Science.gov

Sample records for holes flying robots

  1. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  2. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground based demonstration of the extensive extravehicular activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out; (2) searches for and acquires the target; (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target; (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles; (5) reaches for and grapples the target; (6) returns to transfer the object; and (7) returns to base.

  3. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The ground-based demonstration of EVA Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out, (2) searches for and acquires the target, (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target, (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles, (5) reaches for and grapples the target, (6) returns to transfer the object, and (7) returns to base.

  4. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  5. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  6. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    To accelerate the development of multi-armed, free-flying satellite manipulators, a fixed-base cooperative manipulation facility is being developed. The work performed on multiple arm cooperation on a free-flying robot is summarized. Research is also summarized on global navigation and control of free-flying space robots. The Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Pushoff (LEAP) approach is described and progress to date is presented.

  7. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    PubMed

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-19

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot.

  8. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    PubMed

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot. PMID:25599118

  9. Research in free-flying robots and flexible manipulators at the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. L.; Alder, L. J.; Chen, V. W.; Dickson, W. C.; Ullman, M. A.; Wilson, E.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed a hardware facility in which a number of space robotics issues have been, and continue to be addressed. This paper reviews two of the current ARL research areas: navigation and control of free flying space robots, and modeling and control of extremely flexible space structures.

  10. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.

    1986-01-01

    The development of and test control strategies for self-contained, autonomous free flying space robots are discussed. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots should reduce the expense and danger attending EVA both by providing assistance to astronauts and in many cases by eliminating altogether the need for human EVA, thus greatly enhancing the scope and flexibility of space assembly and repair activities. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. It is planned, in a later phase, to extend the research to three dimensions by carrying out experiments in the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  11. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Control techniques for self-contained, autonomous free-flying space robots are being tested and developed. Free-flying space robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require astronaut extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots will provide economic savings as well as improved astronaut safety by reducing and in many cases, eliminating the need for human EVA. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air-cushion-vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Current work is divided into six major projects or research areas. Fixed-base cooperative manipulation work represents our initial entry into multiple arm cooperation and high-level control with a sophisticated user interface. The floating-base cooperative manipulation project strives to transfer some of the technologies developed in the fixed-base work onto a floating base. The global control and navigation experiment seeks to demonstrate simultaneous control of the robot manipulators and the robot base position so that tasks can be accomplished while the base is undergoing a controlled motion. The multiple-vehicle cooperation project's goal is to demonstrate multiple free-floating robots working in teams to carry out tasks too difficult or complex for a single robot to perform. The Location Enhancement Arm Push-off (LEAP) activity's goal is to provide a viable alternative to expendable gas thrusters for vehicle propulsion wherein the robot uses its manipulators to throw itself from place to place. Because the successful execution of the LEAP technique requires an accurate model of the robot and payload mass properties, it was deemed an attractive testbed for adaptive control technology.

  12. Localization from Visual Landmarks on a Free-Flying Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltin, Brian; Fusco, Jesse; Moratto, Zack; Alexandrov, Oleg; Nakamura, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the localization approach for Astrobee, a new free-flying robot designed to navigate autonomously on the International Space Station (ISS). Astrobee will accommodate a variety of payloads and enable guest scientists to run experiments in zero-g, as well as assist astronauts and ground controllers. Astrobee will replace the SPHERES robots which currently operate on the ISS, whose use of fixed ultrasonic beacons for localization limits them to work in a 2 meter cube. Astrobee localizes with monocular vision and an IMU, without any environmental modifications. Visual features detected on a pre-built map, optical flow information, and IMU readings are all integrated into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the robot pose. We introduce several modifications to the filter to make it more robust to noise, and extensively evaluate the localization algorithm.

  13. Localization from Visual Landmarks on a Free-Flying Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltin, Brian; Fusco, Jesse; Moratto, Zack; Alexandrov, Oleg; Nakamura, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the localization approach for Astrobee,a new free-flying robot designed to navigate autonomously on board the International Space Station (ISS). Astrobee will conduct experiments in microgravity, as well as assisst astronauts and ground controllers. Astrobee replaces the SPHERES robots which currently operate on the ISS, which were limited to operating in a small cube since their localization system relied on triangulation from ultrasonic transmitters. Astrobee localizes with only monocular vision and an IMU, enabling it to traverse the entire US segment of the station. Features detected on a previously-built map, optical flow information,and IMU readings are all integrated into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the robot pose. We introduce several modifications to the filter to make it more robust to noise.Finally, we extensively evaluate the behavior of the filter on atwo-dimensional testing surface.

  14. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the research is to develop and test control strategies for a self-contained, free flying space robot. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. The development of the SRSV and of some of the controller subsystems are discribed. The two-link arm was fitted to the SRSV base, and researchers explored the open-loop characteristics of the arm and thruster actuators. Work began on building the software foundation necessary for use of the on-board computer, as well as hardware and software for a local vision system for target identification and tracking.

  15. Mini AERCam: A Free-Flying Robot for Space Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a free-flying camera system for remote viewing and inspection of human spacecraft. The AERCam project team is currently developing a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam, a spherical nanosatellite 7.5 inches in diameter. Mini AERCam development builds on the success of AERCam Sprint, a 1997 Space Shuttle flight experiment, by integrating new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving these productivity-enhancing capabilities in a smaller package depends on aggressive component miniaturization. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion, rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for laboratory demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides on-orbit views of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by space-walking crewmembers.

  16. Experiments in Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Multi-Manipulator, Free-Flying Space Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Vincent Wei-Kang

    1992-01-01

    Sophisticated robots can greatly enhance the role of humans in space by relieving astronauts of low level, tedious assembly and maintenance chores and allowing them to concentrate on higher level tasks. Robots and astronauts can work together efficiently, as a team; but the robot must be capable of accomplishing complex operations and yet be easy to use. Multiple cooperating manipulators are essential to dexterity and can broaden greatly the types of activities the robot can achieve; adding adaptive control can ease greatly robot usage by allowing the robot to change its own controller actions, without human intervention, in response to changes in its environment. Previous work in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) have shown the usefulness of a space robot with cooperating manipulators. The research presented in this dissertation extends that work by adding adaptive control. To help achieve this high level of robot sophistication, this research made several advances to the field of nonlinear adaptive control of robotic systems. A nonlinear adaptive control algorithm developed originally for control of robots, but requiring joint positions as inputs, was extended here to handle the much more general case of manipulator endpoint-position commands. A new system modelling technique, called system concatenation was developed to simplify the generation of a system model for complicated systems, such as a free-flying multiple-manipulator robot system. Finally, the task-space concept was introduced wherein the operator's inputs specify only the robot's task. The robot's subsequent autonomous performance of each task still involves, of course, endpoint positions and joint configurations as subsets. The combination of these developments resulted in a new adaptive control framework that is capable of continuously providing full adaptation capability to the complex space-robot system in all modes of operation. The new adaptive control algorithm easily handles free-flying

  17. Initial experiments in thrusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, W. J.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A two-arm free-flying robot has been constructed to study thrusterless locomotion in space. This is accomplished by pushing off or landing on a large structure in a coordinated two-arm maneuver. A new control method, called system momentum control, allows the robot to follow desired momentum trajectories and thus leap or crawl from one structure to another. The robot floats on an air-cushion, simulating in two dimensions the drag-free zero-g environment of space. The control paradigm has been verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off a bar with both arms, rotate 180 degrees, and catch itself on another bar.

  18. Measuring a Black Hole's Mass with Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Who needs humans? Robotic observations made by telescopes in the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT) have tracked variability in the active galaxy Arp 151 over 200 days. These observations have proven to be enough information to estimate the mass of the black hole at the galaxys center.Mapping EchoesMeasuring the masses of supermassive black holes is notoriously difficult. Except in the few cases where were able to resolve actual objects orbiting around the supermassive black hole (for instance, in the case of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way), our estimates of black-hole mass must come from indirect measurements.One clever approach is called reverberation mapping. In an active galactic nucleus (AGN), continuum emission from the black holes accretion disk photoionizes gas clouds in the nearby broad-line region, causing the clouds to emit light. In reverberation mapping, we track the time lag between variability in the disks continuum emission and the clouds broad-line emission, obtaining a distance scale. Combining this information with a velocity (provided by the broad-line width) allows us to infer the enclosed mass in this case, that of the black hole.So whats the catch? Getting this information requires a lot of man-hours and telescope-hours, because AGN need to be observed over long periods of time to see the variability and the lags needed to make these inferences. This is where LCOGT comes in.Robotic NetworkArp 151 light curves. The top panel shows the continuum emission from the disk; the remaining panels show various emission lines from the broad-line-region clouds. The variability of the line emission lags slightly behind that of the continuum emission. [Valenti et al. 2015]LCOGT is a completely robotic telescope network. Everything from the scheduling to the telescope alignment is done without human involvement. Because of this feature, the LCOGT is an ideal facility for conducting time-intensive observations of AGN

  19. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sawyer B; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role.

  20. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sawyer B.; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role. PMID:24942846

  1. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sawyer B; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role. PMID:24942846

  2. Navigation in an autonomous flying robot by using a biologically inspired visual odometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Fumiya; Lambrinos, Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    While mobile robots and walking insects can use proprioceptive information (specialized receptors in the insects' leg, or wheel encoders in robots) to estimate distance traveled, flying agents have to rely mainly on visual cues. Experiments with bees provide evidence that flying insects might be using optical flow induced by egomotion to estimate distance traveled. Recently some details of this odometer have been unraveled. In this study, we propose a biologically inspired model of the bee's visual odometer based on Elementary Motion Detectors (EMDs), and present results from goal-directed navigation experiments with an autonomous flying robot platform that we developed specifically for this purpose. The robot is equipped with a panoramic vision system, which is used to provide input to the EMDs of the left and right visual fields. The outputs of the EMDs are in later stage spatially integrated by wide field motion detectors, and their accumulated response is directly used for the odometer. In a set of initial experiments, the robot moves through a corridor on a fixed route, and the outputs of EMDs, the odometer, are recorded. The results show that the proposed model can be used to provide an estimate of the distance traveled, but the performance depends on the route the robot follows, something which is biologically plausible since natural insects tend to adopt a fixed route during foraging. Given these results, we assumed that the optomotor response plays an important role in the context of goal-directed navigation, and we conducted experiments with an autonomous freely flying robot. The experiments demonstrate that this computationally cheap mechanism can be successfully employed in natural indoor environments.

  3. NASA Flies Robotic Lander Prototype to New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA successfully completed the final flight in a series of tests of a new robotic lander prototype at the Redstone Test Center’s propulsion test facility on the U.S. Army Redstone Arsenal in Hun...

  4. Guidance algorithms for a free-flying space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindle, A. F.; Viggh, H. E. M.; Albert, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics is a promising technology for assembly, servicing, and maintenance of platforms in space. Several aspects of planning and guidance for telesupervised and fully autonomous robotic servicers are investigated. Guidance algorithms for proximity operation of a free flyer are described. Numeric trajectory optimization is combined with artificial intelligence based obstacle avoidance. An initial algorithm and the results of its simulating platform servicing scenario are discussed. A second algorithm experiment is then proposed.

  5. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  6. Dynamics and control of a free flying two armed robot in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernwald, Liron; Guelman, M.; Vanwoerkom, P. T. L. M.

    1992-02-01

    Control of a robot manipulator in space is complicated by the effects of reaction forces and torques on the robot base, the resulting motion of which contributes to the resultant motion of the manipulator. The operational space approach to control is generalized for the case of a free-flying robot in space, with two manipulator arms. A system model was developed on the basis of the recursive Newton Euler algorithm. System matrices and vectors were partitioned to define the control structure, and control algorithms were developed. It is shown that the robot base and the end effectors are free to behave independently and to achieve their required inertial position and altitude as required. It is shown that small errors in assumed payload characteristics can cause system oscillations and even render the system unstable. An algorithm was developed which is robust with respect to generalized modeling errors, and an algorithm based on the use of an observer together with feedforward and feedback loops was proposed. It is shown that in the limit, this observer behaves as if the joint angular acceleration were directly available to the system. The basic idea is generalized for the free-flying robot, by assuming that angular accelerations are measured at each joint. This additional information enables an exact online computation to be performed, of the components of the generalized matrix of inertia and the Coriolis/centripetal vector. This exact computation facilitates the assurance of robust robot control.

  7. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the work is to develop and perform a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air cushion technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Five research areas are examined: cooperative manipulation on a fixed base; cooperative manipulation on a free-floating base; global navigation and control of a free-floating robot; an alternative transport mode call Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Push-Off (LEAP), and adaptive control of LEAP.

  8. 3D Curves With a Prescribed Curvature and Torsion for a Flying Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bestaoui, Yasmina

    2008-06-12

    The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an flying robot. A curve with discontinuous curvature and torsion is not appropriate for smooth motions for any vehicle architecture. Three different classes of curves are presented. First, constant curvature and torsion followed by a linear variation versus the curvilinear abscissa then a quadratic variation. Finally, the problem of maneuvers between two trim helices of different curvature and torsion is tackled with.

  9. Control of Free-Flying Space Robot Manipulator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Rock, Stephen M.; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report on the Stanford University portion of a major NASA program in telerobotics called the TRIWG Program, led strongly from NASA Headquarters by David Lavery This portion of the TRIWG research was carried out in Stanford's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) to (1) contribute in unique and valuable ways to new fundamental capability for NASA in its space missions (the total contribution came from some 100 PhD-student years of research), and (2) to provide a steady stream of very capable PhD graduates to the American space enterprise.

  10. Experiments in autonomous navigation and control of multi-manipulator, free-flying space robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Marc Albert

    Although space presents an exciting frontier for science and manufacturing, it has proven to be a costly and dangerous place for humans. It is an ideal environment for sophisticated robots capable of performing tasks that currently require the active participation of astronauts. The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory, working with NASA, has developed an experimental model of a multimanipulator, free-flying space robot capable of capturing and manipulating free-floating objects without human assistance. The experimental robot model uses air-cushion technology to simulate, in two dimensions, the drag-free, zero-g characteristics of space. Fully self-contained, the vehicle/manipulator system is equipped with gas-jet thrusters, two two-link manipulators, an electrical power system, digital and analog I/0 capabilities, high speed vision, and a multiprocessor real-time computer. These subsystems have been carefully integrated in a modular architecture that facilitates maintenance and ease of use. A sophisticated control system was designed and implemented to manage and coordinate the actions of the vehicle/manipulator system. A custom on-board vision system is used for closed-loop endpoint control and object tracking in the robot's local reference frame. A multicamera off-board vision system provides global positioning information to the robot via a wireless communication link. Successful rendezvous, tracking, and capture of free-flying, spinning objects is facilitated by simultaneously controlling the robot base position and manipulator motions. These actions are coordinated by a sophisticated event-driven finite-state machine. A graphical user interface enables a remotely situated operator to provide high-level task description commands to the robot and to monitor the robot's activities while it carries out these assignments. The user interface allows a task to be fully specified before any action takes place, thereby eliminating problems associated with communications

  11. Extending the Evolutionary Robotics approach to flying machines: an application to MAV teams.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Fabio; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the use of embodied neural networks--developed through Evolutionary Robotics and Multi-Agent Systems methodologies--as autonomous distributed controllers for Micro-unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) teams. The main aim of the research is to extend the range of domains that could be successfully tackled by the Evolutionary Robotics approach. The flying robots realm is an area that has not been yet thoroughly investigated by this discipline. This is due to the lack of an affordable and reliable robotic platform to use for carrying out experiments, and to the difficulty and the high computational load involved in experiments based upon a realistic software simulator for aircraft. We believe that the most recent improvements to the state of the art now permit the investigation of this domain. For demonstrating this point, two different evolutionary computer simulation models are presented in this article. The first model, which uses a simplified 2D test environment, has resulted in controllers evolved with the following capabilities: (1) navigation through unknown environments, (2) obstacle-avoidance, (3) tracking of a movable target, and (4) execution of cooperative and coordinated behaviors based on implicit communication strategies. In order to improve the robustness of these results and their potential use in real MAV teams, a more sophisticated 3D model is presented herein. The results obtained so far using the two models demonstrate the feasibility of the chosen approach for further research on the design of autonomous controllers for MAVs. PMID:19595566

  12. Extending the Evolutionary Robotics approach to flying machines: an application to MAV teams.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Fabio; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the use of embodied neural networks--developed through Evolutionary Robotics and Multi-Agent Systems methodologies--as autonomous distributed controllers for Micro-unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) teams. The main aim of the research is to extend the range of domains that could be successfully tackled by the Evolutionary Robotics approach. The flying robots realm is an area that has not been yet thoroughly investigated by this discipline. This is due to the lack of an affordable and reliable robotic platform to use for carrying out experiments, and to the difficulty and the high computational load involved in experiments based upon a realistic software simulator for aircraft. We believe that the most recent improvements to the state of the art now permit the investigation of this domain. For demonstrating this point, two different evolutionary computer simulation models are presented in this article. The first model, which uses a simplified 2D test environment, has resulted in controllers evolved with the following capabilities: (1) navigation through unknown environments, (2) obstacle-avoidance, (3) tracking of a movable target, and (4) execution of cooperative and coordinated behaviors based on implicit communication strategies. In order to improve the robustness of these results and their potential use in real MAV teams, a more sophisticated 3D model is presented herein. The results obtained so far using the two models demonstrate the feasibility of the chosen approach for further research on the design of autonomous controllers for MAVs.

  13. Astrobee: Developing a Free Flying Robot for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Trey; Zuniga, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut time will always be in short supply, consumables (e.g., oxygen) will always be limited, and some work will not be feasible, or productive, for astronauts to do manually. Free flyers offer significant potential to perform a great variety of tasks, include routine, repetitive or simple but long-duration work, such as conducting environment surveys, taking sensor readings or monitoring crew activities. The "Astrobee" project is developing a new free flying robot system suitable for performing Intravehicular Activity (IVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper will describe the Astrobee project objectives, initial design, concept of operations, and key challenges.

  14. Research on high-precision hole measurement based on robot vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Qin, Ming-cui; Li, Zong-yan; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao

    2014-09-01

    A high-precision vision detection and measurement system using mobile robot is established for the industry field detection of motorcycle frame hole and its diameter measurement. The robot path planning method is researched, and the non-contact measurement method with high precision based on visual digital image edge extraction and hole spatial circle fitting is presented. The Canny operator is used to extract the edge of captured image, the Lagrange interpolation algorithm is utilized to determine the missing image edge points and calculate the centroid, and the least squares fitting method is adopted to fit the image edge points. Experimental results show that the system can be used for the high-precision real-time measurement of hole on motorcycle frame. The absolute standard deviation of the proposed method is 0.026 7 mm. The proposed method can not only improve the measurement speed and precision, but also reduce the measurement error.

  15. Technology for an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Reuter, G. J.; Healey, Kathleen J.; Phinney, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Crew rescue and equipment retrieval is a Space Station Freedom requirement. During Freedom's lifetime, there is a high probability that a number of objects will accidently become separated. Members of the crew, replacement units, and key tools are examples. Retrieval of these objects within a short time is essential. Systems engineering studies were conducted to identify system requirements and candidate approaches. One such approach, based on a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot was selected for further analysis. A ground-based technology demonstration, now in its second phase, was designed to provide an integrated robotic hardware and software testbed supporting design of a space-borne system. The ground system, known as the EVA Retriever, is examining the problem of autonomously planning and executing a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. The current prototype is an anthropomorphic manipulator unit with dexterous arms and hands attached to a robot body and latched in a manned maneuvering unit. A precision air-bearing floor is used to simulate space. Sensor data include two vision systems and force/proximity/tactile sensors on the hands and arms. Planning for a shuttle file experiment is underway. A set of scenarios and strawman requirements were defined to support conceptual development. Initial design activities are expected to begin in late 1989 with the flight occurring in 1994. The flight hardware and software will be based on lessons learned from both the ground prototype and computer simulations.

  16. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  17. A bio-inspired flying robot sheds light on insect piloting abilities.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Serres, Julien

    2007-02-20

    When insects are flying forward, the image of the ground sweeps backward across their ventral viewfield and forms an "optic flow," which depends on both the groundspeed and the groundheight. To explain how these animals manage to avoid the ground by using this visual motion cue, we suggest that insect navigation hinges on a visual-feedback loop we have called the optic-flow regulator, which controls the vertical lift. To test this idea, we built a micro-helicopter equipped with an optic-flow regulator and a bio-inspired optic-flow sensor. This fly-by-sight micro-robot can perform exacting tasks such as take-off, level flight, and landing. Our control scheme accounts for many hitherto unexplained findings published during the last 70 years on insects' visually guided performances; for example, it accounts for the fact that honeybees descend in a headwind, land with a constant slope, and drown when travelling over mirror-smooth water. Our control scheme explains how insects manage to fly safely without any of the instruments used onboard aircraft to measure the groundheight, groundspeed, and descent speed. An optic-flow regulator is quite simple in terms of its neural implementation and just as appropriate for insects as it would be for aircraft. PMID:17291757

  18. A bio-inspired flying robot sheds light on insect piloting abilities.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Serres, Julien

    2007-02-20

    When insects are flying forward, the image of the ground sweeps backward across their ventral viewfield and forms an "optic flow," which depends on both the groundspeed and the groundheight. To explain how these animals manage to avoid the ground by using this visual motion cue, we suggest that insect navigation hinges on a visual-feedback loop we have called the optic-flow regulator, which controls the vertical lift. To test this idea, we built a micro-helicopter equipped with an optic-flow regulator and a bio-inspired optic-flow sensor. This fly-by-sight micro-robot can perform exacting tasks such as take-off, level flight, and landing. Our control scheme accounts for many hitherto unexplained findings published during the last 70 years on insects' visually guided performances; for example, it accounts for the fact that honeybees descend in a headwind, land with a constant slope, and drown when travelling over mirror-smooth water. Our control scheme explains how insects manage to fly safely without any of the instruments used onboard aircraft to measure the groundheight, groundspeed, and descent speed. An optic-flow regulator is quite simple in terms of its neural implementation and just as appropriate for insects as it would be for aircraft.

  19. Stability and optimal control theory of hereditary systems with applications from oscillating flying vehicles, mechanical systems, and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    1992-01-01

    The author derives an equation determining the dynamics of the deterministic model of a flying vehicle. He next examines a simplified mechanical problem whose optimal feedback control strategy is investigated. From there robotics are incorporated into the mathematical model to develop an equation describing optimal control of the dynamics.

  20. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  1. Nano-to-micro integrated single-electron biomacromolecular electronics for miniaturized robotic "untethered flying observers"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    A miniaturized " untethered flying observer" as a robotic free-flying vehicle supplied with MEMSs/nano—to—micro payload and hosted on a much larger spaceship from which it would detach for short exploration missions is discussed. Downsizing of integrated electronic devices and nano —to—micro integration through nanoelectronics would allow high density MEMS-electronics packaging, very low power consumption and light —weight to be realized. The nano—to—micro integration concept through single-electron molecular electronic devices leads to problems in the development of what could be called a " meta-system" as to electron physics involved in merging solid state (ss) and molecular devices. A single-electronics chip featuring biomacromolecular circuitry—to—ss Si integration for merging sensing, computation, communication and actuator functions would contemplate electron transport chain protein components and/or suitably functionalized DNAs. Single-electron controlled tunneling would work in such biomacro-molecules even at room temperature due to the atomic size of the "well" and consequent less delocalization of the electron. Network design asks for quantum orbital calculations, for minimal use of molecular wires/connectors, for integrated nano—to —micro blocks and for nano—to—macro-world connections. Recent laboratory demos as to conductive molecular wires (fullerene nanotubes and chain molecules) must overcome difficulties involved in making their results into a practical technology. Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin organic films or lipid bilayers for construction and support of the integrated single-electron molecular component blocks would make scalars into vectors. Si for the biochip-hosting "platform" of the robotic nano-observer can act as a radiation shielding.

  2. Experimental study on two-dimensional free-flying robot satellite model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umetani, Yoji; Yoshida, Kazuya

    1989-01-01

    The experimental study on a control method for a free flying space robotic arm was treated by means of a two-dimensional laboratory model. The main target is to develop a new control method for trajectory tracking or target capturing, considering dynamical interaction between the manipulator arm and the base vehicle in space micro-gravity environment. In order to simulate the micro-gravity environment mechanically, a laboratory model of a robot satellite supported on air bearings was developed. The model comprises a base equipped with power and air supplies and a two-link manipulator arm. This model has relatively low gravitational and frictional disturbance in planar motion. An on-line resolved motion rate control scheme with vision feedback is developed for experimenting capture operations. The scheme utilizes the Generalized Jacobian Matrix. In experiment, the acceleration environment of the model is evaluated firstly, then target capture operations are examined. The manipulator can properly chase and capture both a standing target and a moving target in spite of complex satellite/manipulator dynamical interactions. The experimental results confirm the validity of the Generalized Jacobian Matrix concept and the proposed control method.

  3. Experiments in Neural-Network Control of a Free-Flying Space Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Four important generic issues are identified and addressed in some depth in this thesis as part of the development of an adaptive neural network based control system for an experimental free flying space robot prototype. The first issue concerns the importance of true system level design of the control system. A new hybrid strategy is developed here, in depth, for the beneficial integration of neural networks into the total control system. A second important issue in neural network control concerns incorporating a priori knowledge into the neural network. In many applications, it is possible to get a reasonably accurate controller using conventional means. If this prior information is used purposefully to provide a starting point for the optimizing capabilities of the neural network, it can provide much faster initial learning. In a step towards addressing this issue, a new generic Fully Connected Architecture (FCA) is developed for use with backpropagation. A third issue is that neural networks are commonly trained using a gradient based optimization method such as backpropagation; but many real world systems have Discrete Valued Functions (DVFs) that do not permit gradient based optimization. One example is the on-off thrusters that are common on spacecraft. A new technique is developed here that now extends backpropagation learning for use with DVFs. The fourth issue is that the speed of adaptation is often a limiting factor in the implementation of a neural network control system. This issue has been strongly resolved in the research by drawing on the above new contributions.

  4. Adjustably Autonomous Multi-agent Plan Execution with an Internal Spacecraft Free-Flying Robot Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Nicewarner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    We present an multi-agent model-based autonomy architecture with monitoring, planning, diagnosis, and execution elements. We discuss an internal spacecraft free-flying robot prototype controlled by an implementation of this architecture and a ground test facility used for development. In addition, we discuss a simplified environment control life support system for the spacecraft domain also controlled by an implementation of this architecture. We discuss adjustable autonomy and how it applies to this architecture. We describe an interface that provides the user situation awareness of both autonomous systems and enables the user to dynamically edit the plans prior to and during execution as well as control these agents at various levels of autonomy. This interface also permits the agents to query the user or request the user to perform tasks to help achieve the commanded goals. We conclude by describing a scenario where these two agents and a human interact to cooperatively detect, diagnose and recover from a simulated spacecraft fault.

  5. Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross

    1990-01-01

    Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.

  6. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  7. From falling to flying: the path to powered flight of a robotic samara nano air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Evan R; Pines, Darryll J; Humbert, J Sean

    2010-12-01

    This paper details the development of a nano-scale (>15 cm) robotic samara, or winged seed. The design of prototypes inspired by naturally occurring geometries is presented along with a detailed experimental process which elucidates similarities between mechanical and robotic samara flight dynamics. The helical trajectories of a samara in flight were observed to differ in-flight path and descent velocity. The body roll and pitch angular rates for the differing trajectories were observed to be coupled to variations in wing pitch, and thus provide a means of control. Inspired by the flight modalities of the bio-inspired samaras, a robotic device has been created that mimics the autorotative capability of the samara, whilst providing the ability to hover, climb and translate. A high-speed camera-based motion capture system is used to observe the flight dynamics of the mechanical and robotic samara. Similarities in the flight dynamics are compared and discussed as it relates to the design of the robotic samara.

  8. Strategies for the stabilization of longitudinal forward flapping flight revealed using a dynamically-scaled robotic fly.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Michael J; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished with quite subtle changes in hovering kinematics, and that these adjustments act primarily by altering the pitch moment. This finding is consistent with prior hypotheses regarding the relationship between body pitch and flight speed in fruit flies. Adjusting the mean stroke position of the wings is a likely mechanism for trimming the pitch moment at all speeds, whereas changes in the mean angle of attack may be required at higher speeds. To ensure stability, the flapping system requires additional pitch damping that increases in magnitude with flight speed. A compensatory reflex driven by fast feedback of pitch rate from the halteres could provide such damping, and would automatically exhibit gain scheduling with flight speed if pitch torque was regulated via changes in stroke deviation. Such a control scheme would provide an elegant solution for stabilization across a wide range of forward flight speeds. PMID:24855029

  9. Strategies for the stabilization of longitudinal forward flapping flight revealed using a dynamically-scaled robotic fly.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Michael J; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to regulate forward speed is an essential requirement for flying animals. Here, we use a dynamically-scaled robot to study how flapping insects adjust their wing kinematics to regulate and stabilize forward flight. The results suggest that the steady-state lift and thrust requirements at different speeds may be accomplished with quite subtle changes in hovering kinematics, and that these adjustments act primarily by altering the pitch moment. This finding is consistent with prior hypotheses regarding the relationship between body pitch and flight speed in fruit flies. Adjusting the mean stroke position of the wings is a likely mechanism for trimming the pitch moment at all speeds, whereas changes in the mean angle of attack may be required at higher speeds. To ensure stability, the flapping system requires additional pitch damping that increases in magnitude with flight speed. A compensatory reflex driven by fast feedback of pitch rate from the halteres could provide such damping, and would automatically exhibit gain scheduling with flight speed if pitch torque was regulated via changes in stroke deviation. Such a control scheme would provide an elegant solution for stabilization across a wide range of forward flight speeds.

  10. AERCam Autonomy: Intelligent Software Architecture for Robotic Free Flying Nanosatellite Inspection Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve G.; Braun, Angela N.; Straube, Timothy M.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class Free Flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam Free Flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35-pound, 14-inch diameter AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, power, propulsion, and imaging subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations, including automatic stationkeeping, point-to-point maneuvering, and waypoint tracking. The Mini AERCam Free Flyer is accompanied by a sophisticated control station for command and control, as well as a docking system for automated deployment, docking, and recharge at a parent spacecraft. Free Flyer functional testing has been conducted successfully on both an airbearing table and in a six-degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation with avionics hardware in the loop. Mini AERCam aims to provide beneficial on-orbit views that cannot be obtained from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by crewmembers during extravehicular activities (EVA s). On Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS), for example, Mini AERCam could support external robotic operations by supplying orthogonal views to the intravehicular activity (IVA) robotic operator, supply views of EVA operations to IVA and/or ground crews monitoring the EVA, and carry out independent visual inspections of areas of interest around the spacecraft. To enable these future benefits

  11. Concept for practical exercises for studying autonomous flying robots in a university environment: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gageik, Nils; Dilger, Erik; Montenegro, Sergio; Schön, Stefan; Wildenhein, Rico; Creutzburg, Reiner; Fischer, Arno

    2015-03-01

    The present paper demonstrates the application of quadcopters as educational material for students in aerospace computer science, as it is already in usage today. The work with quadrotors teaches students theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of robotics, control theory, aerospace and electrical engineering as well as embedded programming and computer science. For this the material, concept, realization and future view of such a course is discussed in this paper. Besides that, the paper gives a brief overview of student research projects following the course, which are related to the research and development of fully autonomous quadrotors.

  12. Aerial locomotion in flies and robots: kinematic control and aerodynamics of oscillating wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2004-07-01

    Flight in flies results from a feedback cascade in which the animal converts mechanical power produced by the flight musculature into aerodynamic forces. A major goal of flight research is to understand the functional significance of the various components in this cascade ranging from the generation of the neural code, the control of muscle mechanical power output, wing kinematics and unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Here, I attempted to draw a broad outline on fluid dynamic mechanisms found in flapping insect wings such as leading edge vorticity, rotational circulation and wake capture momentum transfer, as well as on the constraints of flight force control by the neuromuscular system of the fruit fly Drosophila. This system-level perspective on muscle control and aerodynamic mechanisms is thought to be a fundamental bridge in any attempt to link the function and performance of the various flight components with their particular role for wing motion and aerodynamic control in the behaving animal. Eventually, this research might facilitate the development of man-made biomimetic autonomous micro air vehicles using flapping wing motion for propulsion that are currently under construction by engineers. PMID:18089042

  13. Reactionless camera inspection with a free-flying space robot under reaction null-space motion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Hiroki; Nenchev, Dragomir

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of implementing reactionless motion control w.r.t. base orientation of a free-flying space robot in practical tasks is addressed. It is shown that such possibility depends strongly on the kinematic/dynamic design parameters as well as on the mission task. A successful implementation of a camera inspection task is reported. The presence of kinematic redundancy and the manipulator attachment position are shown to play important roles. More specifically, for a manipulator arm with a typical seven degree-of-freedom (DoF) kinematic structure, it is shown that two motion patterns, wrist reorientation and folding/unfolding of the arm, result in almost reactionless motion. The orientation pattern is adopted as the main task for camera inspection, while the remaining four DoFs are used to ensure complete reactionless motion and to minimize the position errors. Since the composition of these tasks introduces the so-called algorithmic singularities, two methods are suggested to alleviate the problem. Furthermore, it is shown that other types of singularities may also be introduced in case of an inappropriate choice of the manipulator attachment position. At the end, numerical analysis is performed to show that reactionless motion provides an advantage in terms of kinetic energy as well.

  14. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K. A.; Hess, Clifford W.; Norsworthy, Robert S.; Anderson, Greg D.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1992-03-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice- supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the space station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a hierarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  15. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K.; Hess, C.; Norsworthy, R.; Anderson, G.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, D.

    1992-01-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a heirarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  16. Ultra-miniature omni-directional camera for an autonomous flying micro-robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrat, Pascal; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Neukom, Simon; Zha, Yingyun; Brenzikofer, Alain; Baechler, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    CSEM presents a highly integrated ultra-miniature camera module with omni-directional view dedicated to autonomous micro flying devices. Very tight design and integration requirements (related to size, weight, and power consumption) for the optical, microelectronic and electronic components are fulfilled. The presented ultra-miniature camera platform is based on two major components: a catadioptric lens system and a dedicated image sensor. The optical system consists of a hyperbolic mirror and an imaging lens. The vertical field of view is +10° to -35°.The CMOS image sensor provides a polar pixel field with 128 (horizontal) by 64 (vertical) pixels. Since the number of pixels for each circle is constant, the unwrapped panoramic image achieves a constant resolution in polar direction for all image regions. The whole camera module, delivering 40 frames per second, contains optical image preprocessing for effortless re-mapping of the acquired image into undistorted cylindrical coordinates. The total weight of the complete camera is less than 5 g. The system's outer dimensions are 14.4 mm in height, with a 11.4 mm x 11.4 mm foot print. Thanks to the innovative PROGLOGTM, a dynamic range of over 140 dB is achieved.

  17. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals.

  18. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals. PMID:23268384

  19. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  20. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  1. Modeling Optimal Strategies for Finding a Resource-Linked, Windborne Odor Plume: Theories, Robotics, and Biomimetic Lessons from Flying Insects.

    PubMed

    Bau, Josep; Cardé, Ring T

    2015-09-01

    Male moths locate females by navigating along her pheromone plume, often flying hundreds of meters en route. As the first male to find a calling female is most apt to be her mate, this can be termed "a race to find the female" and it is assumed to be under strong selective pressure for efficiency and rapidity. Locating a distant, odor-linked resource involves two strategies. The first is to contact the outer envelope of the odor plume. When wind direction is relatively invariant, the plume stretches and then crosswind flights may be favored, although when wind direction shifts over 60°, upwind and downwind paths may be optimal. Alternatively, the path may be random with respect to the direction of wind flow, with periodic changes in direction, as in either Lévy or Random Walks. After first detecting the pheromone, a second strategy follows: moths navigate along the plume by heading upwind when the pheromone is detected, with crosswind casting to re-establish contact if the plume is lost. This orientation path is not straightforward in nature, however, because atmospheric turbulence fragments the plume, thereby creating large odor gaps. Furthermore, a shifting wind direction can lead the responder out of the plume. One way to explore which strategies are optimal for enabling initial contact with the plume and subsequent navigation is through modeling of plumes' dispersal and of insects' flight strategies. Our simulations using the flight characteristics of the male gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suggest that search strategies similar to Lévy Walks are most apt to result in a high probability of contact with plumes. Although a searching trajectory aimed predominately crosswind performed almost as well as those with a random orientation when wind direction was relatively stable, downwind biased trajectories were least successful. A random orientation with respect to immediate wind flow, as used in our simulations of Lévy and Random Walks, seems optimal both for

  2. Astrobee: Space Station Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Chris; Bualat, Maria G.; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence W.; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest E.; Sanchez, Hugo S.

    2016-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot that will fly inside the International Space Station and primarily serve as a research platform for robotics in zero gravity. Astrobee will also provide mobile camera views to ISS flight and payload controllers, and collect various sensor data within the ISS environment for the ISS Program. Astrobee consists of two free flying robots, a dock, and ground data system. This presentation provides an overview, high level design description, and project status.

  3. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  4. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  5. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  6. Industrial robots and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

  7. Robotic Lander Gets Sideways During Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    During a recent test at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center inHuntsville, Ala., the robotic lander prototype, known as Mighty Eagle,performed a hover test flying up to three feet and then trans...

  8. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  9. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  10. Development of an autonomous satellite robot for retrieving a satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Tadashi; Uenohara, Michihiro; Iikura, Shoichi; Miura, Hirofumi; Shimoyama, Isao

    We developed a two-dimensional operation test-bed of an autonomous free-flying space robot for retrieving a satellite. This robot is floating on a planar base using air bearings and is able to fly around using thrusters for position control and a control moment gyro for attitude control. This robot also installs hardware systems such as vision systems, board computers, image processing units, and software systems such as algorithms for path plannings.

  11. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  12. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  13. The next decade of space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave; Weisbin, Charles

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000.

  14. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    PubMed

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns.

  15. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  16. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  17. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller. PMID:26606468

  18. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller.

  19. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James W. (Inventor); Alahuzos, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  20. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses the developments that led up to robotic surgical systems as well as what is on the horizon for new robotic technology. Topics include how robotics is enabling new types of procedures, including natural orifice endoscopic translumenal surgery in which one cannot reach by hand under any circumstances, and how these developments will drive the next generation of robots. PMID:18790158

  1. Raindrops push and splash flying insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Shankles, Peter G.; Hu, David L.

    2014-02-01

    In their daily lives, flying insects face a gauntlet of environmental challenges, from wind gusts to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed videography to film raindrop collisions upon both flying insects and dynamically scaled spherical mimics. We identify three outcomes of the collision based upon the insect's mass and characteristic size: drops push the insect while remaining intact, coat the insect, and splash. We present a mathematical model that predicts impact force and outcome consistent with those found in experiments. Small insects such as gnats and flies are pushed by raindrops that remain intact upon impact; conversely, large flyers such as locusts and micro-aerial vehicles cause drops to splash. We identify a critical mass of 0.3 g for which flyers achieve both peak acceleration (100 g) and applied force (104 dyn) from incoming raindrops; designs of similarly massed flying robots should be avoided.

  2. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James (Inventor); Alahuzos, George (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  3. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  4. Swarm Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Erol; Girgin, Sertan; Bayindir, Levent; Turgut, Ali Emre

    Swarm robotics is a novel approach to the coordination of large numbers of robots and has emerged as the application of swarm intelligence to multi-robot systems. Different from other swarm intelligence studies, swarm robotics puts emphases on the physical embodiment of individuals and realistic interactions among the individuals and between the individuals and the environment. In this chapter, we present a brief review of this new approach. We first present its definition, discuss the main motivations behind the approach, as well as its distinguishing characteristics and major coordination mechanisms. Then we present a brief review of swarm robotics research along four axes; namely design, modelling and analysis, robots and problems.

  5. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, D

    2000-09-01

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the capability of robotic systems to facilitate and improve manufacturing. As a result, robotics extended to various other domains, including the delivery of health care. Hence, robots have been developed to assist hospital staff, to facilitate laboratory analyses, to augment patient rehabilitation, and even to advance surgical performance. As robotics lead usefulness and gain wider acceptance among the surgical community, the urologist should become familiar with this new interdisciplinary field and its "URobotics" subset: robotics applied to urology. This article reviews the current applications and experience, issues and debates in surgical robotics, and highlights future directions in the field.

  6. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  7. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  8. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking, translations and rotations, characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors, micro-dissection or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies’ complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  9. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  10. New methods of measuring and calibrating robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janocha, Hartmut; Diewald, Bernd

    1995-10-01

    ISO 9283 and RIA R15.05 define industrial robot parameters which are applied to compare the efficiency of different robots. Hitherto, however, no suitable measurement systems have been available. ICAROS is a system which combines photogrammetrical procedures with an inertial navigation system. For the first time, this combination allows the high-precision static and dynamic measurement of the position as well as of the orientation of the robot endeffector. Thus, not only the measuring data for the determination of all industrial robot parameters can be acquired. By integration of a new over-all-calibration procedure, ICAROS also allows the reduction of the absolute robot pose errors to the range of its repeatability. The integration of both system components as well as measurement and calibration results are presented in this paper, using a six-axes robot as example. A further approach also presented here takes into consideration not only the individual robot errors but also the tolerances of workpieces. This allows the adjustment of off-line programs of robots based on inexact or idealized CAD data in any pose. Thus the robot position which is defined relative to the workpiece to be processed, is achieved as required. This includes the possibility to transfer teached robot programs to other devices without additional expenditure. The adjustment is based on the measurement of the robot position using two miniaturized CCD cameras mounted near the endeffector which are carried along by the robot during the correction phase. In the area viewed by both cameras, the robot position is determined in relation to prominent geometry elements, e.g. lines or holes. The scheduled data to be compared therewith can either be calculated in modern off-line programming systems during robot programming, or they can be determined at the so-called master robot if a transfer of the robot program is desired.

  11. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  12. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  13. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  14. Biomimetic Flying Swarm of Entomopters for Mars Extreme Terrain Science Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Colozza, A.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.

    2012-06-01

    Mars investigations using high lift-generating under low Reynolds-number in flying robots would be significantly attractive to the public and could enable unique access to measurable phenomena in extreme terrains to accomplish science objectives.

  15. Robot programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Perez, T.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial robot's principal advantage over traditional automation is programmability. Robots can perform arbitrary sequences of pre-stored motions or of motions computed as functions of sensory input. This paper reviews requirements for and developments in robot programming systems. The key requirements for robot programming systems examined in the paper are in the areas of sensing, world modeling, motion specification, flow of control, and programming support. Existing and proposed robot programming systems fall into three broad categories: guiding systems in which the user leads a robot through the motions to be performed, robot-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user specifies operations by their desired effect on objects. A representative sample of systems in each of these categories is surveyed in the paper.

  16. Collaborative robotic team design and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spofford, John R.; Anhalt, David J.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Lapin, Brett D.

    2000-07-01

    Teams of heterogeneous mobile robots are a key aspect of future unmanned systems for operations in complex and dynamic urban environments, such as that envisions by DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics program. Interactions among such team members enable a variety of mission roles beyond those achievable with single robots or homogeneous teams. Key technologies include docking for power and data transfer, marsupial transport and deployment, collaborative team user interface, cooperative obstacle negotiation, distributed sensing, and peer inspection. This paper describes recent results in the integration and evaluation of component technologies within a collaborative system design. Integration considerations include requirement definition, flexible design management, interface control, and incremental technology integration. Collaborative system requirements are derived from mission objectives and robotic roles, and impact system and individual robot design at several levels. Design management is a challenge in a dynamic environment, with rapid evolution of mission objectives and available technologies. The object-oriented system model approach employed includes both software and hardware object representations to enable on- the-fly system and robot reconfiguration. Controlled interfaces among robots include mechanical, behavioral, communications, and electrical parameters. Technologies are under development by several organizations within the TMR program community. The incremental integration and validation of these within the collaborative system architecture reduces development risk through frequent experimental evaluations. The TMR system configuration includes Packbot-Perceivers, Packbot- Effectors, and Throwbots. Surrogates for these robots are used to validate and refine designs for multi-robot interaction components. Collaborative capability results from recent experimental evaluations are presented.

  17. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  18. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  19. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  20. Can You Find the Rat Holes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Using its rock abrasion tool, otherwise known as 'Rat,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dotted the slope of 'Endurance Crater' with dimples that give scientists a glimpse into its layered geologic history. This image from the rover's navigation camera, taken on sol 169 (July 15, 2004), highlights the prolific work of the robotic 'rodent.' How many Rat holes can you identify? You will be able to check your answer against an image to be posted soon with all the holes identified.

  1. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  2. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  3. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  4. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  5. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  6. Retinal holes.

    PubMed

    Foos, R Y

    1978-09-01

    Holes of the peripheral retina, defined as full-thickness breaks of trophic origin with no associated flap or free operculum, were found in 136 (2.4%) eyes from 2,800 autopsied subjects. Primary retinal holes (those with no indication of a proximal causative lesion and with no lattice degeneration in either eye) occurred in only eight of the 5,600 eyes studied; all were unilateral, single, less than 0.25 disk diameter in size, within the basal zone, and in eyes from elderly subjects. Secondary holes were found in 128 (2.3%) of eyes and of these, lattice degeneration was the most common cause (103). Other lesions complicated by hole formation included zonular traction tufts (10), chorioretinitis (9), meridional folds (3), and pavingstone degeneration (2). Retinal holes in surgically aphakic eyes did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively from those in age-matched phakic eyes.

  7. Robot visions.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Claudia; Suchman, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the resonating figures of primate, child, and robot in contemporary technoscientific corporealizations of the 'almost human'. We take as our model (in)organism 'Lucy the Robot Orangutan', roboticist Steve Grand's project to create an artificial life form with a mind of its own. One aspect of Lucy's figuration by Grand, we argue, which ties her to Haraway's analysis of the primate, is of the robot as a model for animal, and more specifically (or aspirationally) human, cognition. We follow the trope of 'model organism' as it is under discussion within science and technology studies and as an ironic descriptor for our own interest in Lucy as an entity/project through which to illuminate figurations within robotics more widely. Primate and robot together are forms of natureculture that help to clarify how the categories of animal and machine are entangled, while making explicit investments in their differences from one another, and from the third category of the human. We conclude, again following Haraway, by imagining what other possibilities there might be for figuring humans, robots, and their relations if we escape the reiterative imaginary of the robot as proxy for becoming human. PMID:25051585

  8. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  9. Robot visions.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Claudia; Suchman, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the resonating figures of primate, child, and robot in contemporary technoscientific corporealizations of the 'almost human'. We take as our model (in)organism 'Lucy the Robot Orangutan', roboticist Steve Grand's project to create an artificial life form with a mind of its own. One aspect of Lucy's figuration by Grand, we argue, which ties her to Haraway's analysis of the primate, is of the robot as a model for animal, and more specifically (or aspirationally) human, cognition. We follow the trope of 'model organism' as it is under discussion within science and technology studies and as an ironic descriptor for our own interest in Lucy as an entity/project through which to illuminate figurations within robotics more widely. Primate and robot together are forms of natureculture that help to clarify how the categories of animal and machine are entangled, while making explicit investments in their differences from one another, and from the third category of the human. We conclude, again following Haraway, by imagining what other possibilities there might be for figuring humans, robots, and their relations if we escape the reiterative imaginary of the robot as proxy for becoming human.

  10. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  11. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor. PMID:22617112

  12. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  13. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  14. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  15. ExoFly: a flapping wing aerobot for planetary survey and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, T. E.; Mulder, J. A.; Remes, B.; Berkouwer, W.; Peeters, B.; Lentink, D.; Passchier, C.

    2008-09-01

    ExoFly is a light-weight (20 to 200 g.) flappingwing robotic fly, capable of exploration and scientific observations of the surface and lower atmosphere of planets. It is only in the last years that flapping wing insect flight is fully understood, and the step to robotic flapping-wing concept is very recent [1,2,3]. The concept of ExoFly is based on the DelFly, which has successfully been developed in the last years by the Technical University Delft, Wageningen University and TNO. Flapping winged flight is well suited to the low density and highly viscous Martian atmosphere, but may also be used in a denser atmosphere such as Titan. In any planetary mission, ExoFly would be a highly innovative mission element, technically part of the mission infrastructure, but enabling scientific breakthrough observations with the imaging system and micro-payload.

  16. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  20. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  1. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  2. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.

  3. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era. PMID:25643879

  4. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  5. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Robosapien Robot used to Model Humanoid Interaction to Perform tasks in Dangerous Manufacturing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopforth, R.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    Humans are involved with accidents in manufacturing environments. A possibility to prevent humans from these scenarios is, to introduce humanoid robots within these industrial areas. This paper investigates the control scenario and environments required at a small scale level, with the use of the Robosapien robot. The Robosapien robot is modified to control it with a task of removing a cylinder and inserting it into a hole. Analysis is performed on the performance of the Robosapien robot and relating it with that of a humanoid robot. A discussion with suggestions is concluded with the efficiency and profitability that would need to be considered, for having a humanoid robot within the manufacturing environment.

  8. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  9. Control of intelligent robots in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, E.; Buehler, CH.

    1989-01-01

    In view of space activities like International Space Station, Man-Tended-Free-Flyer (MTFF) and free flying platforms, the development of intelligent robotic systems is gaining increasing importance. The range of applications that have to be performed by robotic systems in space includes e.g., the execution of experiments in space laboratories, the service and maintenance of satellites and flying platforms, the support of automatic production processes or the assembly of large network structures. Some of these tasks will require the development of bi-armed or of multiple robotic systems including functional redundancy. For the development of robotic systems which are able to perform this variety of tasks a hierarchically structured modular concept of automation is required. This concept is characterized by high flexibility as well as by automatic specialization to the particular sequence of tasks that have to be performed. On the other hand it has to be designed such that the human operator can influence or guide the system on different levels of control supervision, and decision. This leads to requirements for the hardware and software concept which permit a range of application of the robotic systems from telemanipulation to autonomous operation. The realization of this goal requires strong efforts in the development of new methods, software and hardware concepts, and the integration into an automation concept.

  10. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  11. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  12. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  13. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  14. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  15. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  16. Robot soccer.

    PubMed

    Sammut, Claude

    2010-11-01

    Robot soccer is a test bed for a variety of robotic and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. Its relevance to Cognitive Science is that it confronts the designer with a task that requires the integration of almost all aspects of AI to create an agent that is capable of working in a complex, dynamic environment inhabited by other agents, some of which are cooperative and others competitive. We describe the main elements that make up a robot soccer player and how these players associate to create effective teams. We pay special attention to the architecture of the players. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 824-833 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  18. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  19. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  20. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  1. Modeling of the First Layers in the Fly's Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moya, J. A.; Wilcox, M. J.; Donohoe, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    Increased autonomy of robots would yield significant advantages in the exploration of space. The shortfalls of computer vision can, however, pose significant limitations on a robot's potential. At the same time, simple insects which are largely hard-wired have effective visual systems. The understanding of insect vision systems thus may lead to improved approaches to visual tasks. A good starting point for the study of a vision system is its eye. In this paper, a model of the sensory portion of the fly's eye is presented. The effectiveness of the model is briefly addressed by a comparison of its performance to experimental data.

  2. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  3. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  4. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  5. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  6. Deep Hole in 'Clovis'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This approximately true-color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

    Data on the graph (Figure 1) from the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer instrument on the robotic arm of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reveal the elemental chemistry of two rocks, 'Ebenezer' and 'Clovis,' (see PIA06914) in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists found, through comparison of the rocks' chemistry, that Ebenezer and Clovis have very different compositions from the rocks on the Gusev plains.

  7. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  8. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  9. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species.

  10. Time Optimal Algorithms for Black Hole Search in Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamohan, Balasingham; Flocchini, Paola; Miri, Ali; Santoro, Nicola

    In a network environments supporting mobile entities (called robots or agents), a black hole is harmful site that destroys any incoming entity without leaving any visible trace. The black-hole search problem is the task of a team of k > 1 mobile entities, starting from the same safe location and executing the same algorithm, to determine within finite time the location of the black hole. In this paper we consider the black hole search problem in asynchronous ring networks of n nodes, and focus on the time complexity.

  11. Physical and digital simulations for IVA robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Space based materials processing experiments can be enhanced through the use of IVA robotic systems. A program to determine requirements for the implementation of robotic systems in a microgravity environment and to develop some preliminary concepts for acceleration control of small, lightweight arms has been initiated with the development of physical and digital simulation capabilities. The physical simulation facilities incorporate a robotic workcell containing a Zymark Zymate II robot instrumented for acceleration measurements, which is able to perform materials transfer functions while flying on NASA's KC-135 aircraft during parabolic manuevers to simulate reduced gravity. Measurements of accelerations occurring during the reduced gravity periods will be used to characterize impacts of robotic accelerations in a microgravity environment in space. Digital simulations are being performed with TREETOPS, a NASA developed software package which is used for the dynamic analysis of systems with a tree topology. Extensive use of both simulation tools will enable the design of robotic systems with enhanced acceleration control for use in the space manufacturing environment.

  12. Robotic insects: Manufacturing, actuation, and power considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Robert

    2015-12-01

    As the characteristic size of a flying robot decreases, the challenges for successful flight revert to basic questions of fabrication, actuation, fluid mechanics, stabilization, and power - whereas such questions have in general been answered for larger aircraft. When developing a robot on the scale of a housefly, all hardware must be developed from scratch as there is nothing "off-the-shelf" which can be used for mechanisms, sensors, or computation that would satisfy the extreme mass and power limitations. With these challenges in mind, this talk will present progress in the essential technologies for insect-like robots with an emphasis on multi-scale manufacturing methods, high power density actuation, and energy-efficient power distribution.

  13. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  14. Facing Up to Robotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Leslie J.

    1982-01-01

    Speculates on the effects of introducing robots into American society. Robotization will be used increasingly to reduce labor costs in business and industry. The impact of robotization on leisure time use and education are discussed. (AM)

  15. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  16. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  17. Rock and Roll - How Do Flies Recover From Serial Stumbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai

    2012-11-01

    Flying insects manage to maintain aerodynamic stability despite the facts that flapping flight is inherently unstable and that they are constantly subject to mechanical perturbations, such as gusts of wind. To maintain stability against such perturbations, insects rely on fast and robust flight control mechanisms, which are poorly understood. Here, we directly study flight control in the fruit fly D. melanogaster by applying mechanical perturbations in mid-air and measuring the insects' correction maneuvers. On each fly we glue a small magnet and use pulses of magnetic field to apply torque perturbations along the fly's roll axis. We then use high-speed filming and 3D reconstruction to characterize the kinematics of their correction maneuver and show how the flies fully recover from roll perturbations of up to 70° within 7-8 wing beats (30-40ms), which is faster than their visual response time. In addition, we study the dynamics of the maneuver by calculating the aerodynamic forces and torques the fly produces. Finally, we present a control mechanism that can explain the roll correction maneuver. These results have implications ranging from the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie flight control to the design of flapping robots.

  18. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  19. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  20. Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (Pre-Flight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first segment of this video gives an overview of the Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, an international effort using balloon payloads, ground based instruments, and airborne instruments to study ozone depletion and the hole in the ozone over Antarctica which occurs every spring. False color imagery taken from NASA's Nimbus 7 satellite which documents daily changes in ozone is also shown. The second segment of this video shows actual take-off and flight footage of the two aircraft used in the experiment: the DC-8 Flying Laboratory and the high flying ER-2.

  1. Visual learning in drosophila: application on a roving robot and comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Termini, P. S.; Strauss, R.

    2011-05-01

    Visual learning is an important aspect of fly life. Flies are able to extract visual cues from objects, like colors, vertical and horizontal distributedness, and others, that can be used for learning to associate a meaning to specific features (i.e. a reward or a punishment). Interesting biological experiments show trained stationary flying flies avoiding flying towards specific visual objects, appearing on the surrounding environment. Wild-type flies effectively learn to avoid those objects but this is not the case for the learning mutant rutabaga defective in the cyclic AMP dependent pathway for plasticity. A bio-inspired architecture has been proposed to model the fly behavior and experiments on roving robots were performed. Statistical comparisons have been considered and mutant-like effect on the model has been also investigated.

  2. Understanding tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Langley, P A

    1994-12-01

    The discovery that tsetse flies are the vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing sleeping sickness in man and nagana in cattle, occurred at the start of a rapidly expanding colonialism in sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the first research on the fly was largely taxonomic, coupled with a painstaking ecological approach to determine the identities and distribution limits of the different species. This was followed by closer attention to the physiology of the fly, both from the academic standpoint as related to its survival and reproduction in the field, and from the standpoint of its vectorial capacity. There are still conflicting hypotheses concerning the maturation of trypanosomes within the fly. Increasing concern for the environment led to a ban in the developed nations on the use of DDT as an insecticide which had been used successfully for tsetse control in Africa. This was followed by a ban on the use of organochlorine insecticides in general, and no doubt the next restrictions will be on the use of organophosphates and upon synthetic pyrethroids which have already been banned in the UK for the control of houseflies. Fortunately, research on the role of olfactory and visual stimuli of the tsetse, in the location of potential hosts, led to an improvement in methods for monitoring fly populations by means of traps and targets upon which the flies alight. So successful are such devices that, when treated with an insecticide, they can be used to sustain an increase in natural mortality in fly populations to such an extent that these populations decline to manageable levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  4. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  5. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  6. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  7. Flies and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Aguida, Miranda; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2014-05-01

    Oral infections caused by flies are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we present a concise review on oral myiasis or fly-blown disease. A variety of fly species can infest the oral tissues and produce an exotic clinical picture. Oral myiasis is mainly encountered in the tropics and subtropics, but can also be encountered in the western part of the world due to the increase of globalization, immigration, and global warming. Commonly-reported symptoms of oral myiasis include pain, swelling, itchy sensation, and feeling of something moving in the mouth. The surgical debridement of infected tissue with the removal of maggots is the treatment of choice in most cases of oral myiasis.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  12. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  13. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  14. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  15. Go Fly a Kite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopack, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Flying Boat Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Technicians are pictured installing flaps and wiring on a flying-boat model, circa 1944 (page 47). Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz. Photograph also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 209).

  17. Learning to Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Patricia E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information on where to learn to fly, which aircraft is best for this purpose, and approximate costs. Includes additional information on certificates, licenses, and ratings, and a description of the two phases of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association flight training program. (JN)

  18. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  19. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  20. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  1. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  2. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  3. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  4. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  5. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  6. Robot End Effector To Place and Solder Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulated in robot end effector is RF induction-heating coil for heating solar cell while in transit. Holes in encapsulant permit end of unit to act as vacuum pickup to grip solar cell. Use of RF induction heating allows cell to be heated without requiring direct mechanical and thermal contact of bonding tool such as soldering iron.

  7. Deburring small intersecting holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  8. Hole-Aligning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank A.; Saude, Frank; Sep, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Tool designed for use in aligning holes in plates or other structural members to be joined by bolt through holes. Holes aligned without exerting forces perpendicular to planes of holes. Tool features screw-driven-wedge design similar to (but simpler than) that of some automotive exhaust-pipe-expanding tools.

  9. Robotics technology developments in the United States space telerobotics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000. As a result of redefining the development approach for space robotic systems, and capitalizing on opportunities associated with the assembly and maintenance of the space station, the space robotics community is preparing a whole new generation of operational robotic capabilities. Expanding on the capabilities of earlier manipulation systems such as the Viking and Surveyor soil scoops, the Russian Lunakhods, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS), these new space robots will augment astronaut on-orbit capabilities and extend virtual human presence to lunar and planetary surfaces.

  10. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  11. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  12. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  13. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  14. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  15. Development of a system for sterilizing tsetse flies, Glossina spp., in the field.

    PubMed

    Hall, M J; Langley, P A

    1987-04-01

    Various autosterilizing systems were evaluated on natural populations of Glossina pallidipes Austen and G.morsitans morsitans Westwood in Zimbabwe. These involved a clear plastic tower of two or three chambers mounted at the cage position on a trap. Inside one chamber flies could be exposed to the vapour phase of the chemosterilant bisazir, P,P-bis (1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide. The system was designed to encourage flies to enter the sterilizing chamber, delaying their exit for sufficient time to expose them to a sterilizing dose. This was accomplished in the most effective system by restriction of the exit to one small hole (6 mm diameter) at the roof-side junction. The number of flies remaining in the chamber declined exponentially. The rate of exit was directly proportional to the density of flies in the sterilizing chamber and to the number of exit holes. The probability of a fly being in this chamber for at least 1 or 7 min (the times taken for female and male G.m.morsitans respectively to receive an ED50) was 0.84 and 0.67 respectively with one fly present. With sixteen flies, these probabilities were 0.76 and 0.18 respectively. Results suggest that it may be possible to develop a cheap, safe and efficient autosterilizer for use on tsetse traps.

  16. Space Technology Game Changing Development Astrobee: ISS Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Astrobee will be a free-flying robot that can be remotely operated by astronauts in space or by mission controllers on the ground. NASA is developing Astrobee to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station. These IVA tasks include interior environmental surveys (e.g., sound level measurement), inventory and mobile camera work. Astrobee will also serve as a platform for robotics research in microgravity. Here we describe the Astrobee project objectives, concept of operations, development approach, key challenges, and initial design.

  17. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  18. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  19. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  1. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  2. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  3. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  4. The Robots Are Coming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Molly

    1984-01-01

    Describes two robots that can be communicated with in Logo--Topo and Tasman Turtle--and briefly presents merchandise information on Topo II and Turtle Tot. Educational issues and possibilities related to robot use in school classrooms are discussed, and a school visit to introduce students to robots is recounted. (MBR)

  5. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  6. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  7. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  8. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  9. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souâd; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis. PMID:24069489

  10. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Engineered tracking systems 'fuse' data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control.

  11. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Engineered tracking systems 'fuse' data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control. PMID:20202821

  12. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  13. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  14. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  15. Retinal degeneration in the fly.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many genes are functionally equivalent between flies and humans. In addition, the same, or similar, mutations cause disease in both species. In fact, nearly three-fourths of all human disease genes have related sequences in Drosophila. The fly has a relatively small genome, made up of about 13,600 genes in four pairs of chromosomes. However, despite the dramatic differences in size and apparent complexity between humans and flies--we have less than twice as many genes as a fly--our genome is estimated to be made up of only 20,000-25,000 genes contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Therefore, despite the fly's perceived simplicity, or our perceived complexity, our genetic makeup may not be all that different. Its versatility for genetic manipulation and convenience for unraveling fundamental biological processes continue to guarantee the fly a place in the spotlight for unraveling the basis of and therapeutic treatments for human eye diseases.

  16. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics.

  17. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  18. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  19. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  20. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  1. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  3. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  4. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  5. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  6. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  7. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  8. CPU-less robotics: distributed control of biomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Lewis, M. Anthony; Hartmann, Mitra; Cohen, Avis H.

    2000-11-01

    Traditional robotics revolves around the microprocessor. All well-known demonstrations of sensory guided motor control, such as jugglers and mobile robots, require at least one CPU. Recently, the availability of fast CPUs have made real-time sensory-motor control possible, however, problems with high power consumption and lack of autonomy still remain. In fact, the best examples of real-time robotics are usually tethered or require large batteries. We present a new paradigm for robotics control that uses no explicit CPU. We use computational sensors that are directly interfaced with adaptive actuation units. The units perform motor control and have learning capabilities. This architecture distributes computation over the entire body of the robot, in every sensor and actuator. Clearly, this is similar to biological sensory- motor systems. Some researchers have tried to model the latter in software, again using CPUs. We demonstrate this idea in with an adaptive locomotion controller chip. The locomotory controller for walking, running, swimming and flying animals is based on a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). CPGs are modeled as systems of coupled non-linear oscillators that control muscles responsible for movement. Here we describe an adaptive CPG model, implemented in a custom VLSI chip, which is used to control an under-actuated and asymmetric robotic leg.

  9. Black holes without firewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  10. Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.

  11. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  12. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  13. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  14. The Nearest Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Garcia, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies.

  15. Method and associated apparatus for capturing, servicing, and de-orbiting earth satellites using robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, Frank J. (Inventor); Burns, Richard D. (Inventor); Holz, Jill M. (Inventor); Corbo, James E. (Inventor); Jedhrich, Nicholas M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a method and supporting apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing and de-orbiting a free-flying spacecraft, such as a satellite, using robotics. The capture of the spacecraft includes the steps of optically seeking and ranging the satellite using LIDAR, and matching tumble rates, rendezvousing and berthing with the satellite. Servicing of the spacecraft may be done using supervised autonomy, which is allowing a robot to execute a sequence of instructions without intervention from a remote human-occupied location. These instructions may be packaged at the remote station in a script and uplinked to the robot for execution upon remote command giving authority to proceed. Alternately, the instructions may be generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) logic onboard the robot. In either case, the remote operator maintains the ability to abort an instruction or script at any time as well as the ability to intervene using manual override to teleoperate the robot.

  16. Mobile robots IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 6, 7, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mobile robot systems discusses high-speed machine perception based on passive sensing, wide-angle optical ranging, three-dimensional path planning for flying/crawling robots, navigation of autonomous mobile intelligence in an unstructured natural environment, mechanical models for the locomotion of a four-articulated-track robot, a rule-based command language for a semiautonomous Mars rover, and a computer model of the structured light vision system for a Mars rover. Also discussed are optical flow and three-dimensional information for navigation, feature-based reasoning trail detection, a symbolic neural-net production system for obstacle avoidance and navigation, intelligent path planning for robot navigation in an unknown environment, behaviors from a hierarchical control system, stereoscopic TV systems, the REACT language for autonomous robots, and a man-amplifying exoskeleton.

  17. Survey of modeling, planning, and ground verification of space robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-06-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities. Nevertheless, dynamics modeling and motion planning of a space robot are much more complex than those of a fixed-base robot, due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulator and its base. On the other hand, in order to assure the success of on-orbital missions, many experiments are required to verify the key algorithms on the ground before the space robot is launched. In this paper, the main research achievements on dynamics modeling, path planning, and ground verification are reviewed, and future studies are recommended. Firstly, we summarize the essential modeling concepts, and deduce the kinematics and dynamics equations of a space robot. Secondly, the main motion planning approaches are discussed. Then, different ground verification systems, including the air-bearing table, neutral buoyancy, airplane flying, free-falling motion, suspension system, and hybrid system, are introduced. Finally, the future research trends are forecasted.

  18. Light driven micro-robotics with holographic 3D tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    We recently pioneered the concept of light-driven micro-robotics including the new and disruptive 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time optically trapped and "remote-controlled" in a volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potential of this new drone-like 3D light robotics approach in challenging microscopic geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light coupling that can dynamically track a plurality of "light robots" in 3D to ensure continuous optimal light coupling on the fly. Our latest developments in this new and exciting area will be reviewed in this invited paper.

  19. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  20. Why flies are good vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  1. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  2. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  3. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  4. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  5. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  6. Robotics and industrial inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

  7. Multigait soft robot

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Robert F.; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A.; Stokes, Adam A.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion. PMID:22123978

  8. Multigait soft robot.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  9. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  10. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  11. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  12. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  13. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garica, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 we proposed to carry out ground-based observations in order to securely identify stellar mass black holes in our galaxy. This type 4 proposal under NASA's UV, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics program compliments NASA's space-based research by following up black hole candidates found and studied with space-based observatories, in order to determine if they are indeed black holes. While our primary goal is to securely identify black holes by measuring their masses, a secondary goal is identifying unique visible-range signatures for black holes.

  14. Micro-aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot mechanism for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-Uk; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Myung, Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the maintenance or inspection of large structures is labor-intensive, so it has a problem of the large cost due to the staffing professionals and the risk for hard to reach areas. To solve the problem, the needs of wall-climbing robot are emerged. Infra-based wall-climbing robots to maintain an outer wall of building have high payload and safety. However, the infrastructure for the robot must be equipped on the target structure and the infrastructure isn't preferred by the architects since it can injure the exterior of the structure. These are the reasons of why the infra-based wall-climbing robot is avoided. In case of the non-infra-based wall-climbing robot, it is researched to overcome the aforementioned problems. However, most of the technologies are in the laboratory level since the payload, safety and maneuverability are not satisfactory. For this reason, aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot is researched. It is a flying possible wallclimbing robot based on a quadrotor. It is a famous aerial vehicle robot using four rotors to make a thrust for flying. This wall-climbing robot can stick to a vertical wall using the thrust. After sticking to the wall, it can move with four wheels installed on the robot. As a result, it has high maneuverability and safety since it can restore the position to the wall even if it is detached from the wall by unexpected disturbance while climbing the wall. The feasibility of the main concept was verified through simulations and experiments using a prototype.

  15. Using parallel evolutionary development for a biologically-inspired computer vision system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Pack, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach to attacking the problem of robust computer vision for mobile robots. The overall strategy is to mimic the biological evolution of animal vision systems. Our basic imaging sensor is based upon the eye of the common house fly, Musca domestica. The computational algorithms are a mix of traditional image processing, subspace techniques, and multilayer neural networks.

  16. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  17. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  18. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  19. Viselike Robotic Gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Split-rail/roller bearing system minimizes both friction and jamming under side loads. Viselike, high-performance, general-purpose robot hand developed for use in both industry and outer space. Device, called "split-rail parallel gripper", is simple, compact, inexpensive, rugged, light enough to be used on small robots, strong enough to be used on large robots to lift loads up to 100 lbs, and capable of gripping objects up to 7 in. wide.

  20. Robotics in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Paul B; Louw, Deon F; Rizun, Peter R; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2004-10-01

    Technological developments in imaging guidance, intraoperative imaging, and microscopy have pushed neurosurgeons to the limits of their dexterity and stamina. The introduction of robotically assisted surgery has provided surgeons with improved ergonomics and enhanced visualization, dexterity, and haptic capabilities. This article provides a historical perspective on neurosurgical robots, including image-guided stereotactic and microsurgery systems. The future of robot-assisted neurosurgery, including the use of surgical simulation tools and methods to evaluate surgeon performance, is discussed.

  1. Kinematics of robot wrists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. P.; Stevenson, C. N.

    1983-05-01

    Robots for use in assembly and other interactive tasks must be able to respond to both forces and velocity commands within their workspace. By considering a general six-joint robot it is shown that all such robots are limited in their ability to respond in orientation to feedback commands. It is also shown that it is simple to predict, if not to avoid, these regions of degeneracy in which the manipulator loses a degree of freedom.

  2. Formation Flying: The Future of Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades a revolution is likely to occur in how remote sensing of Earth, other planets or bodies, and a range of phenomena in the universe is performed from space. In particular, current launch vehicle fairing volume and mass constraints will continue to restrict the size of monolithic telescope apertures which can be launched to little or no greater size than that of the Hubble Space Telescope, the largest aperture currently flying in space. Systems under formulation today, such as the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to increase aperture size and, hence, imaging resolution, by deploying segmented optics. However, this approach is limited as well, by our ability to control such segments to optical tolerances over long distances with highly uncertain structural dynamics connecting them. Consequently, for orders of magnitude improved resolution as required for imaging black holes, imaging planets, or performing asteroseismology, the only viable approach will be to fly a collection of spacecraft in formation to synthesize a virtual segmented telescope or interferometer with very large baselines. This paper provides some basic definitions in the area of formation flying, describes some of the strategic science missions planned in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and identifies some of the critical technologies needed to enable some of the most challenging space missions ever conceived which have realistic hopes of flying.

  3. Black hole accretion.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot

    2005-01-01

    Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269

  4. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  5. [Robotic surgery: marking time?].

    PubMed

    van der Poel, Henk G; Beerlage, Harry P; Klaver, Sjoerd O

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgery provides the next step in surgical evolution. Where laparoscopic surgery shortened both hospital stay and recovery, it often prolonged the surgical procedure. Novel laparoscopic instruments such as robotic systems improve visibility and patient outcome. Recent randomized studies show improved functional patient outcome after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Introduction of image-guided surgical technologies is aided by robotic systems. Outside medicine, randomized controlled studies in technological improvements are non-existent. A careful monitoring of study results is mandatory for the introduction of novel technologies in the field of medicine.

  6. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  7. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  8. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  11. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  12. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  13. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  14. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  15. i-SAIRAS '90; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, Kobe, Japan, Nov. 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and automation in space encompasses robot systems, lunar and planetary robots, advanced processing, expert systems, knowledge bases, issues of operation and management, manipulator control, and on-orbit service. Specific issues addressed include fundamental research in AI at NASA, the FTS dexterous telerobot, a target-capture experiment by a free-flying robot, the NASA Planetary Rover Program, the Katydid system for compiling KEE applications to Ada, and speech recognition for robots. Also addressed are a knowledge base for real-time diagnosis, a pilot-in-the-loop simulation of an orbital docking maneuver, intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization, a fuzzy control method for a space manipulator system, hyperredundant manipulator applications, robotic servicing of EOS instruments, and a summary of astronaut inputs on automation and robotics for the Space Station Freedom.

  16. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  17. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  18. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  19. Robotics: Generation soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-08-01

    Meet the octobot, the first robot to be made entirely from soft materials. Powered by a chemical reaction and controlled by a fluidic logic circuit, it heralds a generation of soft robots that might surpass conventional machines. See Letter p.451

  20. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality.

  1. Robotics in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Frick, A C; Falcone, T

    2009-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved from an investigational surgical approach to a clinically useful adjunct in multiple surgical specialties over the past decade. Advocates of robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery revere the system's wristed instrumentation, ergonomic positioning, and three-dimensional high-definition vision system as significant improvements over laparoscopic equipment's four degrees of freedom and two-dimensional laparoscope that demand the surgeon stand throughout a procedure. The cost, lack of haptic feedback, and the bulky size of the equipment make robotics less attractive to others. Studies evaluating outcomes in robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery are limited. Multiple small retrospective studies demonstrate the safety and feasibility of robotic hysterectomy. With increased surgeon experience, operative times are similar to, or shorter than, laparoscopic cases. Robotic assistance can facilitate suturing in laparoscopic myomectomies, and is associated with decreased blood loss and a shorter hospital stay, although may require longer operative times. Robotic assistance has also been applied to multiple procedures in the subspecialties of infertility, urogynecology and gynecologic oncology with good success and relatively low morbidity. However, further research is warranted to better evaluate the relative benefits and costs of robotic assisted gynecologic surgery.

  2. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  3. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  4. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  5. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  6. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  8. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  9. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  10. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  11. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  12. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  13. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  14. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  15. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  16. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  17. Quantization of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.

  18. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  19. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  20. Naked black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces {ital outside} the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. The Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Antarctic ozone levels and the discovery of a hole in the Antarctic region are examined. The effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the level of stratospheric ozone are analyzed. Three cycles explaining the cause of ozone depletion in the poles are proposed. A comparison of field data and proposed depletion cycles reveals that the chemical origin of the ozone hole is due to CFCs. The potential global effects of the Antarctic ozone hole are discussed.

  2. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  3. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  4. Open-hole fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobono, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on losing equipment in the hole that is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well. Drilling must come to a halt until the equipment is recovered, or the hole must be sidetracked. The well also can become hard to control with essential tools out of reach, increasing the risk of a blowout. Fishing, or recovering lost or stuck equipment in the hole, is therefore a critical procedure at any drilling operation. Fishing can be divided into two broad categories: open hole and cased hole. a major difference between the two is timing: open-hole fishing is done as the well is being drilled, whereas cased-hole fishing is performed during production or well workover. Fishing techniques and types of equipment used also vary between the tow. This lesson describes some of the basic techniques and tools used in open-hole fishing-that is, retrieving fish from a hole that is being drilled but is not yet cased.

  5. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale. PMID:24434546

  6. Neural network-based multiple robot simultaneous localization and mapping.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Sajad; Paull, Liam; Trentini, Michael; Li, Howard

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a decentralized platform for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with multiple robots is developed. Each robot performs single robot view-based SLAM using an extended Kalman filter to fuse data from two encoders and a laser ranger. To extend this approach to multiple robot SLAM, a novel occupancy grid map fusion algorithm is proposed. Map fusion is achieved through a multistep process that includes image preprocessing, map learning (clustering) using neural networks, relative orientation extraction using norm histogram cross correlation and a Radon transform, relative translation extraction using matching norm vectors, and then verification of the results. The proposed map learning method is a process based on the self-organizing map. In the learning phase, the obstacles of the map are learned by clustering the occupied cells of the map into clusters. The learning is an unsupervised process which can be done on the fly without any need to have output training patterns. The clusters represent the spatial form of the map and make further analyses of the map easier and faster. Also, clusters can be interpreted as features extracted from the occupancy grid map so the map fusion problem becomes a task of matching features. Results of the experiments from tests performed on a real environment with multiple robots prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  7. Neural network-based multiple robot simultaneous localization and mapping.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Sajad; Paull, Liam; Trentini, Michael; Li, Howard

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a decentralized platform for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with multiple robots is developed. Each robot performs single robot view-based SLAM using an extended Kalman filter to fuse data from two encoders and a laser ranger. To extend this approach to multiple robot SLAM, a novel occupancy grid map fusion algorithm is proposed. Map fusion is achieved through a multistep process that includes image preprocessing, map learning (clustering) using neural networks, relative orientation extraction using norm histogram cross correlation and a Radon transform, relative translation extraction using matching norm vectors, and then verification of the results. The proposed map learning method is a process based on the self-organizing map. In the learning phase, the obstacles of the map are learned by clustering the occupied cells of the map into clusters. The learning is an unsupervised process which can be done on the fly without any need to have output training patterns. The clusters represent the spatial form of the map and make further analyses of the map easier and faster. Also, clusters can be interpreted as features extracted from the occupancy grid map so the map fusion problem becomes a task of matching features. Results of the experiments from tests performed on a real environment with multiple robots prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. PMID:22156983

  8. Development of robots and application to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, W. J.; Liscano, R.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for using a robot system with a single camera to position in three-dimensional space a slender object for insertion into a hole; for example, an electrical pin-type termination into a connector hole. The algorithm relies on a control-configured end effector to achieve the required horizontal translations and rotational motion, and it does not require camera calibration. A force sensor in each fingertip is integrated with the vision system to allow the robot to teach itself new reference points when different connectors and pins are used. Variability in the grasped orientation and position of the pin can be accomodated with the sensor system. Performance tests show that the system is feasible. More work is needed to determine more precisely the effects of lighting levels and lighting direction.

  9. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  10. Flying at No Mechanical Energy Cost: Disclosing the Secret of Wandering Albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Gottfried; Traugott, Johannes; Nesterova, Anna P.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Kümmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do: fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consisting of a continually repeated up-down curve with optimal adjustment to the wind. We determined the energy obtained from the wind by analysing the measured trajectories of free flying birds using a new GPS-signal tracking method yielding a high precision. Our results reveal an evolutionary adaptation to an extreme environment, and may support recent biologically inspired research on robotic aircraft that might utilize albatrosses' flight technique for engineless propulsion. PMID:22957014

  11. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  12. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon’s hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. PMID:26822625

  13. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  14. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  15. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  16. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  17. Robotic systems in surgery.

    PubMed

    Bargar, W L; Carbone, E J

    1993-10-01

    Computer-driven robots and medical imaging technology may soon enable surgeons to plan and execute intricate procedures with unprecedented precision. Our experience in introducing a robotic system for use in an active role in cementless total hip replacement surgery has convinced us that the marriage of these two technologies-robotics and medical imaging-is likely to change the way many types of surgical procedures are performed. The ability to link an image-based preoperative plan with its surgical execution by a robot may be the key to improved outcomes. Research and development of robotic systems for a wide variety of medical applications is underway at a number of prestigious institutions. Grenoble University has developed the IGOR (Imaged Guided Operating Robot) system. This six-axis robot has performed more than 400 interventions, acting as a positioner for brain surgery in both biopsy and therapeutic procedures. AlephMed and Digital are currently assisting the developers in integrating image analysis into the system. Future development plans include an application for spinal surgery. PMID:25951597

  18. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency.

  19. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  20. Newborn Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  1. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  2. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  3. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  4. Robotic liver resection technique.

    PubMed

    Hart, Marquis E; Precht, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The robotic approach to hepatic resection has evolved because of advances in laparoscopy and digital technology and based on the modern understanding of hepatic anatomy. Robotic technology has allowed for the development of a minimally invasive approach, which is conceptually similar to the open approach. The major differences are improved visualization and smaller incisions without a haptic interface. As a result, the operative strategy is reliant on visual cues and knowledge of hepatic surgical anatomy. Development of a robotic liver resection program ideally occurs in the setting of a comprehensive liver program with significant experience in all aspects of surgical liver care.

  5. Robotics: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cloy, D.; Harris, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an account encompassing the entire range of disciplines involved in robotics: mechanical, electrical, electronic, and software design, as well as the related technologies of pick-and-place devices, walking machines, teleoperators, and prosthetics. The book explores the evolution of robotics and major trends in the field, and covers an array of robot configurations and mechanisms. It also looks at fundamentals such as actuation, control, measurement, computers, sensing and interaction with the environment, and pattern recognition. Important economic and financial aspects as well as safety and social implications are detailed.

  6. Robots and telechirs

    SciTech Connect

    Thring, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume outlines an engineering approach and includes relevant social aspects of the impact of robotic automation. The book explains the basic principles and theory, discusses design and investigates current methods to produce practical, reliable robots. Specific topics include the theory and practice of mechanical arms, hands and legs. The use of robotics in industry and of telechirs in mines, underwater, and in such dangerous situations as handling explosives are also covered, as are the mechanisms of the human body in doing these tasks.

  7. Walking Humanoid Robot Lola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwienbacher, Markus; Favot, Valerio; Buschmann, Thomas; Lohmeier, Sebastian; Ulbrich, Heinz

    Based on the experience gathered from the walking robot Johnnie the new performance enhanced 25-DoF humanoid robot Lola was built. The goal of this project is to realize a fast, human-like walking. This paper presents different aspects of this complex mechatronic system. Besides the overall lightweight construction, custom build multi-sensory joint drives with high torque brush-less motors were crucial for reaching the performance goal. A decentralized electronics architecture is used for joint control and sensor data processing. A simulation environment serves as a testbed for the walking control, to minimize the risk of damaging the robot hardware during real world experiments.

  8. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  9. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  10. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  11. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Tough, MengHeng; Cheng, Lin; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT PhantomTM), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole

  12. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Susu Tough, MengHeng; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom{sup TM}), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the

  13. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. Interagency cooperative scientific program to investigate antarctic ozone hole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    NASA, The Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation and its National Center for Atmospheric Research, and the Chemical Manufacturer's Association have announced a cooperative investigation of the Antarctic ozone hole. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment will fly specially instrumented NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft into the Antarctic ozone hole from August 17 through September 29. The experiments have been designed not only to test existing Antarctic ozone hole theories but to provide for a wide base of high quality atmospheric data in the event that none of the current hypotheses proves to be adequate. This experiment is prompted by recent observations that have shown a dramatic and unexpected downward trend in the amount of ozone in a column of air over the Antarctic in the period between late winter and early spring.

  15. Hole-ness of point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Klaes, Björn; Casper, Markus C.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and dense 3D models of soil surfaces can be used in various ways: They can be used as initial shapes for erosion models. They can be used as benchmark shapes for erosion model outputs. They can be used to derive metrics, such as random roughness... One easy and low-cost method to produce these models is structure from motion (SfM). Using this method, two questions arise: Does the soil moisture, which changes the colour, albedo and reflectivity of the soil, influence the model quality? How can the model quality be evaluated? To answer these questions, a suitable data set has been produced: soil has been placed on a tray and areas with different roughness structures have been formed. For different moisture states - dry, medium, saturated - and two different lighting conditions - direct and indirect - sets of high-resolution images at the same camera positions have been taken. From the six image sets, 3D point clouds have been produced using VisualSfM. The visual inspection of the 3D models showed that all models have different areas, where holes of different sizes occur. But it is obviously a subjective task to determine the model's quality by visual inspection. One typical approach to evaluate model quality objectively is to estimate the point density on a regular, two-dimensional grid: the number of 3D points in each grid cell projected on a plane is calculated. This works well for surfaces that do not show vertical structures. Along vertical structures, many points will be projected on the same grid cell and thus the point density rather depends on the shape of the surface but less on the quality of the model. Another approach has been applied by using the points resulting from Poisson Surface Reconstructions. One of this algorithm's properties is the filling of holes: new points are interpolated inside the holes. Using the original 3D point cloud and the interpolated Poisson point set, two analyses have been performed: For all Poisson points, the

  16. Fly-By-Light Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Edward V.; Snitzer, Elias

    1983-03-01

    The last decade witnessed the emergence and acceptance of Fly-by-Wire technology for advanced flight control systems. The benefits of fiber-optic technology such as low EMI susceptability, lower aircraft system weight, and lower life cycle cost may substitute Fly-by-Light technology as the accepted state-of-the-art in this decade. This paper addresses the motivation for moving toward Fly-by-Light technology and technology needs for implementation of Fly-by-Light with particular emphasis on the sensors. The paper examines the impact of increased intensity levels of man-made threats (EMI, EMP and nuclear radiation) coupled with the extensive utilization of non-conductive fuselage materials. A baseline Fly-by-Light control system highlights the key system elements of sensors, effectors, and communication which require development for fiber optics to be used. With the ongoing development of fiber-optic communication technology by the telecommunication industry, the responsibility has fallen to the controls industry to provide the generic technology development for the sensing and effector requirements. United Technologies Corporation and in particular its Hamilton Standard and Research Divisions have been developing effector and sensor technology and have applied the results of these efforts to the U.S. Navy Linear Optical Transducer and the U.S. Army Rotary Optical Transducer programs. The linear transducer is a 12-bit, 3.5-inch stroke device. The rotary is a 10-bit, 40 degrees-of-travel unit.

  17. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  18. Robotic follow system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  19. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  20. Microprocessors, Robotics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores several recent technological developments which will have an impact on future technical education. These developments include the revolution in information services, robotics, job changes and eliminations, changing role of the worker, and quality of life. (CT)

  1. Robotic heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Zenati, M A

    2001-01-01

    Advances in computer and robotic technology are transforming cardiac surgery, overcoming the limitations of conventional endoscopic tools. Using minimal access through 5 millimeter ports, computer-enhanced instruments provide superhuman dexterity through tremor filtration and motion scaling, and are capable of precise manipulation in confined body cavities. Using these technologies, endoscopic beating heart coronary bypass surgery as well as complex mitral valve repairs have been performed in the last few years. However, the current world experience with robotic heart surgery is mostly anecdotal, retrospective, and noncontrolled. Results of rigorous prospective randomized studies in the United States under Food and Drug Administration approved protocols, are awaited. The use of robotic telemanipulation technology for heart surgery is restricted in the United States to patients enrolled in clinical studies in a few elite centers. Further refinement in robotic and image-guided technology for cardiac surgery may further expand the use of computer enhanced instrumentation in the near future.

  2. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  3. Robots on the Roof

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena—both natural and manmade—...

  4. Operator roles in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.

  5. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  6. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  7. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  8. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  9. K-10 Robots

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robots, scientists, engineers and flight controllers from NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, gathered at NASA Ames to perform a series...

  10. Robotics and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities.

  11. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  12. Robots in operating theatres.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, R. A.; Buckingham, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Robots designed for surgery have three main advantages over humans. They have greater three dimensional spatial accuracy, are more reliable, and can achieve much greater precision. Although few surgical robots are yet in clinical trials one or two have advanced to the stage of seeking approval from the UK's Medical Devices Agency and the US Federal Drug Administration. Safety is a key concern. A robotic device can be designed in an intrinsically safe way by restricting its range of movement to an area where it can do no damage. Furthermore, safety can be increased by making it passive, guided at all times by a surgeon. Nevertheless, some of the most promising developments may come from robots that are active (monitored rather than controlled by the surgeon) and not limited to intrinsically safe motion. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8520340

  13. Respiration in High Flying

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, G. Struan

    1937-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure falls, as height increases, to about one-ninth of its sea-level value at 50,000 feet. The intake of oxygen into the blood depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air, which is about one-fifth of the atmospheric pressure. But since the gaseous content of the lungs is saturated with water vapour at body temperature, 47 mm. Hg. of the atmospheric pressure in the lungs is due to water vapour and is therefore not available for oxygen or other gases, while the alveolar air contains also an almost constant pressure of 40 mm. CO2. Mental and physical output demand an adequate partial pressure of O2; they begin to be limited as soon as this falls, and at heights above 18,000 feet are seriously reduced. Consequently in order to fly higher than about 15,000 feet it is necessary to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air. Up to about 44,000 feet this can be done by merely raising the percentage of oxygen, usually by allowing a regulated stream of oxygen to enter a small naso-buccal mask, but preferably by a closed system in which the negative pressure of inspiration opens a valve and allows oxygen to enter a bag from which it is inspired. Beyond 44,000 feet as a limit (and a lesser height for safety) it is necessary to create a local atmospheric pressure around the pilot higher than that of the surrounding air, by enclosing him in an airtight sit or cabin in which a relatively increased pressure with a maximum value of about 2½ lb. per square inch is maintained, while he breathes pure oxygen. This device was used in the recent British world record high flight, when a height of 50,000 feet was attained. The pressure-suit used by the pilot on this occasion and the decompression chamber recently built at Farnborough are described in detail. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19991176

  14. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  15. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  16. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  17. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  18. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  19. Robotic Reverberation Mapping of Arp 151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Sand, D. J.; Barth, A. J.; Horne, K.; Treu, T.; Raganit, L.; Boroson, T.; Crawford, S.; Pancoast, A.; Pei, L.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Villforth, C.; Winkler, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network's Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) Key Project, a large program devoted to using the robotic resources of LCOGT to perform time domain studies of active galaxies. We monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 151 (Mrk 40) for ∼200 days with robotic imagers and with the FLOYDS robotic spectrograph at Faulkes Telescope North. Arp 151 was highly variable during this campaign, with V-band light curve variations of ∼0.3 mag and Hβ flux changing by a factor of ∼3. We measure robust time lags between the V-band continuum and the Hα, Hβ, and Hγ emission lines, with {τ }{cen}={13.89}-1.41+1.39, {7.52}-1.06+1.43, and {7.40}-1.32+1.50 days, respectively. The lag for the He iiλ4686 emission line is unresolved. We measure a velocity-resolved lag for the Hβ line, which is clearly asymmetric with higher lags on the blue wing of the line that decline to the red, possibly indicative of radial inflow, and is similar in morphology to past observations of the Hβ transfer function shape. Assuming a virialization factor of f = 5.5, we estimate a black hole mass of {M}{BH}={6.2}-1.2+1.4 × 106 M⊙, also consistent with past measurements for this object. These results represent the first step to demonstrate the powerful robotic capabilities of LCOGT for long-term AGN time domain campaigns that human intensive programs cannot easily accomplish. Arp 151 is now one of just a few AGNs where the virial product is known to remain constant against substantial changes in Hβ lag and luminosity.

  20. Black holes and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-01

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole.

  1. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  2. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  3. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  4. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  5. Robotic assisted andrological surgery.

    PubMed

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  6. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  7. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. PMID:24615533

  8. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  9. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  10. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  11. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  12. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  13. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  14. Rich Rogers Flying Over Greenland Icecap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ihis is a view from the NASA P3 aircraft cockpit as it flies 1000 feet over the Greenland icecap during Operation Icebridge mission, which flies each March-May. The end of video shows an ice camp w...

  15. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 2: Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the rapidly changing field of robotics. The report incorporates definitions of the various types of robots, a summary of the basic concepts, utilized in each of the many technical areas, review of the state of the art and statistics of robot manufacture and usage. Particular attention is paid to the status of robot development, the organizations involved, their activities, and their funding.

  16. An intelligent robot for helping astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Grimm, K. A.; Pendleton, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development status of a prototype supervised intelligent robot for space application for purposes of (1) helping the crew of a spacecraft such as the Space Station with various tasks, such as holding objects and retrieving/replacing tools and other objects from/into storage, and (2) for purposes of retrieving detached objects, such as equipment or crew, that have become separated from their spacecraft. In addition to this set of tasks in this low-Earth-orbiting spacecraft environment, it is argued that certain aspects of the technology can be viewed as generic in approach, thereby offering insight into intelligent robots for other tasks and environments. Candidate software architectures and their key technical issues which enable real work in real environments to be accomplished safely and robustly are addressed. Results of computer simulations of grasping floating objects are presented. Also described are characterization results on the usable reduced gravity environment in an aircraft flying parabola (to simulate weightlessness) and results on hardware performance there. These results show it is feasible to use that environment for evaluative testing of dexterous grasping based on real-time vision of freely rotating and translating objects.

  17. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  18. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  19. Astrophysics: Monster black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2011-12-01

    A combination of ground-based and spacecraft observations has uncovered two black holes of 10 billion solar masses in the nearby Universe. The finding sheds light on how these cosmic monsters co-evolve with galaxies.

  20. Experiments in thrusterless robot locomotion control for space applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, Warren Joseph

    1990-01-01

    While performing complex assembly tasks or moving about in space, a space robot should minimize the amount of propellant consumed. A study is presented of space robot locomotion and orientation without the use of thrusters. The goal was to design a robot control paradigm that will perform thrusterless locomotion between two points on a structure, and to implement this paradigm on an experimental robot. A two arm free flying robot was constructed which floats on a cushion of air to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero-g environment of space. The robot can impart momentum to itself by pushing off from an external structure in a coordinated two arm maneuver, and can then reorient itself by activating a momentum wheel. The controller design consists of two parts: a high level strategic controller and a low level dynamic controller. The control paradigm was verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off from a structure with both arms, rotate 180 degs while translating freely, and then to catch itself on another structure. This method, based on the computed torque, provides a linear feedback law in momentum and its derivatives for a system of rigid bodies.

  1. Helical superconducting black holes.

    PubMed

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  2. Orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, J. W.; Smith, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element was developed to adequately represent the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This has been achieved through a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with a center circular hole. The element has been incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN as a dummy element. Sample problems have been solved and these results are presented.

  3. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  4. Relationship of horn fly to face fly infestation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B; Simpson, R B; Brown, M A; Steelman, C D; Rosenkrans, C F

    1994-09-01

    Horn fly and face fly counts (n = 394) taken on 194 beef cows representing seven breed groups were used to determine the effects of horn fly and face fly counts. Breed groups included were Angus (ANI and ANII), Chianina (CA), Charolais (CH), Hereford (HH), Polled Hereford (PH), and Red Poll (RP). The breed group designated ANI consisted of small-framed cows. Total horn fly and total face fly counts were determined weekly on each cow beginning in May and ending in late October or early November in a 3-yr (1988-90) study. Face flies were not counted on the ANI and ANII breed groups in 1988. All fly counts were taken when cows were grazing Ozark upland native grass pastures with only containment fences separating breeding groups. No insecticides were used in the study. Data for analysis were the mean annual horn fly and face fly counts (averaged across weeks), spring weight and fall weights, gain/day between spring and fall weights, and skin surface area in the spring (SSAS) and fall (SSAF) for each cow. Relationships among measurements were examined by correlation and regression procedures. Horn fly count was correlated (P < .05) with face fly count, spring weight, gain/day, and SSAS (.23, .11, -.25, and .12, respectively). Correlations of horn fly count with fall weight and SSAF were non-significant. Horn fly count, breed, and the breed x horn fly count interaction were significant (P < .05) for the face fly regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  6. Global optimum path planning for a redundant space robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yangsheng

    1991-12-01

    Robotic manipulators will play a significant role in the maintenance and repair of space stations and satellites, and other future space missions. Robot path planning and control for the above applications should be optimum, since any inefficiency in the planning may considerably risk the success of the space mission. This paper presents a global optimum path planning scheme for redundant space robotic manipulators to be used in such missions. In this formulation, a variational approach is used to minimize the objective functional. Two optimum path planning problems are considered: first, given the end-effector trajectory, find the optimum trajectories of the joints, and second, given the terminal conditions of the end-effector, find the optimum trajectories for the end-effector and the joints. It is explicitly assumed that the gravity is zero in, and the robotic manipulator is mounted on a completely free-flying base (spacecraft) and the attitude control (reaction wheels or thrust jets) is off. Linear and angular momentum conditions for this system lead to a set of mixed holonomic an nonholonomic constraints. These equations are adjoined to the objective functional using a Lagrange multiplier technique. The formulation leads to a system of Differential and Algebraic Equations (DAEs) and a set of terminal conditions. A numerical scheme is presented for forward integration of the above system of DAEs, and an iterative shooting method is used to satisfy the terminal conditions. This approach is significant since most space robots that have been developed so far are redundant. The kinematic redundancy of space robots offers efficient control and provides the necessary dexterity for extra-vehicular activity or avoidance of potential obstacles in space stations.

  7. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  8. Supersmart Robots: The Next Generation of Robots Has Evolutionary Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Robots that can learn new behaviors. Robots that can reproduce themselves. Science fiction? Not anymore. Roboticists at Cornell's Computational Synthesis Lab have developed just such engineered creatures that offer interesting implications for education. The team, headed by Hod Lipson, was intrigued by the question, "How can you get robots to be…

  9. A Space Station robot walker and its shared control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Brown, Ben; Aoki, Shigeru; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first briefly overview the update of the self-mobile space manipulator (SMSM) configuration and testbed. The new robot is capable of projecting cameras anywhere interior or exterior of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and will be an ideal tool for inspecting connectors, structures, and other facilities on SSF. Experiments have been performed under two gravity compensation systems and a full-scale model of a segment of SSF. This paper presents a real-time shared control architecture that enables the robot to coordinate autonomous locomotion and teleoperation input for reliable walking on SSF. Autonomous locomotion can be executed based on a CAD model and off-line trajectory planning, or can be guided by a vision system with neural network identification. Teleoperation control can be specified by a real-time graphical interface and a free-flying hand controller. SMSM will be a valuable assistant for astronauts in inspection and other EVA missions.

  10. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  11. Small robot will give astronauts a big hand.

    PubMed

    Flinn, E D

    2000-02-01

    Now being built at NASA-Ames is a small robot that will work independently alongside astronauts in space. About the size of a softball, the 5-in.-diam. Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) will serve as an intelligent robot, providing another set of eyes and ears and an extra nose to the crew and ground support personnel. The device will move and operate on its own in the microgravity environment of space-based vehicles. Yuri Gawdiak, principal investigator for the projects, expects astronauts to fly a demonstration model of the device aboard a Space Shuttle in about two years. The first crew to use PSAs will test the examine safety issues. Those tests, if successful, will lead to a demonstration aboard the International Space Station. Gawdiak says the project has an annual budget of about $500,000.

  12. A prototype supervised intelligent robot for helping astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Grimm, K. A.; Pendleton, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The development status is described of a prototype supervised intelligent robot for space application for purposes of (1) helping the crew of a spacecraft such as the Space Station with various tasks such as holding objects and retrieving/replacing tools and other objects from/into storage, and for purposes of (2) retrieving detached objects, such as equipment or crew, that have become separated from their spacecraft. In addition to this set of tasks in this low Earth orbiting spacecraft environment, it is argued that certain aspects of the technology can be viewed as generic in approach, thereby offering insight into intelligent robots for other tasks and environments. Also described are characterization results on the usable reduced gravity environment in an aircraft flying parabolas (to simulate weightlessness) and results on hardware performance there. These results show it is feasible to use that environment for evaluative testing of dexterous grasping based on real-time visual sensing of freely rotating and translating objects.

  13. Flying qualities from early airplanes to the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of the study of flying qualities and the evolution of flying qualities requirements. Subjects considered include the scope of flying qualities, early historical development of flying qualities, research on flying qualities requirements, human response characteristics, command control systems, gust response and its relation to flying qualities, prediction of flying qualities, discussion of the Space Shuttle and of some recent airplanes, and format of the flying qualities requirements.

  14. Charged Galileon black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  15. Braneworld Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-10-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, and we attempt to generate rotating solutions from known static solutions using the Newman-Janis complexification ``trick''.

  16. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.

  17. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  18. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  19. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  20. Industrial Robots on the Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Explores the history of robotics and its effects upon the manufacturing industry. Topics include robots' capabilities and limitations, the factory of the future, displacement of the workforce, and implications for management and labor. (SK)

  1. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  2. Robots and Kids: Classroom Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Twila

    1984-01-01

    Describes how three different levels of students interacted with three different commercially available robots. Considers the educational value of these devices and provides a list of seven robots (indicating their source, computer compatibility, language, current cost, capabilities, and options). (JN)

  3. Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    An evolutionary algorithm has been developed that allows robots to adapt to unforeseen change. The robots learn behaviours quickly and instinctively by mining the memory of their past achievements. See Letter p.503

  4. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery-2014.

    PubMed

    Kearns, James T; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2014-07-01

    We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide. PMID:25197187

  5. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G.; Tanaka, Reiko J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell’s spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell’s signaling range, and (iii) the cell’s gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell’s responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell’s sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots. PMID

  6. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2013-01-01

    Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell's spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell's signaling range, and (iii) the cell's gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell's responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell's sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots. PMID:23543872

  7. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2013-01-01

    Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell's spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell's signaling range, and (iii) the cell's gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell's responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell's sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots.

  8. Utilization of fly ash in metallic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Guo, R.Q.; Golden, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fly ash particles have been successfully dispersed into aluminum alloy to make aluminum alloy-fly ash composites (Ashalloy) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Additions of solid and hollow particles of fly ash reduce the cost and density of aluminum castings while increasing their performance. Ashalloy represents a candidate material for high value added use of fly ash, while reducing the disposal volumes of fly ash for the electric utility industry and making the US foundries more competitive. The fly ash particle distribution in the matrix aluminum alloy and the microstructure of aluminum-fly ash composite was determined. Selected properties of cast aluminum-fly ash composites are also presented in this paper. Mechanical properties of aluminum-fly ash composites show that the composite possesses higher hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to the matrix alloy. The flow behavior of molten aluminum-fly ash slurries along with the components cast in aluminum-fly ash composites will be presented. Fly ash containing metal components have potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden furniture, engine blocks in automotive, small engine and electromechanical industry sector.

  9. Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Dybdahl, Jens; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in summer. PMID:15496257

  10. Drosophila-inspired visual orientation model on the Eye-RIS platform: experiments on a roving robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Alba, L.; Strauss, R.

    2011-05-01

    Behavioral experiments on fruit flies had shown that they are attracted by near objects and they prefer front-to-back motion. In this paper a visual orientation model is implemented on the Eye-Ris vision system and tested using a roving platform. Robotic experiments are used to collect statistical data regarding the system behaviour: followed trajectories, dwelling time, distribution of gaze direction and others strictly resembling the biological experimental setup on the flies. The statistical analysis has been performed in different scenarios where the robot faces with different object distribution in the arena. The acquired data has been used to validate the proposed model making a comparison with the fruit fly experiments.

  11. Robot free-flyers in space extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Harald J.; Alexander, Harold L.

    1992-11-01

    image. This paper includes a description of the underwater vehicle's vision-based navigation and control system and applications of vision-based navigation and control for free-flying space robots. Experimental results from underwater tests of STAR's vision system are also presented.

  12. Innovative Robot Archetypes for In-Space Construction and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Kennedy, Brett; Diftler, Myron; Mehling Joshua; Brigwater, Lyndon; Radford, Nicolaus; Goza, S. Michael; Culbert, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The space environment presents unique challenges and opportunities in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of orbital and transit spaceflight systems. While conventional Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) technology, out of necessity, addresses each of the challenges, relatively few of the opportunities have been exploited due to crew safety and reliability considerations. Extra-Vehicular Robotics (EVR) is one of the least-explored design spaces but offers many exciting innovations transcending the crane-like Space Shuttle and International Space Station Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robots used for berthing, coarse positioning and stabilization. Microgravity environments can support new robotic archetypes with locomotion and manipulation capabilities analogous to undersea creatures. Such diversification could enable the next generation of space science platforms and vehicles that are too large and fragile to launch and deploy as self-contained payloads. Sinuous manipulators for minimally invasive inspection and repair in confined spaces, soft-stepping climbers with expansive leg reach envelopes and free-flying nanosatellite cameras can access EVA worksites generally not accessible to humans in spacesuits. These and other novel robotic archetypes are presented along with functionality concepts

  13. Flying Training at West Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, M. Hamlin

    During World War Two the United States Military Academy operated a three-year program of instruction. Superimposed on this abbreviated curriculum was full-scale pilot training program. The emphasis of this study is on the problems that arose as a result. Included is a summary of responses to a questionnaire on the value of the flying training…

  14. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  15. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  16. The Spider and the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  17. To Fly in the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  18. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  19. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  20. Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California.

    PubMed

    Chung, Crystal Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Paff, Sandra M; Van Horn, Brian A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chomel, Bruno B

    2004-07-01

    Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly. PMID:15324557

  1. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  2. Modular robotic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smurlo, Richard P.; Laird, Robin T.

    1991-03-01

    The development of control architectures for mobile systems is typically a task undertaken with each new application. These architectures address different operational needs and tend to be difficult to adapt to more than the problem at hand. The development of a flexible and extendible control system with evolutionary growth potential for use on mobile robots will help alleviate these problems and if made widely available will promote standardization and cornpatibility among systems throughout the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control systern that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set of software hardware tools that can be used to design modular robots (MODBOTs) with nearly unlimited growth potential. The MODBOT itself is a generic creature that must be customized by the developer for a particular application. The MRA facilitates customization of the MODBOT by providing sensor actuator and processing modules that can be configured in almost any manner as demanded by the application. The Mobile Security Robot (MOSER) is an instance of a MODBOT that is being developed using the MRA. Navigational Sonar Module RF Link Control Station Module hR Link Detection Module Near hR Proximi Sensor Module Fluxgate Compass and Rate Gyro Collision Avoidance Sonar Module Figure 1. Remote platform module configuration of the Mobile Security Robot (MOSER). Acoustical Detection Array Stereoscopic Pan and Tilt Module High Level Processing Module Mobile Base 566

  3. Robotic Microsurgery Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  4. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  5. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  6. Robot teachers: The very idea!

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to the use of robots in classrooms. Robot "teachers" are being developed, but because Kline ignores such technological developments, it is not clear how they would fit within her framework. It is argued here that robots are not capable of teaching in any meaningful sense, and should be deployed only as educational tools.

  7. Future perspectives in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Llukani, Elton; Lee, David I

    2011-09-01

    Robotics of the current day have advanced significantly from early computer-aided design/manufacturing systems to modern master-slave robotic systems that replicate the surgeon's exact movements onto robotic instruments in the patient. • Globally >300,000 robotic procedures were completed in 2010, including ≈98,000 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. • Broadening applications of robotics for urological procedures are being investigated in both adult and paediatric urology. • The use of the current robotic system continues to be further refined. Increasing experience has optimized port placement reducing arm collisions to allow for more expedient surgery. Improved three-dimensional camera magnification provides improved intraoperative identification of structures. • Robotics has probably improved the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery while still maintaining its patient recovery advantages and outcomes. • The future of robotic surgery will take this current platform forward by improving haptic (touch) feedback, improving vision beyond even the magnified eye, improving robot accessibility with a reduction of entry ports and miniaturizing the slave robot. • Here, we focus on the possible advancements that may change the future landscape of robotic surgery.

  8. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  9. Robotics: Applications and social implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Miller, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Robots are expected to dramatically alter the U.S. economy in the 1980s. In this assessment of their effects on everyday life, the authors examine the scope of the robotics revolution and provide recommendations for a smooth introduction of robots into American industry.

  10. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-04-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  11. Robot Technology: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Paul E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to robotic technology, and describes current robot models. Three ways of using robots in education are discussed--as exemplars of other processes, as objects of instruction, and as prosthetic aids--and selection criteria are outlined. (17 references) (CLB)

  12. Future perspectives in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Llukani, Elton; Lee, David I

    2011-09-01

    Robotics of the current day have advanced significantly from early computer-aided design/manufacturing systems to modern master-slave robotic systems that replicate the surgeon's exact movements onto robotic instruments in the patient. • Globally >300,000 robotic procedures were completed in 2010, including ≈98,000 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. • Broadening applications of robotics for urological procedures are being investigated in both adult and paediatric urology. • The use of the current robotic system continues to be further refined. Increasing experience has optimized port placement reducing arm collisions to allow for more expedient surgery. Improved three-dimensional camera magnification provides improved intraoperative identification of structures. • Robotics has probably improved the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery while still maintaining its patient recovery advantages and outcomes. • The future of robotic surgery will take this current platform forward by improving haptic (touch) feedback, improving vision beyond even the magnified eye, improving robot accessibility with a reduction of entry ports and miniaturizing the slave robot. • Here, we focus on the possible advancements that may change the future landscape of robotic surgery. PMID:21917107

  13. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  14. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  15. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  16. Robotic Design for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Burns, Kaylynn

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of robotic design to interest students in science and engineering. It describes one program, BEST, and resources that area available to design and create a robot. BEST is a competition for sixth and seventh graders that is designed to engage gifted and talented students. A couple of scenarios involving the use of a robot are outlined.

  17. The universal robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  18. RX130 Robot Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugal, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

  19. The universal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-12-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  20. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  1. Robotically assisted ultrasound interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jienan; Swerdlow, Dan; Wang, Shuxin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a robotic system to assist the physician in minimally invasive ultrasound interventions. In current practice, the physician must manually hold the ultrasound probe in one hand and manipulate the needle with the other hand, which can be challenging, particularly when trying to target small lesions. To assist the physician, the robot should not only be capable of providing the spatial movement needed, but also be able to control the contact force between the ultrasound probe and patient. To meet these requirements, we are developing a prototype system based on a six degree of freedom parallel robot. The system will provide high bandwidth, precision motion, and force control. In this paper we report on our progress to date, including the development of a PC-based control system and the results of our initial experiments.

  2. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  3. Technical vision for robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    A new invention by scientists who have copied the structure of a human eye will help replace a human telescope-watching astronomer with a robot. It will be possible to provide technical vision not only for robot astronomers but also for their industrial fellow robots. So far, an artificial eye with dimensions close to those of a human eye discerns only black-and-white images. But already the second model of the eye is to perceive colors as well. Polymers which are suited for the role of the coat of an eye, lens, and vitreous body were applied. The retina has been replaced with a bundle of the finest glass filaments through which light rays get onto photomultipliers. They can be positioned outside the artificial eye. The main thing is to prevent great losses in the light guide.

  4. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  5. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  6. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  7. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  8. Robotics and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David

    2003-12-01

    Industrial robotics have proven the benefit of using an untiring machine to perform precise repetitive tasks in uncomfortable or dangerous for humans environments. Highly skilled surgeons are trained to operate and adapt to difficult conditions. They are even capable of developing intelligent mechanisms to exploit a variety of tactile, visual, and other cues. The robotic systems, however, can enhance the surgeon's capability to perform a wide variety of tasks. They cannot replace the surgeon's problem-solving ability. Instead, they will redefine his role. They will significantly enhance the surgeon's skills and dexterity by providing their complementary capabilities and an ergonomically efficient and more user-friendly working environment.

  9. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  10. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  11. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  12. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  13. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  14. Binocular Interactions Underlying the Classic Optomotor Responses of Flying Flies

    PubMed Central

    Duistermars, Brian J.; Care, Rachel A.; Frye, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In response to imposed course deviations, the optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, many anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that disparate motion cues stimulating the left and right eyes are not processed in isolation but rather are integrated in the brain to produce a cohesive panoramic percept. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory–motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record wing and head optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular rotation and monocular front-to-back and back-to-front motion. Within a narrow range of stimulus parameters that generates large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular front-to-back motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation, but are contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular back-to-front motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the influence of non-additive contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions that serve to confer contrast insensitivity to flight behaviors influenced by rotatory optic flow. PMID:22375108

  15. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  16. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results. PMID:21095916

  17. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results.

  18. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  19. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  20. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  1. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  2. Interplanetary magnetic holes: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic holes in the interplanetary medium are explained as stationary, non-propagating, equilibrium structures in which there are field-aligned enhancements of the plasma density and/or temperature. Magnetic anti-holes are considered to be associated with depressions in the plasma pressure. In this model, the observed changes in the magnetic field intensity and direction are due to diamagnetic currents that are carried by ions which drift in a sheath as the result of gradients in the magnetic field and in the plasma pressure within the sheath. The thickness of the sheaths considered is approximately a few ion Larmor radii. An electric field is normal to the magnetic field in the sheath. Solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equations are presented which account for several types of magnetic holes, including null-sheets, that were observed.

  3. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  4. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  5. Turbulent black holes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  6. Turbulent black holes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  7. Bringing Black Holes Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  8. Black-hole astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  9. Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) show the progressive depletion of ozone over Antarctica from 1979 to 1999. This 'ozone hole' has extended to cover an area as large as 10.5 million square miles in September 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set in 1996. The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year between late August and early October. Regions with higher levels of ozone are shown in red. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Ozone holes of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists hope to see a reduction in ozone loss as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are gradually reduced. Credit: Images by Greg Shirah, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  10. Janus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  11. Applying High-Speed Vision Sensing to an Industrial Robot for High-Performance Position Regulation under Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shouren; Bergström, Niklas; Yamakawa, Yuji; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-07-29

    It is traditionally difficult to implement fast and accurate position regulation on an industrial robot in the presence of uncertainties. The uncertain factors can be attributed either to the industrial robot itself (e.g., a mismatch of dynamics, mechanical defects such as backlash, etc.) or to the external environment (e.g., calibration errors, misalignment or perturbations of a workpiece, etc.). This paper proposes a systematic approach to implement high-performance position regulation under uncertainties on a general industrial robot (referred to as the main robot) with minimal or no manual teaching. The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy that involves configuring an add-on module for the main robot's end effector. The add-on module consists of a 1000 Hz vision sensor and a high-speed actuator to compensate for accumulated uncertainties. The main robot only focuses on fast and coarse motion, with its trajectories automatically planned by image information from a static low-cost camera. Fast and accurate peg-and-hole alignment in one dimension was implemented as an application scenario by using a commercial parallel-link robot and an add-on compensation module with one degree of freedom (DoF). Experimental results yielded an almost 100% success rate for fast peg-in-hole manipulation (with regulation accuracy at about 0.1 mm) when the workpiece was randomly placed.

  12. Applying High-Speed Vision Sensing to an Industrial Robot for High-Performance Position Regulation under Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shouren; Bergström, Niklas; Yamakawa, Yuji; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is traditionally difficult to implement fast and accurate position regulation on an industrial robot in the presence of uncertainties. The uncertain factors can be attributed either to the industrial robot itself (e.g., a mismatch of dynamics, mechanical defects such as backlash, etc.) or to the external environment (e.g., calibration errors, misalignment or perturbations of a workpiece, etc.). This paper proposes a systematic approach to implement high-performance position regulation under uncertainties on a general industrial robot (referred to as the main robot) with minimal or no manual teaching. The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy that involves configuring an add-on module for the main robot's end effector. The add-on module consists of a 1000 Hz vision sensor and a high-speed actuator to compensate for accumulated uncertainties. The main robot only focuses on fast and coarse motion, with its trajectories automatically planned by image information from a static low-cost camera. Fast and accurate peg-and-hole alignment in one dimension was implemented as an application scenario by using a commercial parallel-link robot and an add-on compensation module with one degree of freedom (DoF). Experimental results yielded an almost 100% success rate for fast peg-in-hole manipulation (with regulation accuracy at about 0.1 mm) when the workpiece was randomly placed. PMID:27483274

  13. Slowly balding black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-15

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  14. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  15. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  16. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  17. Infinitely coloured black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2000-04-01

    We formulate the field equations for SU (icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and use an analytic approximation to elucidate the properties of spherically symmetric black hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The black holes possess infinite amounts of gauge field hair, and we speculate on possible consequences of this for quantum decoherence, which, however, we do not tackle here.

  18. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  19. Notes on flying and dying.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  20. NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Since early 2005, NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development (RLLD) office at NASA MSFC, in partnership with the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), has developed mission concepts and preformed risk-reduction activities to address planetary science and exploration objectives uniquely met with landed missions. The RLLD team developed several concepts for lunar human-exploration precursor missions to demonstrate precision landing and in-situ resource utilization, a multi-node lunar geophysical network mission, either as a stand-alone mission, or as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer and a Mercury lander mission for the Planetary Science decadal survey, and an asteroid rendezvous and landing mission for the Exploration Precursor Robotics Mission (xPRM) office. The RLLD team has conducted an extensive number of risk-reduction activities in areas common to all lander concepts, including thruster testing, propulsion thermal control demonstration, composite deck design and fabrication, and landing leg stability and vibration. In parallel, the team has developed two robotic lander testbeds providing closed-loop, autonomous hover and descent activities for integration and testing of flight-like components and algorithms. A compressed-air test article had its first flight in September 2009 and completed over 150 successful flights. This small test article (107 kg dry/146 kg wet) uses a central throttleable thruster to offset gravity, plus 3 descent thrusters (37lbf ea) and 6 attitude-control thrusters (12lbf ea) to emulate the flight system with pulsed operation over approximately 10s of flight time. The test article uses carbon composite honeycomb decks, custom avionics (COTS components assembled in-house), and custom flight and ground software. A larger (206 kg dry/322 kg wet), hydrogen peroxide-propelled vehicle began flight tests in spring 2011 and fly over 30 successful flights to a maximum altitude of 30m. The monoprop testbed

  1. The OmniTread serpentine robot: design and field performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Granosik, Grzegorz; Hansen, Malik

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of the OmniTread serpentine robot, developed at the University of Michigan. Serpentine robots are mobile robots that comprise of multiple rigid segments, connected by actuated joints. The segments usually have drive elements, such as wheels or tracks. To date, we have developed two versions of the OmniTread. The larger version, called OT-8, has five rigid segments and four 2-Degree-of-Freedom (2-DOF) joints, and it can drive through an 8-inch diameter opening. The OT-8 is fully functional and this paper documents experimental results for the OT-8. The smaller and newer version, called "OT-4," will have seven segments, six 2- DOF joints, and it will fit through a 4 inch diameter hole. The OT-4 is not yet completely built, but its design is mostly completed and key improvements over the OT-8 have been bench tested. The foremost and unique design characteristic of the OmniTread is the use of pneumatic bellows to actuate the joints. The pneumatic bellows allow the simultaneous control of position and stiffness for each joint. Controllable stiffness is of crucial importance in serpentine robots, which require stiff joints to cross gaps and compliant joints to conform to rough terrain for effective propulsion. Another unique feature of the OmniTread design is the maximal coverage of all four sides of each segment with driven tracks. This design makes the robot indifferent to roll-overs, which are bound to happen when the long and slen-der bodies of serpentine robots travel over rugged terrain.

  2. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  3. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  4. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  5. An Inexpensive Robotics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inigo, R. M.; Angulo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a simple robot manipulator. The manipulator has three degrees of freedom and is controlled by a general purpose microcomputer. The basis for the manipulator (which costs under $100) is a simple working model of a crane. (Author/JN)

  6. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  7. Brain controlled robots

    PubMed Central

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey’s motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis’s lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the “Computational Brain Project.” CB-i’s locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey’s voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  8. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  9. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  10. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  11. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  12. Information Robots and Manipulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katys, G. P.; And Others

    In the modern concept a robot is a complex automatic cybernetics system capable of executing various operations in the sphere of human activity and in various respects combining the imitative capacity of the physical and mental activity of man. They are a class of automatic information systems intended for search, collection, processing, and…

  13. Robots in the Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Joan; Shanahan, Dolores

    1983-01-01

    Describes work with kindergarten children to improve their development of estimation, decision making, divergent thinking, directionality, numerical concepts, and creative problem solving skills through learning to program and control the robot Big Trak, a truck which moves along the floor in response to their commands. (EAO)

  14. Mathematics and "Lego" Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janus Halkier; Traeholt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    For the last four years, Soenderholm School, near the town of Aalborg, Northjutland, Denmark, has had an optional subject in the seventh grade called First "Lego" League (FLL). FLL is an international contest which aims to advance pupils' scientific interest. The task is for participants to build and program a "Lego" robot able to solve eight…

  15. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance. PMID:12082211

  16. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance.

  17. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  18. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  19. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present.

  20. Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.

    2008-03-01

    Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.