mass must come from indirect measurements.One clever approach is called reverberation mapping. In an active galactic nucleus (AGN), continuum emission from the black holes accretion disk photoionizes gas clouds in the nearby broad-line region, causing the clouds to emit light. In reverberation mapping, we track the time lag between variability in the disks continuum emission and the clouds broad-line emission, obtaining a distance scale. Combining this information with a velocity (provided by the broad-line width) allows us to infer the enclosed mass in this case, that of the black hole.So whats the catch? Getting this information requires a lot of man-hours and telescope-hours, because AGN need to be observed over long periods of time to see the variability and the lags needed to make these inferences. This is where LCOGT comes in.Robotic NetworkArp 151 light curves. The top panel shows the continuum emission from the disk; the remaining panels show various emission lines from the broad-line-region clouds. The variability of the line emission lags slightly behind that of the continuum emission. [Valenti et al. 2015]LCOGT is a completely robotic telescope network. Everything from the scheduling to the telescope alignment is done without human involvement. Because of this feature, the LCOGT is an ideal facility for conducting time-intensive observations of AGN

  1. Experiments in Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Multi-Manipulator, Free-Flying Space Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Vincent Wei-Kang

    1992-01-01

    Sophisticated robots can greatly enhance the role of humans in space by relieving astronauts of low level, tedious assembly and maintenance chores and allowing them to concentrate on higher level tasks. Robots and astronauts can work together efficiently, as a team; but the robot must be capable of accomplishing complex operations and yet be easy to use. Multiple cooperating manipulators are essential to dexterity and can broaden greatly the types of activities the robot can achieve; adding adaptive control can ease greatly robot usage by allowing the robot to change its own controller actions, without human intervention, in response to changes in its environment. Previous work in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) have shown the usefulness of a space robot with cooperating manipulators. The research presented in this dissertation extends that work by adding adaptive control. To help achieve this high level of robot sophistication, this research made several advances to the field of nonlinear adaptive control of robotic systems. A nonlinear adaptive control algorithm developed originally for control of robots, but requiring joint positions as inputs, was extended here to handle the much more general case of manipulator endpoint-position commands. A new system modelling technique, called system concatenation was developed to simplify the generation of a system model for complicated systems, such as a free-flying multiple-manipulator robot system. Finally, the task-space concept was introduced wherein the operator's inputs specify only the robot's task. The robot's subsequent autonomous performance of each task still involves, of course, endpoint positions and joint configurations as subsets. The combination of these developments resulted in a new adaptive control framework that is capable of continuously providing full adaptation capability to the complex space-robot system in all modes of operation. The new adaptive control algorithm easily handles free-flying

  2. Initial experiments in thrusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, W. J.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A two-arm free-flying robot has been constructed to study thrusterless locomotion in space. This is accomplished by pushing off or landing on a large structure in a coordinated two-arm maneuver. A new control method, called system momentum control, allows the robot to follow desired momentum trajectories and thus leap or crawl from one structure to another. The robot floats on an air-cushion, simulating in two dimensions the drag-free zero-g environment of space. The control paradigm has been verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off a bar with both arms, rotate 180 degrees, and catch itself on another bar.

  3. Initial experiments in thrusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, W. J.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A two-arm free-flying robot has been constructed to study thrusterless locomotion in space. This is accomplished by pushing off or landing on a large structure in a coordinated two-arm maneuver. A new control method, called system momentum control, allows the robot to follow desired momentum trajectories and thus leap or crawl from one structure to another. The robot floats on an air-cushion, simulating in two dimensions the drag-free zero-g environment of space. The control paradigm has been verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off a bar with both arms, rotate 180 degrees, and catch itself on another bar.

  4. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David

    2016-01-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots. PMID:27707903

  6. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sawyer B; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-08-06

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role.

  7. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sawyer B.; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role. PMID:24942846

  8. A soft flying robot driven by a dielectric elastomer actuator (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingxi; Zhang, Hui; Godaba, Hareesh; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Zhu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Modern unmanned aerial vehicles are gaining promising success because of their versatility, flexibility, and minimized risk of operations. Most of them are normally designed and constructed based on hard components. For example, the body of the vehicle is generally made of aluminum or carbon fibers, and electric motors are adopted as the main actuators. These hard materials are able to offer reasonable balance of structural strength and weight. However, they exhibit apparent limitations. For instance, such robots are fragile in even small clash with surrounding objects. In addition, their noise is quite high due to spinning of rotors or propellers. Here we aim to develop a soft flying robot using soft actuators. Due to its soft body, the robot can work effectively in unstructured environment. The robot may also exhibit interesting attributes, including low weight, low noise, and low power consumption. This robot mainly consists of a dielectric elastomer balloon made of two layers of elastomers. One is VHB (3M), and the other is natural rubber. The balloon is filled with helium, which can make the robot nearly neutral. When voltage is applied to either of the two dielectric elastomers, the balloon expands. So that the buoyance can be larger than the robot's weight, and the robot can move up. In this seminar, we will show how to harness the dielectric breakdown of natural rubber to achieve giant deformation of this soft robot. Based on this method, the robot can move up effectively in air.

  9. Tracking and stationkeeping for free-flying robots using sliding surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.; Akin, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors use the concept of sliding surfaces for generating two types of tracking control laws for a free-flying robot engaged in zero-gravity assembly tasks. Suction control, developed elsewhere for controlling manipulators with stationary bases, is used here to track workspace trajectories for manipulators mounted on mobile platforms. Zone control is formulated for the purpose of stationkeeping a robot maneuvering unit during payload manipulation. Experimental results are described for tests performed on an air-bearing robot tracking payload trajectories along a glass surface.

  10. Tracking and stationkeeping for free-flying robots using sliding surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.; Akin, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors use the concept of sliding surfaces for generating two types of tracking control laws for a free-flying robot engaged in zero-gravity assembly tasks. Suction control, developed elsewhere for controlling manipulators with stationary bases, is used here to track workspace trajectories for manipulators mounted on mobile platforms. Zone control is formulated for the purpose of stationkeeping a robot maneuvering unit during payload manipulation. Experimental results are described for tests performed on an air-bearing robot tracking payload trajectories along a glass surface.

  11. NASA Flies Robotic Lander Prototype to New Heights

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA successfully completed the final flight in a series of tests of a new robotic lander prototype at the Redstone Test Center’s propulsion test facility on the U.S. Army Redstone Arsenal in Hun...

  12. Guidance algorithms for a free-flying space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindle, A. F.; Viggh, H. E. M.; Albert, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics is a promising technology for assembly, servicing, and maintenance of platforms in space. Several aspects of planning and guidance for telesupervised and fully autonomous robotic servicers are investigated. Guidance algorithms for proximity operation of a free flyer are described. Numeric trajectory optimization is combined with artificial intelligence based obstacle avoidance. An initial algorithm and the results of its simulating platform servicing scenario are discussed. A second algorithm experiment is then proposed.

  13. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  14. Fly-like visuomotor responses of a robot using aVLSI motion-sensitive chips.

    PubMed

    Liu, S C; Usseglio-Viretta, A

    2001-12-01

    We explore the use of continuous-time analog very-large-scale-integrated (aVLSI) neuromorphic visual preprocessors together with a robotic platform in generating bio-inspired behaviors. Both the aVLSI motion sensors and the robot behaviors described in this work are inspired by the motion computation in the fly visual system and two different fly behaviors. In most robotic systems, the visual information comes from serially scanned imagers. This restricts the form of computation of the visual image and slows down the input rate to the controller system of the robot, hence increasing the reaction time of the robot. These aVLSI neuromorphic sensors reduce the computational load and power consumption of the robot, thus making it possible to explore continuous-time visuomotor control systems that react in real-time to the environment. The motion sensor provides two outputs: one for the preferred direction and the other for the null direction. These motion outputs are created from the aggregation of six elementary motion detectors that implement a variant of Reichardt's correlation algorithm. The four analog continuous-time outputs from the motion chips go to the control system on the robot which generates a mixture of two behaviors--course stabilization and fixation--from the outputs of these sensors. Since there are only four outputs, the amount of information transmitted to the controller is reduced (as compared to using a CCD sensor), and the reaction time of the robot is greatly decreased. In this work, the robot samples the motion sensors every 3.3 ms during the behavioral experiments.

  15. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the work is to develop and perform a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air cushion technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Five research areas are examined: cooperative manipulation on a fixed base; cooperative manipulation on a free-floating base; global navigation and control of a free-floating robot; an alternative transport mode call Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Push-Off (LEAP), and adaptive control of LEAP.

  16. 3D Curves With a Prescribed Curvature and Torsion for a Flying Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bestaoui, Yasmina

    2008-06-12

    The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an flying robot. A curve with discontinuous curvature and torsion is not appropriate for smooth motions for any vehicle architecture. Three different classes of curves are presented. First, constant curvature and torsion followed by a linear variation versus the curvilinear abscissa then a quadratic variation. Finally, the problem of maneuvers between two trim helices of different curvature and torsion is tackled with.

  17. Control of Free-Flying Space Robot Manipulator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Rock, Stephen M.; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report on the Stanford University portion of a major NASA program in telerobotics called the TRIWG Program, led strongly from NASA Headquarters by David Lavery This portion of the TRIWG research was carried out in Stanford's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) to (1) contribute in unique and valuable ways to new fundamental capability for NASA in its space missions (the total contribution came from some 100 PhD-student years of research), and (2) to provide a steady stream of very capable PhD graduates to the American space enterprise.

  18. Adaptive-Repetitive Visual-Servo Control of Low-Flying Aerial Robots via Uncalibrated High-Flying Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dejun; Bourne, Joseph R.; Wang, Hesheng; Yim, Woosoon; Leang, Kam K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system for a moving high-flying vehicle (HFV) with an uncalibrated camera to monitor, track, and precisely control the movements of a low-flying vehicle (LFV) or mobile ground robot. Applications of this control strategy include the use of high-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with computer vision for monitoring, controlling, and coordinating the movements of lower altitude agents in areas, for example, where GPS signals may be unreliable or nonexistent. When deployed, a remote operator of the HFV defines the desired trajectory for the LFV in the HFV's camera frame. Due to the circular motion of the HFV, the resulting motion trajectory of the LFV in the image frame can be periodic in time, thus an adaptive-repetitive control system is exploited for regulation and/or trajectory tracking. The adaptive control law is able to handle uncertainties in the camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The design and stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is presented, where Lyapunov stability is shown. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for controlling the movement of a low-flying quadcopter, demonstrating the capabilities of the visual-servo control system for localization (i.e.,, motion capturing) and trajectory tracking control. In fact, results show that the LFV can be commanded to hover in place as well as track a user-defined flower-shaped closed trajectory, while the HFV and camera system circulates above with constant angular velocity. On average, the proposed adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system reduces the average RMS tracking error by over 77% in the image plane and over 71% in the world frame compared to using just the adaptive visual-servo control law.

  19. Parameter identification of unknown object handled by free-flying space robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotsu, Yoshisada; Senda, Kei; Ozaki, Mitsuhiro

    1994-05-01

    This paper is concerned with parameter identification methods for inertial parameters for the unknown object handled by manipulators on a free-flying space robot. The parameter identification is necessary for the precise control because of changes in the kinematics of the system together with the dynamics. Two methods are proposed under the condition that the robot is free to translate and rotate. One method is based on the conservation principle of linear and angular momentum and the other on Newton-Euler equations of motion. Only the linear/angular velocities and accelerations of the satellite base are used in the identification methods with no information about the force and torque utilized. The feasibility of the methods is demonstrated by a hardware experiment on the ground as well as numerical simulation.

  20. Extending the Evolutionary Robotics approach to flying machines: an application to MAV teams.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Fabio; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the use of embodied neural networks--developed through Evolutionary Robotics and Multi-Agent Systems methodologies--as autonomous distributed controllers for Micro-unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) teams. The main aim of the research is to extend the range of domains that could be successfully tackled by the Evolutionary Robotics approach. The flying robots realm is an area that has not been yet thoroughly investigated by this discipline. This is due to the lack of an affordable and reliable robotic platform to use for carrying out experiments, and to the difficulty and the high computational load involved in experiments based upon a realistic software simulator for aircraft. We believe that the most recent improvements to the state of the art now permit the investigation of this domain. For demonstrating this point, two different evolutionary computer simulation models are presented in this article. The first model, which uses a simplified 2D test environment, has resulted in controllers evolved with the following capabilities: (1) navigation through unknown environments, (2) obstacle-avoidance, (3) tracking of a movable target, and (4) execution of cooperative and coordinated behaviors based on implicit communication strategies. In order to improve the robustness of these results and their potential use in real MAV teams, a more sophisticated 3D model is presented herein. The results obtained so far using the two models demonstrate the feasibility of the chosen approach for further research on the design of autonomous controllers for MAVs.

  1. Astrobee: Developing a Free Flying Robot for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Trey; Zuniga, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut time will always be in short supply, consumables (e.g., oxygen) will always be limited, and some work will not be feasible, or productive, for astronauts to do manually. Free flyers offer significant potential to perform a great variety of tasks, include routine, repetitive or simple but long-duration work, such as conducting environment surveys, taking sensor readings or monitoring crew activities. The "Astrobee" project is developing a new free flying robot system suitable for performing Intravehicular Activity (IVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper will describe the Astrobee project objectives, initial design, concept of operations, and key challenges.

  2. Research on high-precision hole measurement based on robot vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Qin, Ming-cui; Li, Zong-yan; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao

    2014-09-01

    A high-precision vision detection and measurement system using mobile robot is established for the industry field detection of motorcycle frame hole and its diameter measurement. The robot path planning method is researched, and the non-contact measurement method with high precision based on visual digital image edge extraction and hole spatial circle fitting is presented. The Canny operator is used to extract the edge of captured image, the Lagrange interpolation algorithm is utilized to determine the missing image edge points and calculate the centroid, and the least squares fitting method is adopted to fit the image edge points. Experimental results show that the system can be used for the high-precision real-time measurement of hole on motorcycle frame. The absolute standard deviation of the proposed method is 0.026 7 mm. The proposed method can not only improve the measurement speed and precision, but also reduce the measurement error.

  3. Technology for an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Reuter, G. J.; Healey, Kathleen J.; Phinney, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Crew rescue and equipment retrieval is a Space Station Freedom requirement. During Freedom's lifetime, there is a high probability that a number of objects will accidently become separated. Members of the crew, replacement units, and key tools are examples. Retrieval of these objects within a short time is essential. Systems engineering studies were conducted to identify system requirements and candidate approaches. One such approach, based on a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot was selected for further analysis. A ground-based technology demonstration, now in its second phase, was designed to provide an integrated robotic hardware and software testbed supporting design of a space-borne system. The ground system, known as the EVA Retriever, is examining the problem of autonomously planning and executing a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. The current prototype is an anthropomorphic manipulator unit with dexterous arms and hands attached to a robot body and latched in a manned maneuvering unit. A precision air-bearing floor is used to simulate space. Sensor data include two vision systems and force/proximity/tactile sensors on the hands and arms. Planning for a shuttle file experiment is underway. A set of scenarios and strawman requirements were defined to support conceptual development. Initial design activities are expected to begin in late 1989 with the flight occurring in 1994. The flight hardware and software will be based on lessons learned from both the ground prototype and computer simulations.

  4. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  5. A bio-inspired flying robot sheds light on insect piloting abilities.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Serres, Julien

    2007-02-20

    When insects are flying forward, the image of the ground sweeps backward across their ventral viewfield and forms an "optic flow," which depends on both the groundspeed and the groundheight. To explain how these animals manage to avoid the ground by using this visual motion cue, we suggest that insect navigation hinges on a visual-feedback loop we have called the optic-flow regulator, which controls the vertical lift. To test this idea, we built a micro-helicopter equipped with an optic-flow regulator and a bio-inspired optic-flow sensor. This fly-by-sight micro-robot can perform exacting tasks such as take-off, level flight, and landing. Our control scheme accounts for many hitherto unexplained findings published during the last 70 years on insects' visually guided performances; for example, it accounts for the fact that honeybees descend in a headwind, land with a constant slope, and drown when travelling over mirror-smooth water. Our control scheme explains how insects manage to fly safely without any of the instruments used onboard aircraft to measure the groundheight, groundspeed, and descent speed. An optic-flow regulator is quite simple in terms of its neural implementation and just as appropriate for insects as it would be for aircraft.

  6. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  7. Stability and optimal control theory of hereditary systems with applications from oscillating flying vehicles, mechanical systems, and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    1992-01-01

    The author derives an equation determining the dynamics of the deterministic model of a flying vehicle. He next examines a simplified mechanical problem whose optimal feedback control strategy is investigated. From there robotics are incorporated into the mathematical model to develop an equation describing optimal control of the dynamics.

  8. Stability and optimal control theory of hereditary systems with applications from oscillating flying vehicles, mechanical systems, and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    1992-01-01

    The author derives an equation determining the dynamics of the deterministic model of a flying vehicle. He next examines a simplified mechanical problem whose optimal feedback control strategy is investigated. From there robotics are incorporated into the mathematical model to develop an equation describing optimal control of the dynamics.

  9. Nano-to-micro integrated single-electron biomacromolecular electronics for miniaturized robotic "untethered flying observers"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    A miniaturized " untethered flying observer" as a robotic free-flying vehicle supplied with MEMSs/nano—to—micro payload and hosted on a much larger spaceship from which it would detach for short exploration missions is discussed. Downsizing of integrated electronic devices and nano —to—micro integration through nanoelectronics would allow high density MEMS-electronics packaging, very low power consumption and light —weight to be realized. The nano—to—micro integration concept through single-electron molecular electronic devices leads to problems in the development of what could be called a " meta-system" as to electron physics involved in merging solid state (ss) and molecular devices. A single-electronics chip featuring biomacromolecular circuitry—to—ss Si integration for merging sensing, computation, communication and actuator functions would contemplate electron transport chain protein components and/or suitably functionalized DNAs. Single-electron controlled tunneling would work in such biomacro-molecules even at room temperature due to the atomic size of the "well" and consequent less delocalization of the electron. Network design asks for quantum orbital calculations, for minimal use of molecular wires/connectors, for integrated nano—to —micro blocks and for nano—to—macro-world connections. Recent laboratory demos as to conductive molecular wires (fullerene nanotubes and chain molecules) must overcome difficulties involved in making their results into a practical technology. Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin organic films or lipid bilayers for construction and support of the integrated single-electron molecular component blocks would make scalars into vectors. Si for the biochip-hosting "platform" of the robotic nano-observer can act as a radiation shielding.

  10. Multiple impedance control of space free-flying robots via virtual linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari, Rambod; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2010-03-01

    Multiple impedance control (MIC) is a Model-Based algorithm that enforces a designated impedance on all cooperating manipulators, the manipulated object, and the moving base if applied on a mobile robotic system such as a space free flying robotic system. The MIC can be properly applied to manipulate a grasped object, and move it on a desired path. However, during such maneuvers, some inner forces and torques are usually produced in the object. For tuning the inner object forces, it is needed to model the inner forces/torques or their effects on the object. In this paper, a virtual linkage model is introduced to determine the inner forces using the MIC law. Also, the load distribution among the end-effectors is modeled. To this end, the MIC law is used to control both path tracking and inner forces tuning when manipulating an object. The moving object is grasped solidly with two 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) cooperating end-effectors mounted on a 6 DOF spacecraft appended with a 2 DOF antenna. An explicit dynamics model of this highly complicated 20 DOF system is derived using SPACEMAPLE, and then simulated in MATLAB. The obtained results reveal good tracking performance of the proposed MIC controller, besides tuning the object internal forces due to tension or compression forces, also torsion and bending moments.

  11. Intelligent tracking control of fixed-base and free-flying flexible space robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Anthony

    minimal compared to the overriding effect of fuzzy logic system adaptive control. Hybrid control strategies are synthesized and simulated tracking results obtained for combinations of inverse flexible dynamics control with an extended Kalman filter or a fuzzy logic adaptive extended Kalman filter for noise filtering and a fuzzy logic system for vibration suppression. The effect of Kalman filtering is minimal while the fuzzy logic system has an overriding effect on diminishing transient vibration overshoot amplitudes at trajectory direction switches. Finally, the end effector of a free-flying flexible space robot autonomously tracks a trajectory between two points in a space orbit using inverse flexible dynamics and fuzzy logic system adaptive control strategies for comparison. The robot autonomously tracks its end effector between initial and final positions in two-dimensional space while maintaining stability and station keeping the rigid spacecraft in its location in space. Simulated tracking results show inverse flexible dynamics control produces a significant drift and fails to reach its commanded final position. Fuzzy logic system adaptive control produces a more accurate direct trajectory with less drift and terminates closer to the commanded final position. But, sporadic high magnitude driving torque "spikes" occur, similar to the "bursting phenomenon" often encountered with adaptive control systems, but they are damped by the fuzzy logic system. The rigid spacecraft reactive translation and attitude change is minimal in each case but less so for fuzzy logic system adaptive control.

  12. Experiments in Neural-Network Control of a Free-Flying Space Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Four important generic issues are identified and addressed in some depth in this thesis as part of the development of an adaptive neural network based control system for an experimental free flying space robot prototype. The first issue concerns the importance of true system level design of the control system. A new hybrid strategy is developed here, in depth, for the beneficial integration of neural networks into the total control system. A second important issue in neural network control concerns incorporating a priori knowledge into the neural network. In many applications, it is possible to get a reasonably accurate controller using conventional means. If this prior information is used purposefully to provide a starting point for the optimizing capabilities of the neural network, it can provide much faster initial learning. In a step towards addressing this issue, a new generic Fully Connected Architecture (FCA) is developed for use with backpropagation. A third issue is that neural networks are commonly trained using a gradient based optimization method such as backpropagation; but many real world systems have Discrete Valued Functions (DVFs) that do not permit gradient based optimization. One example is the on-off thrusters that are common on spacecraft. A new technique is developed here that now extends backpropagation learning for use with DVFs. The fourth issue is that the speed of adaptation is often a limiting factor in the implementation of a neural network control system. This issue has been strongly resolved in the research by drawing on the above new contributions.

  13. Adjustably Autonomous Multi-agent Plan Execution with an Internal Spacecraft Free-Flying Robot Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Nicewarner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    We present an multi-agent model-based autonomy architecture with monitoring, planning, diagnosis, and execution elements. We discuss an internal spacecraft free-flying robot prototype controlled by an implementation of this architecture and a ground test facility used for development. In addition, we discuss a simplified environment control life support system for the spacecraft domain also controlled by an implementation of this architecture. We discuss adjustable autonomy and how it applies to this architecture. We describe an interface that provides the user situation awareness of both autonomous systems and enables the user to dynamically edit the plans prior to and during execution as well as control these agents at various levels of autonomy. This interface also permits the agents to query the user or request the user to perform tasks to help achieve the commanded goals. We conclude by describing a scenario where these two agents and a human interact to cooperatively detect, diagnose and recover from a simulated spacecraft fault.

  14. Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross

    1990-01-01

    Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.

  15. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  16. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  17. From falling to flying: the path to powered flight of a robotic samara nano air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Evan R; Pines, Darryll J; Humbert, J Sean

    2010-12-01

    This paper details the development of a nano-scale (>15 cm) robotic samara, or winged seed. The design of prototypes inspired by naturally occurring geometries is presented along with a detailed experimental process which elucidates similarities between mechanical and robotic samara flight dynamics. The helical trajectories of a samara in flight were observed to differ in-flight path and descent velocity. The body roll and pitch angular rates for the differing trajectories were observed to be coupled to variations in wing pitch, and thus provide a means of control. Inspired by the flight modalities of the bio-inspired samaras, a robotic device has been created that mimics the autorotative capability of the samara, whilst providing the ability to hover, climb and translate. A high-speed camera-based motion capture system is used to observe the flight dynamics of the mechanical and robotic samara. Similarities in the flight dynamics are compared and discussed as it relates to the design of the robotic samara.

  18. Strategies for the stabilization of longitudinal forward flapping flight revealed using a dynamically-scaled robotic fly.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Michael J; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished with quite subtle changes in hovering kinematics, and that these adjustments act primarily by altering the pitch moment. This finding is consistent with prior hypotheses regarding the relationship between body pitch and flight speed in fruit flies. Adjusting the mean stroke position of the wings is a likely mechanism for trimming the pitch moment at all speeds, whereas changes in the mean angle of attack may be required at higher speeds. To ensure stability, the flapping system requires additional pitch damping that increases in magnitude with flight speed. A compensatory reflex driven by fast feedback of pitch rate from the halteres could provide such damping, and would automatically exhibit gain scheduling with flight speed if pitch torque was regulated via changes in stroke deviation. Such a control scheme would provide an elegant solution for stabilization across a wide range of forward flight speeds.

  19. The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Hopman, Clovis; Freitag, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Stars on eccentric orbits around a massive black hole (MBH) emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) at periapse. Such events may be directly resolvable in the Galactic Centre. However, if the star does not spiral in, the emitted GWs are not resolvable for extragalactic MBHs, but constitute a source of background noise. We estimate the power spectrum of this extreme mass ratio burst background (EMBB) and compare it to the anticipated instrumental noise of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). To this end, we model the regions close to an MBH, accounting for mass segregation, and for processes that limit the presence of stars close to the MBH, such as GW inspiral and hydrodynamical collisions between stars. We find that the EMBB is dominated by GW bursts from stellar mass black holes, and the magnitude of the noise spectrum (fSGW)1/2 is at least a factor of ~10 smaller than the instrumental noise. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that LISA is unlikely to detect relativistic bursts in the Galactic Centre.

  20. AERCam Autonomy: Intelligent Software Architecture for Robotic Free Flying Nanosatellite Inspection Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve G.; Braun, Angela N.; Straube, Timothy M.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class Free Flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam Free Flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35-pound, 14-inch diameter AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, power, propulsion, and imaging subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations, including automatic stationkeeping, point-to-point maneuvering, and waypoint tracking. The Mini AERCam Free Flyer is accompanied by a sophisticated control station for command and control, as well as a docking system for automated deployment, docking, and recharge at a parent spacecraft. Free Flyer functional testing has been conducted successfully on both an airbearing table and in a six-degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation with avionics hardware in the loop. Mini AERCam aims to provide beneficial on-orbit views that cannot be obtained from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by crewmembers during extravehicular activities (EVA s). On Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS), for example, Mini AERCam could support external robotic operations by supplying orthogonal views to the intravehicular activity (IVA) robotic operator, supply views of EVA operations to IVA and/or ground crews monitoring the EVA, and carry out independent visual inspections of areas of interest around the spacecraft. To enable these future benefits

  1. Concept for practical exercises for studying autonomous flying robots in a university environment: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gageik, Nils; Dilger, Erik; Montenegro, Sergio; Schön, Stefan; Wildenhein, Rico; Creutzburg, Reiner; Fischer, Arno

    2015-03-01

    The present paper demonstrates the application of quadcopters as educational material for students in aerospace computer science, as it is already in usage today. The work with quadrotors teaches students theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of robotics, control theory, aerospace and electrical engineering as well as embedded programming and computer science. For this the material, concept, realization and future view of such a course is discussed in this paper. Besides that, the paper gives a brief overview of student research projects following the course, which are related to the research and development of fully autonomous quadrotors.

  2. Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS.

  3. Reactionless camera inspection with a free-flying space robot under reaction null-space motion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Hiroki; Nenchev, Dragomir

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of implementing reactionless motion control w.r.t. base orientation of a free-flying space robot in practical tasks is addressed. It is shown that such possibility depends strongly on the kinematic/dynamic design parameters as well as on the mission task. A successful implementation of a camera inspection task is reported. The presence of kinematic redundancy and the manipulator attachment position are shown to play important roles. More specifically, for a manipulator arm with a typical seven degree-of-freedom (DoF) kinematic structure, it is shown that two motion patterns, wrist reorientation and folding/unfolding of the arm, result in almost reactionless motion. The orientation pattern is adopted as the main task for camera inspection, while the remaining four DoFs are used to ensure complete reactionless motion and to minimize the position errors. Since the composition of these tasks introduces the so-called algorithmic singularities, two methods are suggested to alleviate the problem. Furthermore, it is shown that other types of singularities may also be introduced in case of an inappropriate choice of the manipulator attachment position. At the end, numerical analysis is performed to show that reactionless motion provides an advantage in terms of kinetic energy as well.

  4. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K.; Hess, C.; Norsworthy, R.; Anderson, G.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, D.

    1992-01-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a heirarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  5. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K. A.; Hess, Clifford W.; Norsworthy, Robert S.; Anderson, Greg D.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1992-03-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice- supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the space station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a hierarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  6. Peg-in-Hole Assembly Based on Two-phase Scheme and F/T Sensor for Dual-arm Robot

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianmin; Zheng, Yanglong; Ota, Jun; Huang, Yanjiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on peg-in-hole assembly based on a two-phase scheme and force/torque sensor (F/T sensor) for a compliant dual-arm robot, the Baxter robot. The coordinated operations of human beings in assembly applications are applied to the behaviors of the robot. A two-phase assembly scheme is proposed to overcome the inaccurate positioning of the compliant dual-arm robot. The position and orientation of assembly pieces are adjusted respectively in an active compliant manner according to the forces and torques derived by a six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) F/T sensor. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed assembly scheme. The performances of the dual-arm robot are consistent with those of human beings in the peg-in-hole assembly process. The peg and hole with 0.5 mm clearance for round pieces and square pieces can be assembled successfully. PMID:28862691

  7. Peg-in-Hole Assembly Based on Two-phase Scheme and F/T Sensor for Dual-arm Robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianmin; Zheng, Yanglong; Ota, Jun; Huang, Yanjiang

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on peg-in-hole assembly based on a two-phase scheme and force/torque sensor (F/T sensor) for a compliant dual-arm robot, the Baxter robot. The coordinated operations of human beings in assembly applications are applied to the behaviors of the robot. A two-phase assembly scheme is proposed to overcome the inaccurate positioning of the compliant dual-arm robot. The position and orientation of assembly pieces are adjusted respectively in an active compliant manner according to the forces and torques derived by a six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) F/T sensor. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed assembly scheme. The performances of the dual-arm robot are consistent with those of human beings in the peg-in-hole assembly process. The peg and hole with 0.5 mm clearance for round pieces and square pieces can be assembled successfully.

  8. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals.

  9. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  10. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  11. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  12. Aerodynamic evaluation of wing shape and wing orientation in four butterfly species using numerical simulations and a low-speed wind tunnel, and its implications for the design of flying micro-robots.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Eastwood, Rodney; Vogt, Daniel; Ithier, Carter; Smith, Michael; Wood, Rob; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s(-1). The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility. We discuss the implications for flying micro-robots and how the results assist in understanding the behaviour of the butterfly species tested.

  13. Free-flying dynamics and control of an astronaut assistant robot based on fuzzy sliding mode algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Liu, Jinguo; Tian, Tongtong; Li, Yangmin

    2017-09-01

    Space robots can perform some tasks in harsh environment as assistants of astronauts or substitutions of astronauts. Taking the limited working time and the arduous task of the astronauts in the space station into account, an astronaut assistant robot (AAR-2) applied in the space station is proposed and designed in this paper. The AAR-2 is achieved with some improvements on the basis of AAR-1 which was designed before. It can exploit its position and attitude sensors and control system to free flight or hover in the space cabin. And it also has a definite environmental awareness and artificial intelligence to complete some specified tasks under the control of astronauts or autonomously. In this paper, it mainly analyzes and controls the 6-DOF motion of the AAR-2. Firstly, the system configuration of AAR-2 is specifically described, and the movement principles are analyzed. Secondly, according to the physical model of the AAR-2, the Newton - Euler equation is applied in the preparation of space dynamics model of 6-DOF motion. Then, according to the mathematical model's characteristics which are nonlinear and strong coupling, a dual closed loop position and attitude controller based on fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed and designed. Finally, simulation experiments are appropriate to provide for AAR-2 control system by using Matlab/Simulink. From the simulation results it can be observed that the designed fuzzy sliding mode controller can control the 6-DOF motion of AAR-2 quickly and precisely.

  14. Modeling Optimal Strategies for Finding a Resource-Linked, Windborne Odor Plume: Theories, Robotics, and Biomimetic Lessons from Flying Insects.

    PubMed

    Bau, Josep; Cardé, Ring T

    2015-09-01

    Male moths locate females by navigating along her pheromone plume, often flying hundreds of meters en route. As the first male to find a calling female is most apt to be her mate, this can be termed "a race to find the female" and it is assumed to be under strong selective pressure for efficiency and rapidity. Locating a distant, odor-linked resource involves two strategies. The first is to contact the outer envelope of the odor plume. When wind direction is relatively invariant, the plume stretches and then crosswind flights may be favored, although when wind direction shifts over 60°, upwind and downwind paths may be optimal. Alternatively, the path may be random with respect to the direction of wind flow, with periodic changes in direction, as in either Lévy or Random Walks. After first detecting the pheromone, a second strategy follows: moths navigate along the plume by heading upwind when the pheromone is detected, with crosswind casting to re-establish contact if the plume is lost. This orientation path is not straightforward in nature, however, because atmospheric turbulence fragments the plume, thereby creating large odor gaps. Furthermore, a shifting wind direction can lead the responder out of the plume. One way to explore which strategies are optimal for enabling initial contact with the plume and subsequent navigation is through modeling of plumes' dispersal and of insects' flight strategies. Our simulations using the flight characteristics of the male gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suggest that search strategies similar to Lévy Walks are most apt to result in a high probability of contact with plumes. Although a searching trajectory aimed predominately crosswind performed almost as well as those with a random orientation when wind direction was relatively stable, downwind biased trajectories were least successful. A random orientation with respect to immediate wind flow, as used in our simulations of Lévy and Random Walks, seems optimal both for

  15. Astrobee: Space Station Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Chris; Bualat, Maria G.; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence W.; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest E.; Sanchez, Hugo S.

    2016-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot that will fly inside the International Space Station and primarily serve as a research platform for robotics in zero gravity. Astrobee will also provide mobile camera views to ISS flight and payload controllers, and collect various sensor data within the ISS environment for the ISS Program. Astrobee consists of two free flying robots, a dock, and ground data system. This presentation provides an overview, high level design description, and project status.

  16. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  17. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  18. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  19. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  20. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  1. Robotic Lander Gets Sideways During Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    During a recent test at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center inHuntsville, Ala., the robotic lander prototype, known as Mighty Eagle,performed a hover test flying up to three feet and then trans...

  2. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  3. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  4. A test bed for insect-inspired robotic control.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2003-10-15

    Flying insects are remarkable examples of sophisticated sensory-motor control systems. Insects have solved the fundamental challenge facing the field of mobile robots: robust sensory-motor mapping. Control models based on insects can contribute much to the design of robotic control systems. We present our work on a preliminary robotic control system inspired by current behavioural and physiological models of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We designed a five-degrees-of-freedom robotic system that serves as a novel simulation/mobile robot hybrid. This design has allowed us to implement a fly-inspired control system that uses visual and mechanosensory feedback. Our results suggest that a simple control scheme can yield surprisingly robust fly-like robotic behaviour.

  5. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  6. The next decade of space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave; Weisbin, Charles

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000.

  7. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  8. NASA Ames Participates in Two Major Bay Area Events (Reporter Package)NASA Ames Research Center participated in two important outreach events: Maker Faire and a gathering of hardware and software industry professionals called the Solid Conference. The conference was an opportunity for the Intelligent Robotics Group from NASA Ames to publicly unveil their latest version of the free flying robot used on the International Space Station. NASA also participated at the Bay Area Maker Faire, a gathering of more than 120,000 innovators, enthusiasts, crafters, hobbyists and tinkerers to share what they have invented and made.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    NASA Ames Research Center participated in two important outreach events: Maker Faire and a gathering of hardware and software industry professionals called the Solid Conference. The conference was an opportunity for the Intelligent Robotics Group from NASA Ames to publicly unveil their latest version of the free flying robot used on the International Space Station. NASA also participated at the Bay Area Maker Faire, a gathering of more than 120,000 innovators, enthusiasts, crafters, hobbyists and tinkerers to share what they have invented and made.

  9. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    PubMed

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns.

  10. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  11. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  12. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  13. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  14. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James W. (Inventor); Alahuzos, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  15. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James W.; Alahuzos, George A.

    1995-08-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  16. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James (Inventor); Alahuzos, George (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  17. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James; Alahuzos, George

    1992-07-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  18. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  19. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  20. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  1. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  2. Army Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log

  3. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  4. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology

  5. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  6. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  7. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  8. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  9. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  10. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Munih, Marko; Bajd, Tadej

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the background, main achievements and components of rehabilitation robotics in a simple way, using non-technical terms. The introductory part looks at the development of robotic approaches in the rehabilitation of neurological patients and outlines the principles of robotic device interactions with patients. There follows a section on virtual reality in rehabilitation. Hapticity and interaction between robot and human are presented in order to understand the added value of robotics that cannot be exploited in other devices. The importance of passive exercise and active tasks is then discussed using the results of various clinical trials, followed by the place of upper and lower extremity robotic devices in rehabilitation practice. The closing section refers to the general importance of measurements in this area and stresses quantitative measurements as one of the advantages in using robotic devices.

  11. Can You Find the Rat Holes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Using its rock abrasion tool, otherwise known as 'Rat,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dotted the slope of 'Endurance Crater' with dimples that give scientists a glimpse into its layered geologic history. This image from the rover's navigation camera, taken on sol 169 (July 15, 2004), highlights the prolific work of the robotic 'rodent.' How many Rat holes can you identify? You will be able to check your answer against an image to be posted soon with all the holes identified.

  12. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  13. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. USAR Robot Communication Using ZigBee Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Charles; Carnegie, Dale; Pan, Qing Wei

    This paper reports the successful development of an automatic routing wireless network for USAR (urban search and rescue) robots in an artificial rubble environment. The wireless network was formed using ZigBee modules and each module was attached to a micro-controller in order to model a wireless USAR robot. Proof of concept experiments were carried out by deploying the networked robots into artificial rubble. The rubble was simulated by connecting holes and trenches that were dug in 50 cm deep soil. The simulated robots were placed in the bottom of the holes. The holes and trenches were then covered up by various building materials and soil to simulate a real rubble environment. Experiments demonstrated that a monitoring computer placed 10 meters outside the rubble can establish proper communication with all robots inside the artificial rubble environment.

  15. Collaborative robotic team design and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spofford, John R.; Anhalt, David J.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Lapin, Brett D.

    2000-07-01

    Teams of heterogeneous mobile robots are a key aspect of future unmanned systems for operations in complex and dynamic urban environments, such as that envisions by DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics program. Interactions among such team members enable a variety of mission roles beyond those achievable with single robots or homogeneous teams. Key technologies include docking for power and data transfer, marsupial transport and deployment, collaborative team user interface, cooperative obstacle negotiation, distributed sensing, and peer inspection. This paper describes recent results in the integration and evaluation of component technologies within a collaborative system design. Integration considerations include requirement definition, flexible design management, interface control, and incremental technology integration. Collaborative system requirements are derived from mission objectives and robotic roles, and impact system and individual robot design at several levels. Design management is a challenge in a dynamic environment, with rapid evolution of mission objectives and available technologies. The object-oriented system model approach employed includes both software and hardware object representations to enable on- the-fly system and robot reconfiguration. Controlled interfaces among robots include mechanical, behavioral, communications, and electrical parameters. Technologies are under development by several organizations within the TMR program community. The incremental integration and validation of these within the collaborative system architecture reduces development risk through frequent experimental evaluations. The TMR system configuration includes Packbot-Perceivers, Packbot- Effectors, and Throwbots. Surrogates for these robots are used to validate and refine designs for multi-robot interaction components. Collaborative capability results from recent experimental evaluations are presented.

  16. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    TARDEC Robotics Dr. Greg Hudas Greg.hudas@us.army.mil UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Greg Hudas...ANSI Std Z39-18 Excellence in Robotics Outreach & University Shaping Requirements Building Modeling & Simulation Component Development International

  17. ROBOT WRITING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Technical writers who are hypnotized by the mechanical metaphor inevitably produce robot writing - a separate language, distantly related to the...prose of Darwin, Huxley, Jeans, and Einstein. Where they were clear, fresh, and graceful, the robot writer is hard, dull, and clumsy. Where they were...merely human, the robot writer is infallible, prefabricated, impersonal, and irresponsible. These four characteristics are interlinked. An example of one usually illustrates the other three.

  18. Robot Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34natural" behavior . They are each suitable to some applications more than others. Robot systems should support a wide repertoire of such motion regimes... behavior at a kinematic singularity. Some applications, such as arc-welding or spray-painting, can require very fine control of the robot’s speed...for specifying the behavior of systems more complex than a single robot. Another example of the need of this kind of coordination is in the

  19. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  20. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  1. Advanced Robotics for Air Force Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    required. The de- of peacetime operations plus maintaining seal and reseal of the F-I I fuel tanks a wartime capability. The mix of depot is an example...and rigid structure. In a like manner, robots and with improved quality and the robot can precisely locate the hole efficiency. and install the rivet...reduce the labor "form- pack " system would eliminate most intensity of the operation; speed the of the customized packaging now used. process; in the

  2. Force Sensor for Large Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Primus, H. C.; Scheinman, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Modified Maltese-cross force sensor larger and more sensitive than earlier designs. Measures inertial forces and torques exerted on large robot arms during free movement as well as those exerted by claw on manipulated objects. Large central hole of sensor allows claw drive mounted inside arm instead of perpendicular to its axis, eliminating potentially hazardous projection. Originally developed for Space Shuttle, sensor finds applications in large industrial robots.

  3. RoboSimian Cuts Hole in Wall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-09

    Using a cordless power drill, RoboSimian cuts a hole into a panel of drywall to complete one of the tasks in the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in Pomona, California. This image was taken on June 6, 2015. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19326

  4. Stable Fly Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult stable flies feed on the blood of humans, pets and livestock, inflicting painful bites. Stable flies need one and sometimes two bloodmeals each day to develop their eggs. Unlike mosquitoes where only the females bloodfeed, both male and female stable flies require blood to reproduce. Stable fl...

  5. Prevalence of flying dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Piel, Edgar

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of flying dreams in four representative German samples of adults (N=5941). Overall, 7.5% of the participants reported having flying dreams within the last few months. The increase in percentage of persons who report flying dreams from 1956 to 2000 might reflect the increasing amount of air travel. This would support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming.

  6. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  7. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  8. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  9. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  10. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  11. Brane holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r{sub e} is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r{sub 0} by the factor (1-V{sup 2}){sup -1}. We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r{sub 0} and r{sub e} can meet the test brane again at a point outside r{sub e}. From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

  12. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  13. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  14. Experiments in advanced control concepts for space robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollars, M. G.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H. L.; Morse, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is actively developing and experimentally testing advanced robot control strategies for space robotic applications. Early experiments focused on control of very lightweight one-link manipulators and other flexible structures. The results are being extended to position and force control of mini-manipulators attached to flexible manipulators and multilink manipulators with flexible drive trains. Experimental results show that end-point sensing and careful dynamic modeling or adaptive control are key to the success of these control strategies. Free-flying space robot simulators that operate on an air cushion table have been built to test control strategies in which the dynamics of the base of the robot and the payload are important.

  15. Experiments in advanced control concepts for space robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollars, M. G.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H. L.; Morse, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is actively developing and experimentally testing advanced robot control strategies for space robotic applications. Early experiments focused on control of very lightweight one-link manipulators and other flexible structures. The results are being extended to position and force control of mini-manipulators attached to flexible manipulators and multilink manipulators with flexible drive trains. Experimental results show that end-point sensing and careful dynamic modeling or adaptive control are key to the success of these control strategies. Free-flying space robot simulators that operate on an air cushion table have been built to test control strategies in which the dynamics of the base of the robot and the payload are important.

  16. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  17. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  18. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  19. Subsumption Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Subsumption Robotics Christopher K. DeBolt Naval EOD Technology Division 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head, MD 20640-5070 phone: (301) 744-6850, Ext...eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil; nguyent.eodtc@eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil Helen Greiner and Polly K. Pook I.S. Robotics phone: (617) 629-0055 e-mail: helen@isr.com , pook...408) 656-3462 e-mail: healey@me.nps.navy.mil LONG-TERM GOALS Through the use of subsumption architectures, low cost, simple robots can be developed

  20. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  1. Robotic thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, F Christopher; Chung, Woong Youn

    2014-06-01

    Robotic thyroidectomy is ideal for patients with indeterminate, likely benign lesions less than 3 cm, and a body mass index less than 35 kg/mg(2). Proper arm position and padding are important to facilitate exposure and development of the working space from axilla to thyroid bed. The working space is developed using headlight and retractors without robotic assistance, establishing exposure of the thyroid bed from a 5-cm incision in the axilla. Three robotic instruments and a stereoscopic endoscope provide excellent visualization of the associated thyroid neurovasculature anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep Hole in 'Clovis'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This approximately true-color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

    Data on the graph (Figure 1) from the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer instrument on the robotic arm of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reveal the elemental chemistry of two rocks, 'Ebenezer' and 'Clovis,' (see PIA06914) in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists found, through comparison of the rocks' chemistry, that Ebenezer and Clovis have very different compositions from the rocks on the Gusev plains.

  3. Surrogate Robot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-21

    The Surrogate robot Surge, built at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA., is being developed in order to extend humanity reach into hazardous environments to perform tasks such as using environmental test equipment.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  5. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  6. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  9. Controlled flight of a biologically inspired, insect-scale robot.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kevin Y; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer B; Wood, Robert J

    2013-05-03

    Flies are among the most agile flying creatures on Earth. To mimic this aerial prowess in a similarly sized robot requires tiny, high-efficiency mechanical components that pose miniaturization challenges governed by force-scaling laws, suggesting unconventional solutions for propulsion, actuation, and manufacturing. To this end, we developed high-power-density piezoelectric flight muscles and a manufacturing methodology capable of rapidly prototyping articulated, flexure-based sub-millimeter mechanisms. We built an 80-milligram, insect-scale, flapping-wing robot modeled loosely on the morphology of flies. Using a modular approach to flight control that relies on limited information about the robot's dynamics, we demonstrated tethered but unconstrained stable hovering and basic controlled flight maneuvers. The result validates a sufficient suite of innovations for achieving artificial, insect-like flight.

  10. Coronal Holes.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Steven R

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance), but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  11. Rolling Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed rolling robot routinely traverses rough terrain, clearing rocks as high as 1 m. Climbs steps 1 m high and spans ditches 2.3 m wide. Simple but rugged semiautonomous rover has large wheels and articulated body. With combined yaw, roll, and four-wheel drive, robot crawls slowly to pass over soft or sandy terrain. Senses terrain along corridor, chooses path to avoid insurmountable obstacles, and monitors state of vehicle for unexpected hazards.

  12. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  13. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  14. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  15. Light robotics: aiming towards all-optical nano-robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full potential of this new `drone-like' light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nanorobotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light-delivery on the fly. Our latest developments in this new and exciting research area will be reviewed.

  16. Sound radiation around a flying fly.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics--and their possible biological functions--unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  17. Control of intelligent robots in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, E.; Buehler, CH.

    1989-01-01

    In view of space activities like International Space Station, Man-Tended-Free-Flyer (MTFF) and free flying platforms, the development of intelligent robotic systems is gaining increasing importance. The range of applications that have to be performed by robotic systems in space includes e.g., the execution of experiments in space laboratories, the service and maintenance of satellites and flying platforms, the support of automatic production processes or the assembly of large network structures. Some of these tasks will require the development of bi-armed or of multiple robotic systems including functional redundancy. For the development of robotic systems which are able to perform this variety of tasks a hierarchically structured modular concept of automation is required. This concept is characterized by high flexibility as well as by automatic specialization to the particular sequence of tasks that have to be performed. On the other hand it has to be designed such that the human operator can influence or guide the system on different levels of control supervision, and decision. This leads to requirements for the hardware and software concept which permit a range of application of the robotic systems from telemanipulation to autonomous operation. The realization of this goal requires strong efforts in the development of new methods, software and hardware concepts, and the integration into an automation concept.

  18. A Novel Hexapod Robot Design with Flight Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Mark C.

    Multicopter aircrafts have become popular platforms for researching flight control and aerial image processing applications. These crafts could gain unique utility from the ability to fly to remote locations, land, then walk to perform close quarters inspection of the area. This thesis presents a novel hexapod-quadcopter design with multicopter flight hardware directly embedded in the hexapod legs. The robot was assembled from custom designed 3D printed structural components. Software was developed for the walking and flying locomotion methods as well as transitional procedures necessary to switch between these two modes. The robot functionality was tested and validated to work on the platform.

  19. Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    -Ray Distributed Telescope; GNC System for the Deployment and Fine Control of the DARWIN Free-Flying Interferometer; Formation Algorithm and Simulation Testbed; and PLATFORM: A Formation Flying, RvD and Robotic Validation Test-bench.

  20. Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    -Ray Distributed Telescope; GNC System for the Deployment and Fine Control of the DARWIN Free-Flying Interferometer; Formation Algorithm and Simulation Testbed; and PLATFORM: A Formation Flying, RvD and Robotic Validation Test-bench.

  1. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  2. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  3. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  4. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  5. Modeling of the First Layers in the Fly's Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moya, J. A.; Wilcox, M. J.; Donohoe, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    Increased autonomy of robots would yield significant advantages in the exploration of space. The shortfalls of computer vision can, however, pose significant limitations on a robot's potential. At the same time, simple insects which are largely hard-wired have effective visual systems. The understanding of insect vision systems thus may lead to improved approaches to visual tasks. A good starting point for the study of a vision system is its eye. In this paper, a model of the sensory portion of the fly's eye is presented. The effectiveness of the model is briefly addressed by a comparison of its performance to experimental data.

  6. A preliminary study of using active vision guided robotic arm for bone drilling in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zaid; Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Tan, Yew Chin; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-03-01

    The study assesses the capability and accuracy of a robotic arm to perform burr holes. The robotic systems are instructed to recognize targets on artificial skull models placed in different positions and to make burr holes. The accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm. Robotic arms are capable to perform basic surgical tasks. However, further improvement needs to be done to refine its accuracy and capability. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  9. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  10. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  11. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  12. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  13. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  14. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  15. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  16. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  17. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species.

  18. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  19. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  20. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  1. Robot gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electronic force-detecting robot gripper for gripping objects and attaching to an external robot arm is disclosed. The gripper comprises motor apparatus, gripper jaws, and electrical circuits for driving the gripper motor and sensing the amount of force applied by the jaws. The force applied by the jaws is proportional to a threshold value of the motor current. When the motor current exceeds the threshold value, the electrical circuits supply a feedback signal to the electrical control circuit which, in turn, stops the gripper motor.

  2. Acoustical Awareness for Intelligent Robotic Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    can be changed on the fly. Work in affective 22 robotics (i.e. emotions , moods, etc.) has demonstrated the advantages of dynamically adjusting the...known solution was developed by Atal and Rabiner [Atal and Rabiner 1976]. This approach detects vowel sounds in an audio stream. Later research...showed 24 that provided the vowel sounds were present, human listeners could recognize with great accuracy the words in the conversation even when

  3. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  4. Architecture for in-space robotic assembly of a modular space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicolas; Backes, Paul; Burdick, Joel; Pellegrino, Sergio; Fuller, Christine; Hogstrom, Kristina; Kennedy, Brett; Kim, Junggon; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan; Seubert, Carl; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2016-10-01

    An architecture and conceptual design for a robotically assembled, modular space telescope (RAMST) that enables extremely large space telescopes to be conceived is presented. The distinguishing features of the RAMST architecture compared with prior concepts include the use of a modular deployable structure, a general-purpose robot, and advanced metrology, with the option of formation flying. To demonstrate the feasibility of the robotic assembly concept, we present a reference design using the RAMST architecture for a formation flying 100-m telescope that is assembled in Earth orbit and operated at the Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2.

  5. Robotics in Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A 0 ROBOTICS IN CONSTRUCTIONt 10 BY MICHAEL R. BROZZO A REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE... ROBOTS AND ROBOTICS ---------------------------- 3 2.1 HISTORY ------------------------------------------- 3 CHAPTER THREE - BASIC ROBOT MOVEMENTS...CHAPTER FOUR - BASIC ROBOT COMPONENTS ------------------------ 8 4.1 GENERAL ------------------------------------------- 8 4.1.1 Manipulator

  6. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  7. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  8. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  9. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  10. Physical and digital simulations for IVA robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Space based materials processing experiments can be enhanced through the use of IVA robotic systems. A program to determine requirements for the implementation of robotic systems in a microgravity environment and to develop some preliminary concepts for acceleration control of small, lightweight arms has been initiated with the development of physical and digital simulation capabilities. The physical simulation facilities incorporate a robotic workcell containing a Zymark Zymate II robot instrumented for acceleration measurements, which is able to perform materials transfer functions while flying on NASA's KC-135 aircraft during parabolic manuevers to simulate reduced gravity. Measurements of accelerations occurring during the reduced gravity periods will be used to characterize impacts of robotic accelerations in a microgravity environment in space. Digital simulations are being performed with TREETOPS, a NASA developed software package which is used for the dynamic analysis of systems with a tree topology. Extensive use of both simulation tools will enable the design of robotic systems with enhanced acceleration control for use in the space manufacturing environment.

  11. Physical and digital simulations for IVA robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Space based materials processing experiments can be enhanced through the use of IVA robotic systems. A program to determine requirements for the implementation of robotic systems in a microgravity environment and to develop some preliminary concepts for acceleration control of small, lightweight arms has been initiated with the development of physical and digital simulation capabilities. The physical simulation facilities incorporate a robotic workcell containing a Zymark Zymate II robot instrumented for acceleration measurements, which is able to perform materials transfer functions while flying on NASA's KC-135 aircraft during parabolic manuevers to simulate reduced gravity. Measurements of accelerations occurring during the reduced gravity periods will be used to characterize impacts of robotic accelerations in a microgravity environment in space. Digital simulations are being performed with TREETOPS, a NASA developed software package which is used for the dynamic analysis of systems with a tree topology. Extensive use of both simulation tools will enable the design of robotic systems with enhanced acceleration control for use in the space manufacturing environment.

  12. Rock and Roll - How Do Flies Recover From Serial Stumbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai

    2012-11-01

    Flying insects manage to maintain aerodynamic stability despite the facts that flapping flight is inherently unstable and that they are constantly subject to mechanical perturbations, such as gusts of wind. To maintain stability against such perturbations, insects rely on fast and robust flight control mechanisms, which are poorly understood. Here, we directly study flight control in the fruit fly D. melanogaster by applying mechanical perturbations in mid-air and measuring the insects' correction maneuvers. On each fly we glue a small magnet and use pulses of magnetic field to apply torque perturbations along the fly's roll axis. We then use high-speed filming and 3D reconstruction to characterize the kinematics of their correction maneuver and show how the flies fully recover from roll perturbations of up to 70° within 7-8 wing beats (30-40ms), which is faster than their visual response time. In addition, we study the dynamics of the maneuver by calculating the aerodynamic forces and torques the fly produces. Finally, we present a control mechanism that can explain the roll correction maneuver. These results have implications ranging from the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie flight control to the design of flapping robots.

  13. Maneuverability and mobility in palm-sized legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Nicholas J.; Birkmeyer, Paul M.; Peterson, Kevin C.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2012-06-01

    Palm sized legged robots show promise for military and civilian applications, including exploration of hazardous or difficult to reach places, search and rescue, espionage, and battlefield reconnaissance. However, they also face many technical obstacles, including- but not limited to- actuator performance, weight constraints, processing power, and power density. This paper presents an overview of several robots from the Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory at UC Berkeley, including the OctoRoACH, a steerable, running legged robot capable of basic navigation and equipped with a camera and active tail; CLASH, a dynamic climbing robot; and BOLT, a hybrid crawling and flying robot. The paper also discusses, and presents some preliminary solutions to, the technical obstacles listed above plus issues such as robustness to unstructured environments, limited sensing and communication bandwidths, and system integration.

  14. Computer-controlled wall servicing robot

    SciTech Connect

    Lefkowitz, S.

    1995-03-01

    After four years of cooperative research, Pentek has unveiled a new robot with the capability to automatically deliver a variety of cleaning, painting, inspection, and surveillance devices to large vertical surfaces. The completely computer-controlled robot can position a working tool on a 50-foot tall by 50-foot wide vertical surface with a repeatability of 1/16 inch. The working end can literally {open_quotes}fly{close_quotes} across the face of a wall at speed of 60 per minute, and can handle working loads of 350 pounds. The robot was originally developed to decontaminate the walls of reactor fueling cavities at commercial nuclear power plants during fuel outages. If these cavities are left to dry after reactor refueling, contamination present in the residue could later become airborne and move throughout the containment building. Decontaminating the cavity during the refueling outage reduces the need for restrictive personal protective equipment during plant operations to limit the dose rates.

  15. Robotic insects: Manufacturing, actuation, and power considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Robert

    2015-12-01

    As the characteristic size of a flying robot decreases, the challenges for successful flight revert to basic questions of fabrication, actuation, fluid mechanics, stabilization, and power - whereas such questions have in general been answered for larger aircraft. When developing a robot on the scale of a housefly, all hardware must be developed from scratch as there is nothing "off-the-shelf" which can be used for mechanisms, sensors, or computation that would satisfy the extreme mass and power limitations. With these challenges in mind, this talk will present progress in the essential technologies for insect-like robots with an emphasis on multi-scale manufacturing methods, high power density actuation, and energy-efficient power distribution.

  16. Flight-like ground demonstration of precision formation flying spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Keim, Jason A.; Benowitz, Edward G.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2007-09-01

    Initial high-fidelity, flight-like ground demonstrations of precision formation flying spacecraft are presented. In these demonstrations, maneuvers required for distributed spacecraft interferometry, such as for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer, were performed to near-flight precision. Synchronized formation rotations for "on-the-fly" observations require the highest precision. For this maneuver, ground demonstration performance requirements are 5 cm in relative position and 6 arc minutes in attitude. These requirements have been met for initial demonstrations of formation-keeping and synchronized formation rotations. The maneuvers were demonstrated in the Formation Control Testbed (FCT). The FCT currently consists of two, five degree-of-freedom, air bearing-levitated robots. The final sixth degree-of-freedom is being added in August 2007. Each robot has a suite of flight-like avionics and actuators, including a star tracker, fiber-optic gyroscopes, reaction wheels, cold-gas thrusters, inter-robot communication, and on-board computers that run the Formation and Attitude Control System (FACS) software. The FCT robots and testbed environment are described in detail. Then several initial demonstrations results are presented, including (i) a sub-millimeter formation sensor, (ii) an algorithm for synchronizing control cycles across multiple vehicles, (iii) formation keeping, (iv) reactive collision avoidance, and (iv) synchronized formation rotations.

  17. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  18. Robotics Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes characteristics of robots, provides a glossary of related terms, and discusses available careers in the field of robotics. Includes a list of postsecondary institutions with robotics programs. (JOW)

  19. Climbing robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward L.; Ecklund, Wayne D.

    1993-11-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  20. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  1. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025030 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  2. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025012 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  3. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025017 (26 July 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, speaks in a microphone as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  4. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025034 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  5. Black hole mergers: beyond general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Okounkova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    One hundred years after the birth of general relativity, advanced LIGO has finally directly detected gravitational waves. The source: two black holes merging into one. Advanced LIGO will soon provide the opportunity to test GR, using gravitational waves, in the dynamical strong-field regime-a setting where GR has not yet been tested. GR has passed all weak-field tests with flying colors. Yet it should eventually break down, so we must look to the strong-field. To perform strong-field tests of GR, we need waveform models from theories beyond GR. To date there are no numerical simulations of black hole mergers in theories which differ from GR. The main obstacle is the mathematical one of well-posedness. I will explain how to overcome this obstacle, and demonstrate the success of this approach by presenting the first numerical simulations of black hole mergers in a theory beyond GR.

  6. Review of marine animals and bioinspired robotic vehicles: Classifications and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, S.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Marine robots are a developing topic for military, scientific, and environmental missions. However, most existing marine robots are either limited to flight or limited to swimming. Therefore, the combination of both provides endless possibilities for tasks, such as espionage, pollution and marine wildlife surveillance, and border protection. Applying bioinspiration and biomimetics not only camouflages the robot, but also increases the efficiency of already perfected designs. Because bioinspiration and aerial-aquatic locomotion are the main attraction for this article, this review gathers the characteristics of aerial-aquatic animals useful for such designs. These animals are diving birds and flying fish, specifically plunge-diving birds, surface-diving birds, both plunge- and surface-diving birds, two-winger flying fish, and four-winger flying fish. The overview of the current marine bioinspired and non-bioinspired robots that are both aerial and aquatic are also presented, followed by the limitations and recommendations of the bioinspired robots. It is shown by a comparison between the bioinspired robot and its corresponding animal that the existing robotic systems are not truly bioinspired. The main traits these systems are missing are replicating the exact weight, size, muscle movement, and skin texture of the biological animal. In order to have efficient robots, bioinspiration needs to be perfected. Doing so requires not only the basic design to be replicated, but every detail of the system to be imitated.

  7. Visual learning in drosophila: application on a roving robot and comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Termini, P. S.; Strauss, R.

    2011-05-01

    Visual learning is an important aspect of fly life. Flies are able to extract visual cues from objects, like colors, vertical and horizontal distributedness, and others, that can be used for learning to associate a meaning to specific features (i.e. a reward or a punishment). Interesting biological experiments show trained stationary flying flies avoiding flying towards specific visual objects, appearing on the surrounding environment. Wild-type flies effectively learn to avoid those objects but this is not the case for the learning mutant rutabaga defective in the cyclic AMP dependent pathway for plasticity. A bio-inspired architecture has been proposed to model the fly behavior and experiments on roving robots were performed. Statistical comparisons have been considered and mutant-like effect on the model has been also investigated.

  8. Robotics and regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Mohamad; Giacalone, Marilu; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2014-10-01

    Robots in regional anesthesia are used as a tool to automate the performance of regional techniques reducing the anesthesiologist's workload and improving patient care. The purpose of this review is to show the latest findings in robotic regional anesthesia. The literature separates robots in anesthesia into two groups: pharmacological robots and manual robots. Pharmacological robots are mainly closed-loop systems that help in the titration of anesthetic drugs to patients undergoing surgery. Manual robots are mechanical robots that are used to support or replace the manual gestures performed by anesthesiologists. Although in the last decade researchers have focused on the development of decision support systems and closed-loop systems, more recent evidence supports the concept that robots can also be useful in performing regional anesthesia techniques. Robots can improve the performance and safety in regional anesthesia. In this review, we present the developments made in robotic and automated regional anesthesia, and discuss the current state of research in this field.

  9. Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk

    2008-05-15

    Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g{sub tt}=g{sup rr}=0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes.

  10. Robotics Challenge: Cognitive Robot for General Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    5 Figure 2: Screenshots of the IHC- Controlled ATLAS Robot Walking ...mean time, people at KU assumed that 1) the IHC¹s low-level control is perfect ‹ meaning that the robot can perform basic maneuvers like walking ...side even after the VRC event, IHC successfully controlled the robot to walk on a variety of surfaces. Figure 2 shows a simulated ATLAS robot with

  11. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  12. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  13. Deburring small intersecting holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  14. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  15. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089829 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  16. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089793 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  17. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089820 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  18. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089830 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  19. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089802 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  20. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089782 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  1. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089798 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  2. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    MR images were used to plan and monitor transperineal needle placement. The needles were inserted manually using a guide comprising a grid of holes...and manually manipulated mechanical linkage to aim a needle guide for transrectal prostate biopsy with MRI guidance [18]. With the use of three...is situated upon a manual linear slide that positions the robot in the access tunnel and allows fast removal for reloading brachyther- apy needles or

  3. A macroscopic analytical model of collaboration in distributed robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Lerman, K; Galstyan, A; Martinoli, A; Ijspeert, A

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we present a macroscopic analytical model of collaboration in a group of reactive robots. The model consists of a series of coupled differential equations that describe the dynamics of group behavior. After presenting the general model, we analyze in detail a case study of collaboration, the stick-pulling experiment, studied experimentally and in simulation by Ijspeert et al. [Autonomous Robots, 11, 149-171]. The robots' task is to pull sticks out of their holes, and it can be successfully achieved only through the collaboration of two robots. There is no explicit communication or coordination between the robots. Unlike microscopic simulations (sensor-based or using a probabilistic numerical model), in which computational time scales with the robot group size, the macroscopic model is computationally efficient, because its solutions are independent of robot group size. Analysis reproduces several qualitative conclusions of Ijspeert et al.: namely, the different dynamical regimes for different values of the ratio of robots to sticks, the existence of optimal control parameters that maximize system performance as a function of group size, and the transition from superlinear to sublinear performance as the number of robots is increased.

  4. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  5. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  6. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  7. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  8. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  9. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  10. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  11. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  12. Wisdom from the fly.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Leila E; Larschan, Erica N

    2014-11-01

    Arguably, almost all research in Drosophila can be considered basic research, yet many of the most essential and fundamental concepts of human genetics were first decoded in the fly. Although the fly genome, which is organized into only four chromosomes, is approximately one-twentieth the size of the human genome, it contains roughly the same number of genes, and up to 75% of human disease-related genes have Drosophila homologues [1]. The fly was prized for its simplicity and utility even before such compelling homology with humans was apparent. Since Thomas Hunt Morgan began his seminal experiments over a century ago (Table 1), the Drosophila system has revealed countless key mechanisms by which cells function, including the factors that maintain chromatin and the signaling pathways that control cell fate determination and organism development. More recently, the fly has emerged as a critical neurobiological tool and disease model for a range of genetic disorders. In this review, we present a brief retrospective of Drosophila as an indispensable genetic system and discuss some of the many contributions, past and present, of this facile system to human genetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  14. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-06

    I~D~·L Paper Number Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations ABSTRACT As research advances individual robot capabilities, a logical...progression is the use of multiple robots to complete a task more effectively. Mission performance can be improved by the ability to allocate robots with...diverse capabilities to perform different parts of a complex task. To paraphrase [[10], there are many advantages to enabling robotic collaborative

  15. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  16. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students from Hagerty High School in Oviedo, Fla., participants in FIRST Robotics, show off their robots' capabilities at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A miniature humanoid robot known as DARwin-OP, from Virginia Tech Robotics, plays soccer with a red tennis ball for a crowd of students at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  18. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students gather to watch as a DARwin-OP miniature humanoid robot from Virginia Tech Robotics demonstrates its soccer abilities at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  19. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A child gets an up-close look at Charli, an autonomous walking robot developed by Virginia Tech Robotics, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  4. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  5. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  6. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  7. Characteristics and requirements of robotic manipulators for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Spidaliere, Peter D.; Lambeck, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A robotic manipulator, DTF-1, developed as part of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) project at Goddard Space Flight Center is discussed focusing on the technical, operational, and safety requirements. The DTF-1 system design, which is based on the manipulator, gripper, cameras, computer, and an operator control station incorporates the fundamental building blocks of the original FTS, the end product of which was to have been a light-weight, dexterous telerobotic device. For the first time in the history of NASA, space technology and robotics were combined to find new and unique solutions to the demanding requirements of flying a sophisticated robotic manipulator in space. DTF-1 is considered to be the prototype for all future development in space robotics.

  8. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. O fly, where art thou?

    PubMed

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-10-06

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our approach constructs the three-dimensional visual hull of each fly from the detected image silhouettes and robustly tracks them at real-time rates. The system is suitable for a more detailed analysis of fly behaviour.

  10. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  11. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  12. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  13. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  14. Flies with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Verstreken, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. Most cases of the disease are of sporadic origin, but about 10% of the cases are familial. The genes thus far identified in Parkinson's disease are well conserved. Drosophila is ideally suited to study the molecular neuronal cell biology of these genes and the pathogenic mutations in Parkinson's disease. Flies reproduce quickly, and their elaborate genetic tools in combination with their small size allow researchers to analyze identified cells and neurons in large numbers of animals. Furthermore, fruit flies recapitulate many of the cellular and molecular defects also seen in patients, and these defects often result in clear locomotor and behavioral phenotypes, facilitating genetic modifier screens. Hence, Drosophila has played a prominent role in Parkinson's disease research and has provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disease.

  15. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  16. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-10-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  17. Sprint: The first flight demonstration of the external work system robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.; Grimm, Keith

    1995-01-01

    The External Works Systems (EWS) 'X Program' is a new NASA initiative that will, in the next ten years, develop a new generation of space robots for active and participative support of zero g external operations. The robotic development will center on three areas: the assistant robot, the associate robot, and the surrogate robot that will support external vehicular activities (EVA) prior to and after, during, and instead of space-suited human external activities respectively. The EWS robotics program will be a combination of technology developments and flight demonstrations for operational proof of concept. The first EWS flight will be a flying camera called 'Sprint' that will seek to demonstrate operationally flexible, remote viewing capability for EVA operations, inspections, and contingencies for the space shuttle and space station. This paper describes the need for Sprint and its characteristics.

  18. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. Thus, this approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  19. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  1. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  2. History of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalan, Satyam; Chauhan, Sanket; Coelho, Rafael F; Orvieto, Marcelo A; Camacho, Ignacio R; Palmer, Kenneth J; Patel, Vipul R

    2010-09-01

    Robotic surgery is one of the most advanced forms of Minimally Invasive Surgery. Although the application of robotic technology to surgical robotics started some 20 years ago, the earliest work in robotics and automation can be traced back to 400 BC. Some of the early pioneers include Archytas of Arentum, Leonardo da Vinci, Gianello Toriano, and Pierre Jaquet-Droz, and we owe to these philosophers and scientists the fact that we can offer the benefit of minimal invasion in surgery. The purpose of this review is to give a brief description of the evolution of robotic surgery from its early history to present-day surgical robotics.

  3. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  4. Distributed coordination of simulated robots based on self-organization.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Parisi, Domenico; Nolfi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Distributed coordination of groups of individuals accomplishing a common task without leaders, with little communication, and on the basis of self-organizing principles, is an important research issue within the study of collective behavior of animals, humans, and robots. The article shows how distributed coordination allows a group of evolved, physically linked simulated robots (inspired by a robot under construction) to display a variety of highly coordinated basic behaviors such as collective motion, collective obstacle avoidance, and collective approach to light, and to integrate them in a coherent fashion. In this way the group is capable of searching and approaching a lighted target in an environment scattered with obstacles, furrows, and holes, where robots acting individually fail. The article shows how the emerged coordination of the group relies upon robust self-organizing principles (e.g., positive feedback) based on a novel sensor that allows the single robots to perceive the group's "average" motion direction. The article also presents a robust solution to a difficult coordination problem, which might also be encountered by some organisms, caused by the fact that the robots have to be capable of moving in any direction while being physically connected. Finally, the article shows how the evolved distributed coordination mechanisms scale very well with respect to the number of robots, the way in which robots are assembled, the structure of the environment, and several other aspects.

  5. Robot strings: Long, thin continuum robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, I. D.

    We describe and discuss the development of long, thin, continuous “ string-like” robots aimed at Space exploration missions. These continuous backbone “ continuum” robots are inspired by numerous biological structures, particularly vines, worms, and the tongues of animals such as the anteater. The key novelty is the high length-to-diameter ratio of the robots. This morphology offers penetration into, and exploration of, significantly narrower and deeper environments than accessible using current robot technology. In this paper, we introduce new design alternatives for long thin continuum robots, based on an analysis and extension of three core existing continuum robot design types. The designs are evaluated based on their mechanical feasibility, structural properties, kinematic simplicity, and degrees of freedom.

  6. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Satellite formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiguo

    2002-09-01

    The control of Distributed Satellite Formation Flying (DSFF) has attracted the attention of many researchers over the past decade. The increasing stringent performance specifications required for controlling DSFF systems necessitates the accurate maintenance of the relative positions/orientations of the participating satellites. This research focuses on the development of new effective controllers for DSFF system via various linear and nonlinear approaches. Based on the classical Hill's equation, a mathematically rigorous control design framework is proposed for linear control of DSFF with guaranteed closed-loop stability. In particular, a pulse-based, periodic gain, control architectures is developed which utilize intermittent control action. Next, a Lyapunov-based, nonlinear adaptive control law is designed which guarantees global asymptotic convergence of position tracking error. In addition, a nonlinear, output feedback control law for DSFF is presented, which guarantees global uniformly ultimately bounded position and velocity tracking error in the presence of some DSFF system parametric uncertainties. Another contribution of this research consists of the development of the perturbative control of satellite flying around the oblate earth which can pave the way for its direct application of one class of optimal formation flying in polar orbits. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacies of the proposed control design methodologies.

  8. Elongated Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory shows a long coronal hole has rotated so that was temporarily facing right towards Earth Mar. 23-25, 2016. Coronal holes appear dark when viewed in some wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light.

  9. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  10. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  12. Robotics technology developments in the United States space telerobotics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000. As a result of redefining the development approach for space robotic systems, and capitalizing on opportunities associated with the assembly and maintenance of the space station, the space robotics community is preparing a whole new generation of operational robotic capabilities. Expanding on the capabilities of earlier manipulation systems such as the Viking and Surveyor soil scoops, the Russian Lunakhods, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS), these new space robots will augment astronaut on-orbit capabilities and extend virtual human presence to lunar and planetary surfaces.

  13. Teleoperation And Autonomy In Space Station Robotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Paul D.

    1988-10-01

    The United States Space Station will employ robotic systems in conjunction with crew-member Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The control methods and corresponding crew interfaces for these systems are currently in development. Both teleoperation and autonomous operation are being pursued to provide either low-level control or high-level supervision of robotic tasks. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will be launched during the Station assembly process and will be teleoperated to perform a variety of assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks. The EVA Retriever is a free-flying autonomous robot designed for retrieval of a drifting crewmember or piece of equipment inadvertently detached from the Station. These two robotic systems exemplify the choices which must be made in designing the robot control method. Teleoperation and autonomy are the ends of a spectrum of possible control modes. In choosing a design point along this dimension, the complexity of the robotic task must be considered along with the technologies required to support either teleoperation or autonomous performance of the task. Requirements of the crew operators and the workloads to be imposed on them must be weighed during selection and design of the control method. Safety considerations will also constrain the design. Space Station operations will be enhanced by optimization of each robot's control method with respect to its mission.

  14. Robotics technology developments in the United States space telerobotics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000. As a result of redefining the development approach for space robotic systems, and capitalizing on opportunities associated with the assembly and maintenance of the space station, the space robotics community is preparing a whole new generation of operational robotic capabilities. Expanding on the capabilities of earlier manipulation systems such as the Viking and Surveyor soil scoops, the Russian Lunakhods, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS), these new space robots will augment astronaut on-orbit capabilities and extend virtual human presence to lunar and planetary surfaces.

  15. Space Technology Game Changing Development Astrobee: ISS Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Astrobee will be a free-flying robot that can be remotely operated by astronauts in space or by mission controllers on the ground. NASA is developing Astrobee to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station. These IVA tasks include interior environmental surveys (e.g., sound level measurement), inventory and mobile camera work. Astrobee will also serve as a platform for robotics research in microgravity. Here we describe the Astrobee project objectives, concept of operations, development approach, key challenges, and initial design.

  16. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  17. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  18. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  19. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  20. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  1. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  2. ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-06

    HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM NORTH ALABAMA GATHER AT THE U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER'S DAVIDSON CENTER FOR THE "ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY" EVENT SHOWCASING THEIR INDIVIDUAL ROBOTS PRIOR TO LATER COMPETITIONS.

  3. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Engineered tracking systems 'fuse' data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control.

  4. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Engineered tracking systems ‘fuse’ data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control. PMID:20202821

  5. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  6. Retinal degeneration in the fly.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many genes are functionally equivalent between flies and humans. In addition, the same, or similar, mutations cause disease in both species. In fact, nearly three-fourths of all human disease genes have related sequences in Drosophila. The fly has a relatively small genome, made up of about 13,600 genes in four pairs of chromosomes. However, despite the dramatic differences in size and apparent complexity between humans and flies--we have less than twice as many genes as a fly--our genome is estimated to be made up of only 20,000-25,000 genes contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Therefore, despite the fly's perceived simplicity, or our perceived complexity, our genetic makeup may not be all that different. Its versatility for genetic manipulation and convenience for unraveling fundamental biological processes continue to guarantee the fly a place in the spotlight for unraveling the basis of and therapeutic treatments for human eye diseases.

  7. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  8. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  9. Robotics Research for Cybersecurity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Wei-Min Shen 1/24/12 Page 1 of 3 Robotics Research for Cybersecurity Wei-Min Shen Polymorphic Robotics Laboratory USC/ISI, 4676 Admiralty Way...Marina del Rey, CA 90292 Phone: 310-448-8710, Fax: 310-822-0751 Email: shen@isi.edu, Web: http://www.isi.edu/ robots / Executive Summary This...project is to conduct a comprehensive study of robotics research in the context of cybersecurity. Specifically, 1) Create a realistic cybersecurity test

  10. Towards Pervasive Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Towards Pervasive Robotics Artur M. Arsenio Artificial Intelligence Lab - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 545 Technology Square, Room NE43-936...MA 02139 arsenio@ai.mit.edu Abstract Pervasive robotics will require, in a near future, small, light and cheap robots that exhibit complex behaviors...These demands led to the development of the M2-M4 Macaco project - a robotic active vi- sion head. Macaco is a portable system, capable of emulating

  11. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  12. Telepresence and Intervention Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10628 TITLE: Telepresence and Intervention Robotics DISTRIBUTION...comprise the compilation report: ADPO10609 thru ADP010633 UNCLASSIFIED 20-1 TELEPRESENCE AND INTERVENTION ROBOTICS Nathalie Cislo Laboratoire de...Robotique de Paris 10-12, Avenue de 1’Europe 78140 VWlizy-Villacoublay, FRANCE cislo@robot.uvsq.fr ABSTRACT In the field of Mobile Robotics applications

  13. Tool Changer For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  14. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  15. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A visitor to the Robot Rocket Rally takes an up-close look at RASSOR, a robotic miner developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  16. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students observe as Otherlab shows off a life-size, inflatable robot from its "" program. The demonstration was one of several provided during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Andrew Nick of Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works shows off RASSOR, a robotic miner, at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  18. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A visitor to the Robot Rocket Rally tries his hand at virtual reality in a demonstration of the Oculus Rift technology, provided by the Open Source Robotics Foundation. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  19. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  20. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  1. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  2. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  3. NASA's Intelligent Robotics Group

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    Shareable video highlighting the Intelligent Robotics Group's 25 years of experience developing tools to allow humans and robots to work as teammates. Highlights the VERVE software, which allows researchers to see a 3D representation of the robot's world and mentions how Nissan is using a version of VERVE in the autonomous vehicle research.

  4. Robotic hand and fingers

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  5. Total portal robotic pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose R

    2013-09-01

    Robotic pulmonary lobectomies have been reported to be technically and oncologically achievable; however, only three robotic pneumonectomy cases have been described. Two of them used a mini thoracotomy. We describe one case of a total portal robotic pneumonectomy without utility incision. We describe the step-by-step process.

  6. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  7. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  8. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  9. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  10. Tooling For Robotic Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, Jack L.

    1989-01-01

    Robot obtains welding tool and position reference quickly and automatically. Multiple tools and stands in workspace give robot access to variety of welding torches and reference positions. Feature saves time and makes it unnecessary for operator to enter within outer limit of motion of robot arm.

  11. Robotics of human movements.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, Patrick; Grebenstein, Markus; Urbanek, Holger; Fligge, Nadine; Strohmayr, Michael; Stillfried, Georg; Parrish, Jonathon; Gustus, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    The construction of robotic systems that can move the way humans do, with respect to agility, stability and precision, is a necessary prerequisite for the successful integration of robotic systems in human environments. We explain human-centered views on robotics, based on the three basic ingredients (1) actuation; (2) sensing; and (3) control, and formulate detailed examples thereof.

  12. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  13. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  14. [Medical supply of long flies].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Tsygan, V N; Blagitin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2010-05-01

    The article presents a characteristics of main negative factors, disimproving a functional condition and working capacity of airmen in long flies: long stay in a working pose, necessity of using of summer form, of defense form and oxygen-breath means, peculiarities of eating in fly, solving of nature-imposed necessity, relative sensor deprivation, sameliness of environment, high level of noise, hypokinesia, high nervous-emotional tension in conditions of air refueling, temperature fall, difference of barometric pressure, desynchronisms. Were given practical recommendations on maintenance of functional and working capacity of members of flying staff, realizing long flies.

  15. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  16. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  17. Flying Past Pluto Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-28

    This dramatic view of the Pluto system is as NASA's New Horizons spacecraft saw it in July 2015. The animation, made with real images taken by New Horizons, begins with Pluto flying in for its close-up on July 14; we then pass behind Pluto and see the atmosphere glow in sunlight before the sun passes behind Pluto's largest moon, Charon. The movie ends with New Horizons' departure, looking back on each body as thin crescents. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19873

  18. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  20. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  1. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  2. Black Holes (With 16 figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Igor

    Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References

  3. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  4. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of…

  5. Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.

  6. Robotics Technical Note 102.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    IAfl-AIBZ 4U2 AIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTER WRIGHT-ETC F/6 13/8 I ROBOTICS TECHNIICAL NOTE 102.(U) JUN Al B M BLABIERSALL UNCLASSIFE...CATALOG uME 1T4.T7- Subtitle S. TYPE OF REPOR & PERIOO COVERED Technical Note 102 Robotics 𔄁 FInal r ---- 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER C 7. A tNORa B...Identify by block number) Robotics Manufacturing Industrial Robots Robot Technology SRobotics Application BQ~.STRACT (Continue on revere* side It

  7. Miniaturized autonomous robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Many projects developing the miniaturized autonomous robot have been carried out in the whole world. This paper deals with our challenges developing a miniaturized autonomous robot. The miniaturized autonomous robot is defined as the miniaturized closed-loop system with micro processor, microactuators and microsensors. We have developed the micro autonomous robotic system (MARS) consisting of the microprocessor, microsensors, microactuators, communication units and batteries. The MARS controls itself by the downloaded program supplied through the IR communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate several performance of the MARS, and discuss the properties of the miniaturized autonomous robot.

  8. Robotics for challenging environments

    SciTech Connect

    Demsetz, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the second specialty conference on Robotics for Challenging Environments (RCE-II), held in Albuquerque, NM, June 1-6, 1996. The conference was motivated by the recognition that the use of robotic, automated, and teleoperated equipment in hazardous, unstructured field operations poses challenges different from those faced in more controlled manufacturing environments. Papers were presented in areas including, path planning, operator interfaces, supervisory control, control of robots and manipulators, space applications, standards for space robots, infrastructure applications, robotic excavation, safety in nuclear facilities, mobile systems, and educational applications. Separate abstracts for some papers have been indexed into the energy database.

  9. Robotic technology in urology

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-01-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  10. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  11. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  12. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  13. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  14. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  15. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  16. VI.3. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Munih, Marko; Bajd, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the background, main achievements and components of rehabilitation robotics in a simple way, using non-technical terms. The introductory part looks at the development of robotic approaches in the rehabilitation of neurological patients and outlines the principles of robotic device interactions with patients. There follows a section on virtual reality in rehabilitation. Hapticity and interaction between robot and human are presented in order to understand the added value of robotics that cannot be exploited in other devices. The importance of passive exercise and active tasks is then discussed using the results of various clinical trials, followed by the place of upper and lower extremity robotic devices in rehabilitation practice. The closing section refers to the general importance of measurements in this area and stresses quantitative measurements as one of the advantages in using robotic devices.

  17. Passive Baited Sequential Fly Trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling fly populations associated with human populations is needed to understand diel behavior and to monitor population densities before and after control operations. Population control measures are dependent on the results of monitoring efforts as they may provide insight into the fly behavior ...

  18. Why flies are good vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  19. The black flies of Maine

    Treesearch

    L.S. Bauer; J. Granett

    1979-01-01

    Black flies have been long-time residents of Maine and cause extensive nuisance problems for people, domestic animals, and wildlife. The black fly problem has no simple solution because of the multitude of species present, the diverse and ecologically sensitive habitats in which they are found, and the problems inherent in measuring the extent of the damage they cause...

  20. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human–robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human–robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. PMID:28539483

  1. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Hogsette, J A

    1994-12-01

    Tabanids are among the most free-living adult flies which play a role as livestock pests. A single blood meal is used as a source of energy for egg production (100-1,000 eggs per meal), and females of certain species can oviposit before a blood meal is obtained (autogeny). Therefore, the maintenance of annual populations requires successful oviposition by only 2% of females. Wild animal blood sources are usually available to maintain annual tabanid populations. Larval habitats are also independent of domestic livestock. Thus, the use of repellents or partial repellents is the only effective chemical strategy to reduce the incidence of tabanids on livestock. Permanent traps (and possibly treated silhouette traps) can be employed to intercept flies. Selective grazing or confinement can also reduce the impact of tabanids. Stable fly adults are dependent on vertebrate blood for survival and reproduction, but the amount of time spent in contact with the host is relatively small. Stable fly larvae develop in manure, spilled feed and decaying vegetation. Management of larval habitats by sanitation is the key to stable fly control. Treatment of animals with residual insecticides can aid in control; thorough application to the lower body parts of livestock is important. Proper use of modified traps, using either treated targets or solar-powered electrocution grids, can be effective in reducing stable fly populations. Adult horn flies spend the major part of their time on the host, and the larvae are confined to bovid manure. Therefore, almost any form of topical insecticide application for livestock is effective against horn flies, in the absence of insecticide resistance. Treatments should be applied when economic benefit is possible; economic gains are associated with increased weaning weights and weight gains of yearling and growing cattle. Oral chemical treatments (insect growth regulators or insecticides) administered at appropriate rates via bolus, water, food or

  2. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  3. Uniformly accelerated black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    2001-09-01

    The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

  4. Exploring Black Hole Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun

    2015-10-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If

  5. Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).

  6. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  7. Robust Method For Robotic Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin J.; Byun, Yung-Tai

    1992-01-01

    Robot constructs map from experience. Topological model consists of nodes and arcs corresponding to distinctive places and local travel edges linking nearby distinctive places. Model created by linking places and edges. Enables accumulation of metrical information with reduced vulnerability to metrical errors. Applications include robotic sentires, robotic delivery trucks, robotic floor cleaners, and robotic lawnmowers.

  8. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  9. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  10. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  11. The Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    Observations of Antarctic ozone levels and the discovery of a hole in the Antarctic region are examined. The effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the level of stratospheric ozone are analyzed. Three cycles explaining the cause of ozone depletion in the poles are proposed. A comparison of field data and proposed depletion cycles reveals that the chemical origin of the ozone hole is due to CFCs. The potential global effects of the Antarctic ozone hole are discussed.

  12. Design of Hybrid Passive and Active Mechanisms for Control of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Zhi Ern

    Flying insects exhibit a remarkable ability to fly in environments that are small, cluttered and highly dynamic. Inspired by these animals, scientist have made great strides in understanding the aerodynamic mechanisms behind insect-scale flapping-wing flight. By applying these mechanisms together with recent advances in meso-scale fabrication techniques, engineers built an insect-scale flapping-wing robot and demonstrated hover by actively controlling the robot about its roll and pitch axes. The robot, however, lacked control over its yaw axis preventing control over its heading angle. In this thesis, we show that the roll and pitch axes of a single actuator insect-scale flapping-wing robot can also be passively stabilized by the addition of a pair of aerodynamic dampers. We develop design guidelines for these dampers, showing that the previously unstable robot with the addition of the dampers is able to perform stable vertical flights and altitude control. To address the lack of yaw control, we develop a yaw torque generating mechanism inspired by the fruit fly wing hinge. We present the development of this mechanism in three stages: from the conceptual stage, to the torque measurement stage and finally to a hover capable stage. We show that the robot is able to generate sufficient yaw torque enabling the robot to transition from hover to heading control maneuvers.

  13. Asymptotic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  14. Evidence for black holes.

    PubMed

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.

  15. Formation Flying: The Future of Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades a revolution is likely to occur in how remote sensing of Earth, other planets or bodies, and a range of phenomena in the universe is performed from space. In particular, current launch vehicle fairing volume and mass constraints will continue to restrict the size of monolithic telescope apertures which can be launched to little or no greater size than that of the Hubble Space Telescope, the largest aperture currently flying in space. Systems under formulation today, such as the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to increase aperture size and, hence, imaging resolution, by deploying segmented optics. However, this approach is limited as well, by our ability to control such segments to optical tolerances over long distances with highly uncertain structural dynamics connecting them. Consequently, for orders of magnitude improved resolution as required for imaging black holes, imaging planets, or performing asteroseismology, the only viable approach will be to fly a collection of spacecraft in formation to synthesize a virtual segmented telescope or interferometer with very large baselines. This paper provides some basic definitions in the area of formation flying, describes some of the strategic science missions planned in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and identifies some of the critical technologies needed to enable some of the most challenging space missions ever conceived which have realistic hopes of flying.

  16. The flying radiation case

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

  17. Robotic endovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Au, Stephanie; Ko, Koel; Tsang, Josephine; Chan, Yiu Che

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to compare conventional endovascular procedures and the robotic endovascular approach in aortic aneurysm repair. Despite advantages over open surgery, conventional endovascular surgery has limitations. To develop an alternative, efforts have been focused on robotic endovascular systems. Two of the 3 studies comparing procedure times demonstrated reduced procedure time in the robotic group, by 6 times (p < 0.05). One study demonstrated that robotic procedures reduced fluoroscopic exposure time by 12 minute (p < 0.001). Three in-vitro studies showed that the number of movements required in robotic surgery was reduced up to 10 times (p < 0.05). One of 2 studies measuring robotic performance score showed a better performance score in the robotic endovascular group (p = 0.007). These results demonstrate that the robotic technique has multiple advantages over the conventional procedure, including improved catheter stability, a shorter learning curve, reduced procedure time, and better performance in cannulating tortuous vessels. However, robotic endovascular technology may be limited by the cost of the system, the size of the catheter, and the setup time required preoperatively. Further comparative studies between conventional and robotic approaches regarding cost-effectiveness, safety, and performance in cases involving complex anatomy and fenestrated stent grafts are essential. Nevertheless, this revolutionary technology is increasingly popular and may be the next milestone in endovascular surgery.

  18. Method and associated apparatus for capturing, servicing, and de-orbiting earth satellites using robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, Frank J. (Inventor); Burns, Richard D. (Inventor); Holz, Jill M. (Inventor); Corbo, James E. (Inventor); Jedhrich, Nicholas M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a method and supporting apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing and de-orbiting a free-flying spacecraft, such as a satellite, using robotics. The capture of the spacecraft includes the steps of optically seeking and ranging the satellite using LIDAR, and matching tumble rates, rendezvousing and berthing with the satellite. Servicing of the spacecraft may be done using supervised autonomy, which is allowing a robot to execute a sequence of instructions without intervention from a remote human-occupied location. These instructions may be packaged at the remote station in a script and uplinked to the robot for execution upon remote command giving authority to proceed. Alternately, the instructions may be generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) logic onboard the robot. In either case, the remote operator maintains the ability to abort an instruction or script at any time as well as the ability to intervene using manual override to teleoperate the robot.

  19. Survey of modeling, planning, and ground verification of space robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-06-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities. Nevertheless, dynamics modeling and motion planning of a space robot are much more complex than those of a fixed-base robot, due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulator and its base. On the other hand, in order to assure the success of on-orbital missions, many experiments are required to verify the key algorithms on the ground before the space robot is launched. In this paper, the main research achievements on dynamics modeling, path planning, and ground verification are reviewed, and future studies are recommended. Firstly, we summarize the essential modeling concepts, and deduce the kinematics and dynamics equations of a space robot. Secondly, the main motion planning approaches are discussed. Then, different ground verification systems, including the air-bearing table, neutral buoyancy, airplane flying, free-falling motion, suspension system, and hybrid system, are introduced. Finally, the future research trends are forecasted.

  20. Mobile robots IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 6, 7, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mobile robot systems discusses high-speed machine perception based on passive sensing, wide-angle optical ranging, three-dimensional path planning for flying/crawling robots, navigation of autonomous mobile intelligence in an unstructured natural environment, mechanical models for the locomotion of a four-articulated-track robot, a rule-based command language for a semiautonomous Mars rover, and a computer model of the structured light vision system for a Mars rover. Also discussed are optical flow and three-dimensional information for navigation, feature-based reasoning trail detection, a symbolic neural-net production system for obstacle avoidance and navigation, intelligent path planning for robot navigation in an unknown environment, behaviors from a hierarchical control system, stereoscopic TV systems, the REACT language for autonomous robots, and a man-amplifying exoskeleton.

  1. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  2. GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge Reid Simmons, Allison Bruce, Dani Goldberg, Adam Goode, Michael Montemerlo, Nicholas...2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge 5a. CONTRACT...Simmons. “A Social Robot that Stands in Line.” Autonomous Robots , 12:3 pp.313-324, May 2002. [Ortony, 1988] A. Ortony, G. L. Clore, and A. Collins

  3. Light driven micro-robotics with holographic 3D tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    We recently pioneered the concept of light-driven micro-robotics including the new and disruptive 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time optically trapped and "remote-controlled" in a volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potential of this new drone-like 3D light robotics approach in challenging microscopic geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light coupling that can dynamically track a plurality of "light robots" in 3D to ensure continuous optimal light coupling on the fly. Our latest developments in this new and exciting area will be reviewed in this invited paper.

  4. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  5. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  6. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  7. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  8. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  9. Micro-aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot mechanism for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-Uk; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Myung, Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the maintenance or inspection of large structures is labor-intensive, so it has a problem of the large cost due to the staffing professionals and the risk for hard to reach areas. To solve the problem, the needs of wall-climbing robot are emerged. Infra-based wall-climbing robots to maintain an outer wall of building have high payload and safety. However, the infrastructure for the robot must be equipped on the target structure and the infrastructure isn't preferred by the architects since it can injure the exterior of the structure. These are the reasons of why the infra-based wall-climbing robot is avoided. In case of the non-infra-based wall-climbing robot, it is researched to overcome the aforementioned problems. However, most of the technologies are in the laboratory level since the payload, safety and maneuverability are not satisfactory. For this reason, aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot is researched. It is a flying possible wallclimbing robot based on a quadrotor. It is a famous aerial vehicle robot using four rotors to make a thrust for flying. This wall-climbing robot can stick to a vertical wall using the thrust. After sticking to the wall, it can move with four wheels installed on the robot. As a result, it has high maneuverability and safety since it can restore the position to the wall even if it is detached from the wall by unexpected disturbance while climbing the wall. The feasibility of the main concept was verified through simulations and experiments using a prototype.

  10. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  11. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  12. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  14. Multigait soft robot

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Robert F.; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A.; Stokes, Adam A.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion. PMID:22123978

  15. Robotic surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery has undergone exponential growth and has ever developing utilization. The explosion of new technologies and regulation have led to challenges in training surgeons who desire this skill set. We review the current state of robotic simulation and incorporation of simulation into surgical training curricula. In addition to the literature review, results of a questionnaire survey study of 21 expert and novice surgeons attending a Urologic Robotic Oncology conference using 3 different robotic skill simulation devices are discussed. An increasing number of robotic surgery simulators have had some degree of validation study of their use in surgical education curricula and proficiency testing. Although simulators are advantageous, confirmation of construct and predictive validity of robotic simulators and their reliability as a training tool will be necessary before they are integrated into the surgical credentialing process.

  16. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  17. Roboter in der Raumfahrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirzinger, G.

    (Robots in space)—The paper emphasizes the enormous automation impact in industry caused by microelectronics, a "byproduct" of space-technology. The evolutionary stages of robotic are outlined and it is shown that there are a lot of reasons for more automation, artificial intelligence and robotic in space, too. The telemanipulator concept is compared with the industrial robot concept, both showing up an increasing degree of similarity. The state of the art in sensory systems is discussed. By hand of the typical operations needed in space as rendezvous, assembly and docking the required robot skill is indicated. As a conclusion it is stated that the basic technologies available with industrial robots today could solve a lot of space problems. What remains to do—apart of course from ongoing research—is better integration and adaption of industrial techniques to the need of space technology.

  18. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  19. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  20. Newborn Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  1. Rotating hairy black holes.

    PubMed

    Kleihaus, B; Kunz, J

    2001-04-23

    We construct stationary black-hole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing nontrivial non-Abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent nonperturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  2. Newborn Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  3. Time (hole?) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchak, John Byron

    2014-11-01

    Within the context of general relativity, we consider a type of "time machine" and introduce the related "hole machine". We review what is known about each and add results of our own. We conclude that (so far) the hole machine advocate is in a better position than the time machine advocate.

  4. Phosphate-Bonded Fly Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-09

    FCODE OC ______________ ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 - dis~bu~i.19~ 3 B Navy Case No. 75,787 PATENTS PHOSPHATE -BONDED FLY ASH IN’NA G. TALMY DEBORAH A. HAUGHT...2 3 , CaO. MgO, etc. with which the H.PO4 reacts to form the polymer-like phosphate bonds which hold the fly ash particles together. In the second...conventional means. The moisture (water) content of the aqueous HP0 4 /fly ash mixture is preferably from about 3 to about 5 weight percent for semidry

  5. Revisiting the obstetric flying squad.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J; Parampalam, S D

    2000-06-01

    The obstetric flying squad has been used in obstetric practice since 1933 to manage obstetric emergencies occurring in domicilliary practice. It has often been criticised in such situations as only delaying effective treatment to the patient. We have introduced the obstetric flying squad in an urban setting to cater for obstetric emergencies occurring in private practice. This service has been used on ten occasions since its inception without any maternal deaths being recorded or any delay in the provision of emergency care. The flying squad has led to closer cooperation between the government and private sectors in providing obstetric care.

  6. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  7. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  8. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  9. Robotic Security Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    robotic security platforms that automatically respond in an adaptive fashion to potential disturbances reported by a broad-area field of fixed unattended...sensors represents a powerful new defensive tool for mitigating the terrorist threat. Background The primary purpose of any robotic system is to...mobile robots , the predominant challenge is one of perception, in that the very nature of mobility introduces a never-ending sequence of dynamically

  10. Army Medical Robotics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Army Medical Robotics Research Gary Gilbert, Ph.D., U.S. Army TATRC, Ph: (301) 619-4043, Fax: (301) 619-2518 gilbert@tatrc.org, www.tatrc.org...politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. Research progress has been made in the areas of robotics ; artificial intelligence...institutions have demonstrated intelligent robots that execute functions ranging from performing mechanical repairs to playing soccer. The military has

  11. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  12. AMAS Robotics Seminar Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    Unclassified Unclassified 19 July 2011 AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF Aaron Hart, Product Integrator, RS JPO DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...19-07-2011 to 19-07-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE robotics seminar brief 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF 14

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  14. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  15. Robotics in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Paul B; Louw, Deon F; Rizun, Peter R; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2004-10-01

    Technological developments in imaging guidance, intraoperative imaging, and microscopy have pushed neurosurgeons to the limits of their dexterity and stamina. The introduction of robotically assisted surgery has provided surgeons with improved ergonomics and enhanced visualization, dexterity, and haptic capabilities. This article provides a historical perspective on neurosurgical robots, including image-guided stereotactic and microsurgery systems. The future of robot-assisted neurosurgery, including the use of surgical simulation tools and methods to evaluate surgeon performance, is discussed.

  16. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  17. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sejal P; Falcone, Tommaso

    2005-07-01

    To review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology. The MEDLINE database was reviewed for all publications on robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, its role in surgical education, and telepresence surgery. University medical center. Robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging technology, which provides an alternative to traditional surgical techniques in reproductive medicine and may have a role in surgical education and telepresence surgery.

  18. Compliant Robotic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    robotic structure is one or more continuously flexible arms -hat can be controlled to manipulate objects. A typical arm is comprised of ... of ideas for the design of versatile, strong robotic manipulators. In this paper a mathematical model of an elephant trunk lifting a weight is...Results may be used for the design of robotic actuators driven by internal pressure. I,g or 67 I* .,.. INTRODUCTION Improvement in the

  19. Industrial robots: Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Iu. G.

    Topics covered include terms, definitions, and classification; operator-directed manipulators; autooperators as used in automated pressure casting; construction and application of industrial robots; and the operating bases of automated systems. Attention is given to adaptive and interactive robots; gripping mechanisms; applications to foundary production, press-forging plants, heat treatment, welding, and assembly operations. A review of design recommendations includes a determination of fundamental structural and technological indicators for industrial robots and a consideration of drive mechanisms.

  20. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Ron Diftler of NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston demonstrates the leg movements of Robonaut 2 during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  1. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Bruce Yost of NASA's Ames Research Center discusses a small satellite, known as PhoneSat, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  2. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Two young visitors get an up-close look at an engineering model of Robonaut 2, complete with a set of legs, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  3. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  4. Fluctuating black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  5. Black Hole Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.

  6. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  7. Can we track holes?

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Todd S; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-05-11

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1-5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Black Hole Simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-30

    This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04206

  9. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  10. Children's Perception and Interpretation of Robots and Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamjee, Sajida; Griffiths, Frances; Palmer, Julie

    Technology is advancing rapidly; especially in the field of robotics. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perception and interpretation of robots and robot behaviour. The study was divided into two phases: phase one involved 144 children (aged 7-8) from two primary schools drawing a picture of a robot and then writing a story about the robot that they had drawn. In phase two, in small groups, 90 children observed four e-puck robots interacting within an arena. The children were asked three questions during the observation: 'What do you think the robots are doing?', 'Why are they doing these things?' and 'What is going on inside the robot?' The results indicated that children can hold multiple understandings of robots simultaneously. Children tend to attribute animate characteristics to robots. Although this may be explained by their stage of development, it may also influence how their generation integrates robots into society.

  11. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  12. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  13. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  15. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  17. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  18. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  19. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  20. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  1. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  2. Robotic benign esophageal procedures.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jennifer M; Onaitis, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Robotic master-slave devices can assist surgeons to perform minimally invasive esophageal operations with approaches that have already been demonstrated using laparoscopy and thoracoscopy. Robotic-assisted surgery for benign esophageal disease is described for the treatment of achalasia, epiphrenic diverticula, refractory reflux, paraesophageal hernias, duplication cysts, and benign esophageal masses, such as leiomyomas. Indications and contraindications for robotic surgery in benign esophageal disease should closely approximate the indications for laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. Given the early application of the technology and paucity of clinical evidence, there are currently no procedures for which robotic esophageal surgery is the clinically proven preferred approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  4. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  5. Flying qualities criteria for superaugmented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of Dryden superaugmented aircraft flying qualities research is presented. This includes F-8 digital fly by wire flight experiments, orbiter flying qualities, shuttle improvements, AFTI/F-16, flying qualities and control system alternatives, Vertical Motion Simulator Shuttle evaluation and Total in Flight Simulator pitch rate criteria.

  6. Hole-ness of point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Klaes, Björn; Casper, Markus C.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and dense 3D models of soil surfaces can be used in various ways: They can be used as initial shapes for erosion models. They can be used as benchmark shapes for erosion model outputs. They can be used to derive metrics, such as random roughness... One easy and low-cost method to produce these models is structure from motion (SfM). Using this method, two questions arise: Does the soil moisture, which changes the colour, albedo and reflectivity of the soil, influence the model quality? How can the model quality be evaluated? To answer these questions, a suitable data set has been produced: soil has been placed on a tray and areas with different roughness structures have been formed. For different moisture states - dry, medium, saturated - and two different lighting conditions - direct and indirect - sets of high-resolution images at the same camera positions have been taken. From the six image sets, 3D point clouds have been produced using VisualSfM. The visual inspection of the 3D models showed that all models have different areas, where holes of different sizes occur. But it is obviously a subjective task to determine the model's quality by visual inspection. One typical approach to evaluate model quality objectively is to estimate the point density on a regular, two-dimensional grid: the number of 3D points in each grid cell projected on a plane is calculated. This works well for surfaces that do not show vertical structures. Along vertical structures, many points will be projected on the same grid cell and thus the point density rather depends on the shape of the surface but less on the quality of the model. Another approach has been applied by using the points resulting from Poisson Surface Reconstructions. One of this algorithm's properties is the filling of holes: new points are interpolated inside the holes. Using the original 3D point cloud and the interpolated Poisson point set, two analyses have been performed: For all Poisson points, the

  7. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  8. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  9. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  10. i-SAIRAS '90; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, Kobe, Japan, Nov. 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and automation in space encompasses robot systems, lunar and planetary robots, advanced processing, expert systems, knowledge bases, issues of operation and management, manipulator control, and on-orbit service. Specific issues addressed include fundamental research in AI at NASA, the FTS dexterous telerobot, a target-capture experiment by a free-flying robot, the NASA Planetary Rover Program, the Katydid system for compiling KEE applications to Ada, and speech recognition for robots. Also addressed are a knowledge base for real-time diagnosis, a pilot-in-the-loop simulation of an orbital docking maneuver, intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization, a fuzzy control method for a space manipulator system, hyperredundant manipulator applications, robotic servicing of EOS instruments, and a summary of astronaut inputs on automation and robotics for the Space Station Freedom.

  11. i-SAIRAS '90; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, Kobe, Japan, Nov. 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and automation in space encompasses robot systems, lunar and planetary robots, advanced processing, expert systems, knowledge bases, issues of operation and management, manipulator control, and on-orbit service. Specific issues addressed include fundamental research in AI at NASA, the FTS dexterous telerobot, a target-capture experiment by a free-flying robot, the NASA Planetary Rover Program, the Katydid system for compiling KEE applications to Ada, and speech recognition for robots. Also addressed are a knowledge base for real-time diagnosis, a pilot-in-the-loop simulation of an orbital docking maneuver, intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization, a fuzzy control method for a space manipulator system, hyperredundant manipulator applications, robotic servicing of EOS instruments, and a summary of astronaut inputs on automation and robotics for the Space Station Freedom.

  12. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  13. [Fear of flying].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ortstein, H; Baumeister, H P

    1999-10-01

    All reliable data and statistics point to the safety of flying. Nevertheless many opinion surveys indicate that every third in the population is affected by aviophobia in one way or the other. Aviophobia is simply a specific phobia from which men and women suffer the same degree. It can be found in all social strata and all occupational groups. Aviophobia is felt in very subjective manners and different ways. The structure of reasons of aviophobia can be very complex, whereas it is somewhat easier to identify immediately the causes. Depending upon the degree of aviophobia different strategies of treatment are indicated. Next to the confrontation theraphy the most wellknown therapy is the systematic desensibilization, classic relaxation methods and cognitive strategies for overcoming the phobia. A high degree of success has been achieved with workshops on aviophobia. These workshops show an increasing tendency. It can be expected that in the future exposition treatment working with virtual realities will also prove successful in overcoming aviophobia. First case studies on the effectivity are all ready available and further effects towards corroborating the effectivity are being plant. Successful with a reduced and minimal input of therapeutic council are also self-management books. In order to master aviophobia, it may be sufficient in cases of less intensivity to work with self-management books in the sense of bibliotherapy.

  14. Shuttlecock detection system for fully-autonomous badminton robot with two high-speed video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunari, T.; Yamagami, K.; Mizuno, M.; Une, S.; Uotani, M.; Kanematsu, T.; Demachi, K.; Sano, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2017-02-01

    Two high-speed video cameras are successfully used to detect the motion of a flying shuttlecock of badminton. The shuttlecock detection system is applied to badminton robots that play badminton fully autonomously. The detection system measures the three dimensional position and velocity of a flying shuttlecock, and predicts the position where the shuttlecock falls to the ground. The badminton robot moves quickly to the position where the shuttle-cock falls to, and hits the shuttlecock back into the opponent's side of the court. In the game of badminton, there is a large audience, and some of them move behind a flying shuttlecock, which are a kind of background noise and makes it difficult to detect the motion of the shuttlecock. The present study demonstrates that such noises can be eliminated by the method of stereo imaging with two high-speed cameras.

  15. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    submitted for publication. iii 7. Key Words: Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae Phlebotomus Leishmaniasis 1i Note: Copies of this report are filed with...5 II. Sand Flies of the Central Amazon of Brazil. 2. De- scription of Lutzomyia (Triehophoromyia) ruii n. sp. . 28 III. A New Phlebotomine Sand...previously unknown in the Republic. These are Brvmptomyia hamata, B. galindoi, Lutzomyia odax, L. ovallesi, L. carpenteri, L. shannoni, L. texana, L

  16. Flies compensate for unilateral wing damage through modular adjustments of wing and body kinematics.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Iwasaki, Nicole A; Elzinga, Michael J; Melis, Johan M; Dickinson, Michael H

    2017-02-06

    Using high-speed videography, we investigated how fruit flies compensate for unilateral wing damage, in which loss of area on one wing compromises both weight support and roll torque equilibrium. Our results show that flies control for unilateral damage by rolling their body towards the damaged wing and by adjusting the kinematics of both the intact and damaged wings. To compensate for the reduction in vertical lift force due to damage, flies elevate wingbeat frequency. Because this rise in frequency increases the flapping velocity of both wings, it has the undesired consequence of further increasing roll torque. To compensate for this effect, flies increase the stroke amplitude and advance the timing of pronation and supination of the damaged wing, while making the opposite adjustments on the intact wing. The resulting increase in force on the damaged wing and decrease in force on the intact wing function to maintain zero net roll torque. However, the bilaterally asymmetrical pattern of wing motion generates a finite lateral force, which flies balance by maintaining a constant body roll angle. Based on these results and additional experiments using a dynamically scaled robotic fly, we propose a simple bioinspired control algorithm for asymmetric wing damage.

  17. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  18. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  19. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  20. Associative learning in flying phobia.

    PubMed

    Vriends, Noortje; Michael, Tanja; Schindler, Bettina; Margraf, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Modern learning theories suggest that particularly strong associative learning contributes to the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, thus explaining why some individuals develop an anxiety disorder after a frightening (conditioning) event, whereas others do not. However, associative learning has rarely been investigated experimentally in specific phobias. The current study investigated associative learning in patients with flying phobia and healthy controls using a modified version of Olson and Fazio's associative learning paradigm (Olson & Fazio, 2001). Under the guise of an attention task, patients with flying phobia (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 39) viewed a series of distracters interspersed with pairings of novel objects (counterbalanced conditioned stimuli, CSs) with frightening and pleasant stimuli (unconditioned stimuli, USs). After the conditioning procedure patients with flying phobia rated both CSs more frightening and showed stronger discrimination between the CSs for valence compared to healthy controls. Our findings indicate a particularly stronger conditioning effect in flying phobia. These results contribute to the understanding of the etiology of specific phobia and may help to explain why only some individuals develop a flying phobia after an aversive event associated with flying. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-03-15

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  2. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  3. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  4. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  5. Substantial Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    A pair of large coronal holes rotated into view over the past few days (Oct. 20-21, 2016). Coronal holes appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light, such as in the wavelength used here. These holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew solar wind into space. Sometimes, when they are facing Earth, they can cause geomagnetic disturbances that generate aurora. The lines you see were drawn to represent how solar scientists are modeling the magnetic field lines. Movies are available at the Photojournal http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15378

  6. Coronal Hole Coming Around

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-06

    A substantial coronal hole began to rotate into view over the past few days (Dec. 1-2, 2016). Coronal holes are magnetically open areas of the sun's magnetic field structure that spew streams of high speed solar wind into space. In about a week or so that coronal hole might send streams of particles in the direction of Earth. Often times these streams can interact with Earth's magnetosphere and generate aurora. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21208

  7. Returning Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-06

    A substantial coronal hole rotated across the face of the sun this past week and is again streaming solar wind towards Earth (Jan. 30 - Feb. 2, 2017). This same coronal hole was facing Earth about a month ago and has rotated into a similar position again. Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field from which solar wind particles stream into space. In this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light it appears as a dark area near the center and lower portion of the sun. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11177

  8. Coronal Hole Faces Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-14

    A substantial coronal hole rotated into a position where it is facing Earth (Aug. 9-11, 2017). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew out charged particles as solar wind that spreads into space. If that solar wind interacts with our own magnetosphere it can generate aurora. In this view of the sun in extreme ultraviolet light, the coronal hole appears as the dark stretch near the center of the sun. It was the most distinctive feature on the sun over the past week. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21874

  9. Flying at no mechanical energy cost: disclosing the secret of wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried; Traugott, Johannes; Nesterova, Anna P; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Kümmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do: fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consisting of a continually repeated up-down curve with optimal adjustment to the wind. We determined the energy obtained from the wind by analysing the measured trajectories of free flying birds using a new GPS-signal tracking method yielding a high precision. Our results reveal an evolutionary adaptation to an extreme environment, and may support recent biologically inspired research on robotic aircraft that might utilize albatrosses' flight technique for engineless propulsion.

  10. Flying at No Mechanical Energy Cost: Disclosing the Secret of Wandering Albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Gottfried; Traugott, Johannes; Nesterova, Anna P.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Kümmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do: fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consisting of a continually repeated up-down curve with optimal adjustment to the wind. We determined the energy obtained from the wind by analysing the measured trajectories of free flying birds using a new GPS-signal tracking method yielding a high precision. Our results reveal an evolutionary adaptation to an extreme environment, and may support recent biologically inspired research on robotic aircraft that might utilize albatrosses' flight technique for engineless propulsion. PMID:22957014

  11. Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

  12. Development of robots and application to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, W. J.; Liscano, R.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for using a robot system with a single camera to position in three-dimensional space a slender object for insertion into a hole; for example, an electrical pin-type termination into a connector hole. The algorithm relies on a control-configured end effector to achieve the required horizontal translations and rotational motion, and it does not require camera calibration. A force sensor in each fingertip is integrated with the vision system to allow the robot to teach itself new reference points when different connectors and pins are used. Variability in the grasped orientation and position of the pin can be accomodated with the sensor system. Performance tests show that the system is feasible. More work is needed to determine more precisely the effects of lighting levels and lighting direction.

  13. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  14. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  15. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  16. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  17. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  18. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  19. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Robotic ocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsirbas, A; Mango, C; Dutson, E

    2007-01-01

    Bimanual, three-dimensional robotic surgery has proved valuable for a variety of surgical procedures. To examine the use of a commercially available surgical robot for ocular microsurgery. Using a da Vinci surgical robot, ocular microsurgery was performed with repair of a corneal laceration in a porcine model. The experiments were performed on harvested porcine eyes placed in an anatomical position using a foam head on a standard operating room table. A video scope and two, 360 degrees -rotating, 8-mm, wrested-end effector instruments were placed over the eye with three robotic arms. The surgeon performed the actual procedures while positioned at a robotic system console that was located across the operating room suite. Each surgeon placed three 10-0 sutures, and this was documented with still and video photography. Ocular microsurgery was successfully performed using the da Vinci surgical robot. The robotic system provided excellent visualisation, as well as controlled and delicate placement of the sutures at the corneal level. Robotic ocular microsurgery is technically feasible in the porcine model and warrants consideration for evaluation in controlled human trials to deploy functioning remote surgical centres in areas without access to state-of-the-art surgical skill and technology.

  1. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  2. Concurrent programming and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, I.J.; Gehani, N.H.

    1989-04-01

    Many current robot systems exhibit a significant degree of concurrency, doing many activities in parallel. Future sensor-based robots are expected to exhibit even more concurrency. Programs to control such robots are characterized by the need to wait for external events and/or handle interrupts, deal with concurrent activities, synchronize actions with external events, and communicate with other robots and processes. In this paper, the authors focus on the advantages of concurrent programming for robotics and suggest that a general-purpose language with the right facilities is a good vehicle for robot programming. In this context they discuss Concurrent C, an upward-compatible extension of the C language that provides high-level concurrent programming facilities. They give an historical perspective of concurrent programming followed by a brief description of Concurrent C and how Concurrent C programs communicate with robots and devices. They show by examples how Concurrent C simplifies writing robot programs. Of specific interest are the process interaction and related interrupt handling facilities.

  3. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  4. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  5. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  6. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality.

  7. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  8. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  9. Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This award funded in part, the travel of three investigators to the international conference on Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots. The three...investigators participated in a conference held at Northeastern University May 14-16 on the subject of ’ Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots’. Each

  10. Robotics: Generation soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-08-01

    Meet the octobot, the first robot to be made entirely from soft materials. Powered by a chemical reaction and controlled by a fluidic logic circuit, it heralds a generation of soft robots that might surpass conventional machines. See Letter p.451

  11. The 50-Minute Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Miram R.

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders built working "robots" (or grasping bars) for remote control use during a unit on simple mechanics. Steps for making a robot are presented, including: cutting the wood, drilling and nailing, assembling the jaws, and making them work. The "jaws," used to pick up objects, illustrate principles of levers. (DH)

  12. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Robotic ocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tsirbas, A; Mango, C; Dutson, E

    2007-01-01

    Background Bimanual, three‐dimensional robotic surgery has proved valuable for a variety of surgical procedures. Aims To examine the use of a commercially available surgical robot for ocular microsurgery. Methods Using a da Vinci surgical robot, ocular microsurgery was performed with repair of a corneal laceration in a porcine model. The experiments were performed on harvested porcine eyes placed in an anatomical position using a foam head on a standard operating room table. A video scope and two, 360°‐rotating, 8‐mm, wrested‐end effector instruments were placed over the eye with three robotic arms. The surgeon performed the actual procedures while positioned at a robotic system console that was located across the operating room suite. Each surgeon placed three 10‐0 sutures, and this was documented with still and video photography. Results Ocular microsurgery was successfully performed using the da Vinci surgical robot. The robotic system provided excellent visualisation, as well as controlled and delicate placement of the sutures at the corneal level. Conclusions Robotic ocular microsurgery is technically feasible in the porcine model and warrants consideration for evaluation in controlled human trials to deploy functioning remote surgical centres in areas without access to state‐of‐the‐art surgical skill and technology. PMID:17020903

  14. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  15. Robotics in endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Klibansky, David; Rothstein, Richard I

    2012-09-01

    The increasing complexity of intralumenal and emerging translumenal endoscopic procedures has created an opportunity to apply robotics in endoscopy. Computer-assisted or direct-drive robotic technology allows the triangulation of flexible tools through telemanipulation. The creation of new flexible operative platforms, along with other emerging technology such as nanobots and steerable capsules, can be transformational for endoscopic procedures. In this review, we cover some background information on the use of robotics in surgery and endoscopy, and review the emerging literature on platforms, capsules, and mini-robotic units. The development of techniques in advanced intralumenal endoscopy (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection) and translumenal endoscopic procedures (NOTES) has generated a number of novel platforms, flexible tools, and devices that can apply robotic principles to endoscopy. The development of a fully flexible endoscopic surgical toolkit will enable increasingly advanced procedures to be performed through natural orifices. The application of platforms and new flexible tools to the areas of advanced endoscopy and NOTES heralds the opportunity to employ useful robotic technology. Following the examples of the utility of robotics from the field of laparoscopic surgery, we can anticipate the emerging role of robotic technology in endoscopy.

  16. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  17. 2012 FIRST Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-08

    Spectators crew on teams during the 2012 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Bayou Regional Competition March 15-17, 2012, in Kenner, La. Students from 49 high school teams in six states participated in the annual robotics tournament.

  18. [The robotic surgeon training].

    PubMed

    Crestani, Alessandro; Rossanese, Marta; Abbinante, Maria; Calandriello, Mattia; Kungulli, Afrovita; Giannarini, Gianluca; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    The widespread robotic surgery in the world highlighted the relevance of the training programs for young urologists and residents. In the last years, urologic societies and some independent robotic surgeons strongly worked to standardize some general and specific training modules. Theoretical and practical sections of robotic training programs have been recently specified. The role of simulators, dry and wet laboratories, bedside assistance, and modular (step-by-step) training at console represent the most relevant elements of robotic surgeon training. Ideally, these didactic tools should be available in modern training centers. The development of structured robotic training programs should be considered as one of the priorities that the urologic community must take into account in the near future.

  19. Evidence for robots.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  20. Dictionary of robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, H.

    1985-01-01

    The idea of using robots to perform repetitious tasks quickly, cheaply and efficiently has intrigued humans since the Industrial Revolution. Growth has occurred geometrically from the introduction of the first industrial robot in 1955, and continues, unabated, as industry sales are expected to increase 20-fold with applications in both high technology and industry. The Dictionary defines not only those terms standard to robotics but also those used in areas that are just beginning to be involved. The book offers concise, readable descriptions of robot systems, actions, hardware (including applications), communications, computer control, dynamics, cost justification, feedback, kinematics, man-machine interface, sensors and software. There are references to all major robots and manufacturers in the US, Europe and Japan.

  1. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  2. Robotics: The next step?

    PubMed

    Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2014-02-01

    Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. literature review was based on Medline search using a large variety of search terms, including e.g. robot(ic), randomized, rectal, oesophageal, ergonomics. Review articles on relevant topics are discussed with preference. There is abundant evidence of supremacy in performing complex endoscopic surgery tasks when using the robot in an experimental setting. There is little high-level evidence so far on translation of these merits to clinical practice. Robotic systems may appear helpful in complex gastro-intestinal surgery. Moreover, dedicated computer based technology integrated in telepresence systems opens the way to integration of planning, diagnostics and therapy. The first high tech add-ons such as near infrared technology are under clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  4. Avoiding space robot collisions utilizing the NASA/GSFC tri-mode skin sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, F. B. S.; Mahalingam, S.

    1992-01-01

    A capacitance based proximity sensor, the 'Capaciflector' (Vranish 92), has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. We had investigated the use of this sensor for avoiding and maneuvering around unexpected objects (Mahalingam 92). The approach developed there would help in executing collision-free gross motions. Another important aspect of robot motion planning is fine motion planning. Let us classify manipulator robot motion planning into two groups at the task level: gross motion planning and fine motion planning. We use the term 'gross planning' where the major degrees of freedom of the robot execute large motions, for example, the motion of a robot in a pick and place type operation. We use the term 'fine motion' to indicate motions of the robot where the large dofs do not move much, and move far less than the mirror dofs, such as in inserting a peg in a hole. In this report we describe our experiments and experiences in this area.

  5. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  6. Straight hole driller

    SciTech Connect

    Samford, T.L.

    1981-08-25

    For use in a drilling string, the preferred and illustrated embodiment depicts a drill collar to be placed in the lower parts of the drill string for straightening the hole. The preferred embodiment utilizes a generally square drill collar with a thick or heavy wall. It is square in cross section along the greater portion of its length, the four corners being slightly rounded to a specified diameter on rotation, and the four lengthwise corners of the regular cross section are all reinforced with hardfacing material to a specified depth, typically tungsten carbide. The four edges abrade the bore hole as the drill string penetrates the earth. In addition, the lower end of the tubular body includes lengthwise flutes in the form known on a stabilizer to guide the hole straightening device into the hole to be reamed by operation of the device.

  7. Two Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-03

    A pair of substantial coronal holes were the most notable features on the Sun over the week of Mar. 28 - Apr. 2, 2015. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light by NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  8. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  9. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  10. A Black Hole Choir.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-28

    The blue dots in this field of galaxies, known as the COSMOS field, show galaxies that contain supermassive black holes emitting high-energy X-rays. The black holes were detected by NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Array, or NuSTAR, which spotted 32 such black holes in this field and has observed hundreds across the whole sky so far. The other colored dots are galaxies that host black holes emitting lower-energy X-rays, and were spotted by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra data show X-rays with energies between 0.5 to 7 kiloelectron volts, while NuSTAR data show X-rays between 8 to 24 kiloelectron volts. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20865

  11. Missing Black Holes Found!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-25

    NASA Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes have uncovered a long-lost population of active supermassive black holes, or quasars located deep in the bellies of distant, massive galaxies circled in blue.

  12. Topsy Turvy Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-26

    The magenta spots in this image from NASA NuSTAR show two black holes in the spiral galaxy called NGC 1313, or the Topsy Turvy galaxy, located about 13 million light-years away in the Reticulum constellation.

  13. Control of a Quadcopter Aerial Robot Using Optic Flow Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Michael Brandon

    This thesis focuses on the motion control of a custom-built quadcopter aerial robot using optic flow sensing. Optic flow sensing is a vision-based approach that can provide a robot the ability to fly in global positioning system (GPS) denied environments, such as indoor environments. In this work, optic flow sensors are used to stabilize the motion of quadcopter robot, where an optic flow algorithm is applied to provide odometry measurements to the quadcopter's central processing unit to monitor the flight heading. The optic-flow sensor and algorithm are capable of gathering and processing the images at 250 frames/sec, and the sensor package weighs 2.5 g and has a footprint of 6 cm2 in area. The odometry value from the optic flow sensor is then used a feedback information in a simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller on the quadcopter. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of using optic flow for controlling the motion of the quadcopter aerial robot. The technique presented herein can be applied to different types of aerial robotic systems or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as well as unmanned ground vehicles (UGV).

  14. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale.

  15. [Application of robots in stomatology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Ning; Hong, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the robot technology has been developed rapidly and the medical robot has been used in many clinical areas, especially in the field of stomatology. The application of robot in stomatology will break the traditional mode of treatment and bring a new technological revolution. This paper introduced the advantages, the current situation and the development prospect of applying robot in stomatology.

  16. Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    From the IEEE Intelligent Systems Special Issue on Humanoid Robotics , July/August 2000 GUEST EDITORS’ Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics ...Mark L. Swinson, DARPA David J. Bruemmer, Strategic Analysis Mobile robots pose a unique set of challenges to artificial intelligence researchers...the constraints of logical correctness but also some assortment of crosscutting, physical constraints. Particularly interesting among these robots

  17. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  18. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    A judge for the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge follows a robot on the playing field during the challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Black hole geometrothermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-03-01

    We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.

  20. Orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, J. W.; Smith, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element was developed to adequately represent the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This has been achieved through a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with a center circular hole. The element has been incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN as a dummy element. Sample problems have been solved and these results are presented.