Science.gov

Sample records for hollow glass spheres

  1. Determination of the Optical Properties of Hollow Glass Sphere Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-28

    Optical Models _-O ptical modeling of hollow glass sphere aerosols was undertaken with a two stage approach. The first stage was to develop a model for...task of developing a model for composite or hollow spheres )The original formulation of the solution as given by tler 952), also appearing in...a hollow glass sphere aerosol, composed of fused quartz. Thece: results are very different in appearence from those of the solid glass spheres

  2. Smart soft-templating synthesis of hollow mesoporous bioactive glass spheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-05-26

    Hollow bioactive glass spheres with mesoporous shells were prepared by using dual soft templates, a diblock co-polymer poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Hollow mesoporous bioactive glass (HMBG) spheres comprise the large hollow interior with vertical mesochannels in shell, which realize large uptake of drugs and their sustained release. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of HMBG particles shows the clear evidence for promising application in bone regeneration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Formation of metallic and metallic-glass hollow spheres and their solidification characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Various metals and metallic glass systems have bene processed into hollow spheres with sizes ranging from 3 mm to 440 microns in diameter. The technique for the formation of the large hollow spheres, in general, is based on the fluid-dynamic instability of a hollow annular jet. A refined technique has also been developed for microshell formation, in which discrete bubbles are injected into the stream of the molten material and individually 'flushed' out at a frequency related to the Rayleigh jet instability. The surfaces of those spheres of all sizes exhibit a range of contrasting solidification behaviors and characteristics. Metal shells of varying materials, sizes, aspect ratios, sphericity and concentricity have many useful and novel applications.

  4. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  5. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  6. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  7. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  8. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  9. Investigation of metallic and metallic glass hollow spheres for fusion target application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.; Wang, T. G.; Johnson, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The first successful formation of submillimeter and millimeter spherical shells of tin and of a gold-lead-antimony alloy by means of the hollow-jet instability technique developed by Kendall is reported. Examination of tin specimens by SEM reveals that surface quality varies from poor to excellent. Whereas the metal is employed only as a convenient and inexpensive material, the gold alloy is important in that it is hard, has a high atomic number, and may be solidified into the amorphous state through the provision of a modest cooling rate. AuPbSb spherules up to 1.5 mm in diameter are produced using LN2 or chilled methanol as a coolant. It is found that these amorphous samples possess a superb surface smoothness compatible with fusion target requirements. It is noted that hollow spheres currently made of this alloy have an average outside diameter of 2000 microns.

  10. Improved method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Rosencwaig, A.; Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.

    An improved method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100..mu.. to about 500..mu.. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5 to 20..mu.. are described. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions.

  11. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Rosencwaig, Allen; Koo, Jackson C.; Dressler, John L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1979-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T.gtoreq.600.degree. C.). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  13. Hollow sphere ceramic particles for abradable coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, F.N.; Bader, N.F. III; Dorfman, M.R.

    1984-05-22

    A hollow sphere ceramic flame spray powder is disclosed. The desired constituents are first formed into agglomerated particles in a spray drier. Then the agglomerated particles are introduced into a plasma flame which is adjusted so that the particles collected are substantially hollow. The hollow sphere ceramic particles are suitable for flame spraying a porous and abradable coating. The hollow particles may be selected from the group consisting of zirconium oxide and magnesium zirconate.

  14. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  15. Combined use of lightweight magnetic Fe3O4-coated hollow glass spheres and electrically conductive reduced graphene oxide in an epoxy matrix for microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin based lightweight composites comprising Fe3O4-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Fe3O4) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared. Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic are used for analysis of the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure HGS@Fe3O4 and RGO composite, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites are enhanced. RL values less than -10 dB are obtained in a wide frequency range and the corresponding bandwidth can reach up to 3.6 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness is chosen. The density of the hybrid composite is in the range of 0.57-0.72 g/cm3, which is attractive candidate for a new type of lightweight microwave absorber.

  16. Enhanced microwave absorption performance of lightweight absorber based on reduced graphene oxide and Ag-coated hollow glass spheres/epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junpeng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xu, Renxin; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-21

    Using a combination of Ag-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Ag) and a small quantity of graphene sheets within the epoxy matrix, we have prepared a novel lightweight high efficiency microwave absorption composite. Compared with pure HGS@Ag and graphene composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum reflection loss of the novel composite are improved. Reflection loss exceeding −20 dB is obtained for composites in a wide frequency range and the minimum reflection loss reaches −46 dB while bandwidth less than −10 dB can reach up to 4.1 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness between 2 and 3.5 mm is chosen. The enhanced microwave absorption performance of the novel composite is due to the enhanced dielectric response, enhanced conductivity, and the trap of electromagnetic radiation with increased propagation paths by multiple reflections.

  17. TEACHING PHYSICS: Biking around a hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    1999-11-01

    The conditions required for a cyclist riding a motorbike in a horizontal circle on or above the equator of a hollow sphere are derived using concepts of equilibrium and the condition for uniform circular motion. The result is compared with an empirical analysis based on a video show. Some special cases of interest derived from the general solution are elaborated.

  18. Fabrication of hollow silver spheres by MPTMS-functionalized hollow silica spheres as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Gon; Oh, Chul; Shin, Seung-Il; Kim, Young-Chai; Oh, Seong-Geun . E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr; Kong, Sung-Ho

    2005-02-15

    In this study, we provide a strategy to prepare the hollow silver spheres by accumulating the silver nanoparticles on the surface of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silica as templates, which was accomplished by the chemisorption between silver nanoparticles and thiol groups. Then, the resulting hollow silver spheres were obtained through the chemical wet etching process with 10 M HF solution. In conventional method, the fabrication of hollow silver spheres from core-shell spheres was not easy due to the difficulties in retaining the shell structures during core removal. The method in this paper could overcome this limitation. The major focus of study is on understanding the mechanism of formation of the hollow silver spheres through the self-assembly behavior by chemisorption between silver nanoparticles and thiol groups. The silver-coated silica and hollow silver spheres were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  19. Hollow glass waveguides: New variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel Joseph

    This study is an effort to develop new variations on the infrared silver-silver iodide hollow glass waveguide (HGW) with application specific properties. Four variations are presented: a HGW with a long, gradual taper, a HGW with a rectangular cross-section, curved HGW tips and a new all-dielectric hollow waveguide based on photonic bandgap guidance principles. A hollow glass waveguide tapered over its entire length offers ease of coupling at the proximal end and excellent flexibility at the distal end. Waveguides tapered from 1000 to 500 mum and 700 to 500 mum over 1.5 m were fabricated in this study. Compared to similarly sized non-tapered waveguides, laser losses for the tapered guides were high but decreased when bent. This behavior is contrary to that of non-tapered guides and an iterative ray tracing model was also developed to explain the observed loss characteristics of tapered hollow waveguides. Hollow glass waveguides with round profiles do not maintain the polarization state of the delivered radiation to any appreciable degree. HGWs with large- and small-aspect ratio rectangular cross sections were developed and shown to preserve polarization up to 96%, even when bent. The large aspect ratio guide was able to effectively rotate the transmitted polarization when twisted along its axis. Curved distal tips for medical and dental laser applications were developed by removing the low-OH silica fiber from commercially available stainless steel dental tips, and inserting HGWs of various sizes. The optical performances and heating profiles of the various configurations indicate the tips are suitable for certain medical applications, but the minimum bending radius is limited by the mechanical properties of the glass substrate. A small radii bending loss study confirms that propagating modes periodically couple as the radius of curvature is reduced. Through the application of the photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance, hollow waveguides can be made entirely from

  20. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres, conversions with them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  1. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  2. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dean M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  3. Chiral Structures of Thermoresponsive Soft Spheres in Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Matthew A.; Alsayed, Ahmed; Zhang, Zexin; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally observe the formation of closely packed crystalline structures in hollow cylinders. The structures have varying degrees of chiral order. The systems are created from aqueous suspensions of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) microgel particles packed in micron-diameter glass capillaries. We categorize these structures according to classifications used by Erickson for tubular packings of hard spheres [1]. By varying the temperature-tunable diameter of these particles, the system's volume fraction is changed, permitting observations of the resilience of these structures and their melting transitions. Melting of these thermal crystalline structures is observed. [1] R. O. Erickson, Science 181 (1973) 705-716.

  4. Hollow silica spheres: synthesis and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Auernhammer, Günter K; Vollmer, Doris; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2009-03-03

    Core-shell polystyrene-silica spheres with diameters of 800 nm and 1.9 microm were synthesized by soap-free emulsion and dispersion polymerization of the polystyrene core, respectively. The polystyrene spheres were used as templates for the synthesis of silica shells of tunable thickness employing the Stöber method [Graf et al. Langmuir 2003, 19, 6693]. The polystyrene template was removed by thermal decomposition at 500 degrees C, resulting in smooth silica shells of well-defined thickness (15-70 nm). The elastic response of these hollow spheres was probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A point load was applied to the particle surface through a sharp AFM tip, and successively increased until the shell broke. In agreement with the predictions of shell theory, for small deformations the deformation increased linearly with applied force. The Young's modulus (18 +/- 6 GPa) was about 4 times smaller than that of fused silica [Adachi and Sakka J. Mater. Sci. 1990, 25, 4732] but identical to that of bulk silica spheres (800 nm) synthesized by the Stöber method, indicating that it yields silica of lower density. The minimum force needed to irreversibly deform (buckle) the shell increased quadratically with shell thickness.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of hollow silica spheres under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiyu; Wang, Pengpeng; Hu, Shi; Hui, Junfeng; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2011-06-07

    It is well-known that silica can be etched in alkaline media or in a unique hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution, which is widely used to prepare various kinds of hollow nanostructures (including silica hollow structures) via silica-templating methods. In our experiments, we found that stöber silica spheres could be etched in generic acidic media in a well-controlled way under hydrothermal conditions, forming well-defined hollow/rattle-type silica spheres. Furthermore, some salts such as NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) were found to be favorable for the formation of hollow/rattle-type silica spheres.

  6. Aminated hollow silica spheres for electrochemical DNA biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor for e.coli determination based on aminated hollow silica was successfully developed. Aminated hollow silica spheres were prepared through the reaction of Tween 20 template and silica precursor. The template was removed by the thermal decomposition at 620°C. Hollow silica spheres were modified with (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) to form aminated hollow silica spheres.Aminated DNA probe were covalently immobilized on to the amine functionalized hollow silica spheres through glutaradehyde linkers. The formation hollow silica was characterized using FTIR and FESEM. A range of 50-300nm particle size obtained from FESEM micrograph. Meanwhile for the electrochemical study, a quasi-reversible system has been obtain via cyclic voltammetry (CV).

  7. Silica hollow spheres with nano-macroholes like diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masahiro; Shiokawa, Kumi; Sakakura, Ikuko; Nakahara, Yoshiko

    2006-12-01

    Artificial synthesis of hollow cell walls of diatoms is an ultimate target of nanomaterial science. The addition of some water-soluble polymers such as sodium polymethacrylate to a solution of water/oil/water emulsion system, which is an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres (microcapsules), led to the formation of silica hollow spheres with nano-macroholes (>100 nm) in their shell walls, the morphologies of which are analogous to those of diatom earth.

  8. Acoustic properties of a hollow sphere for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; DeWaard, A.; Frossati, G.; Gianní, S.; Minenkov, Y.; Quintieri, L.; Simonetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on experimental work on a small prototype of a hollow sphere, aiming at assessing the feasibility of such a resonator as a third generation gravitational wave resonant detector. We measured the resonant frequencies and quality factors of the spheroidal quadrupolar modes of a welded hollow sphere. The eigenfrequencies are found where predicted by the theory, and the quality factors were degraded from a minimum of 20% to a maximum of 60% with respect to the bulk sphere.

  9. Structual and magnetic properties of MFe2O4 (M=Ni, Mg) nano hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Kensuke; Sakurai, Taiga; Nagano, Yutaro; Manabe, Naoto; Morimoto, Yugo

    2013-08-01

    Sub-micrometer-sized hollow spheres assembled from MFe2O4 (M= Ni, Mg) nanoparticles have been prepared by using the template method with a wet chemical process. A superparamagnetic-type blocking process is observed in the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and the field-cooled (FC) magnetizations and magnentic susceptibilities. Furthermore, a spin-glass-like behavior due to surface spin freezing is found in Ni-ferrite nanoparticles. The surface spin freezing temperatures T f are quite a bit lower than the blocking temperature, and the magnetic field dependence is different between the nanoparticles and the fabricated hollow spheres. The spin-glass nature of the Ni-ferrite nanoparticle is demonstrated by the magnetice field dependence of T f following the well known Almeida-Thouless (AT) line. In contrast, the T f( H) of the hollow Ni-ferrite sphere hints at failure of the Gabay-Toulouse theory as well as the AT theory.

  10. Superamphiphobic surfaces constructed by cross-linked hollow SiO2 spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weihao; Wang, Tao; Yan, Aili; Wang, Sheng

    2017-04-01

    By using stringed carbon spheres as template material, a series of hierarchical 3D cross-linked SiO2 coated carbon spheres and hollow SiO2 spheres were fabricated, and spray-coated on glass slides, followed by the fluorination treatment with per-fluorotrichlorosilane. The surface characterization and surface wettability data indicated that hollow SiO2 spheres spray-coated surfaces showed better superhydrophobicity and superoleophobcity properties than the corresponding solid C@SiO2 coated surface. This study further demonstrated that superamphiphobicity depends on two critical factors, namely a cavity- and spot-rich hierarchical structure and the size and shape of overhangs. Moreover, the optimal conditions for the preparation of hollow SiO2 coated glass slide were identified after a systematic investigation of various concentrations of the carbon precursor and tetraethylorthosilicate. It was found that when 0.10 g carbon spheres prepared from 1.0 M carbon precursor were used as the template and 20 mg/mL tetraethylorthosilicate was used as silica precursor, the hollow SiO2 coated glass slide exhibited the best superamphiphobic performance, with the highest contact angles and lowest sliding angles for various liquids, such as water, olive oil, n-hexadecane and n-dodecane.

  11. Mesoporous hollow sphere titanium dioxide photocatalysts through hydrothermal silica etching.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; Linley, Stuart; Baxter, George; Gu, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Robust, monodisperse, mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO₂) submicrometer hollow spheres were synthesized through a single step hydrothermal silica etching reaction under mild conditions. Efficient silica (SiO₂) removal was achieved without the use of toxic reagents, and a unique controllable silica redeposition mechanism was identified, imparting the hollow spheres with excellent structural integrity. The parameters of the hydrothermal reaction affecting the etching process, including pH, temperature, and silica concentration, were systematically investigated and optimized for the production of silica-templated hollow structures. The resulting processing conditions yielded TiO₂ hollow spheres with a surface area of ∼300 m² g⁻¹ and anatase phase crystallization, which exhibited high adsorption capacity for methylene blue dye and good photocatalytic activity without requiring high-temperature calcination.

  12. Hollow carbon spheres in microwaves: Bio inspired absorbing coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Li, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, A.; Gorokhov, G.; Kuzhir, P.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Pasc, A.; Ballweg, T.; Mandel, K.; Szczurek, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of a heterostructure based on a monolayer of hollow glassy carbon spheres packed in 2D was experimentally surveyed with respect to its response to microwaves, namely, the Ka-band (26-37 GHz) frequency range. Such an ordered monolayer of spheres mimics the well-known "moth-eye"-like coating structures, which are widely used for designing anti-reflective surfaces, and was modelled with the long-wave approximation. Based on the experimental and modelling results, we demonstrate that carbon hollow spheres may be used for building an extremely lightweight, almost perfectly absorbing, coating for Ka-band applications.

  13. Method and apparatus for producing concentric hollow spheres. [inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Hollow spheres with precisely concentric inner and outer spherical surfaces are formed by applying vibrations to a nonconcentric hollow sphere while it is at an elevated temperature at which it is fluid or plastic, the vibrations producing internal flows which cause the inner and outer surfaces to become precisely concentric. Concentric spheres can be mass produced by extruding a material such as glass or metal while injecting a stream of gas into the center of the extrusion to form a gas-filled tube. Vibrations are applied to the extruded tube to help break it up into individual bodies of a desired uniform size, the bodies tending to form spherical inner and outer surfaces by reason of surface tension, and the continuing application of vibrations causing these surfaces to become concentric.

  14. SnO₂ nanosheet hollow spheres with improved lithium storage capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shujiang; Wen David Lou, Xiong

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we employ new chemistry to grow tin oxide nanosheets in the gel matrix of sulfonated polystyrene hollow spheres. After calcination in air, hierarchical hollow spheres assembled from SnO(2) nanosheets can be obtained. In virtue of the porous shell structure and internal voids, these SnO(2) hierarchical nanosheet hollow spheres exhibit improved lithium storage capability.

  15. Synthesis of biocompatible hybrid magnetic hollow spheres based on encapsulation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yuan; Fan, Min-Min; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Bang-Jing

    2013-01-30

    A kind of novel magnetic hollow spheres was prepared by encapsulating magnetofluid into polymeric hollow spheres. Polymeric hollow nanospheres were constructed by self-assembly of rod-coil complexes, in which the rod-like segments were formed by inclusion of α-cyclodextrins (α-CD) and grafting poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of chitosan-graft-PEG (CS-g-PEG). Structural characteristics of CS-g-PEG/α-CD hollow spheres were investigated in detail by NMR, XRD, TEM, etc. Furthermore, those hollow spheres showed a pH responsive property which induced a considerable change of their radius. Magnetofluid was physically entrapped into the empty domain while hollow spheres were formed, it was found that the hollow spheres can encapsulate large quantities of magnetofluid and the encapsulated magnetofluid still possess magnetic responsiveness properties. We expect that this strategy may be served as a novel and more straightforward approach to obtain magnetic hollow spheres for biomedical application.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of VO2 Hollow Spheres and Their Conversion into V2O5 Hollow Spheres with Improved Lithium Storage Capability.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhong, Li; Li, Ming; Luo, Yuanyuan; Li, Guanghai

    2016-01-22

    Monodispersed hierarchically structured V2O5 hollow spheres were successfully obtained from orthorhombic VO2 hollow spheres, which are in turn synthesized by a simple template-free microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The structural evolution of VO2 hollow spheres has been studied and explained by a chemically induced self-transformation process. The reaction time and water content in the reaction solution have a great influence on the morphology and phase structure of the resulting products in the solvothermal reaction. The diameter of the VO2 hollow spheres can be regulated simply by changing vanadium ion content in the reaction solution. The VO2 hollow spheres can be transformed into V2O5 hollow spheres with nearly no morphological change by annealing in air. The nanorods composed of V2O5 hollow spheres have an average length of about 70 nm and width of about 19 nm. When used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the V2O5 hollow spheres display a diameter-dependent electrochemical performance, and the 440 nm hollow spheres show the highest specific discharge capacity of 377.5 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 50 mAg(-1) , and are better than the corresponding solid spheres and nanorod assemblies.

  17. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  18. Hematite template route to hollow-type silica spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yang-Su; Jeong, Gee-Young; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Ho-Kun

    2007-10-15

    Hollow-type silica spheres with controlled cavity size were prepared from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} core-shell composite particles by selective leaching of the iron oxide core materials using acidic solution. The spherical Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core particles with a diameter range of 20-400 nm were first prepared by the hydrolysis reaction of iron salts. Next, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} core-shell particles were prepared by the deposition of a SiO{sub 2} layer onto the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using a two-step coating process, consisting of a primary coating with sodium silicate solution and a subsequent coating by controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilicate (TEOS). The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core was then removed by dissolving with acidic solution, giving rise to hollow-type silica particles. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that the cavity size was closely related to the initial size of the core Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. According to the cross-sectional view obtained by transmission electron microscopy, the silica shell thickness was about 10 nm. The porous texture of the hollow-type silica particles was further characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the hollow silica particles. Wall thickness, as estimated by TEM from the ring around the perimeter of the hollow spheres, was {approx}10 nm. TEM micrographs of hollow silica spheres show that the sphericity of the core Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was preserved.

  19. Hollow titania spheres with movable silica spheres inside.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Xuehai; Chen, Haitao; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Linli; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2004-12-21

    We demonstrate a flexible method for preparing hollow TiO2 nanospheres with movable silica nanoparticles inside (HTNMSNs). In this method, we used monodisperse silica--polystyrene core--shell nanospheres (SiO2-PS-CSNs) sulfonated as templates and prepared the composite shell consisting of TiO2 and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) through adsorbing or depositing tetrabutyl titanate gel into the SPS shell. Finally the HTNMSNs were obtained after removal of all polymers in the composite nanospheres by dissolution or calcinations. We investigated the dependence of the morphologies of HTNMSNs on the thickness of PS shells and the size of SiO2 cores and prepared rare earth doped HTNMSNs by a sol-gel process.

  20. Hollow spheres based on mesostructured lead titanate with amorphous framework.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingmei; Wang, Guangguo; Xu, Huifang; Long, Junbiao; Shek, Fanny L Y; Lo, Samuel M-F; Williams, Ian D; Feng, Shouhua; Xu, Ruren

    2003-02-18

    Hollow spheres of mesostructured lead titanate, denoted as PTM-1, have been prepared via a combined oil-in-water emulsion mediated and neutral amine supermolecular templated route. The variety of reaction temperatures and KOH concentrations indicates hollow spheres can be formed under a very critical condition. The structure and composition of the as-synthesized PTM-1 have been determined by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), CHN (carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen) elemental analysis, and thermal analysis. Chemical extraction of organic templates by a cosolvent of weak acid and alcohol has resulted in the formation of a new mesoporous material of non-silica oxide with high porosity.

  1. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-26

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  2. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-01

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  3. Facile Synthesis and High Photocatalytic Degradation Performance of ZnO-SnO2 Hollow Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changqing; Ge, Chenghai; Jian, Zengyun; Wei, Yongxing

    2016-11-01

    ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method-combined carbon sphere template. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average diameter of hollow spheres is about 150 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was investigated by photodegrading Rhodamine B. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activities of ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres are higher than ZnO hollow spheres. The degradation efficiency of the hollow spheres could reach 99.85% within 40 min, while the ZnO hollow spheres need 50 min.

  4. Facile Synthesis and High Photocatalytic Degradation Performance of ZnO-SnO2 Hollow Spheres.

    PubMed

    Jin, Changqing; Ge, Chenghai; Jian, Zengyun; Wei, Yongxing

    2016-12-01

    ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method-combined carbon sphere template. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average diameter of hollow spheres is about 150 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was investigated by photodegrading Rhodamine B. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activities of ZnO-SnO2 hollow spheres are higher than ZnO hollow spheres. The degradation efficiency of the hollow spheres could reach 99.85% within 40 min, while the ZnO hollow spheres need 50 min.

  5. Consolidation of metallic hollow spheres by electric sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Lapkovsky, V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper considers peculiarities of the technology of production of structures from metallic hollow spheres (MHS) using magnetic fields and electric sintering. In these studies, the raw material was MHS obtained by burning of polystyrene balls coated by carbon steel. MHS had an outer diameter of 3-5 mm and a steel wall thickness of 70-120 microns. Pulsed current generators were used for electric sintering of MHS to obtain different spatial structures. Since MHS have small strength, the compressive pressure during sintering should be minimal. To improve the adhesion strength and reduce the required energy for sintering, hollow spheres were coated with copper by ion-plasma sputtering in vacuum. The coating thickness was 10-15 microns. The ferromagnetic properties of MHS allowed using of magnet fields for orientation of the spheres in the structures, as well as using of perforated tapes acting as orienting magnetic cores. Ultrasonic testing of MHS structures has been tried using through propagation of ultrasound in low kilohertz frequency range. Sensitivity of the propagation parameters to water filling of inter-spheres space and sintering temperature was demonstrated.

  6. Seeded Synthesis of Monodisperse Core-Shell and Hollow Carbon Spheres.

    PubMed

    Gil-Herrera, Luz Karime; Blanco, Álvaro; Juárez, Beatriz H; López, Cefe

    2016-08-01

    Monodisperse carbon spheres between 500 and 900 nm are hydrothermally synthesized from glucose on polystyrene seeds. Control over temperature, time, glucose concentration, and seed size yields hybrid spheres without aggregation and no additional spheres population. Pyrolysis transforms the hybrid into hollow carbon spheres preserving monodispersity. This approach provides a basis for functional carbon spheres applicable in photonics and energy storage.

  7. Solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite hollow spheres with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Sarah; Suarez, Jorge; Gonzalez, Gema

    2017-09-01

    Cobalt ferrite hollow spheres with chitosan (CoFe2O4/CS) were synthesized by two different approaches using the solvothermal method. The first approach involves in-situ incorporation of FeCl3:6H2O and CoNO3:6H2O in the solvothermal reaction (M1) and in second approach already prepared CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) using the thermal decomposition method was placed in the solvothermal reaction to form the hollow spheres (M2). Structural identification of the samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analyses (DSC-TGA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The magnetic properties were evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The presence of chitosan on the hollow sphere was confirmed by FTIR. The XRD analyses proved that the synthesized samples were cobalt ferrite with spinel structure. The structure of the surface and the average particle size of the spheres were observed by SEM and TEM showing the nano scale of the CoFe2O4 component. Structural characterization demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of the CoFe2O4/CS. This work demonstrates that the CoFe2O4/CS prepared using the as synthesized CoFe2O4 NPs have better structural and magnetic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  9. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g(-1) at 10 A g(-1)). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  10. Facile preparation method for rare earth phosphate hollow spheres and their photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mingyun; Tao, Feifei; Sun, Jianhua; Xu, Zheng

    2008-08-05

    We have developed a template-free hydrothermal method of constructing rare earth phosphate hollow spheres using H(6)P(4)O(13) as the PO(4) (3-) source. The mechanism of hollow spheres formation was proposed on the basis of Ostwald ripening. The resulting hollow spheres, especially with the aid of doping of other lanthanide cations, exhibit emission spanning the whole UV-visible wavelength range.

  11. Formation of Triple-Shelled Molybdenum-Polydopamine Hollow Spheres and Their Conversion into MoO2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawen; Yu, Le; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-11-14

    Unique triple-shelled Mo-polydopamine (Mo-PDA) hollow spheres are synthesized through a facile solvothermal process. A sequential self-templating mechanism for the multi-shell formation is proposed, and the number of shells can be adjusted by tuning the size of the Mo-glycerate templates. These triple-shelled Mo-PDA hollow spheres can be converted to triple-shelled MoO2 /carbon composite hollow spheres by thermal treatment. Owing to the unique multi-shells and hollow interior, the as-prepared MoO2 /carbon composite hollow spheres exhibit appealing performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, delivering a high capacity of ca. 580 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) with good rate capability and long cycle life. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Porous-wall hollow glass microspheres as carriers for biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shuyi; Dynan, William S; Wicks, George; Serkiz, Steven

    2013-09-17

    The present invention includes compositions of porous-wall hollow glass microspheres and one or more biomolecules, wherein the one or more biomolecules are positioned within a void location within the hollow glass microsphere, and the use of such compositions for the diagnostic and/or therapeutic delivery of biomolecules.

  13. Uniform Fe3O4-PANi/PS composite spheres with conductive and magnetic properties and their hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Tang, Saide; Liu, Jing; He, Ziqiong; An, Lijuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Hao, Jingmei; Feng, Wei

    2009-05-01

    Core-shell multifunctional composite spheres consisting of Fe3O4-polyaniline (PANi) shell and polystyrene (PS) core were fabricated using core-shell-structured sulfonated PS spheres (with uniform diameter of 250 nm) as templates. PANi was doped in situ by sulfonic acid resulting the composite spheres are well conductive. Dissolved with solvent, PS cores were removed from the core-shell composite spheres and hollow Fe3O4-PANi spheres were obtained. Removing the PANi and PS components by calcinations produced hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The cavity size of the hollow spheres was uniformly approximate to 190 nm and the shell thickness was 30 nm. The cavity size and the shell thickness can be synchronously controlled by varying the sulfonation time of the PS templates. The shell thickness in size range was of 20-86 nm when the sulfonation time was changed from 1 to 4 h. These resulting spheres could be arranged in order by self-assembly of the templates. Both the Fe3O4-PANi/PS composite spheres and the hollow Fe3O4 spheres exhibit a super-paramagnetic behavior. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder scattering were used to characterize these as-prepared spheres.

  14. General synthesis of 2D ordered hollow sphere arrays based on nonshadow deposition dominated colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guotao; Lv, Fangjing; Cai, Weiping; Luo, Yuanyuan; Li, Yue; Liu, Guangqiang

    2010-05-04

    A general strategy, nonshadow deposition dominated colloidal lithography (NSCL), was proposed for the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) ordered hollow sphere arrays of conductive materials. Gold, polypyrrole, CdS, and ZnO were taken as model materials to demonstrate the NSCL strategy, and built as 2D hollow sphere arrays successfully. In this strategy, a thin gold coating is first introduced on a polystyrene sphere (PS) colloidal monolayer via ion-sputtering deposition, and a hollow sphere array can thus be obtained by further electrochemical deposition on such a monolayer and by subsequent removal of PSs. The proposed strategy is flexible and facile to control the microstructure and size of the hollow sphere array, and the features are as follows: (i) controllable shell of the hollow sphere from single-layer to multilayer with single or multiple compositions, (ii) tunable morphology from simple structure to hierarchical micro/nanostructure, and (iii) changeable arrangement of hollow spheres from close-packing to non-close-packing. Besides these, the hollow sphere size and the shell thickness can also be controlled by changing the colloidal sphere and deposition time, respectively. Further investigation indicates that the success of NSCL should be owed to a key step, that is, an ion-sputtering induced nonshadow deposition surrounding the whole surfaces of colloidal spheres. This allows an equipotential face and thus homogeneous deposition surrounding the surfaces of PSs in an electrochemical deposition process, and final formation of hollow sphere structure. The 2D ordered hollow sphere arrays with controllable microstructure and size could exhibit importance both in fundamental research and in practical applications.

  15. CuO-ZnO heterometallic hollow spheres: Morphology and defect structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xuemin; Yang Xuzhuang; Gu Xiaojun; Su Haiquan

    2012-02-15

    The Cu-ZnO hollow spheres, where CuO nanocrystals were dispersed in the shell of ZnO nanoparticals, were synthesized by using highly uniform and monodispersed Cu-embedded carbon spheres as sacrificial templates via a simple route under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology and structure of the spheres were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. It was suggested that the OH and C=O groups in the surface of the Cu-embedded carbon spheres facilitated the adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} in the aqueous solution, giving rise to the final CuO-ZnO hollow structure after these Zn{sup 2+}-adsorbed spheres were calcined in air. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) study showed that the as-prepared CuO-ZnO hollow spheres and the annealed counterpart exhibited strong and dramatically weakened emissions, respectively. This remarkably different photoluminescent behavior afforded the evidence regarding the oxygen vacancy defects in the CuO-ZnO hollow spheres. - Graphical abstract: CuO-ZnO hollow spheres were obtained using Cu-embedded carbon spheres as template, and the photoluminescent spectra afforded the evidence regarding the oxygen vacancies in the hollow spheres. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A approach was presented to prepare carbon spheres in a high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fabrication of CuO-ZnO hollow spheres was a simple route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoluminescence afforded the evidence of the oxygen vacancies in the hollows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic approach might be applicable to preparing other hollow structures.

  16. Controllable Fabrication and Optical Properties of Uniform Gadolinium Oxysulfate Hollow Spheres

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fashen; Chen, Gen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaohe; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Junhui; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2015-01-01

    Uniform gadolinium oxysulfate (Gd2O2SO4) hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by calcination of corresponding Gd-organic precursor obtained via a facile hydrothermal process. The Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have a mean diameter of approximately 550 nm and shell thickness in the range of 30–70 nm. The sizes and morphologies of as-prepared Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres could be deliberately controlled by adjusting the experimental parameters. Eu-doped Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have also been prepared for the property modification and practical applications. The structure, morphology, and properties of as-prepared products were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Excited with ultraviolet (UV) pump laser, successful downconversion (DC) could be achieved for Eu-doped Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres. PMID:26671661

  17. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Jie Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-15

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia.

  18. Fabrication of hollow spheres by dry-gel conversion and its application in the selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinchang; Wang, Gang; Jin, Fengying; Fang, Xiangchen; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2013-04-15

    Hollow spheres were synthesized from MCM-41 solid spheres by dry-gel conversion. It was found that water amount has a major impact on the formation of hollow spheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the hollow spheres are between 500 and 600 nm in size with a dense shell of ca. 100 nm. The synthesized hollow sphere sample was examined as a support for hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The sulfur removal was enhanced while olefin hydrogenation of FCC gasoline was suppressed, and thus, the octane value was preserved when the hollow spheres (Na type) were loaded with Ni and Mo oxides as catalyst.

  19. Multiple reentrant glass transitions in confined hard-sphere glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Suvendu; Lang, Simon; Gross, Markus; Oettel, Martin; Raabe, Dierk; Franosch, Thomas; Varnik, Fathollah

    2014-07-01

    Glass-forming liquids exhibit a rich phenomenology upon confinement. This is often related to the effects arising from wall-fluid interactions. Here we focus on the interesting limit where the separation of the confining walls becomes of the order of a few particle diameters. For a moderately polydisperse, densely packed hard-sphere fluid confined between two smooth hard walls, we show via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the emergence of a multiple reentrant glass transition scenario upon a variation of the wall separation. Using thermodynamic relations, this reentrant phenomenon is shown to persist also under constant chemical potential. This allows straightforward experimental investigation and opens the way to a variety of applications in micro- and nanotechnology, where channel dimensions are comparable to the size of the contained particles. The results are in line with theoretical predictions obtained by a combination of density functional theory and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.

  20. The Hollow Spheres of the Orgueil Meteorite: A Re-Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rossignold-Strick, Maritine

    2005-01-01

    In 1971, Rossignol-Strick and Barghoorn provided images and a description of a number of spherical hollow microstructures showing well-defined walls in acid macerated extract of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous meteorite. Other forms such as membranes and spiral shaped structures were also reported. The carbon-rich (kerogen) hollow spheres were found to be in a narrowly constrained distribution of sizes (mainly 7 to 10 microns in diameter). Electron microprobe analysis revealed that these spheres contained Carbon, possibly P, N, and K. It was established that these forms could not be attributed to pollen or other recent terrestrial contaminants. It was concluded that they most probably represented organic coatings on globules of glass, olivine or magnetite in the meteorite. However, recent studies of the Orgueil meteorite have been carried out at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center with the S-4000 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). These investigations have revealed the presence of numerous carbon encrusted spherical magnetite platelets and spherical and ovoidal bodies of elemental iron in-situ in freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite. Their size range is also very narrowly constrained (typically approximately 6 to 12 microns) in diameter. High resolution images reveal that these bodies are also encrusted with a thin carbonaceous sheath and are surrounded by short nanofibrils that are shown to be composed of high purity iron by EDAX elemental analysis. We present Secondary and Backscatter Electron FESEM images and associated EDAX elemental analyses and 2D X-ray maps of these forms as we re-examine the hollow spheres of Orgueil and attempt to determine if they are representatives of the same population of indigenous microstructures.

  1. Fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica spheres and effect on water vapor permeability of polyacrylate membrane.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan; Yang, Yongqiang; Ma, Jianzhong

    2013-10-01

    Polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres were fabricated using polystyrene as templates by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate through a sol-gel process, in which polystyrene was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Then, hollow silica spheres were obtained after selective removal of the organic polystyrene core from the polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres by tetrahydrofuran etching. The effect of hollow silica spheres on water vapor permeability, mechanical property, and water uptake of polyacrylate membrane were investigated. The microstructure analysis shows that the mean size and wall thickness of hollow silica spheres are 170 nm and 20 nm, respectively. The silica shells consist of amorphous silica seed assembly with a broad size distribution, which roughen the surfaces of hollow silica spheres greatly. The specific surface area of hollow silica spheres is bigger than that of polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres. Hollow silica spheres can significantly improve water vapor permeability of polyacrylate membrane, but lead to the reduction in mechanical property.

  2. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  3. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by the conversion of borate glass at near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Aihua; Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-15

    Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres, consisting of a hollow core and a porous shell, were prepared by converting Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres in dilute phosphate solution at 37 {sup o}C. The results confirmed that Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the shell wall of the microsphere was built from hydroxyapatite particles, and these particles spontaneously align with one another to form a porous sphere with an interior cavity. Increase in phosphate concentration resulted in an increase in the reaction rate, which in turn had an effect on shell wall structure of the hollow hydroxyapatite microsphere. For the Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres reacted in low-concentration K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, lower reaction rate and a multilayered microstructure were observed. On the other hand, the glass microspheres reacted in higher phosphate solution converted more rapidly and produced a single hydroxyapatite layer. Furthermore, the mechanism of forming hydroxyapatite hollow microsphere was described.

  4. Synthesis and gas sensor application of nanostructure Cr2O3 hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingming; Zhu, Huichao; Zhang, Jiaqi; Li, Meihua; Cai, Zhaoyun

    2017-06-01

    This paper prepared single phase Cr2O3 hollow spheres by the template method. The templates was carbon spheres prepared by glucose hydro-thermal method. The Cr2O3 hollow spheres were confirmed and characterized by TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption. Then we investigated the gas sensor application of nanostructure Cr2O3 hollow spheres. The gas sensor properties of the Cr2O3 hollow spheres to some toxic flammable gases were investigated by resistance response method. The result showed that the sensor was extremely sensitive to the temperature, the resistance of sensor was increased linearly with the concentration of reductive gases varies from 50 to 250 ppm at optimum operating temperature (300°C). The response and recovery of the sensor was fast with the time to reach 70% of the total resistance change was 16s and 7s.

  5. General synthesis route to fabricate uniform upconversion luminescent gadolinium oxide hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang; Zhang, Cuimiao; Ding, Shiwen; Wang, Liyong

    2011-08-01

    Uniform upconversion luminescent gadolinium oxide hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a homogeneous precipitation method with carbon spheres as template followed by a calcination process. During the annealing process, the carbon spheres template can be effectively removed and the amorphous precursor has converted to crystalline Gd2O3, which can be confirmed by the XRD and TG-DSC analysis. SEM and TEM images indicate that the Gd2O3 hollow spheres with diameters of 300-400 nm are uniform in size and distribution. The rare earth activator ions Ln3+-doped Gd2O3 hollow spheres exhibit intense upconversion luminescence with different colors under 980 nm light excitation, which may find potential applications in the fields such as drug delivery or biological labeling. Moreover, the upconversion luminescent mechanisms of the hollow spherical phosphors were investigated in detail.

  6. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol–gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. • The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. • The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  7. A rapid solvothermal synthesis of cerium oxide hollow spheres and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Liu, Xiangwen; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2012-10-15

    An easy and size controlled solvothermal synthesis of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres is still a challenge in the area of materials synthesis. Here, CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres have been synthesized using PVA500 as a surfactant via solvothermal reaction followed by calcinations. The size of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres could be controlled from 500 to 150 nm by changing the amounts of Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and PVA500. The possible growth mechanism of CeO{sub 2} hollow sphere was explained. The CO oxidation catalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres were superior to that of the commercial CeO{sub 2} powder due to the high specific surface area and small crystallite size. - Graphical abstract: A rapid and easy way to prepare CeO{sub 2} hollow sphere with 150-500 nm in diameter was successfully achieved by solvothermal reaction. The prepared particles showed hollowness due to Ostwald ripening process. An improved catalytic activity was observed and discussed. Highlights: A rapid synthesis of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres with diameter size from 15 to 500 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap surfactant was used to prepare hollow spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of temperature and surfactant ratio were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic characterization by XRD, FESEM, TEM, TG, FTIR and UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO oxidation analysis results showed better catalytic activity.

  8. GRADIENT INDEX SPHERES BY THE SEQUENTIAL ACCRETION OF GLASS POWDERS

    SciTech Connect

    MARIANO VELEZ

    2008-06-15

    The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.

  9. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a

  10. Uniform iron oxide hollow spheres for high-performance delivery of insoluble anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yichen; Lei, Jie; Tian, Ye

    2014-05-21

    As an intrinsic characteristic of many anticancer drugs, low solubility in physiological conditions limits the usage of these active ingredients in clinics. To overcome this bottleneck, we attempt to design and construct a high-performance magnetic-targeted delivery system based on uniform iron oxide hollow spheres. Via a facile one-pot solvothermal route, well-defined iron oxide hollow spheres were prepared with inexpensive inhesion. Compared with previously reported mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles, our iron oxide hollow spheres have a larger void space giving the structures a higher storage capacity for guest molecules. In our present work, camptothecin (CPT) was selected as a model insoluble anticancer drug to confirm the efficiency of drug-loading and chemotherapy in vitro. Detailed anticancer efficacy was further investigated by using MTT assays and microscope imaging methods, indicating that these iron oxide hollow spheres are promising for insoluble drug delivery.

  11. Bioinspired synthesis of calcium carbonate hollow spheres with a nacre-type laminated microstructure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenyong; Cheng, Haixing; Yao, Yuan; Zhou, Yongfeng; Tong, Gangsheng; Yan, Deyue; Lai, Yijian; Li, Wei

    2011-01-04

    In this Article, we combine the characters of hyperbranched polymers and the concept of double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC) to design a 3D crystal growth modifier, HPG-COOH. The novel modifier can efficiently control the crystallization of CaCO(3) from amorphous nanoparticles to vaterite hollow spheres by a nonclassical crystallization process. The obtained vaterite hollow spheres have a special puffy dandelion-like appearance; that is, the shell of the hollow spheres is constructed by platelet-like vaterite mesocrystals, perpendicular to the globe surface. The cross-section of the wall of a vaterite hollow sphere is similar to that of nacres in microstructure, in which platelet-like calcium carbonate mesocrystals pile up with one another. These results reveal the topology effect of the crystal growth modifier on biomineralization and the essential role of the nonclassical crystallization for constructing hierarchical microstructures.

  12. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  13. Shape-controlled synthesis and properties of dandelion-like manganese sulfide hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wei; Chen, Gen; Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Jianyu; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres assembled with nanorods could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a simple and convenient hydrothermal synthetic method under mild conditions using soluble hydrated manganese chloride as Mn source, L-cysteine as both a precipitator and complexing reagent. The dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres might have potential applications in microdevices and magnetic cells. Highlights: ► MnS hollow spheres assembled with nanorods could be synthesized. ► The morphologies and sizes of final products could be controlled. ► Possible formation mechanism of MnS hollow spheres is proposed. -- Abstract: Dandelion-like gamma-manganese (II) sulfide (MnS) hollow spheres assembled with nanorods have been prepared via a hydrothermal process in the presence of L-cysteine and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). L-cysteine was employed as not only sulfur source, but also coordinating reagent for the synthesis of dandelion-like MnS hollow spheres. The morphology, structure and properties of as-prepared products have been investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The probable formation mechanism of as-prepared MnS hollow spheres was discussed on the basis of the experimental results. This strategy may provide an effective method for the fabrication of other metal sulfides hollow spheres.

  14. Preparation and characterization of optical-functional diblock copolymer brushes on hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Li-Min; Zhang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Kong, Li-Li; Li, Ling-Ling

    2010-09-15

    The optical-functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb complex diblock copolymer brushes grafted from hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization were investigated in this work. A sufficient amount of azo initiator was introduced onto hollow sphere surface firstly. Then the monomer methyl methacrylate was polymerized via surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization using azo group modified hollow sphere as initiator. Following, the poly(methyl methacrylate) modified hollow sphere was used as maroinitiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of Tb complex. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatographer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) had grafted from hollow sphere surface and the average diameter of hollow core was about 1 {mu}m. The optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb copolymer modified hollow sphere were also reported.

  15. Use of carbonaceous polysaccharide microspheres as templates for fabricating metal oxide hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Yadong

    2006-02-20

    A general method for the synthesis of metal oxide hollow spheres has been developed by using carbonaceous polysaccharide microspheres prepared from saccharide solution as templates. Hollow spheres of a series of metal oxides (SnO2, Al2O3, Ga2O3, CoO, NiO, Mn3O4, Cr2O3, La2O3, Y2O3, Lu2O3, CeO2, TiO2, and ZrO2) have been prepared in this way. The method involves the initial absorption of metal ions from solution into the functional surface layer of carbonaceous saccharide microspheres; these are then densified and cross-linked in a subsequent calcination and oxidation procedure to form metal oxide hollow spheres. Metal salts are used as starting materials, which widens the accessible field of metal oxide hollow spheres. The carbonaceous colloids used as templates have integral and uniform surface functional layers, which makes surface modification unnecessary and ensures homogeneity of the shell. Macroporous films or cheese-like nanostructures of oxides can also be prepared by slightly modified procedures. XRD, TEM, HRTEM, and SAED have been used to characterize the structures. In a preliminary study on the gas sensitivity of SnO2 hollow spheres, considerably reduced "recovery times" were noted, exemplifying the distinct properties imparted by the hollow structure. These hollow or porous nanostructures have the potential for diverse applications, such as in gas sensitivity or catalysis, or as advanced ceramic materials.

  16. Preparation of hollow titania spheres and their photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Yin, Hengbo; Shi, Liping; Wang, Aili; Feng, Yonghai; Shen, Linqin; Wu, Zhanao; Wu, Gang; Jiang, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Hollow titania spheres with different shell thicknesses were facilely prepared starting from TiCl4 and using ploystyrene methyl acrylic acid latexes as the sacrificial templates. The average diameters of the hollow titania spheres ranging from 294 to 340 nm were tuned by changing the weight ratios of TiO2 to ploystyrene methyl acrylic acid latex from 0.8:1 to 1.4:1. The hollow titania spheres were constructed by the small-sized anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with the average diameter of ca. 18 nm (SEM). In addition to UV light absorption caused by the primary anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, the hollow titania spheres also had visible light absorption performance. Photocatalytic results showed that all the hollow titania spheres had higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation than the commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (P25). The photocatalytic activity of the hollow titania spheres increased with the increase in sell thickness, being consistent with their visible light absorbance. The visible light photocatalytic activity was probably due to the presence of additional energy levels between valence and conduction bands, which were caused by the formation of oxygen bridging bonds between the primary TiO2 nanoparticles.

  17. Tunable elastin-like polypeptide hollow sphere as a high payload and controlled delivery gene depot.

    PubMed

    Dash, Biraja C; Mahor, Sunil; Carroll, Oliver; Mathew, Asha; Wang, Wenxin; Woodhouse, Kimberly A; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-06-30

    Self-assembly driven processes can be utilized to produce a variety of nanostructures useful for various in vitro and in vivo applications. Characteristics such as size, stability, biocompatibility, high therapeutic loading and controlled delivery of these nanostructures are particularly crucial in relation to in vivo applications. In this study, we report the fabrication of tunable monodispersed elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) hollow spheres of 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nm by exploiting the self-assembly property and net positive charge of ELP. The microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) cross-linking provided robustness and stability to the hollow spheres while maintaining surface functional groups for further modifications. The resulting hollow spheres showed a higher loading efficiency of plasmid DNA (pDNA) by using polyplex (~70 μg pDNA/mg of hollow sphere) than that of self-assembled ELP particles and demonstrated controlled release triggered by protease and elastase. Moreover, polyplex-loaded hollow spheres showed better cell viability than polyplex alone and yielded higher luciferase expression by providing protection against endosomal degradation. Overall, the monodispersed, tunable hollow spheres with a capability of post-functionalization can provide an exciting new opportunity for use in a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  18. Template-free polyoxometalate-assisted synthesis for ZnO hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qiuyu; Wang Enbo; Li Siheng; Wang Chunlei; Tian Chungui; Sun Guoying; Gu Jianmin; Xu Rui

    2009-05-15

    ZnO hollow spheres with diameters ranging from 400 to 600 nm and the thickness of shell approximate 80 nm were synthesized by a simple polyoxometalate-assisted solvothermal route without using any templates. The effect of polyoxometalate concentration, reaction time and temperature on the formation of the hollow spheres was investigated. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were composed of porous shells with nanoparticles and polyoxometalate play a key role in controlling morphology of ZnO. A possible growth mechanism based on polyoxometalate-assisted assembly and slow Ostwald ripening dissolution in ethanol solution is tentatively proposed. In addition, the room temperature photoluminescence spectrum showed that the ZnO hollow spheres exhibit exciting emission features with wide band covering nearly all the visible region. - Graphical abstract: ZnO hollow spheres with porous shell were synthesized by a one-step polyoxometalate-assisted solvothermal route at low temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the ZnO hollow spheres exhibits exciting emission features with a broad band covering nearly all the visible region.

  19. Application of Hollow Sphere Structures and Composites in Processing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöler, Martin; Mauermann, Marc; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    The term processing machines refers to a large variety of machines and equipment for the mass production of consumer goods. Processing machines are often specially tailored according to the particular processing task they have to fulfill, such as pasteurising milk or packing goods. Furthermore the vast majority is characterised by large production outputs, demanding high processing velocities and fast moving parts. A special application is that of the food and drug processing area. Due to high quality standards there are special requirements for material surfaces to be considered if surfaces are in contact with the manufactured product. This chapter deals with the special demands concerning dedicated engineering materials that occur from state of the art processing machines. Specific requirements ranging from high damping abilities for support components to high stiffness and low weight for fast moving tools are presented by means of a general classification of processing machines into four functional areas. Accordingly, the proposed hollow sphere structures and similar material classes are presented and applied on each of these four areas.

  20. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua; Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol-gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol.

  1. A spontaneous combustion reaction for synthesizing Pt hollow capsules using colloidal carbon spheres as templates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruizhi; Li, Hong; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2006-05-15

    Here we report a spontaneous combustion reaction in synthesizing Pt hollow capsules. In brief, Pt nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of colloidal carbon spheres by wet-chemical impregnation. When Pt-loaded carbon spheres were taken out of an argon-filled tube furnace at room temperature and exposed to air, they underwent spontaneous combustion. The internal carbon spheres templates were removed to leave nanostructured Pt hollow capsules. There are at least two critical conditions for the occurrence of the spontaneous combustion: the Pt particle size is below 5.8 nm, and the hydrogen content in the carbon spheres is above 2.570 wt %. Such a reaction is interesting for the preparation of metal hollow spheres and is also relevant with respect to removal of accumulated carbon on catalysts and for soot oxidation at room temperature.

  2. Nanostructured gold hollow microspheres prepared on dissolvable ceramic hollow sphere templates.

    PubMed

    Chah, S; Fendler, J H; Yi, J

    2002-06-01

    Fifty and one-hundred micrometer diameter nanostructured gold hollow microspheres (GHSs), in >98% purity, have been prepared by using ceramic hollow spheres, CHSs, as templates. Tennanometer diameter gold nanoparticles were covalently linked to the thiol moiety of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, which had been self-assembled onto the CHSs. Greater structural strength was obtained by the generation of additional gold nanoparticles, in situ on the gold nanoparticle coated CHSs (by immersing the gold nanoparticle coated CHSs into an aqueous mixture of hydroxylamine and gold chloride). GHSs were obtained by dissolving the CHSs templates. The sizes, shapes, surface areas (185.3 m2/g for CHSs and 182.9 m2/g for GHSs), pore diameters (7.7 nm for CHSs and 7.8 nm for GHSs), and pore volumes (0.41 cm3/g for CHSs and 0.36 cm3/g for GHSs) of GHSs were quite similar to their CHSs counterparts. Significantly, GHSs showed surface plasmon bands whose maximum (644 nm) shifted from that observed for the parent 10-nm gold nanoparticles (522 nm).

  3. Silica colloidal spheres as metal ions reservoir for synthesis of semiconductor core-shell structure and hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Guozhong; Wang, Hongqiang; Tang, Chunjuan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lide

    2009-08-01

    Serial semiconductors core-shell and hollow sphere structures were prepared by using silica colloidal spheres as template in alkaline solution. This method presented in this paper involves mainly two steps with metal ions stored into surface layer of silica colloidal spheres in alkaline condition in the first step, followed metal ions reacted with thioacetamide to form semiconductor shell under microwave heating in a short-time. Cadmium ions were used as an example to illustrate the synthesis process. The electron microscopy results suggested that CdS core-shell structure and hollow spheres with complete and uniform shell were successfully synthesized, and the thickness of shell can be controlled in a certain range precisely. The mechanism of this method was discussed in detail. In addition, complex peanut hollow structure was synthesized by using this method, which indicated that this method might be extended to synthesize desired morphology with corresponding silica template. This novel method provides an avenue to synthesize uniform different semiconductor core-shell structure and hollow spheres with controllable morphology and shell thickness.

  4. Anionic surfactants templating route for synthesizing silica hollow spheres with different shell porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Gao, Chuanbo; Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Qianru; Shu, Peng; Ding, Zhiguang; Che, Shunai

    2011-04-01

    Silica hollow spheres with different shell porosity were simply synthesized with micelle and emulsion dual templating route. Various anionic surfactants, such as palmitic acid (C 16AA), N-acyl- L-phenylalanine (C 18Phe), N-palmitoyl- L-alanine (C 16AlaA) and oleic acid (OA) have been used as templates, and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) have been used as co-structure directing agent (CSDA) and silica source, respectively. The circle lamellar layer structure and mesopores vertical to the silica hollow spheres surface are believed to originate from the initial formation of amphiphilic carboxylic acid oil drop, which afterwards self-assemble to form the shell of hollow spheres and its mesostructure upon addition of CSDA and silica source. The mesoporous silica hollow spheres with high porosity could be achieved by adding a moderate amount of ethanol in the OA synthesis system, depending on the co-surfactant effect of ethanol that changes the curvature of micelles. The particle diameter and the hollow structure have been controlled by choosing different templates and by manipulating synthesis gel composition. The average particle diameter of the mesoporous silica hollow spheres were controlled in the range of 80-220 nm with constant shell thickness of ˜20 nm and constant mesopore size of ˜4 nm. Besides, the formation of the silica hollow spheres has been investigated in detail with reaction time. These mesoporous silica hollow spheres would have potential applications on catalysis, bimolecular encapsulation, adsorption, drug release, etc.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-01

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe12O19 spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 degrees C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monodispersed boron carbonitride hollow spheres with high-performance microwave absorption property

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.; Wen, G.; Wang, Y.P.; Xia, L.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Boron carbonitride hollow spheres were synthesized by a simple precursor. • A novel precursor was synthesized to prepare the hollow spheres. • The products exhibit excellent microwave absorption performance. - Abstract: A novel method, combining polymerization and pyrolysis of single precursor on graphite sheet, has been developed to synthesize monodispersed boron carbonitride hollow spheres in large-scale. The products have hollow architectures (2–3 μm in diameter) with nano-pores on the spherical walls and a composition of B{sub 0.23}N{sub 0.19}C{sub 0.58.} The products exhibit the minimum reflection loss of −42.5 dB at 12.6 GHz (the effective reflection values are obtained in a very wide range of 3.4–17.3 GHz) suggesting a new and high quality microwave absorbent.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing gas-filled hollow spheres. [target pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A system for forming hollow spheres containing pressured gas is described which includes a cylinder device containing a molten solid material with a nozzle at its end. A second gas nozzle, lying slightly upstream from the tip of the first nozzle, is connected to a source that applies pressured filler gas that is to fill the hollow spheres. High pressure is applied to the molten metal, as by moving a piston within the cylinder device, to force the molten material out of the first nozzle. At the same time, pressured gas fills the center of the extruded hollow liquid pipe that breaks into hollow spheres. The environment outside the nozzles contains gas at a high pressure such as 100 atmospheres. Gas is supplied to the gas nozzle at a slightly higher pressure such as 101 atmospheres. The pressure applied to the molten material is at a still higher pressure such as 110 atmospheres.

  8. Mesoporous submicrometer TiO(2) hollow spheres as scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dadgostar, Shabnam; Tajabadi, Fariba; Taghavinia, Nima

    2012-06-27

    Hierarchical submicrometer TiO2 hollow spheres with outer diameter of 300-700 nm and shell thickness of 200 nm are synthesized by liquid phase deposition of TiO2 over carbon microspheres as sacrificial templates. The final TiO2 hollow spheres are applied as a scattering layer on top of a transparent nanocrystalline TiO2 film, serving as the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). In addition to efficient light scattering, the mesoporous structure of TiO2 hollow spheres provides a high surface area, 74 m(2)/g, which allows for higher dye loading. This dual functioning suggests that TiO2 hollow spheres may be good replacements for conventional TiO2 spheres as scatterers in DSCs. A high efficiency of 8.3% is achieved with TiO2 hollow spheres, compared with 6.0% for the electrode with 400 nm spherical TiO2 scatterers, at identical conditions.

  9. Self-assembly of silica nanoparticles into hollow spheres via a microwave-assisted aerosol process

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shan; Wang, Fei; Dai, Hongqi; Jiang, Xingmao; Ye, Chunhong; Min, Jianzhong

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The silica hollow spheres were fabricated via a microwave-assisted aerosol process. • The formation of the hollow spheres was obtained through a one-step process. • The spheres indicated the remarkable sustained release of potassium persulfate. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and efficient strategy for fabrication of silica hollow spheres (SHSs) has been successfully introduced with a one-step microwave-assisted aerosol process using silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2}, 12–50 nm) and NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} as precursor materials. This approach combines the merits of microwave radiation and the aerosol technique. And the formation of SHSs is ascribed to solvent evaporation and the as-generated gas from NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} decomposition in the microwave reactor. The morphology of the SHSs can be easily tuned by varying the residence time, amount of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and silica sources. The formation mechanism of SHSs was also investigated by structure analysis. In addition, the hollow spheres exhibited remarkable sustained release of potassium persulfate, by loading it into the porous structures. The results provide new sights into the fabrication of inorganic hollow spheres via a one-step process.

  10. Mutifuntional GdPO4:Eu3+ hollow spheres: synthesis and magnetic and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Yin, Meili; You, Hongpeng; Yang, Mei; Song, Yanhua; Huang, Yeju

    2011-11-07

    Mondispersed submicrometer GdPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres were synthesized via an effective one-pot hydrothermal process. These hollow spheres have the average diameter of 200 nm, and the shell thickness is about 20 nm. The surface of the spheres consists of a number of nanorods with diameters of about 10 nm and lengths of about 50-80 nm. Both magnetic and luminescent properties of the obtained Eu(3+)-doped GdPO(4) hollow spheres were investigated. The hysteresis plot (M-H) analysis result indicates their paramagnetic property. The fluorescence spectra demonstrate that they emit orange-red color light originated from the (5)D(0) → (7)F(J) transitions of the Eu(3+) ions. Therefore, the obtained GdPO(4) hollow spheres hold promise for encapsulate drugs with controlled release. Moreover, the GdPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres are attributes for bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/optical bioimaging labeling. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Uniform hollow magnetite spheres: Facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xing; Zhao, Guizhe; Liu, Yaqing

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres with high saturation magnetization were synthesized through a simple solvothermal process. • Without using any hard templates or external magnetic field. • The as-prepared magnetite hollow spheres exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with high Ms of ca. 85.9 emu/g at room temperature. • The morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with nanoparticles, hollow, and irregular structures could be adjusted by changing the reactive conditions. - Abstract: Hierarchical porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres with high saturation magnetization were synthesized through a simple solvothermal process in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of Tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) and urea. By investigating the effect of reaction temperature, time, the amount of urea, and concentration of iron ion on the formation of hollow spheres, it was proposed that the main formation mechanism of hollow spheres is Ostwald ripening process combined with assembly-then-inside-out evacuation process. Additionally, it is found that the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with nanoparticles, hollow, and irregular structures could be adjusted by changing the above factors. The resulting products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The hierarchical porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres exhibited enhanced saturation magnetization as compared with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  12. Dynamic Deformation Response of Maraging Steel Hollow Sphere and Aluminum Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gregory; Scripka, David; Welchel, Ricky; Cochran, Joe; Sanders, Tom; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation response of a light-weight composite system consisting of maraging steel hollow spheres in an aluminum matrix is investigated. The composite system made by in-filtrating aluminum alloy melt around the high strength and toughness maraging steel hollow spheres, enables design of a light-weight energy-absorbing structural material. Rod-on-anvil Taylor impact tests are conducted to study the behavior of the composite material under uniaxial stress loading. The transient deformation states are captured using high-speed digital imaging for correlation with AUTODYN simulations. The recovered impacted samples are characterized using microscopy to determine the deformation response of the hollow spheres and the influence of the matrix-sphere interface on the overall properties of the composite material.

  13. Preparation, characterization, photocatalytic properties of titania hollow sphere doped with cerium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Zhang, Songhe

    2010-06-15

    Ce-doped titania hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres as template and Ce-doped titania nanoparticles as building blocks. The Ce-doped titania nanoparticles were synthesized at low temperature. The prepared hollow spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). The effect of Ce content on the physical structure and photocatalytic properties of doped titania hollow sphere samples was investigated. Results showed that there was an optimal Ce-doped content (4%) for the photocatalytic activity of X-3B degradation. The apparent rate constant of the best one was almost 31 times as that of P25 titania. The mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of dyes under visible light irradiation was also discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Scattering Layer on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Hollow Spheres/TiO2 Nanoparticles Films as Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyung; Suh, Soong-Hyuck; Lee, Min Woo; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized using poly styrene as the template. Dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated based on double-layered composite films of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 hollow spheres. The photoelectric conversion performances of Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 hollow spheres and TiO2 hollow spheres/TiO2 hollow spheres double-layered films are investigated, and their photoelectric conversion efficiencies were determined to 4.52, 7.10 and 5.48%, respectively. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on double layered composite films of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 hollow spheres exhibit the highest photo-electric conversion efficiency mainly due to the combined effect of two factors, the high light scattering of over-layer hollow spheres that enhance harvesting light of the Dye-sensitized solar cells and the under-layer TiO2 nanoparticle layer that ensures good electronic contact between TiO2 film and FTO conducting glass. The double layered composite TiO2 film electrodes are a promising development in enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Floating behavior of hydrophobic glass spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-15

    When a hydrophobic solid sphere is floating on water or salt solutions with different concentrations, it is at equilibrium under the impact of gravity, buoyancy force, and curvature force, the component of surface tension in the vertical direction. We have changed the diameters of the spheres and the concentrations of the two selected salts, NaCl and NaNO(3), to study the floating behaviors of these spheres and the contributions of surface tension and buoyancy force to their floatation. Generally speaking, the surface tension plays a more important role than the buoyancy force when the gravity is small, but the buoyancy force plays an identical or a more important role when the spheres are big enough. The wettability of the spheres significantly influences the height below the contact perimeter especially in salt solutions. The theoretical calculation meniscus slope angles at the sphere three-phase contact line are in agreement with experimental results.

  16. A Fillable Micro-Hollow Sphere Lesion Detection Phantom Using Superposition

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Frank P.; Gallo, Sven L.; Klatte, Ryan S.; Patel, Sagar

    2010-01-01

    The lesion detection performance of SPECT and PET scanners is most commonly evaluated with a phantom containing hollow spheres in a background chamber at a specified radionuclide contrast ratio. However there are limitations associated with a miniature version of a hollow sphere phantom for small animal SPECT and PET scanners. One issue is that the “wall effect” associated with zero activity in the sphere wall and fill port causes significant errors for small diameter spheres. Another issue is that there are practical difficulties in fabricating and in filling very small spheres (< 3 mm diameter). The need for lesion detection performance assessment of small-animal scanners has motivated our development of a micro-hollow sphere phantom that utilizes the principle of superposition. The phantom is fabricated by stereolithography and has interchangeable sectors containing hollow spheres with volumes ranging from 1 to 14 μL (diameters ranging from 1.25 to 3.0 mm). A simple 60° internal rotation switches the positions of three such sectors with their corresponding background regions. Raw data from scans of each rotated configuration are combined and reconstructed to yield superposition images. Since the sphere counts and background counts are acquired separately, the wall effect is eliminated. The raw data are subsampled randomly prior to summation and reconstruction to specify the desired spheres-to-background contrast ratio of the superposition image. A set of images with multiple contrast ratios is generated for visual assessment of lesion detection thresholds. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, data were acquired with a multi-pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Micro-liter syringes were successful in filling the small hollow spheres, and the accuracy of the dispensed volume was validated through repeated filling and weighing of the spheres. The phantom’s internal rotation and the data analysis process were successful in producing the expected superposition

  17. Submicrometer-sized hierarchical hollow spheres of heavy lanthanide orthovanadates: sacrificial template synthesis, formation mechanism, and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lin; Zhai, Zheng; Cheng, Fangfang; Yan, Zhenzhen; Feng, Xiaomiao; Zhu, Junjie; Hou, Wenhua

    2013-12-23

    Hollow spheres of heavy lanthanide orthovanadates (LnVO4, Ln = Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and yolk-shell structures of Ho(OH)CO3@HoVO4 have been successfully prepared by employing Ln(OH)CO3 colloidal spheres as a sacrificial template and NH4VO3 as a vanadium source. In particular, the as-obtained LuVO4 hollow spheres are assembled from numerous hollow-structured elliptic nanoparticles, and their textural parameters such as the inner and outer diameters, shell thicknesses, and number of shells could be finely tuned through introducing different amounts of NH4VO3 and employing Lu(OH)CO3 templates with different sizes. The possible mechanisms for the formation of hollow spheres and yolk-shell structures, and also the hollow-structured elliptic nanoparticles of LuVO4, i.e., building blocks of LuVO4 hollow spheres, are proposed and discussed in detail. Under ultraviolet excitation, the obtained LuVO4:Eu(3+) hollow spheres show strong red emissions located in the saturated color region, and the modulation of emission intensity and color purity could be realized by tuning the textural parameters of the obtained hollow spheres. It was found that the nanostructure of the building blocks of LuVO4:Eu(3+) hollow spheres also had an effect on the luminescent properties of the as-obtained materials. Moreover, the quantum efficiency could be affected by the textural parameters of the as-obtained LuVO4:Eu(3+) hollow spheres, and the double-shelled LuVO4:Eu(3+) hollow sphere has the highest quantum efficiency. In addition, the excellent biocompatibility indicates the potential biological applications of LuVO4 hollow spheres.

  18. Stimuli-sensitive hollow spheres from chitosan-graft-β-cyclodextrin for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nana; Li, Guiying; Gao, Yurong; Liu, Xunyong; Ma, Songmei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, sensitive polymeric hollow spheres self-assembled from chitosan-grafted-β-cyclodextrin (CS-g-CD) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The assemblies were formed by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino group in CS-g-CD and negatively charged phosphate in TPP. The hollow spheres with diameters about 100nm were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle analyzer. The microspheres with hollow cavity were beneficial to improve the drug loading capacity for DOX with entrapment efficiency above 60%. The cumulative release of DOX from CS-g-CD/TPP hollow microspheres increased with the decrease of pH and the increase of temperature or ionic strength. At 37 °C and pH 5.2, the maximum drug release was above 90% with a continuous release rate. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests indicate that drug loaded hollow spheres exhibited evidently inhibition against cancer cells. These sensitive polymeric hollow spheres are expected to be used in biomedical field as potential carrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2008-04-21

    Porous-walled hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) of a modified alkali borosilicate composition have been successfully fabricated by combining the technology of producing hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) with the knowledge associated with porous glasses. HGMs are first formed by a powder glass--flame process, which are then transformed to PWHGMs by heat treatment and subsequent treatment in acid. Pore diameter and pore volume are most influenced by heat treatment temperature. Pore diameter is increased by a factor of 10 when samples are heat treated prior to acid leaching; 100 {angstrom} in non-heat treated samples to 1000 {angstrom} in samples heat treated at 600 C for 8 hours. As heat treatment time is increased from 8 hours to 24 hours there is a slight shift increase in pore diameter and little or no change in pore volume.

  20. Nanoscale Hollow Spheres: Microemulsion-Based Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Container-Type Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Gröger, Henriette; Kind, Christian; Leidinger, Peter; Roming, Marcus; Feldmann, Claus

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of nanoscale hollow spheres can be obtained via a microemulsion approach. This includes oxides (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, AlO(OH), La(OH)3), sulfides (e.g., Cu2S, CuS) as well as elemental metals (e.g., Ag, Au). All hollow spheres are realized with outer diameters of 10−60 nm, an inner cavity size of 2−30 nm and a wall thickness of 2−15 nm. The microemulsion approach allows modification of the composition of the hollow spheres, fine-tuning their diameter and encapsulation of various ingredients inside the resulting “nanocontainers”. This review summarizes the experimental conditions of synthesis and compares them to other methods of preparing hollow spheres. Moreover, the structural characterization and selected properties of the as-prepared hollow spheres are discussed. The latter is especially focused on container-functionalities with the encapsulation of inorganic salts (e.g., KSCN, K2S2O8, KF), biomolecules/bioactive molecules (e.g., phenylalanine, quercetin, nicotinic acid) and fluorescent dyes (e.g., rhodamine, riboflavin) as representative examples. PMID:28883333

  1. Facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic property of niobium pentoxide hollow spheres and the high optoelectronic performance of their nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Gao, Rui; Chen, Min; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylmide) (PSAM)/Nb2O5 hybrid hollow spheres were synthesized using a hollowing mechanism similar to the Kirkendall effect. When these hybrid hollow spheres were calcinated at different temperatures, totally different structures, pseudohexagonal TT phase hollow Nb2O5 spheres, and orthorhombic T phase short rods were obtained. Both of them exhibited stronger photocatalytic activity than the commercial Nb2O5, especially the as-obtained Nb2O5 hollow spheres displayed significantly enhanced photocatalytic property and auto-accelerated photocatalytic kinetics compared to the commercial TiO2 (P25). Moreover, the Nb2O5 hollow sphere-based nanofilm fabricated using oil-water interfacial self-assembly presented excellent UV photodetective performance.

  2. Thermodynamic signature of the dynamic glass transition in hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Michiel; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-03-17

    We use extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties of hard-sphere glasses. We determine the equation of state of the metastable fluid branch for hard spheres with a size polydispersity of 10%. Our results show a clear jump in the slope of the isothermal compressibility. The observation of a thermodynamic signature at the transition from a metastable fluid to a glassy state is analogous to the abrupt change in the specific heat or thermal expansion coefficient as observed for molecular liquids at the glass transition. The dynamic glass transition becomes more pronounced and shifts to higher densities for longer equilibration times.

  3. Fabrication of Hollow Microporous Carbon Spheres from Hyper-Crosslinked Microporous Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei; Huang, Liang; Razzaque, Shumaila; Jin, Shangbin; Tan, Bien

    2016-06-01

    Porous carbon materials prepared from the porous organic polymers are currently the subject of extensive investigation. On the basis of their interesting applications, it is highly desirable to develop new synthetic methodologies to obtain carbon materials with controllable pore size and morphology. Herein, a facile synthesis of hollow microporous carbon spheres (HCSs) from hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) with a good control over the pore morphology, hollow cavity, and the shell thickness is reported. The highly porous hollow carbon spheres are prepared by the pyrolysis of HMOCs-based microporous polymers. The synthetic parameters, such as hypercrosslinking and pyrolysis conditions, are optimized to modify the porous structures and the properties. The morphology and porosity as well as energy storage applications of the microporous structures HCSs, derived through a combination of divinylbenzene-crosslinking and micropore-generating hypercrosslinking, are discussed. These findings provide a new benchmark for fabricating well-defined HCSs with great promise for various applications.

  4. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2017-08-25

    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined.

  5. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined. PMID:28841188

  6. Synthesis and characterization of hollow cadmium oxide sphere with carbon microsphere as template.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongling; Lai, Xiaoyong; Wang, Dan

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium Oxide (CdO) hollow spheres have been synthesized by using carbon microsphere as sacrificial template. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter and shell thickness of as-prepared hollow spheres are about 600 nm and 50 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres was investigated and it was found that the shell formed when the heating temperature reached about 673 K and the sequential heat treatment could remove the carbon template. Moreover, the influence of other experimental parameters including concentration (0.1-5 M) and type of cadmium salts (cadmium chloride, cadmium acetate and cadmium nitrate, etc.) as well as type of solvents (water, ethanol and dimethylfomamide) were also investigated.

  7. Up-conversion in rare earth-doped silica hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Luís M.; Li, Yigang; Réfega, Ricardo; Clara Gonçalves, M.

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, Er/Yb co-doped silica hollow spheres are prepared in a two-step process. In a first step, polystyrene-core is silica coated in situ by a modified Stöber sol-gel method and in the second one, the sacrificial polystyrene core is thermally removed. The core-shell and the hollow spheres are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). PL measurements show up-conversion phenomena upon excitation at 975 nm, through the emission of blue (˜490 nm), green (˜523 nm and ˜536 nm) and red (˜655 nm) light. The up-conversion phenomena are discussed and modelled. The developed model explains the up-conversion phenomena of Er/Yb co-doped silica hollow spheres, with special agreement for high Yb/Er ratio.

  8. Capillary-force-induced formation of luminescent polystyrene/(rare-earth-doped nanoparticle) hybrid hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Xie, Lin; Li, Fuyou; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a "one-pot" procedure to synthesize polystyrene/(rare-earth-doped nanoparticles) (PS/REDNPs) hybrid hollow spheres via the in situ diffusion of organic core into inorganic shell under strong capillary force. In this approach, when carboxyl-capped PS colloids were deposited by different REDNPs in aqueous medium, such as LaF3:Eu3+, LaF3:Ce3+-Tb3+, and YVO4:Dy3+, PS/REDNPs inorganic-organic hybrid hollow spheres could be directly obtained via the in situ diffusion of core PS chains into the voids between rare-earth-doped nanoparticles through the strong capillary force. Not only is the synthetic procedure versatile and very simple, but also the obtained hybrid hollow spheres are hydrophilic and luminescent and could be directly used in chemical and biological fields.

  9. A cationic surfactant assisted selective etching strategy to hollow mesoporous silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Pengxin; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2011-04-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica spheres have recently attracted increasing attention. However, effective synthesis of uniform hollow mesoporous spheres with controllable well-defined pore structures for fundamental research and practical applications has remained a significant challenge. In this work, a straightforward and effective "cationic surfactant assisted selective etching" synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of high-quality hollow mesoporous silica spheres with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell. The as-prepared hollow mesoporous silica spheres have large surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. Our experiments demonstrated that cationic surfactant plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structure. A formation mechanism involving the etching of solid SiO(2) accelerated by cationic surfactant followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species directed by cationic surfactant is proposed. Furthermore, the strategy can be extended as a general strategy to transform silica-coated composite materials into yolk-shell structures with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell.

  10. Graphitized hollow carbon spheres and yolk-structured carbon spheres fabricated by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Chi, Miaofang; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; ...

    2016-01-18

    Hard-sphere-templating method has been widely used to synthesize hollow carbon spheres (HCSs), in which the spheres were firstly coated with a carbon precursor, followed by carbonization and core removal. The obtained HCSs are generally amorphous or weakly graphitized (with the help of graphitization catalysts). In this work, we report on the fabrication of graphitized HCSs and yolk–shell Au@HCS nanostructures using a modified templating method, in which smooth, uniform graphene layers were grown on SiO2 spheres or Au@SiO2 nanoparticles via metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. Furthermore, our work not only provides a new method to fabricate high-quality, graphitized HCSsmore » but also demonstrates a reliable approach to grow quality graphene on oxide surfaces using CVD without the presence of metal catalysts.« less

  11. Graphitized hollow carbon spheres and yolk-structured carbon spheres fabricated by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xufan; Chi, Miaofang; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Liu, Rui; Chuang, Yen -Jun; Dai, Sheng; Pan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-18

    Hard-sphere-templating method has been widely used to synthesize hollow carbon spheres (HCSs), in which the spheres were firstly coated with a carbon precursor, followed by carbonization and core removal. The obtained HCSs are generally amorphous or weakly graphitized (with the help of graphitization catalysts). In this work, we report on the fabrication of graphitized HCSs and yolk–shell Au@HCS nanostructures using a modified templating method, in which smooth, uniform graphene layers were grown on SiO2 spheres or Au@SiO2 nanoparticles via metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. Furthermore, our work not only provides a new method to fabricate high-quality, graphitized HCSs but also demonstrates a reliable approach to grow quality graphene on oxide surfaces using CVD without the presence of metal catalysts.

  12. Hollow sphere NiS2 as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jianxia; Xie, Shengli; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hollow sphere NiS2 is fabricated by a two-step hydrothermal method. When used as hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials, the NiS2 displays good electrochemical behaviors. The specific capacitance achieves 1382.0 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 506.1 F g-1 at 20 A g-1, and the specific capacitance still maintains 451.1 F g-1 at 10 A g-1 after 5000 circles. The enhanced performances may be attributed to its hollow sphere structure, which promotes ion and electron transfer and provides a large number of active sites.

  13. Capillary force induced formation of monodisperse polystyrene/silica organic-inorganic hybrid hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Leng, Wenguang; Chen, Min; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2010-09-07

    This paper presents a "one-spot" procedure to fabricate polystyrene/silica (PS/SiO(2)) hybrid hollow spheres. In this approach, when poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized PS colloids were deposited by sol-gel derived silica layer under acidic medium, it was interesting to find that the PS/SiO(2) core-shell colloids gradually changed to hollow structure spontaneously in the same medium as reaction went on. The formation of this hollow structure should be attributed to the diffusion of PS macromolecular chains from core particles into the voids between silica nanoparticles driven by the strong capillary force.

  14. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3

  15. Chemical-template synthesis of micro/nanoscale magnesium silicate hollow spheres for waste-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Guozhong; Wang, Hongqiang; Liang, Changhao; Cai, Weiping; Zhang, Lide

    2010-03-15

    Micro/nanoscale magnesium silicate hollow spheres were synthesized by using silica colloidal spheres as a chemical template in one pot. The hollow spherical structure, consisting of well-separated nanoscale units, was microscale as a whole and could be easily handled in solution. The as-synthesized magnesium silicate hollow spheres with large specific surface area showed availability for the removal of organic and heavy-metal ions efficiently from waste water. Importantly, the micro/nanoscale magnesium silicate hollow spheres that had adsorbed organic pollutants could be regenerated by calcination and used repeatedly in pollutant removal. Magnesium silicate hollow spheres synthesized by a scaled-up chemical template method may have potential applications in removing cationic dyes and heavy-metal ions from waste water.

  16. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  17. Synthesis of multiple-shell WO3 hollow spheres by a binary carbonaceous template route and their applications in visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Yan, Yan; Ma, Qiang; Li, Junfang; Yang, Haifeng; Lu, Xiaojing; Wang, Chao

    2012-10-29

    Hollow go lightly: well-defined multiple-shell WO(3) hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile binary carbonaceous spheres template route. Compared with single-shell WO(3) hollow spheres, the unusual porous multiple-shell structure of the WO(3) hollow spheres proves to greatly enhance photocatalytic activity toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Metal free nitrogen doped hollow mesoporous graphene-analogous spheres as effective electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Meng, Hui; Xie, Fangyan; Yuan, Xiaoli; Yu, Wendan; Lin, Worong; Ouyang, Wenpeng; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres has been synthesized from mesoporous silica spheres using glycine as carbon and nitrogen precursor. The wall of the spheres is composed by broken graphene. The metal free nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres are proven to be active electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. A unique advantage of the nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon sphere is its methanol-tolerant property because of the absence of active metal. The catalytic activity is ascribed to the pyridinic-nitrogen formed during pyrolysis and the graphene-like structure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon sphere as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction which is an important reaction in fuel cell. The prepared mesoporous carbon material can also be used as catalyst support and find application both in the anode and cathode of fuel cell.

  19. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E; Morrissey, Timothy G; Vuono, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  20. Mesoporous W₁₈O₄₉ hollow spheres as highly active photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Song, Jiajia; Pan, Lun; Lv, Fenglei; Wang, Qingfa; Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li

    2014-09-28

    Mesoporous hollow W18O49 spheres were fabricated by a facile solvent-induced assembly method using anhydrous WCl6 as a precursor and CH3COOH as a solvent. This unique structure exhibited remarkably enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic performance than other morphologies like urchin and nanowire due to the simultaneous enhancement in light harvesting, surface area and adsorption capability.

  1. Strategies for constructing polymeric micelles and hollow spheres in solution via specific intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyong; Jiang, Ming

    2005-06-01

    We succeeded recently in developing a series of new pathways to polymeric micelles and hollow spheres via intermolecular specific interactions. A new micellization mechanism of block copolymers was realized by using the specific interaction between a low molecular weight compound and one of the blocks in low-polarity solvents. Many more successes have been achieved by our "block copolymer-free" strategies. We are now able to use homopolymers, random copolymers, oligomers, etc. as building blocks to construct noncovalently connected micelles (NCCM), in which the core and shell are connected by hydrogen bonding. Some of such NCCMs are readily converted further into hollow spheres by cross-linking the shell and then switching the medium to one that dissolves the core. Rigid polymer chains and their complementary homopolymers can directly assemble into large hollow spheres thanks to the propensity to parallel packing of the rigid chains. In addition, some of the NCCMs show perfect stimuli-responsive properties. pH-dependent micellization and pH-dependent micelle-hollow-sphere transition are realized in water-soluble graft copolymers driven by complexation and decomplexation between the main chain and grafts.

  2. A hollow sphere secondary structure of LiFePO4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Jin-Young; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2010-09-28

    We report on the evolution of a hollow sphere secondary structure of spherical nanoparticles by a solubilization-reprecipitation mechanism based on the difference of solubility products (K(sp)) of two different precipitates. Carbon-coated nanoparticles of olivine structure LiFePO(4) served as the primary nano-blocks to build the secondary nano-architecture.

  3. Design of porous silica supported tantalum oxide hollow spheres showing enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manu; Das, Debashree; Baruah, Arabinda; Jain, Archana; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2014-03-25

    Silica-supported tantalum oxide (ST) hollow spheres were designed for photocatalytic applications in the UV range of 4.1 to 4.8 eV. These nanostructures with a variable diameter of 100-250 nm and shell thickness of 24-58 nm were obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of tantalum isopropoxide and tetraethylorthosilicate at 120 °C for 48 h in the presence of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, which was used as a capping agent. The maximum observed surface area was found to be 610 m(2)/g and pore size distribution of ST hollow spheres varied from 13.4 to 19.0 nm. Lewis acidity of silica and the contact area between SiO2 and Ta2O5 plays a crucial role in controlling the photocatalytic properties of the ST hollow spheres. We observe a remarkable 6× enhancement in the photoactivity of silica-supported tantalum oxide hollow spheres compared to pure Ta2O5.

  4. Efficient rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize InP micrometer hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiuwen Hu Qitu; Sun Chuansheng

    2009-01-08

    The efficiencies of two methods of synthesizing InP micro-scale hollow spheres are compared via the analogous solution-liquid-solid (ASLS) growth mechanism, either through a traditional solvothermal procedure, or via a microwave-assisted method. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images show that most of the as-grown samples are micrometer hollow spheres, which indicates the efficiency of both methods. For traditional solvothermal route, long time (10 h) is necessary to obtain the desired samples, however, for the microwave-assisted route, 30 min is enough for hollow spherical products. An optimal choice of microwave irradiating time allows reducing the reaction time from hours to minutes. The proposed ASLS growth mechanism has also been discussed in detail.

  5. Polypyrrole-Coated Zinc Ferrite Hollow Spheres with Improved Cycling Stability for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoran; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Xiaodan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Here, ZnFe2 O4 double-shell hollow microspheres are designed to accommodate the large volume expansion during lithiation. A facile and efficient vapor-phase polymerization method has been developed to coat the ZnFe2 O4 hollow spheres with polypyrrole (PPY). The thin PPY coating improves not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity, and thus the cycling stability of the ZnFe2 O4 hollow spheres. Our work sheds light on how to enhance the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials by designing delicate nanostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hollow microspheres of silica glass and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Downs, Raymond L.; Miller, Wayne J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing gel powder suitable for use as a starting material in the manufacture of hollow glass microspheres having a high concentration of silica. The powder is manufactured from a gel containing boron in the amount of about 1% to 20% (oxide equivalent mole percent), alkali metals, specifically potassium and sodium, in an amount exceeding 8% total, and the remainder silicon. Preferably, the ratio of potassium to sodium is greater than 1.5.

  7. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  8. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Ferber, Mattison K; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials were used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions. That

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of lindgrenite with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jiasheng; Xue Dongfeng

    2007-01-15

    Lindgrenite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a simple and mild hydrothermal route in the absence of any external inorganic additives or organic structure-directing templates. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous small crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Two factors are important for the formation of hollow and prickly architecture in the present process. One is the general phenomenon of Ostwald ripening in solution, which can be responsible for the hollow structure; the other is that lindgrenite crystals have a rhombic growth habit, which plays an important role in the formation of prickly surface. Furthermore, Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a simple thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite in air atmosphere. - Graphical abstract: Lindgrenite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite.

  10. Effects of sphere size on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ductile iron-steel hollow sphere syntactic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazegaran, Hamid; Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati

    2016-06-01

    The effects of sphere size on the microstructural and mechanical properties of ductile iron-steel hollow sphere (DI-SHS) syntactic foams were investigated in this study. The SHSs were manufactured by fluidized-bed coating via the Fe-based commercial powder-binder suspension onto expanded polystyrene spheres (EPSs). Afterwards, the DI-SHS syntactic foams were produced via a sand-mold casting process. The microstructures of specimens were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The microscopic evaluations of specimens reveal distinct regions composed of the DI matrix, SHS shells, and compatible interface. As a result, the microstructures and graphite morphologies of the DI matrix depend on sphere size. When the sphere size decreases, the area fractions of cementite and graphite phases are observed to increase and decrease, respectively. Compression tests were subsequently conducted at ambient temperature on the DI-SHS syntactic foams. The results reveal that the compression behavior of the syntactic foams is enhanced with increasing sphere size. Furthermore, the compressed specimens demonstrate that microcracks start and grow from the interface region.

  11. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G

    2014-09-21

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as building blocks for novel functional materials with potential applications, e.g. photonic crystals. By performing Brownian dynamics simulations of glassy systems consisting of mixtures of active and passive hard spheres, we show that the crystallization of such hard-sphere glasses can be dramatically promoted by doping the system with small amounts of active particles. Surprisingly, even hard-sphere glasses of packing fraction up to ϕ = 0.635 crystallize, which is around 0.5% below the random close packing at ϕ ≃ 0.64. Our results suggest a novel way of fabricating crystalline materials from (colloidal) glasses. This is particularly important for materials that get easily kinetically trapped in glassy states, and the crystal nucleation hardly occurs.

  12. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as building blocks for novel functional materials with potential applications, e.g. photonic crystals. By performing Brownian dynamics simulations of glassy systems consisting of mixtures of active and passive hard spheres, we show that the crystallization of such hard-sphere glasses can be dramatically promoted by doping the system with small amounts of active particles. Surprisingly, even hard-sphere glasses of packing fraction up to $\\phi = 0.635$ crystallize, which is around $0.5\\%$ below the random close packing at $\\phi \\simeq 0.64$. Our results suggest a novel way of fabricating crystalline materials from (colloidal) glasses. This is particularly important for materials that get easily kinetically trapped in glassy states, and crystal nucleation hardly occurs.

  13. Synthesis of Br-doped TiO2 hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Liang, Chunyong; Inoue, Akihisa

    2017-02-01

    The Br-doped hollow TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process on the carbon sphere template following with calcination at 400 °C. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, N2 desorption-adsorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TiO2 hollow spheres are in diameter of 500 nm with shell thickness of 50 nm. The shell is composed of small anatase nanoparticles with size of about 10 nm. The TiO2 hollow spheres exhibit high crystalline and high surface area of 89.208 m2/g. With increasing content of Br doping, the band gap of TiO2 hollow spheres decreased from 2.85 to 1.75 eV. The formation of impurity band in the band gap would narrow the band gap and result in the red shift of absorption edge from 395 to 517 nm, which further enhances the photocatalytic activity. The appropriate Br doping improves the photocatlytic activity significantly. The TiO2 hollow spheres with 1.55% Br doping (0.5Br-TiO2) exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity under full light. More than 98% of RhB, MO, and MB can be photodegraded using 0.5Br-TiO2 with concentration of 10 mg/L in 40, 30, and 30 min, respectively. The degradation rate of Br-doped photocatalysts was 40% faster than undoped ones.

  14. Synthesis and photo-degradation application of WO3/TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kezhen; Li, Jie; Qing, Xiaoxia; Li, Wenzhang; Chen, Qiyuan

    2011-05-15

    A WO(3)/TiO(2) composite, hollow-sphere photocatalyst with average diameter of 320 nm and shell thickness of 50 nm was successfully prepared using a template method. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra illustrated that the main absorption edges of the WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres were red-shifted compared to the TiO(2) hollow spheres, indicating an extension of light absorption into the visible region of the composite photocatalyst. The WO(3) and TiO(2) phases were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. BET isotherms revealed that the specific surface area and average pore diameter of the hollow spheres were 40.95 m(2)/g and 19 nm, respectively. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that 78% MB was degraded by WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres under visible light within 80 min. Under the same conditions, only 24% MB can be photodegraded by TiO(2). The photocatalytic mineralization of MB, catalyzed by TiO(2) and WO(3)/TiO(2), proceeded at a significantly higher rate under UV irradiation than that under visible light, and more significant was the increase in the apparent rate constant with the WO(3)/TiO(2) composite semiconductor material which was 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher than with the TiO(2) material under both UV and visible light irradiation. The increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled nanocomposites was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency and the extension of the wavelength range of photoexcitation.

  15. Brownian versus Newtonian devitrification of hard-sphere glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero de Hijes, Pablo; Rosales-Pelaez, Pablo; Valeriani, Chantal; Pusey, Peter N.; Sanz, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    In a recent molecular dynamics simulation work it has been shown that glasses composed of hard spheres crystallize via cooperative, stochastic particle displacements called avalanches [E. Sanz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 75 (2014), 10.1073/pnas.1308338110]. In this Rapid Communication we investigate if such a devitrification mechanism is also present when the dynamics is Brownian rather than Newtonian. The research is motivated in part by the fact that colloidal suspensions, an experimental realization of hard-sphere systems, undergo Brownian motion. We find that Brownian hard-sphere glasses do crystallize via avalanches with very similar characteristics to those found in the Newtonian case. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings for experiments on colloids.

  16. Visible Mie Scattering in Nonabsorbing Hollow Sphere Powders

    SciTech Connect

    M Retsch; M Schmelzeisen; H Butt; E Thomas

    2011-12-31

    Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) with diameters comparable to visible wavelengths and with thin shells (<15 nm) feature an unexpected color effect. Single particle and powder spectroscopy, as well as calculations based on Mie theory were used to investigate this phenomenon. The use of HSNPs increases the transport mean free path of light significantly, which reduces multiple scattering, and thus the Mie resonances become visible to the bare eye.

  17. Stability of equilibrium of a compressible hyperelastic hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    An analytical algorithm for studying the stability of the equilibrium of compressible hyperelastic sphere with Lagrange variables is proposed. The problem is solved in a spherical coordinate system in a general three-dimensional formulation using linearized stability theory and the method of separation of variables with respect to the radial displacement, the displacement due to the rotation, and the resulting strain in the principal directions. Results of numerical and graphical analysis of the stress-strain state for a three-layer-sphere are used to analyze the gravity stress-strain state of the lithosphere of the Kuril island arc system.

  18. Shear Yielding and Shear Jamming of Dense Hard Sphere Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the response of dense hard sphere glasses to a shear strain in a wide range of pressures ranging from the glass transition to the infinite-pressure jamming point. The phase diagram in the density-shear strain plane is calculated analytically using the mean-field infinite-dimensional solution. We find that just above the glass transition, the glass generically yields at a finite shear strain. The yielding transition in the mean-field picture is a spinodal point in presence of disorder. At higher densities, instead, we find that the glass generically jams at a finite shear strain: the jamming transition prevents yielding. The shear yielding and shear jamming lines merge in a critical point, close to which the system yields at extremely large shear stress. Around this point, highly nontrivial yielding dynamics, characterized by system-spanning disordered fractures, is expected.

  19. A cationic surfactant assisted selective etching strategy to hollow mesoporous silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Pengxin; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2011-04-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica spheres have recently attracted increasing attention. However, effective synthesis of uniform hollow mesoporous spheres with controllable well-defined pore structures for fundamental research and practical applications has remained a significant challenge. In this work, a straightforward and effective ``cationic surfactant assisted selective etching'' synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of high-quality hollow mesoporous silica spheres with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell. The as-prepared hollow mesoporous silica spheres have large surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. Our experiments demonstrated that cationic surfactant plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structure. A formation mechanism involving the etching of solid SiO2 accelerated by cationic surfactant followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species directed by cationic surfactant is proposed. Furthermore, the strategy can be extended as a general strategy to transform silica-coated composite materials into yolk-shell structures with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell.Hollow mesoporous silica spheres have recently attracted increasing attention. However, effective synthesis of uniform hollow mesoporous spheres with controllable well-defined pore structures for fundamental research and practical applications has remained a significant challenge. In this work, a straightforward and effective ``cationic surfactant assisted selective etching'' synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of high-quality hollow mesoporous silica spheres with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell. The as-prepared hollow mesoporous silica spheres have large surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. Our experiments demonstrated that cationic surfactant plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structure. A formation mechanism involving the

  20. Design and Synthesis of TiO2 Hollow Spheres with Spatially Separated Dual Cocatalysts for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qianqian; Li, Li; Bi, Jinhong; Liang, Shijing; Liu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 hollow spheres modified with spatially separated Ag species and RuO2 cocatalysts have been prepared via an alkoxide hydrolysis–precipitation method and a facile impregnation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that Ag species and RuO2 co-located on the inner and outer surface of TiO2 hollow spheres, respectively. The resultant catalysts show significantly enhanced activity in photocatalytic hydrogen production under simulated sunlight attributed to spatially separated Ag species and RuO2 cocatalysts on TiO2 hollow spheres, which results in the efficient separation and transportation of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:28336859

  1. Self-Templated Synthesis of Ultrathin Nanosheets Constructed TiO2 Hollow Spheres with High Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiqi; Hu, Linfeng; Wu, Feilong; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-11-01

    TiO2 is well-known nanomaterials and mostly used as solid nanoparticles, and normal hollow spheres for photocatalysts or electrode materials. In this study, a novel self-templated method is presented to successfully fabricate high-surface-area ultrathin nanosheets constructed TiO2 hollow spheres through the solvothermal treatment of the titanate-silicone composite particles combined with calcination. The uniquely structured hollow spheres exhibit excellent rate capability and good cycle stability even at a high current density of ≈10 C for the anode material of Li-ion battery.

  2. Self‐Templated Synthesis of Ultrathin Nanosheets Constructed TiO2 Hollow Spheres with High Electrochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiqi; Hu, Linfeng; Wu, Feilong; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 is well‐known nanomaterials and mostly used as solid nanoparticles, and normal hollow spheres for photocatalysts or electrode materials. In this study, a novel self‐templated method is presented to successfully fabricate high‐surface‐area ultrathin nanosheets constructed TiO2 hollow spheres through the solvothermal treatment of the titanate–silicone composite particles combined with calcination. The uniquely structured hollow spheres exhibit excellent rate capability and good cycle stability even at a high current density of ≈10 C for the anode material of Li‐ion battery. PMID:27980991

  3. Apparatus and process to enhance the uniform formation of hollow glass microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Ray F

    2013-10-01

    A process and apparatus is provided for enhancing the formation of a uniform population of hollow glass microspheres. A burner head is used which directs incoming glass particles away from the cooler perimeter of the flame cone of the gas burner and distributes the glass particles in a uniform manner throughout the more evenly heated portions of the flame zone. As a result, as the glass particles are softened and expand by a released nucleating gas so as to form a hollow glass microsphere, the resulting hollow glass microspheres have a more uniform size and property distribution as a result of experiencing a more homogenous heat treatment process.

  4. TiO2 Hollow Spheres: One-Pot Synthesis and Enhanced Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Changchao; Cao, Yongqiang; Yang, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Hollow TiO2 microspheres were successfully fabricated by metal salts with low solubility in ethanol acting as intelligent templates using a simple one-pot solvothermal method. Hollow spheres with large diameter were obtained using CuSO4ṡ5H2O as templates while small ones were obtained using Sr(NO3)2 as templates. It is found that titanium precursor plays an important role for the morphology of samples. Solid TiO2 microspheres were prepared by using titanium tetrabutoxide (TBT). In contrast, bowl-like hollow microspheres were obtained by using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). Furthermore, the amount of H2O can stimulate the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4 to form solid spheres. Compared with solid microspheres, hollow TiO2 microspheres depending on their interior cavity structure exhibited enhanced photocatalysis efficiency for the UV-light photodegradation of methyl orange. Quantificationally, the apparent photocatalytic degradation pseudo-first-rate constant of the hollow microspheres is 1.25 times of that of the solid ones.

  5. Preparation and photocatalytic property of porous CuO hollow microspheres via carbon sphere templates.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qian; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Qingyun; Wang, Lingyun; Kang, Chao; Wang, Qingyao; Ge, Shengsong

    2011-11-01

    Porous copper oxide (CuO) hollow microspheres have been successfully fabricated by using carbon spheres as templates. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influences of different experimental parameters on the morphology of CuO structures have been investigated in detail and the possible formation mechanism of porous CuO hollow microspheres has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the hollow spheres with 74.805 m2/g is measured by BET method. Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) calculations for the pore size distribution, derived from desorption data, reveal that the average pore radius is 8.56 nm, and the total pore volume (r = 1686.1 A, P/P0 = 0.994296) is 0.107257 cc/g. UV-vis absorption spectrum shows quantum size effect of porous CuO hollow microspheres. Furthermore, the porous CuO hollow microspheres exhibit high efficiency for photodegradation of a sample organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under UV light.

  6. Sacrificial template method for fabrication of submicrometer-sized YPO(4):Eu(3+) hierarchical hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Jia, Guang; You, Hongpeng; Liu, Kai; Yang, Mei; Song, Yanhua; Zheng, Yuhua; Huang, Yeju; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Hongjie

    2010-04-05

    Large-scale good-quality submicrometer-sized YPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres were synthesized by utilizing the colloidal spheres of Y(OH)CO(3):Eu(3+) as a sacrificial template and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as a phosphorus source, for the first time. The whole process mainly consists of the hydrothermal reaction and acid erosion. The YPO(4):Eu(3+)@Y(OH)CO(3):Eu(3+) core-shell structures were first obtained after the hydrothermal process. Then, the remaining Y(OH)CO(3):Eu(3+) was removed by selective dissolution in a dilute nitric acid solution. The YPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL). The formation mechanism was also investigated. The obtained YPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres may have potential applications in cell biology, drug release, and diagnosis, due to high chemical stability and luminescence functionality.

  7. Direct Synthesis of Multicolor Fluorescent Hollow Carbon Spheres Encapsulating Enriched Carbon Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiao-Ling; Ji, Wen-Qing; Chen, Su

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor fluorescent hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) are fabricated by an easy one-step route of in situ pyrolysis process with the use of natural scales and collagen powders as the precursor. The gas blow forming mechanism and photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanism of HCSs have been thoroughly discussed and proved that HCSs represent the first examples of three-dimensional multicolor fluorescent nanomaterials based on carbon dots (CDs). The HCSs encapsulate enriched carbon dots with high quantum yields (QYs) of 38%, and thus are applied in inkjet printing and sensitized solar cells. This strategy offers a promising avenue for preparing multicolor fluorescent hollow carbon materials on an industrial scale.

  8. Direct Synthesis of Multicolor Fluorescent Hollow Carbon Spheres Encapsulating Enriched Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiao-Ling; Ji, Wen-Qing; Chen, Su

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor fluorescent hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) are fabricated by an easy one-step route of in situ pyrolysis process with the use of natural scales and collagen powders as the precursor. The gas blow forming mechanism and photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanism of HCSs have been thoroughly discussed and proved that HCSs represent the first examples of three-dimensional multicolor fluorescent nanomaterials based on carbon dots (CDs). The HCSs encapsulate enriched carbon dots with high quantum yields (QYs) of 38%, and thus are applied in inkjet printing and sensitized solar cells. This strategy offers a promising avenue for preparing multicolor fluorescent hollow carbon materials on an industrial scale. PMID:26806103

  9. Slip and flow of hard-sphere colloidal glasses.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, P; Besseling, R; Isa, L; Petekidis, G; Poon, W C K

    2008-12-19

    We study the flow of concentrated hard-sphere colloidal suspensions along smooth, nonstick walls using cone-plate rheometry and simultaneous confocal microscopy. In the glass regime, the global flow shows a transition from Herschel-Bulkley behavior at large shear rate to a characteristic Bingham slip response at small rates, absent for ergodic colloidal fluids. Imaging reveals both the "solid" microstructure during full slip and the local nature of the "slip to shear" transition. Both the local and global flow are described by a phenomenological model, and the associated Bingham slip parameters exhibit characteristic scaling with size and concentration of the hard spheres.

  10. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances of hollow graphene spheres as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The hollow graphene oxide spheres have been successfully fabricated from graphene oxide nanosheets utilizing a water-in-oil emulsion technique, which were prepared from natural flake graphite by oxidation and ultrasonic treatment. The hollow graphene oxide spheres were reduced to hollow graphene spheres at 500°C for 3 h under an atmosphere of Ar(95%)/H2(5%). The first reversible specific capacity of the hollow graphene spheres was as high as 903 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mAh g-1. Even at a high current density of 500 mAh g-1, the reversible specific capacity remained at 502 mAh g-1. After 60 cycles, the reversible capacity was still kept at 652 mAh g-1 at the current density of 50 mAh g-1. These results indicate that the prepared hollow graphene spheres possess excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage. The high rate performance of hollow graphene spheres thanks to the hollow structure, thin and porous shells consisting of graphene sheets. PACS 81.05.ue; 61.48.Gh; 72.80.Vp PMID:25114657

  11. One-pot template-free preparation of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and their photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shizhao; Yin, Dieer; Li, Xiangqing; Li, Liang; Mu, Jin

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared in a one-pot process. ► The process does not involve any templates and surfactants. ► The TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres display high photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared in a solvothermal process, which did not involve any templates and surfactants. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres was studied using methyl orange as a probe. The results indicate that the anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with mesoporous walls and high specific surface area (141 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) can be obtained using this simple method. The mean diameter and wall thickness of spheres are about 700 nm and 90 nm, respectively. Moreover, the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres display high photocatalytic activity with 98% of degradation ratio of methyl orange after 30 min irradiation.

  12. Preparation of porous hollow silica spheres via a layer-by-layer process and the chromatographic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaobing; Gong, Cairong; Chen, Xujuan; Fan, Guoliang; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Hollow silica spheres possessing excellent mechanical properties were successfully prepared through a layer-by-layer process using uniform polystyrene (PS) latex fabricated by dispersion polymerization as template. The formation of hollow SiO2 micro-spheres, structures and properties were observed in detail by zeta potential, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were uniform with particle diameter of 1.6 μm and shell thickness of 150 nm. The surface area was 511 m2/g and the pore diameter was 8.36 nm. A new stationary phase for HPLC was obtained by using C18-derivatized hollow SiO2 micro-spheres as packing materials and the chromatographic properties were evaluated for the separation of some regular small molecules. The packed column showed low column pressure, high values of efficiency (up to about 43 000 plates/m) and appropriate asymmetry factors.

  13. Preparation of porous hollow silica spheres via a layer-by-layer process and the chromatographic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaobing; Gong, Cairong; Chen, Xujuan; Fan, Guoliang; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Hollow silica spheres possessing excellent mechanical properties were successfully prepared through a layer-by-layer process using uniform polystyrene (PS) latex fabricated by dispersion polymerization as template. The formation of hollow SiO2 micro-spheres, structures and properties were observed in detail by zeta potential, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were uniform with particle diameter of 1.6 μm and shell thickness of 150 nm. The surface area was 511 m2/g and the pore diameter was 8.36 nm. A new stationary phase for HPLC was obtained by using C18-derivatized hollow SiO2 micro-spheres as packing materials and the chromatographic properties were evaluated for the separation of some regular small molecules. The packed column showed low column pressure, high values of efficiency (up to about 43 000 plates/m) and appropriate asymmetry factors.

  14. Synthesis of siliceous hollow spheres with large mesopore wall structure by supercritical CO2-in-water interface templating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Xia, Yongde; Wang, Wenxin; Mokaya, Robert; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2005-01-14

    Hollow silica spheres with large mesopore wall structures have been synthesized via CO(2)-in-water emulsion templating in the presence of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers under supercritical fluid conditions.

  15. Amorphous hollow carbon spheres synthesized using radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. M.; Xu, Q.; Tian, H. W.; Wang, X.; Zheng, W. T.

    2008-10-01

    We report a method to synthesize amorphous hollow carbon spheres, with diameters ranging from 100 to 800 nm, which are dispersed among bent graphitized carbon nanotubes using radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition in mixed CH4/H2 gases. The products are characterized by techniques including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that MgO and Ni nanoparticles together with hydrogen play important roles in the formation of the spheres. A possible formation mechanism for the carbon composites has been proposed.

  16. Scaling for hard-sphere colloidal glasses near jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, Rojman; DeGiuli, Eric; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Hard-sphere colloids are model systems in which to study the glass transition and universal properties of amorphous solids. Using covariance matrix analysis to determine the vibrational modes, we experimentally measure here the scaling behavior of the density of states, shear modulus, and mean-squared displacement (MSD) in a hard-sphere colloidal glass. Scaling the frequency with the boson-peak frequency, we find that the density of states at different volume fractions all collapse on a single master curve, which obeys a power law in terms of the scaled frequency. Below the boson peak, the exponent is consistent with theoretical results obtained by real-space and phase-space approaches to understanding amorphous solids. We find that the shear modulus and the MSD are nearly inversely proportional, and show a singular power-law dependence on the distance from random close packing. Our results are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  17. Superhydrophobic, highly adhesive arrays of copper hollow spheres produced by electro-colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Damien; Faure, Chrystel

    2017-08-23

    We report the patterning of copper surfaces which display both superhydrophobicity and high adhesion thanks to a new feature geometry, and without resorting to chemical modification. Polystyrene beads organized in 2D crystals under an AC electric field act as a template for the growth of copper deposited via cupric ion-loaded multi-lamellar vesicles. After the removal of the beads, hexagonal arrays of supported hollow spheres or copper bowls are generated, depending on the amount of deposited copper. While the bowl-covered surfaces display a predictable decreasing wettability (Cassie model) as their wall height increases, the hollow sphere-covered surfaces exhibit both high adhesion and superhydrophobicity (Cassie-Baxter state).

  18. Compressive Behavior and Microstructural Characteristics of Iron Hollow Sphere Filled Aluminum Matrix Syntactic Foams

    PubMed Central

    Szlancsik, Attila; Katona, Bálint; Májlinger, Kornél; Orbulov, Imre Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Iron hollow sphere filled aluminum matrix syntactic foams (AMSFs) were produced by low pressure, inert gas assisted infiltration. The microstructure of the produced AMSFs was investigated by light and electron microscopy, extended by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction. The investigations revealed almost perfect infiltration and a slight gradient in the grain size of the matrix. A very thin interface layer that ensures good bonding between the hollow spheres and the matrix was also observed. Compression tests were performed on cylindrical specimens to explore the characteristic mechanical properties of the AMSFs. Compared to other (conventional) metallic foams, the investigated AMSFs proved to have outstanding mechanical properties (yield strength, plateau strength, etc.) and energy absorbing capability. PMID:28793688

  19. In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    DOE PAGES

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; ...

    2016-02-03

    The hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site-controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. We report on in situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatiotemporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Furthermore, image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocitymore » on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol–gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2 mm inner diameter diamond shells.« less

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xia; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lane, Alan M.

    2015-02-15

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 °C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. - Graphical abstract: Hollow spherical BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles are polycrystalline with both grains and grain boundaries. Grain boundaries have less ordered structure and lower stability. When the particles are exposed to high temperature alkaline ethylene glycol, the grain boundaries are etched, leaving small grooves between grains. These grooves allow ethylene glycol to diffuse inside to further etch the grains. As the grain size decreases, gaps appear on the particle surfaces, and a porous structure is finally formed. - Highlights: • Two-step synthesis method for hollow mesoporous BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} spheres is proposed. • Porosity of the product can be regulated by controlling the second step of chemical etching. • The crystal structure and magnetic properties are examined to be little affected during the chemical etching. • The mesoporous structure formation mechanism is explained by grain boundary etching.

  1. Anomalous dynamics at the hard-sphere glass transition.

    PubMed

    Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Fluerasu, Andrei; Madsen, Anders

    2014-11-21

    We use X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to study the dynamics of hard sphere suspensions and report the emergence of ergodicity restoring anomalous intermittent relaxation modes in the highest concentration suspension that is estimated to be above the glass transition concentration. We associate these phenomena with non-thermal stress induced relaxations and support our interpretation by a direct comparison of the results with predictions of the mode coupling theory.

  2. The Precise Inner Solutions of Gravity Field Equations of Hollow and Solid Spheres and the Theorem of Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xiaochu

    The precise inner solutions of gravity field equations of hollow and solid spheres are calculated in this paper. To avoid space curvature infinite at the center of solid sphere, we set an integral constant to be zero directly at present. However, according to the theory of differential equation, the integral constant should be determined by the known boundary conditions of spherical surface, in stead of the metric at the spherical center. By considering that fact that the volumes of three dimensional hollow and solid spheres in curved space are different from that in flat space, the integral constants are proved to be nonzero. The results indicate that no matter what the masses and densities of hollow sphere and solid sphere are, there exist space-time singularities at the centers of hollow sphere and solid spheres. Meanwhile, the intensity of pressure at the center point of solid sphere can not be infinite. That is to say, the material can not collapse towards the center of so-called black hole. At the center and its neighboring region of solid sphere, pressure intensities become negative values. There may be a region for hollow sphere in which pressure intensities may become negative values too. The common hollow and solid spheres in daily live can not have such impenetrable characteristics. The results only indicate that the singularity black holes predicated by general relativity are caused by the descriptive method of curved space-time actually. If black holes exist really in the universe, they can only be the Newtonian black holes, not the Einstein's black holes. The results revealed in the paper are consistent with the Hawking theorem of singularity actually. They can be considered as the practical examples of the theorem.

  3. Uniform Mesoporous Anatase Hollow Spheres: An Unexpectedly Efficient Fabrication Process and Enhanced Performance in Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yubao; Chen, Qifeng; Pan, Feng; Li, Hui; Xu, Guo Qin; Chen, Wei

    2014-03-28

    Uniform mesoporous anatase hollow spheres with high crystallinity have been fabricated by an efficient method, in which biocompatible ethanedioic acid acts as the chelating agent during the Ostwald ripening process. The combination of high crystallinity, large surface area, and mesoporosity leads to an excellent photocatalytic activity. In solar water splitting, the hollow spheres exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic performance that is 1.4 times of P25. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  6. Silicon hollow sphere anode with enhanced cycling stability by a template-free method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Luo, Yunjun; Xia, Min; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-04-01

    Silicon is a promising alternative anode material since it has a ten times higher theoretical specific capacity than that of a traditional graphite anode. However, the poor cycling stability due to the huge volume change of Si during charge/discharge processes has seriously hampered its widespread application. To address this challenge, we design a silicon hollow sphere nanostructure by selective etching and a subsequent magnesiothermic reduction. The Si hollow spheres exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties compared to the commercial Si nanoparticles. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the Si hollow sphere anode are 2215.8 mAh g-1 and 1615.1 mAh g-1 with a high initial coulombic efficiency (72%) at a current density of 200 mA g-1, respectively. In particular, the reversible capacity is 1534.5 mAh g-1 with a remarkable 88% capacity retention against the second cycle after 100 cycles, over four times the theoretical capacity of the traditional graphite electrode. Therefore, our work demonstrates the considerable potential of silicon structures for displacing commercial graphite, and might open up new opportunities to rationally design various nanostructured materials for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Silicon hollow sphere anode with enhanced cycling stability by a template-free method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Luo, Yunjun; Xia, Min; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-04-21

    Silicon is a promising alternative anode material since it has a ten times higher theoretical specific capacity than that of a traditional graphite anode. However, the poor cycling stability due to the huge volume change of Si during charge/discharge processes has seriously hampered its widespread application. To address this challenge, we design a silicon hollow sphere nanostructure by selective etching and a subsequent magnesiothermic reduction. The Si hollow spheres exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties compared to the commercial Si nanoparticles. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the Si hollow sphere anode are 2215.8 mAh g(-1) and 1615.1 mAh g(-1) with a high initial coulombic efficiency (72%) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1), respectively. In particular, the reversible capacity is 1534.5 mAh g(-1) with a remarkable 88% capacity retention against the second cycle after 100 cycles, over four times the theoretical capacity of the traditional graphite electrode. Therefore, our work demonstrates the considerable potential of silicon structures for displacing commercial graphite, and might open up new opportunities to rationally design various nanostructured materials for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Template free fabrication of hollow hematite spheres via a one-pot polyoxometalate-assisted hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Wang Enbo Tian Chungui; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli; Li Meiye

    2007-02-15

    Uniform hollow hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl{sub 3} and tungstophosphoric acid H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres are composed of robust shells with small nanoparticles standing out of the surface and present a high-surface area and a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The effect of concentration of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, reaction time and temperature for the formation of the hollow spheres are investigated in series of experiments. The formation of the hollow spheres may be ascribed to a polyoxometalte-assisted forced hydrolysis and dissolution process. - Graphical abstract: Uniform hollow hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl{sub 3} and tungstophosphoric acid H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres present a high surface area and weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  9. Luminescent LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres for encapsulation of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Chunlei; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-10-01

    In this study, LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres, synthesized via self-sacrificing templated route, are developed for enzyme immobilization and protein adsorption. The four LuVO4 hollow spheres with diameter of 180 nm, 280 nm, 370 nm and 480 nm were obtained. The size of LuVO4 hollow sphere is dependent on Lu(OH)CO3 template. Upon excitation by UV light, hollow LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) spheres exhibit red (Eu3+), orange (Sm3+), yellow-green (Dy3+), and green (Er3+) emissions. The good biocompatibility of sample is validated by MTT assay. Due to structure feature and size of obtained sample, the rapid encapsulation of biomolecules within samples has been achieved. Furthermore, the hollow spheres show different biomolecules adsorption capacities at different buffer solution pH values. The release behaviors of two kinds of biomolecules (lysozyme and bovine serum albumin) are also investigated. LuVO4 hollow spheres are suitable carriers for biomolecules. The emission intensity of Eu3+ in the LuVO4:Eu3+ varies with the released amount of LYZ. This enables the monitoring of release process by the change in the luminescence intensity.

  10. A facile approach for the fabrication of Au/ZnO-hollow-sphere-monolayer thin films and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang; Chen, Zhiwu; Wang, Ting; Ji, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present a facile strategy for the fabrication of Au/ZnO-hollow-sphere-monolayer thin films. ZnO hollow spheres were synthesized by a template technique based on polystyrene (PS). ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) were simultaneously deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The as-prepared ZnO spheres exhibit a hollow structure with an obvious contrast between the thin ZnO shell and the interior. The Au/ZnO-hollow-sphere-monolayer thin films showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MO compared with that of the ZnO thin film and ZnO-hollow-sphere-monolayer thin films. The observed degradation constant k of MO for the Au/ZnO-400 nm sample was 0.0415 min-1, which is approximately 17 times that of the ZnO thin film (0.0024 min-1) and 3 times that of the ZnO-400 nm sample (0.0128 min-1). The enhancement in photocatalytic activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the transfer of effective charges from the ZnO conduction band to the plasmonic Au NPs and the light trapping within the ZnO hollow spheres.

  11. Comparison of NiS2 and α-NiS hollow spheres for supercapacitors, non-enzymatic glucose sensors and water treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yazhou; Du, Weimin; Pang, Huan

    2015-10-21

    NiS2 hollow spheres are successfully prepared by a one-step template free method. Meanwhile, α-NiS hollow spheres can also be synthesized via the calcination of the pre-obtained NiS2 hollow spheres at 400 °C for 1 h in air. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared NiS2 and α-NiS hollow sphere products are evaluated. When used for supercapacitors, compared with NiS2 hollow spheres, the α-NiS hollow sphere electrode shows a large specific capacitance of 717.3 F g(-1) at 0.6 A g(-1) and a good cycle life. Furthermore, NiS2 and α-NiS hollow spheres are successfully applied to fabricate non-enzymatic glucose sensors. In particular, the α-NiS hollow spheres exhibit good catalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose, a fast amperometric response time of less than 5 s, and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.08 μM. More importantly, compared with other normally co-existing interfering species, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, the electrode modified with α-NiS hollow spheres shows good selectivity. Moreover, the α-NiS hollow spheres also present good capacity to remove Congo red organic pollutants from wastewater by their surface adsorption ability.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study on the driving force and glass flow by laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass

    PubMed Central

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Wada, Jun; Iwamoto, Tatsuki; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Kishi, Tetsuo; Morita, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Light is able to remotely move matter. Among various driving forces, laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass has been reported. The temperature on the laser-illuminated side of the sphere was higher than that on the non-illuminated side. This temperature gradient caused non-uniformity in the interfacial tension between the glass and the melted metal as the tension decreased with increasing temperature. In the present study, we investigated laser-induced metal sphere migration in different glasses using thermal flow calculations, considering the temperature dependence of the material parameters. In addition, the velocity of the glass flow generated by the metal sphere migration was measured and compared with thermal flow calculations. The migration velocity of the stainless steel sphere increased with increasing laser power density; the maximum velocity was 104 μm/s in borosilicate glass and 47 μm/s in silica glass. The sphere was heated to more than 2000 K. The temperature gradient of the interfacial tension between the stainless steel sphere and the glass was calculated to be −2.29 × 10−5 N/m/K for borosilicate glass and −2.06 × 10−5 N/m/K for silica glass. Glass flowed in the region 15–30 μm from the surface of the sphere, and the 80-μm sphere migrated in a narrow softened channel. PMID:27934897

  13. Echoes of the Glass Transition in Athermal Soft Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2017-09-01

    Recent theoretical advances have led to the creation of a unified phase diagram for the thermal glass and athermal jamming transitions. This diagram makes clear that, while related, the mode-coupling—or dynamic—glass transition is distinct from the jamming transition, occurring at a finite temperature and significantly lower density than the jamming transition. Nonetheless, we demonstrate a prejamming transition in athermal frictionless spheres which occurs at the same density as the mode-coupling transition and is marked by percolating clusters of locally rigid particles. At this density in both the thermal and athermal systems, individual motions of an extensive number of particles become constrained, such that only collective motion is possible. This transition, which is well below jamming, exactly matches the definition of collective behavior at the dynamical transition of glasses. Thus, we reveal that the genesis of rigidity in both thermal and athermal systems is governed by the same underlying topological transition in their shared configuration space.

  14. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-07-01

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  15. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-07-29

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  16. A green chemical approach to the synthesis of photoluminescent ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Tudose, Madalina; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Birjega, Ruxandra; Budrugeac, Petru; Ene, Ramona; Carp, Oana

    2012-02-15

    ZnO hollow spheres have been synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly template assisted route. Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres were used as template, impregnated with Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O to obtain zinc-containing precursor spheres and thermally treatment at 600 Degree-Sign C, yielding hollow ZnO spherical shells. The precursor spheres and hollow shells were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The hollow spherical shells with diameters of {approx}150 nm and wall thickness of {approx}20 nm, are polycrystalline, with a mean crystallite size of 22 nm, exhibiting interesting emission features, with a wide multi-peak band covering blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. The photocatalytic activities (under UV and visible light irradiations) of the ZnO spherical shells evaluated for the phenol degradation reaction in aqueous solutions are outstanding, a total phenol conversion being registered in the case of UV irradiation experiments. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction initiated by the photoexcitation of the semiconductor (ZnO), leads to the formation of electron-hole, while part of the electron-hole pairs recombine, some holes combine with water to form {center_dot}OH radicals and some electrons convert oxygen to super oxide radical ({center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green synthesis of ZnO hollow spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres as spherical hard template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with notable visible photoluminescence properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with photocatalytical activity in degradation/mineralization of phenol.

  17. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Quarterly project status report, 1 January--31 March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    The hollow sphere materials were alumina, mullite, and mullite- ZrO{sub 2} (the Zr reduced the high-temperature thermal conductivity). During this phase, three major tasks were emphasized: Use of opacifiers (Zr oxide) to reduce the high-temperature thermal conductivity of the sphere, convert the slurries from organic-based to aqueous-based, and technology transfer to industry.

  18. Self-templated formation of uniform NiCo2O4 hollow spheres with complex interior structures for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Laifa; Yu, Le; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhang, Xiaogang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-02-02

    Despite the significant advancement in preparing metal oxide hollow structures, most approaches rely on template-based multistep procedures for tailoring the interior structure. In this work, we develop a new generally applicable strategy toward the synthesis of mixed-metal-oxide complex hollow spheres. Starting with metal glycerate solid spheres, we show that subsequent thermal annealing in air leads to the formation of complex hollow spheres of the resulting metal oxide. We demonstrate the concept by synthesizing highly uniform NiCo2O4 hollow spheres with a complex interior structure. With the small primary building nanoparticles, high structural integrity, complex interior architectures, and enlarged surface area, these unique NiCo2O4 hollow spheres exhibit superior electrochemical performances as advanced electrode materials for both lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. This approach can be an efficient self-templated strategy for the preparation of mixed-metal-oxide hollow spheres with complex interior structures and functionalities.

  19. Titania coated hollow glass microspheres for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Mark C.

    The potential applicability of titania coated hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) to the photocatalytic degradation of microbiological and organic chemical water pollutants could have dramatic positive effects on improving the quality of industrial wastewaters that empty into rivers and streams, as well as potential use in economically improving the quality of drinking water. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titania has been extensively studied since the 1990's because of its non-toxic nature, its high quantum yield of electrons and photo-holes, and its ability to use ambient solar radiation as a power source. Although titania embodies extraordinarily attractive properties for a range of environmental applications, a viable substrate or method of using the material effectively has not been recognized. HGMs are particularly attractive as a support for titania because of their low density and high surface area to volume ratio, but details of how they react to imposed loading, wear, and impact have not been addressed, nor have materials engineering analyses that could maximize their utility been made. In this study we have examined the microstructure, morphology and micro-compression properties of two types of titania coated hollow microspheres, a commercially produced HGM and cenospheres, a derivative of fly ash. Comparisons of uncoated and titania coated hollow microspheres showed improved failure loads and facture energies for the titania coated materials over the uncoated hollow microspheres. Also, the relationship between failure load and hollow microsphere diameter was characterized and the function employed to explain part of the gain in average failure load for the HGMs. Microscopic examination of titania coated HGMs that were subjected to various turbulent conditions, as well as intentional fracture, indicated good interfacial integrity, which supports the viability of both types of HGMs for potential applications. The photocatalytic reactivity of the titania

  20. Double-Shelled TiO2 Hollow Spheres Assembled with TiO2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhao, Shuo; Fang, Jiasheng; Sheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-02-08

    High-quality double-shelled TiO2 hollow spheres (DHS-Ti) assembled with TiO2 nanosheets have been synthesized for the first time through a simple hydrothermal treatment of sSiO2 @TiO2 (TiO2 -coated solid SiO2 spheres). The double-shelled structure shows a high BET surface area up to 417.6 m(2)  g(-1) . Anatase DHS-Ti of high crystallinity can be obtained without structural collapse by calcination treatment. The effects of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration, pH, and hydrothermal reaction temperature have also been investigated with a series of contrast experiments. A formation mechanism involving the in situ growth of amorphous TiO2 nanosheets followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species is proposed. Lastly, the DHS-Ti forming strategy can be extended as a general strategy to fabricate various morphological hollow nanostructures and double-shelled Pt nanocatalysts by rationally selecting functional sSiO2 nanoparticles as core materials. This work could open up a new strategy for controllable synthesis of complex hollow structures and other functional materials.

  1. Non-Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Encapsulation Uses of Nanoparticle-Shelled Hollow Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Gautam C.; Biswal, Sibani L.; Wong, Michael S.

    Nanoparticles (NPs, diameter range of 1-100nm) can have size-dependent physical and electronic properties that are useful in a variety of applications. Arranging them into hollow shells introduces the additional functionalities of encapsulation, storage, and controlled release that the constituent NPs do not have.This chapter examines recent developments in the synthesis routes and properties of hollow spheres formed out of NPs. Synthesis approaches reviewed here are recent developments in the electrostatics-based tandem assembly and interfacial stabilization routes to the formation of NP-shelled structures. Distinct from the well-established layer-by-layer (LBL) synthesis approach, the former route leads to NP/polymer composite hollow spheres that are potentially useful in medical therapy, catalysis, and encapsulation applications. The latter route is based on interfacial activity and stabilization by NPs with amphiphilic properties, to generate materials like colloidosomes, Pickering emulsions, and foams. The varied types of NP shells can have unique materials properties that are not found in the NP building blocks, or in polymer-based, surfactant-based, or LBL-assembled capsules.

  2. Effects of copper content on the shell characteristics of hollow steel spheres manufactured using an advanced powder metallurgy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazegaran, Hamid; Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati

    2016-04-01

    Metallic hollow spheres are used as base materials in the manufacture of hollow sphere structures and metallic foams. In this study, steel hollow spheres were successfully manufactured using an advanced powder metallurgy technique. The spheres' shells were characterized by optical microscopy in conjunction with microstructural image analysis software, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microscopic evaluations revealed that the shells consist of sintered iron powder, sintered copper powder, sodium silicate, and porosity regions. In addition, the effects of copper content on various parameters such as shell defects, microcracks, thickness, and porosities were investigated. The results indicated that increasing the copper content results in decreases in the surface fraction of shell porosities and the number of microcracks and an increase in shell thickness.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Eu3+:Gd2O3 hollow spheres for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Manisha; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional magnetic Nanoparticles (MFMNPs) are potentially applicable in both drug delivery systems (DDS) and hyperthermia treatment. Structural, surface morphology and optical property were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Uniform Eu3+:Gd2O3 hollow microspheres of 1.8-2.0 μm diameters were synthesized by template based approach. We found that synthesized Hollow spheres are 100 nm in thickness. FE-SEM images revealed that the synthesized material are hollow in structure with good porous structure and these pores work as pathway for releasing drugs from the hollow particle inside. Luminescent properties of material were studied by room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra under the excitation of 275 nm. Material exhibit bright red emission corresponding to the 5D0-7F2 transition of the activator ions under ultraviolet light excitation, which might find potential applications in fields such as drug delivery or biological labeling because of their excellent luminescence properties.

  4. Highly ordered self-assemblies of submicrometer Cu2O spheres and their hollow chalcogenide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maolin; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2010-04-20

    Highly ordered superlattices assembled from transition metal oxide/sulfide submicrometer particles are difficult to prepare due to lack of monodisperse primary building blocks. In this work, we have successfully synthesized monodisperse Cu(2)O spheres with diameters in the submicrometer regime of 130-135 nm. Using the as-prepared Cu(2)O spheres as solid precursor, uniform hollow CuS and CuSe derivatives have also been synthesized in solution media. More importantly, a range of two-dimensional and three-dimensional superlattices of Cu(2)O, CuS, and CuSe solid/hollow spheres have been assembled for the first time. Without assistance of conventional sacrificing solid templates, the degree of ordering achieved in these superlattices is comparable to those reported for well-studied silica and polystyrene beads. The realization of these self-assembled superlattices may provide a new way of thin film design and fabrication for this class of photosensitive semiconducting materials using their prefabricated building blocks.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-doped graphene hollow spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kechan; Wang, Guoxu; Zhang, Hongliang; Yu, Yifeng; Liu, Lei; Chen, Aibing

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the rapid development of graphene industry in the world, especially in China, provides more opportunities for the further extension of the application field of graphene-based materials. Graphene has also been considered as a promising candidate for use in supercapacitors. Here, nitrogen-doped graphene hollow spheres (NGHS) have been successfully synthesized by using industrialized and pre-processed graphene oxide (GO) as raw material, SiO2 spheres as hard templates, and urea as reducing-doping agents. The results demonstrate that the content and pretreatment of GO sheets have important effect on the uniform spherical morphologies of the obtained samples. Industrialized GO and low-cost urea are used to prepare graphene hollow spheres, which can be a promising route to achieve mass production of NGHS. The obtained NGHS have a cavity of about 270 nm, specific surface area of 402.9 m2 g-1, ultrathin porous shells of 2.8 nm, and nitrogen content of 6.9 at.%. As electrode material for supercapacitors, the NGHS exhibit a specific capacitance of 159 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Moreover, the NGHS exhibit superior cycling stability with 99.24% capacitive retention after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1.

  6. Hollow MXene Spheres and 3D Macroporous MXene Frameworks for Na-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Xie, Xiuqiang; Ren, Chang E; Makaryan, Taron; Anasori, Babak; Wang, Guoxiu; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-25

    2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, named MXenes, are attracting increasing attentions and showing competitive performance in energy storage devices including electrochemical capacitors, lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, and lithium-sulfur batteries. However, similar to other 2D materials, MXene nanosheets are inclined to stack together, limiting the device performance. In order to fully utilize MXenes' electrochemical energy storage capability, here, processing of 2D MXene flakes into hollow spheres and 3D architectures via a template method is reported. The MXene hollow spheres are stable and can be easily dispersed in solvents such as water and ethanol, demonstrating their potential applications in environmental and biomedical fields as well. The 3D macroporous MXene films are free-standing, flexible, and highly conductive due to good contacts between spheres and metallic conductivity of MXenes. When used as anodes for sodium-ion storage, these 3D MXene films exhibit much improved performances compared to multilayer MXenes and MXene/carbon nanotube hybrid architectures in terms of capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. This work demonstrates the importance of MXene electrode architecture on the electrochemical performance and can guide future work on designing high-performance MXene-based materials for energy storage, catalysis, environmental, and biomedical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Facile synthesis of hierarchical hollow mesoporous Ag/WO3 spheres with high photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baixiong; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hongyi; Wu, Junshu; Zhou, Meiling; Zuo, Tieyong

    2013-06-01

    Hollow mesoporous tungsten trioxide spheres (HMTTS) have been synthesized by spray drying method combined with proper calcination and Ag/HMTTS are prepared on the basis of a silver mirror reaction. HMTTS are composed of nanoparticles with diameter of 20-70 nm. The accumulation of nanoparticles generates pores with the mean pore size of about 45 nm. The formation mechanism of hollow mesoporous structure is studied in this work. Ag in WO3 narrows the band gap and derceases the recombination possibility of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which enhance photocatalytic activity of Ag/WO3 composites. The degradation rate of methylene blue is 98.16% under UV light illumination for 75 min and 49.07% under visible light irradiation for 150 min by Ag/WO3 composites.

  8. Hollow glass microspheres for temperature and irradiance control in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Darlan A; José, Nadia M; Villamizar, Sonia M G; Sales, Emerson A; Perelo, Louisa W

    2014-04-01

    The addition of hollow glass microspheres (HGM) to polymers to change thermal insulation and mechanical properties is widely used. In this study HGM were tested as a new construction material for photobioreactors to control irradiance and broth temperature in microalgae cultivation. The heat isolation properties of HGMs of three different densities were tested in a polymer matrix. The transmittance (5-50%) and the thermal conductivity (182.05-190.73 W/mK) of the HGM composite material were analyzed. The results were tested in a model to predict the broth temperature and the growth rate as a function of temperature and irradiance. The addition of 1.3 and 0.6 vol.% of HGM lead to an increase in the growth rate of up to 37% and a reduction in the broth temperature up to 9°C. The mechanical resistance of the composites tested is similar to the polymer matrix.

  9. Thin hollow glass waveguide for near IR radiation delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    The delivery of the radiation by thin fiber is required for some application, especially in medical internals treatment. Therefore a new 100 μm and 250 μm inner diameter hollow glass waveguides were developed and investigated for the possibility to transport high power near infrared laser radiation without damage of these delivery systems. As laser sources two Nd:YAG laser systems working in Q-switched regime at wavelength 1.06 μm and 1.34 μm were utilized. Delivered radiation characterization was performed. By Alexandrite laser (755 nm) pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generating 1.06 μm wavelength radiation with 6 ns length of pulse and maximum output energy 0.7 mJ (116.7 kW). The laser was Q-switched using LiF:F 2- saturable absorber. Second laser system was Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip pumped by laser diode operating at 808 nm. The radiation at 1.3 μm wavelength has been generated with 250 Hz repetition rate. Pulse length was 6 ns and mean output power 25 mW. Corresponding pulse energy and peak power was 0.1 mJ and 16.7 kW, respectively. Both lasers were operating in fundamental TEM 00 mode (M2 ~ 1). For delivery a special cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguides with the inner/outer diameters 100/190 μm and 250/360 μm were used. The delivery system was consisted of lens, protector, and waveguide. As results the transmission more than 55% and reasonable spatial profile of laser output radiation were found. From these measurements it can be recommended using of this system for near infrared powerful radiation delivery as well as for medical treatment.

  10. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from CdS hollow spheres composited with carbon nanofiber and its sensing application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinshu; Han, Min; Wang, Huaisheng; Liu, Lili; Bao, Jianchun; Dai, Zhihui; Shen, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from nanometre-sized CdS hollow spheres and carbon nanofiber (CdSHS-CNF) nanocomposites in aqueous solution and their sensing applications were studied by entrapping them in carbon paste. The CdSHS-CNF nanocomposites exhibited a peak at -1.02 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M pH 8.0 PBS containing 20 mM H(2)O(2) during the cyclic sweep between 0 and -1.2 V at 40 mV s(-1). Compared with CdS hollow spheres (CdSHS), carbon nanofiber (CNF) and CdS nanocrystals and carbon nanofiber (CdSNC-CNF) nanocomposites, CdSHS-CNF not only enhanced the electrochemiluminescent intensity but also decreased the ECL starting potentials. Furthermore, by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) on CdSHS-CNF nanocomposites modified electrode, a sensitive and selective method was developed for detection of cholesterol using oxygen as a coreactant which captured more electrons from electrochemically reduced CdSHS-CNF than H(2)O(2). Under optimal conditions, the sensor could be used for the determination of cholesterol from 1 × 10(-6) to 4.4 × 10(-4) M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and a detection limit was 8 × 10(-7) M at 3σ. The unique ECL intensity and stability of CdSHS-CNF would promote the application of nanometre-sized semiconductor hollow spheres based composites in fabricating sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  11. Synthesis of hollow silver spheres using poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ge, Chen; Ren, Min; Liu, Yumin; Jiang, Tingshun

    2010-02-01

    Hollow silver spheres were successfully prepared by reducing AgNO 3 with ascorbic acid and using negatively charged poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) (PSA) spheres as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate as a stabilizer. Firstly, silver cations adsorbed on the surface of PSA spheres via electrostatic attraction between the carboxyl groups and silver cations were reduced in situ by ascorbic acid. The silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of PSA spheres served as seeds for the further growth of silver shells. After that, extra amount of AgNO 3 and ascorbic acid solutions were added to form PSA/Ag composites with thick silver shells. In order to obtain compact silver shells, the as-prepared PSA/Ag composites were heated at 150 °C for 3 h. Then hollow silver spheres were prepared by dissolving PSA templates with tetrahydrofuran.

  12. Surface modification as an effective approach to enhance the microwave absorbing properties of hollow carbon spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui-Ling; Xu, Zhen-Fu; Cui, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Jie; Dang, Jun-Fan; Wang, Tian-Fang; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-10-01

    The microwave absorbing properties of hollow carbon spheres modified by KOH were measured using a transmission/reflection coaxial method in the range of 2-18 GHz. The modification could result in a significant enhancement in the properties, including both the increment in absorbing intensity and bandwidth and the decrease in absorber thickness, which can be well explained by the high concentration of dangling bonds in per unit volume or per unit weight introduced during the modification. This dangling bond dominated mechanism could be used to instruct the design of absorbers with outstanding performances.

  13. The anomalous manipulation of acoustic waves based on planar metasurface with split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Changlin; Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Liu, Song; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an acoustic metasurface (AMS) model consisting of split hollow sphere (SHS) resonator arrays with the property of negative modulus. It shows that the AMS can imprint phase discontinuities on an acoustic reflected wave as it traverses the interface between two media. By designing suitable phase gradients, the AMS enables the perpendicularly incident acoustic wave to be converted to a surface wave or reflected in any angle. Four kinds of AMSs, which can anomalously manipulate the reflected wave’s direction, are simulated to fulfill the generalized Snell’s law. The results provide an available and simple path to experimentally achieving the AMS.

  14. Long time and distance self-propelling of a PVC sphere on a water surface with an embedded ZnO micro-/nano-structured hollow sphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Lujia; Yi, Liting; Yuan, Bin; Hou, Yongping; Meng, Xiangfu; Liu, Jing

    2017-02-16

    In this research, a zinc oxide micro-/nano-structured hollow sphere (MNHS) with a large specific surface area is applied as energy storage material to encapsulate poly(vinyl chloride) solution and control the fuel release. The sustained release effect of MNHS not only makes the motion more controllable, but enhances the motion time and distance.

  15. Hierarchical flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite hollow spheres: facile synthesis and catalysis in the degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Shunhao; Lu, Baoping; Ke, Xi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin

    2013-03-01

    A facile method is proposed for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite (CF) hollow spheres, using SiO2@FeOOH as precursor. The CF hollow spheres are efficient for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C. The obtained CF hollow spheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The formation of 3D hierarchical flower-like superstructure was influenced by the relative amount of urea used. As the mole ratio of CoCl2 and urea decreased, the structure of the products was tailored from yolk-like spheres to hollow spheres with different sized void interiors. Moreover, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis showed that the CF hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (163 m2 g-1) which provided more activity sites. The CF hollow spheres can catalyze the oxidation of MB efficiently. These results indicate that the designed CF hollow spheres exhibit promising capability for the degradation of dyes.A facile method is proposed for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite (CF) hollow spheres, using SiO2@FeOOH as precursor. The CF hollow spheres are efficient for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C. The obtained CF hollow spheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The formation of 3D hierarchical flower-like superstructure was influenced by the relative amount of urea used. As the mole ratio of CoCl2 and urea decreased, the structure of the products was tailored from yolk-like spheres to hollow spheres with different sized void interiors. Moreover, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm

  16. A Facile Multi-interface Transformation Approach to Monodisperse Multiple-Shelled Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Hollow Spheres.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhaogang; Su, Xiaodan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Guotao; Wang, Jiandong; Zhao, Dongyuan; Lu, Guangming

    2015-06-24

    The synthesis of well-defined and complex hollow structures via a simple method is still a major challenge. In this work, a facile and controllable "multi-interface transformation" approach for preparation of monodisperse multi-shelled periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) hollow spheres has been established by a one-step hydrothermal treatment of successively grown organosilica particles. The multi-shelled PMO hollow spheres have inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks, controllable number (1-4) of shells, high surface area (∼805 m(2)/g), accessible ordered mesochannels (∼3.2 nm), large pore volume (1.0 cm(3)/g), and uniform and tunable diameter (300-550 nm), chamber size (4-54 nm), and shell thickness (10-30 nm). In addition, various organic groups (alkyl, aromatic, and heteroelement fragments) are successfully incorporated into the multi-shelled PMO hollow spheres by successively adding different bridged organosilica precursors. Notably, the distribution of different kinds of organic groups in the multi-shelled PMO hollow spheres can be precisely controlled, showing great potential for future applications. We propose that the formation of the multi-shelled PMO hollow structures is ascribed to the creation of multiple highly cross-linked organosilica interfaces, providing a new and interesting fundamental principle for PMO materials. Due to their unique structure and frameworks, triple-shelled ethane-bridged PMO hollow spheres were successfully loaded with an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin and perfluoropentane gas, which present excellent effects in the killing of cancer cells and ultrasound imaging. It is expected that the multi-interface transformation strategy provides a simple, controllable, versatile, and template-free method for preparation of various multifunctional PMOs for different applications.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped Porous TiO2 Hollow Spheres and Their Photocatalytic and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Hui; Fu, Aiping; Wu, Guanglei; Xu, Man; Pang, Guangsheng; Guo, Peizhi; Liu, Jingquan; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2016-01-01

    Three kinds of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres with different N-doping contents, surface area, and pore size distributions were prepared based on a sol–gel synthesis and combined with a calcination process. Melamine formaldehyde (MF) microspheres have been used as sacrificial template and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was selected as pore-directing agent. Core–shell intermediate spheres of titania-coated MF with diameters of 1.2–1.6 μm were fabricated by varying the volume concentration of TiO2 precursor from 1 to 3 vol %. By calcining the core–shell composite spheres at 500 °C for 3 h in air, an in situ N-doping process occurred upon the decomposition of the MF template and CTAB or PVP pore-directing surfactant. N-doped mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres with sizes in the range of 0.4–1.2 μm and shell thickness from 40 to 110 nm were obtained. The composition and N-doping content, thermal stability, morphology, surface area and pore size distribution, wall thickness, photocatalytic activities, and optical properties of the mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres derived from different conditions were investigated and compared based on Fourier-transformation infrared (FTIR), SEM, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, and UV–vis spectrophotoscopy techniques. The influences of particle size, N-doping, porous, and hollow characteristics of the TiO2 hollow spheres on their photocatalytic activities and optical properties have been studied and discussed based on the composition analysis, structure characterization, and optical property investigation of these hollow spherical TiO2 matrices. PMID:28773967

  18. Direct electron transfer and electrochemical study of hemoglobin immobilized in ZnO hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhua; Xu, Jing; Wu, Zongfang

    2011-10-01

    ZnO hollow spheres were firstly prepared. A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping Hemoglobin (Hb) through the ZnO hollow spheres (ZHS) nanoparticles. The composition morphology and size were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The surface topography of the prepared films was imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry were employed to characterize the performance of the biosensor. The results indicated that the ZHS nanoparticles had enhanced the performance of the hydrogen peroxide sensors. The electrochemical parameters of Hb in the ZHS were calculated by the results of the electron-transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant K (s) as 0.5 and 3.1 s(-1), respectively. The resulting biosensors showed a wide linear range from 2.1 × 10(-6) to 5.18 × 10(-3) M, with a low detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-7) M (S/N = 3) under optimized experimental conditions. The results demonstrated that the ZHS matrix may improve the protein loading with the retention of bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its unique morphology, high specific surface area, and biocompatibility. The biosensor obtained from this study possesses high sensitivity, good reproducibility, and long-term stability.

  19. SiO2@YBO3:Eu3+ hollow mesoporous spheres for drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guixin; Gai, Shili; Qu, Fengyu; Yang, Piaoping

    2013-06-26

    A novel bifunctional (fluorescent, mesoporous) hollow sphere was prepared by coating luminescent YBO3:Eu(3+) nanoparticles onto uniform hollow mesoporous silica spheres (HMSs), derived from an etching strategy using spherical Fe3O4 as templates. The composites exhibit typical mesoporous shells, large interior space, high surface area, and well dispersed nanospheres with controlled size. In addition, the textural properties including the specific surface and pore volume can be easily altered by simply tuning of the spherical Fe3O4 cores. Upon ultraviolet (UV) excitation, the composite shows the characteristic (5)D0-(7)F1-4 red emission lines of Eu(3+) even after loading of the model drug. The composite with a large surface area and cavity was used as the host for loading the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). It is observed that the multifunctional composites exhibit an obvious sustained release property and released in texture- and pH-sensitive patterns. Particularly, the down-conversion (DC) fluorescence intensity of the bifunctional vehicle increases with the release of drug molecules, making it possible to track the position and the drug release amount of the drug carrier system and to detect them by the change of fluorescence intensity.

  20. Co-N-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Hollow Spheres as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feng; Yang, Hongchao; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Yejun; Lu, Huan; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-01-01

    Rational design of cost-effective, nonprecious metal-based catalysts with desirable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance is extremely important for future fuel cell commercialization, etc. Herein, a new type of ORR catalyst of Co-N-doped mesoporous carbon hollow sphere (Co-N-mC) was developed by pyrolysis from elaborately fabricated polystyrene@polydopamine-Co precursors. The obtained catalysts with active Co sites distributed in highly graphitized mesoporous N-doped carbon hollow spheres exhibited outstanding ORR activity with an onset potential of 0.940 V, a half-wave potential of 0.851 V, and a small Tafel slope of 45 mV decade(-1) in 0.1 m KOH solution, which was comparable to that of the Pt/C catalyst (20%, Alfa). More importantly, they showed superior durability with little current decline (less than 4%) in the chronoamperometric evaluation over 60 000 s. These features make the Co-N-mC one of the best nonprecious-metal catalysts to date for ORR in alkaline condition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Direct Fabrication of Monodisperse Silica Nanorings from Hollow Spheres - A Template for Core-Shell Nanorings.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kuo; Li, Jiaqi; Liu, Liwang; Brullot, Ward; Bloemen, Maarten; Volodin, Alexander; Song, Kai; Van Dorpe, Pol; Verellen, Niels; Clays, Koen

    2016-04-27

    We report a new type of nanosphere colloidal lithography to directly fabricate monodisperse silica (SiO2) nanorings by means of reactive ion etching of hollow SiO2 spheres. Detailed TEM, SEM, and AFM structural analysis is complemented by a model describing the geometrical transition from hollow sphere to ring during the etching process. The resulting silica nanorings can be readily redispersed in solution and subsequently serve as universal templates for the synthesis of ring-shaped core-shell nanostructures. As an example we used silica nanorings (with diameter of ∼200 nm) to create a novel plasmonic nanoparticle topology, a silica-Au core-shell nanoring, by self-assembly of Au nanoparticles (<20 nm) on the ring's surface. Spectroscopic measurements and finite difference time domain simulations reveal high quality factor multipolar and antibonding surface plasmon resonances in the near-infrared. By loading different types of nanoparticles on the silica core, hybrid and multifunctional composite nanoring structures could be realized for applications such as MRI contrast enhancement, catalysis, drug delivery, plasmonic and magnetic hyperthermia, photoacoustic imaging, and biochemical sensing.

  2. Mesoporous hollow carbon spheres for lithium–sulfur batteries: distribution of sulfur and electrochemical performance

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Anika C; Schneider, Artur; Ufer, Boris; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hollow carbon spheres (HCS) with a nanoporous shell are promising for the use in lithium–sulfur batteries because of the large internal void offering space for sulfur and polysulfide storage and confinement. However, there is an ongoing discussion whether the cavity is accessible for sulfur. Yet no valid proof of cavity filling has been presented, mostly due to application of unsuitable high-vacuum methods for the analysis of sulfur distribution. Here we describe the distribution of sulfur in hollow carbon spheres by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy along with results from scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The results of these methods lead to the conclusion that the cavity is not accessible for sulfur infiltration. Nevertheless, HCS/sulfur composite cathodes with areal sulfur loadings of 2.0 mg·cm−2 were investigated electrochemically, showing stable cycling performance with specific capacities of about 500 mAh·g−1 based on the mass of sulfur over 500 cycles. PMID:27826497

  3. Mesoporous hollow carbon spheres for lithium-sulfur batteries: distribution of sulfur and electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Juhl, Anika C; Schneider, Artur; Ufer, Boris; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen; Fröba, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hollow carbon spheres (HCS) with a nanoporous shell are promising for the use in lithium-sulfur batteries because of the large internal void offering space for sulfur and polysulfide storage and confinement. However, there is an ongoing discussion whether the cavity is accessible for sulfur. Yet no valid proof of cavity filling has been presented, mostly due to application of unsuitable high-vacuum methods for the analysis of sulfur distribution. Here we describe the distribution of sulfur in hollow carbon spheres by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy along with results from scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The results of these methods lead to the conclusion that the cavity is not accessible for sulfur infiltration. Nevertheless, HCS/sulfur composite cathodes with areal sulfur loadings of 2.0 mg·cm(-2) were investigated electrochemically, showing stable cycling performance with specific capacities of about 500 mAh·g(-1) based on the mass of sulfur over 500 cycles.

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method.

    PubMed

    Gopi, D; Indira, J; Kavitha, L; Sekar, M; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2012-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology.

  5. Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres as advanced material for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Hamid; Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim; Elyasi, Saeed; Shahraki, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Due to unique advantages, the development of high-performance supercapacitors has stimulated a great deal of scientific research over the past decade. The electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor is strongly affected by the surface and structural properties of its electrode materials. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-performance supercapacitor electrode material based on CuS nano-hollow spheres with nanoporous structures, large specific surface area (97 m2 g-1) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and facilitated ion transport. The CuS nano-hollow spheres electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance including a maximum specific capacitance of 948 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, significant rate capability of 46% capacitance retention at a high current density of 50 A g-1, and outstanding long-term cycling stability at various current densities. This work not only demonstrates the promising potential of the CuS-NHS electrodes for application in high-performance supercapacitors, but also sheds a new light on the metal sulfides design philosophy.

  6. The influence of size and charge of chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres on cellular internalization, viability and blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Dash, Biraja C; Réthoré, Gildas; Monaghan, Michael; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Gallagher, William; Pandit, Abhay

    2010-11-01

    Polymeric hollow spheres can be tailored as efficient carriers of various therapeutic molecules due to their tunable properties. However, the entry of these synthetic vehicles into cells, their cell viability and blood compatibility depend on their physical and chemical properties e.g. size, surface charge. Herein, we report the effect of size and surface charge on cell viability and cellular internalization behaviour and their effect on various blood components using chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres as a model system. Negatively charged chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres of various sizes 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nm were fabricated using a template based method and covalently surface modified using linear polyethylene glycol and methoxyethanol amine to create a gradient of surface charge from negative to neutrally charged spheres respectively. The results here suggest that both size and surface charge have a significant influence on the sphere's behaviour, most prominently on haemolysis, platelet activation, plasma recalcification time, cell viability and internalization over time. Additionally, cellular internalization behaviour and viability was found to vary with different cell types. These results are in agreement with those of inorganic spheres and liposomes, and can serve as guidelines for tailoring polymeric solid spheres for specific desired applications in biological and pharmaceutical fields, including the design of nanometer to submicron-sized delivery vehicles.

  7. Uniform hollow Lu2O3:Ln (Ln = Eu3+, Tb3+) spheres: facile synthesis and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Piaoping; Gai, Shili; Liu, Yanchao; Wang, Wenxin; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2011-03-21

    Uniform hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln (Ln = Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) phosphors have been successfully prepared via a urea-assisted homogeneous precipitation method using carbon spheres as templates, followed by a subsequent calcination process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, kinetic decays, quantum yields (QY), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were employed to characterize the samples. The results show that hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln spheres can be indexed to cubic Gd(2)O(3) phase with high purity. The as-prepared hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln phosphors are confirmed to be uniform in shape and size with diameter of about 300 nm and shell thickness of approximate 20 nm. The possible formation mechanism of evolution from the carbon spheres to the amorphous precursor and to the final hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln microspheres has been proposed. Upon ultraviolet (UV) and low-voltage electron beams excitation, the hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln (Ln = Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) spheres exhibit bright red (Eu(3+), (5)D(0)-(7)F(2)) and green (Tb(3+), (5)D(4)-(7)F(5)) luminescence, which may find potential applications in the fields of color display and biomedicine.

  8. Graphitic Carbon Conformal Coating of Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Shen, Dengke; Zhao, Dongyuan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-10-14

    Rational design and controllable synthesis of TiO2 based materials with unique microstructure, high reactivity, and excellent electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries are crucially desired. In this paper, we developed a versatile route to synthesize hollow TiO2/graphitic carbon (H-TiO2/GC) spheres with superior electrochemical performance. The as-prepared mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres present a high specific surface area (298 m(2) g(-1)), a high pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), a large pore size (∼5 nm), well-defined hollow structure (monodispersed size of 600 nm and inner diameter of ∼400 nm, shell thickness of 100 nm), and small nanocrystals of anatase TiO2 (∼8 nm) conformably encapsulated in ultrathin graphitic carbon layers. As a result, the H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres achieve excellent electrochemical reactivity and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of 137 mAh g(-1) can be achieved up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) (5 C). We believe that the mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres are expected to be applied as a high-performance electrode material for next generation lithium ion batteries.

  9. Highly uniform hollow GdF3 spheres: controllable synthesis, tuned luminescence, and drug-release properties.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruichan; Gai, Shili; Dai, Yunlu; Niu, Na; He, Fei; Yang, Piaoping

    2013-11-13

    In this paper, uniform hollow mesoporous GdF3 micro/nanospheres were successfully prepared by a facile two-step synthesis route without using any surfactant, catalyst, and further calcination process. The precursor Gd(OH)CO3 spheres are prepared by a coprecipitation process. After that, uniform and size-tunable GdF3 hollow spheres were easily coprecipitated with NaBF4 at the sacrifice of the precursor with low temperature and short reaction time. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the as-obtained products. It is found that the initial pH value and NaBF4/Gd(3+) molar ratios play important roles in the structures, sizes, and phases of the hollow products. The growth mechanism of the hollow spheres has been systematically investigated based on the Kirkendall effect. Under 980 nm IR laser excitation, UC luminescence of the as-prepared Yb(3+)/Er(3+)-codoped GdF3 hollow spheres can be changed by a simple adjustment of the concentration of the Yb(3+) ion. Enhanced red emission is obtained by introducing Li(+) ions in GdF3:Yb(3+)/Er(3+). Furthermore, a doxorubicin release experiment and a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay reveal that the product has potential application in drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy.

  10. Synthesis and enhanced visible-light responsive of C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxia; Fu, Degang; Hao, Lingyun; Ding, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres (labeled as C,N,S-THs) were synthesized using carbon spheres as template and C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 nanoparticles as building blocks. The structure and physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL). The results showed that the hollow spheres had average diameter of about 200 nm and the shell thickness was about 20 nm. The tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres exhibited strong absorption in the visible-light region. C,N,S-tridoped could narrow the band gap of the THs by mixing the orbit O 2p with C 2p, N 2p and S 3p orbits and shift its optical response from ultraviolet (UV) to the visible-light region. PL analysis indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate of TiO2 hollow spheres had been effectively inhibited when doped with C, N and S elements. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated for the degradation of X-3B (Reactive Brilliant Red dye, C.I. Reactive Red 2) aqueous solution under visible-light (lambda > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that the C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres indicated higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 and the undoped counterpart photocatalyst.

  11. Morphological changes from silica tubules to hollow spheres controlled by the intermolecular interactions within block copolymer micelle templates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyemin; Char, Kookheon

    2009-04-01

    The morphological changes from tubules to large hollow spheres to (micelle-sized) small hollow-spherical silica were realized by polystyrene-block-poly(vinylpyridine) (PS-b-PVP) block copolymer micelle templates by controlling the intermolecular interactions with the corona chains. PS-b-PVP with weak intermolecular interactions among PVP corona chains yields the coexistence of tubules, large hollow spheres, and small hollow spheres. The coexistence of the three phases arises from the direct aggregation of block copolymer micelles during hydrolytic condensation of a silica precursor (tetraethylorthosilicate), as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. When the degree of intermolecular interactions within the PVP corona blocks is increased by a change in either the degree of quaternization of the PVP blocks or the dielectric constant of the medium, small hollow spherical silica, with size equivalent to the block copolymer micelles, were solely obtained. We believe that this morphological change is due to the fact that the dipole-dipole interactions among quaternized PVP blocks physically cross-link the PVP coronas in micelles resisting the curvature change during the silica condensation.

  12. Preparation and electrochemical characteristics of porous hollow spheres of NiO nanosheets as electrodes of supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Jiang, Xinbing; Ding, Shujiang; Li, Ben Q.

    2014-06-01

    Porous hollow nanospheres (or spherical shells) made of NiO nanosheets are synthesized and tested for the electrochemical performance of the electrodes made of these materials for supercapacitors. Preparation of the NiO sheet hollow spheres starts with synthesis of polystyrene nanospheres with carboxyl groups (CPS), followed by a two-step activation procedure and the subsequent nucleation and growth by electroless deposition of Ni on the CPS core to obtain CPS@Ni core-shell nanoparticles. The CPS core is eliminated and metallic Ni nanoshell is converted into NiO by calcinations at high temperatures. The material properties of as-prepared hollow NiO nanospheres are characterized by TEM, XRD and N2-absorption measurements. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes made of these nanostructured NiO materials are determined by the CV and galvanostatic measurements. These electrochemical tests indicate that electrodes made of the NiO nanosheet hollow spheres exhibit an improved reversible capacitance of 600 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g-1. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance of these electrodes is attributed to the improved OH- transport in the porous network structures associated with the hollow spheres of randomly oriented NiO nanosheets.

  13. Facile synthesis and microwave absorbability of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere and multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hongjing; Wu, Guanglei; Wu, Qiaofeng; Wang, Liuding

    2014-11-15

    We reported the preparation of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid spheres or multi-shelled NiO hollow spheres by combining a facile hydrothermal route with a calcination process in H{sub 2} or air atmosphere, respectively. The synthesized C@Ni–NiO core–shell solid spheres with diameters of approximately 2–6 μm were in fact built from dense NiO nanoparticles coated by random two-dimensional metal Ni nanosheets without any visible pores. The multi-shelled NiO hollow spheres were built from particle-like ligaments and there are a lot of pores with size of several nanometers on the surface. Combined Raman spectra with X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), it suggested that the defects in the samples play a limited role in the dielectric loss. Compared with the other samples, the permeability of the samples calcined in H{sub 2} and air was increased slightly and the natural resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency (7, 11 and 14 GHz, respectively), leading to an enhancement of microwave absorption property. For the sample calcined in H{sub 2}, an optimal reflection loss less than − 10 was obtained at 7 GHz with a matching thickness of 5.0 mm. Our study demonstrated the potential application of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere or multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere as a more efficient electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber. - Highlights: • C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere was synthesized by a facile method. • Multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere was synthesized by a facile method. • It suggested that the defects in the samples play a limited role in dielectric loss. • The permeability of the samples calcined in H{sub 2} and air was increased. • Microwave absorbability of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere was investigated.

  14. Hierarchical flower-like Co₃-xFexO₄ ferrite hollow spheres: facile synthesis and catalysis in the degradation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Shunhao; Lu, Baoping; Ke, Xi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin

    2013-04-07

    A facile method is proposed for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Co3-xFexO4 ferrite (CF) hollow spheres, using SiO2@FeOOH as precursor. The CF hollow spheres are efficient for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C. The obtained CF hollow spheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The formation of 3D hierarchical flower-like superstructure was influenced by the relative amount of urea used. As the mole ratio of CoCl2 and urea decreased, the structure of the products was tailored from yolk-like spheres to hollow spheres with different sized void interiors. Moreover, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis showed that the CF hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (163 m(2) g(-1)) which provided more activity sites. The CF hollow spheres can catalyze the oxidation of MB efficiently. These results indicate that the designed CF hollow spheres exhibit promising capability for the degradation of dyes.

  15. Hierarchical assembly of collagen peptide triple helices into curved disks and metal ion-promoted hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, David E; Rubert Pérez, Charles M; Gleaton, Jeremy; Nandwana, Vikas; Chmielewski, Jean

    2013-03-06

    A 27 amino acid collagen-based peptide (Hbyp3) was designed to radially display nine hydrophobic bipyridine moieties from a triple helical scaffold. Self-assembly of such functionalized triple helices led to the formation of micrometer-scaled disks with a curved morphology, presumably mediated by aromatic interactions, with a height that is in the range of the length of the triple helical peptide. Higher order assembly of these curved disks into micrometer-sized hollow spheres was accomplished through metal-ligand interactions between bipyridine groups of the disks and metal ions such as Fe(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II). The thickness of the shell of these hollow spheres corresponds well with the thickness of the collagen peptide-based triple helix and the corresponding self-assembled disks. Addition of a metal ion chelator was found to reverse the assembly of the hollow spheres back to the curved disk structures. These data support the formation of the hollow spheres from the self-assembled disks of Hbyp3 upon addition of metal ions.

  16. Facile synthesis of novel bowl-like hollow carbon spheres by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qin, Mingli; Jia, Baorui; Zhang, Hongzhou; Wu, Haoyang; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-03-07

    For the first time, bowl-like hollow carbon spheres (BHCSs) have been designed and fabricated by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating. The obtained BHCSs exhibit well-defined shapes with the size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. As electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitors they showed good performance.

  17. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li Siheng; Wang Enbo Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag(MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag(C) microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe{sup 3+} and M{sup 2+} on the surface of the Ag(C) spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core. - Graphical abstract: MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn) hollow spheres with a noble metal nanoparticle core were successfully prepared by using colloidal metal(C) core-shell spheres as templates with no need of surface modification. The shell thickness and magnetic properties of the ferrite hollow spheres could be controlled by varying the synthetic parameters.

  18. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Chen; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Gao, Hongjun; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  19. A green chemical approach to the synthesis of photoluminescent ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Tudose, Madalina; Calderón-Moreno, Jose Maria; Birjega, Ruxandra; Budrugeac, Petru; Ene, Ramona; Carp, Oana

    2012-02-01

    ZnO hollow spheres have been synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly template assisted route. Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres were used as template, impregnated with Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O to obtain zinc-containing precursor spheres and thermally treatment at 600 °C, yielding hollow ZnO spherical shells. The precursor spheres and hollow shells were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The hollow spherical shells with diameters of ∼150 nm and wall thickness of ∼20 nm, are polycrystalline, with a mean crystallite size of 22 nm, exhibiting interesting emission features, with a wide multi-peak band covering blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. The photocatalytic activities (under UV and visible light irradiations) of the ZnO spherical shells evaluated for the phenol degradation reaction in aqueous solutions are outstanding, a total phenol conversion being registered in the case of UV irradiation experiments.

  20. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO hollow spheres and their application in Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Qi, Limin

    2012-06-15

    A rapid one-pot synthesis of hierarchical ZnO hollow spheres consisting of nanoparticles was realized by a facile microwave-assisted solvothermal method using ethanol as the solvent. According to the time-dependent observation of the formation process, a tentative mechanism based on ethyl acetate bubble-templating self-assembly of ZnO nanoparticles was proposed for the formation of the ZnO hollow spheres. Compared with the conventional heating, the microwave irradiation resulted in a significantly shortened reaction time (within 30 min) and considerably improved quality of the ZnO hollow spheres, such as narrower size distribution and more regular morphology, owing to the high heating rate and thus the accelerated reaction rate. It was shown that the microwave-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanostructures with tunable morphologies can be realized by judicious selection of appropriate solvents. The obtained ZnO hollow spheres exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity towards Cr(VI) ions in water because of their high surface area for adsorption and a good ability to preserve the accessible surface.

  1. MOF-derived hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Chang; Liu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Minmin; Tao, Kai; Zhu, Shuai-Ru; Wu, Meng-Ke; Yi, Fei-Yan; Han, Lei

    2016-09-14

    Nanorods-composed yolk-shell bimetallic-organic frameworks microspheres are successfully synthesized by a one-step solvothermal method in the absence of any template or surfactant. Furthermore, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres are obtained by calcination of the bimetallic organic frameworks in air. The NiO/ZnO hollow spheres, as supercapacitor electrodes, exhibit high capacitance of 497 F g(-1) at the current density of 1.3 A g(-1) and present a superior cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performance is believed to come from the unique double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow structures, which offer free space to accommodate the volume change during the ion insertion and desertion processes, as well as provide rich electroactive sites for the electrochemical reactions.

  2. Degradation of acid scarlet 3R with CuO/SiO2 hollow sphere catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Zhong, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, K.; Hua, D. X.

    2015-07-01

    Silica-supported copper catalyst materials have been synthesized via an incipient wetness impregnation. The resulting samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of reactive azo dye solutions by this catalyst was also investigated. The effects of various operating conditions on decolorization performance were evaluated, namely hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial pH, catalyst loading and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that by using 34 mmol/L of H2O2 and 6.0 g L-1 of the catalyst at 60°C, pH 3.5, 97% of decolorization efficiency was achieved within 90 min. CuO/SiO2 hollow sphere is shown a promising catalyst for degradation of azo dye aqueous solution by Fenton-like processes.

  3. Porous hollow carbon spheres for electrode material of supercapacitors and support material of dendritic Pt electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang; Liu, Pei-Fang; Huang, Zhong-Yuan; Jiang, Tong-Wu; Yao, Kai-Li; Han, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Porous hollow carbon spheres (PHCSs) are prepared through hydrothermal carbonization of alginic acid and subsequent chemical activation by KOH. The porosity of the alginic acid derived PHCSs can be finely modulated by varying activation temperature in the range of 600-900 °C. The PHCSs activated at 900 °C possess the largest specific surface area (2421 m2 g-1), well-balanced micro- and mesoporosity, as well as high content of oxygen-containing functional groups. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, the PHCSs exhibit superior capacitive performance with specific capacitance of 314 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1. Pt nanodendrites supported on the PHCSs are synthesized by polyol reduction method which exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Moreover, CO-poisoning tolerance of the Pt nanodendrites is greatly enhanced owing to the surface chemical property of the PHCSs support.

  4. Reflected wavefronts modulation with acoustic metasurface based on double-split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Changlin; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Shen, Fangliang

    2015-08-01

    Metasurfaces with sub-wavelength thickness and planar profile have exhibited abnormal manipulation to waves that could not be realized by traditional materials. Here, we present an acoustic metasurface (AMS) model composed of double-split hollow sphere (DSHS) resonator arrays with the functionality of modulating reflected wavefronts at will. By tailoring the split-hole diameter of DSHS, the AMS can be designed to cover 2 π phase shifts with a step of π/4. The acoustic waves perpendicularly and obliquely incident on the AMS can be reflected at any angle, including anomalous reflection and negative reflection. These anomalous manipulations of the reflected wave are simulated to fulfill the generalized Snell's law by projecting suitable phase gradient. Such AMS provides another path to acoustic applications such as acoustic imaging, cloaking, beam steering devices.

  5. Experimental realization of acoustic metasurface with double-split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chang-Lin; Wang, Zhen-Ru; Shen, Fang-Liang; Chen, Huai-Jun; Zhai, Shi-Long; Zhao, Xiao-Peng

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally present an acoustic metasurface (AMS) with sub-wavelength thickness based on the meta-molecule consisting of eight different sized double-split hollow spheres (DSHSs). By designing the discontinuous phase profile covered 2π span induced by the DSHSs, the AMS can manipulate the reflected acoustic waves in a way that could not be imitated by natural materials. Both simulations and experiments show that the AMS can realize anomalous reflection, i.e., a normal incident wave can be reflected into an oblique direction. Moreover, the reflection angle can be flexible controlled by mechanically tuning the spatial distance of the DSHSs in the AMS, which is consistent with the generalized Snell's law.

  6. Facile one-pot synthesis of uniform TiO2-Ag hybrid hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunli; Qian, Huanhuan; Hu, Yong; Dai, Wei; Zhong, Yijun; Chen, Jiafu; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-28

    TiO(2)-Ag hybrid hollow spheres (about 700 nm in diameter) with a highly uniform morphology and good structural stability were facilely prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal method, using carbon spheres as templates followed by an annealing treatment. Through this route, the as-prepared hybrid hollow spheres preserved the uniformity of the initial carbon sphere templates and the loading amount of the Ag nanocrystals can be conveniently varied or controlled by the concentration of the Ag precursor. The investigation of the photocatalytic ability demonstrated that the as-prepared TiO(2)-Ag hybrid hollow spheres possess excellent photocatalytic activity, superior to commercial TiO(2) nanoparticles (Degussa P25), for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes under visible-light illumination. Furthermore, the ˙OH radicals formed during photocatalysis with different Ag content hybrids were revealed by means of a terephthalic acid fluorescence probe method, which uncovers that the Ag content in the TiO(2)-Ag hybrids was crucial to obtain an optimal synergistic effect between the Ag and TiO(2) for the degradation of organic pollutants. Accordingly, the optimum matching for the best photocatalytic activity was investigated thoroughly and a reasonable mechanism was also proposed.

  7. Synthesis of novel tantalum oxide sub-micrometer hollow spheres with tailored shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mukesh; Pich, Andrij; Gupta, Smrati; Zafeiropoulos, Nikolaos E; Simon, Paul; Stamm, Manfred

    2008-02-05

    Sub-micrometer-sized hollow tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) spheres with tunable shell thickness and void size have been fabricated exploiting beta-diketone-functionalized polystyrene (PS) beads as sacrificial templates in a sol-gel process. First, a controlled precipitation of Ta2O5 nanoparticles was carried out on the template surface by hydrolyzing tantalum ethoxide (Ta(OEt)5) at room temperature, and subsequently, the polymer core was removed either via chemical treatment with toluene or calcination at 650 degrees C. The thickness of the tantala shell precipitated on the PS core during the coating process was tuned between 100 and 142 nm by varying the concentration of tantala precursor in the reaction media. The obtained Ta2O5-coated PS particles and hollow microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Due to the unique optical and dielectric properties, these nanostructured materials are envisaged to be used in applications such as novel building blocks for the fabrication of advanced materials, surface coatings, catalysts, and drug delivery systems.

  8. Limit analysis of hollow spheres or spheroids with Hill orthotropic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Franck; Pastor, Joseph; Kondo, Djimedo

    2012-03-01

    Recent theoretical studies of the literature are concerned by the hollow sphere or spheroid (confocal) problems with orthotropic Hill type matrix. They have been developed in the framework of the limit analysis kinematical approach by using very simple trial velocity fields. The present Note provides, through numerical upper and lower bounds, a rigorous assessment of the approximate criteria derived in these theoretical works. To this end, existing static 3D codes for a von Mises matrix have been easily extended to the orthotropic case. Conversely, instead of the non-obvious extension of the existing kinematic codes, a new original mixed approach has been elaborated on the basis of the plane strain structure formulation earlier developed by F. Pastor (2007). Indeed, such a formulation does not need the expressions of the unit dissipated powers. Interestingly, it delivers a numerical code better conditioned and notably more rapid than the previous one, while preserving the rigorous upper bound character of the corresponding numerical results. The efficiency of the whole approach is first demonstrated through comparisons of the results to the analytical upper bounds of Benzerga and Besson (2001) or Monchiet et al. (2008) in the case of spherical voids in the Hill matrix. Moreover, we provide upper and lower bounds results for the hollow spheroid with the Hill matrix which are compared to those of Monchiet et al. (2008).

  9. Phase transformation in Mn-doped titania hollow spheres and their biocompatibility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Himani; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Mahto, Madhusudan Kr.; Pathak, Amita

    2015-11-01

    Mn-doped titania hollow nanospheres were prepared via sacrificial core templating method at room temperature, using carbon spheres as the sacrificial core and template. X-ray diffraction and thermal studies showed the phase transformation of titania from anatase to rutile at temperature as low as 550 °C, when the dopant (i.e., Mn) concentration was increased from 1 to 6 mol % (with respect to Ti). Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic studies have been carried out to determine the surface functional groups, while the spherical and hollow morphology of the titania nanostructures have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopic as well as transmission electron microscopic studies. The chemical composition of the samples has been determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, while their magnetic properties have been studied using superconducting quantum interference device analysis. The biocompatibility and suitability of the nanospheres for intracellular applications has been tested through conventional MTT assay using MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cell lines.

  10. Hollow glass waveguide for mid-infrared applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabii, Christopher Daniel

    This study is an effort to characterize the optical and mechanical properties of hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) with inner metallic and dielectric layers. The theoretical base behind the light-guiding principle of a hollow metallic waveguide has been extended to address the optical properties of dielectric-coated hollow metallic waveguides in both straight and bent configurations. The dependencies of attenuation on bore- size, bend radius, and transmitted mode are predicted by this analysis. HGWs with silver metallic layers and silver iodide dielectric films have been fabricated in bore sizes ranging from 250 /mu m to 1000 /mu m. The spectral response has been measured, and can be arbitrarily tailored lo show minimum loss at any wavelength between 2 and 11 /mu m. Spectroscopic analysis has been used to determine the uniformity and thickness variation in the dielectric layer. Process modifications have reduced this variation from 14% to approximately 1%. The effect of laser coupling condition has been modeled, and optimum coupling occurs for spot-size to bore-size ratios between 0.55 and 0.64. These theoretical predictions have been verified using laser loss measurements on 530, 700 and 1000 /mu m bore waveguides, with the largest bore showing the least sensitivity to launch condition. Continuous CO2 laser power has been transmitted through HGWs with 250, 320, 530, and 700 /mu m bore. The 250 and 320 /mu m sizes transmitted 35 and 50 W of input power respectively, while both larger sizes successfully transmitted 85 W. Similarly, the larger scores showed the ability to transmit high pulsed energy, up to 80 J. Laser loss has been shown to be sensitive to input laser beam quality, with most sensitivity observed for small bore waveguides. The preservation of low loss and spatial purity has been achieved by increasing the wall thickness of the substrate tubing. Losses above the theoretically predicted minimum values have been attributed to scattering from film roughness

  11. Micelles driven magnetite (Fe3O4) hollow spheres and a study on AC magnetic properties for hyperthermia application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Madhuri Mandal; Dey, Chaitali; Bandyopadhyay, Ayan; Sarkar, Debasish; Ahir, Manisha

    2016-11-01

    Here we have discussed about designing the magnetic particles for hyperthermia therapy and done some studies in this direction. We have used oleylamine micelles as template to synthesize hollow-nanospheres (HNS) of magnetite by solvo-thermal technique. We have shown that oleylamine plays an important role to generate hollow particles. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM was performed to confirm the shape and size of hollow sphere particles. The detail magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these HNS for magnetic heating in hyperthermia therapy. In vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal that tolerable dose rate for these particles can be significantly high and particles are non-toxic in nature. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, drug release, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc.

  12. Exact 3D elasticity solution for free vibrations of an eccentric hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Mirzaei, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    An exact three-dimensional elastodynamic analysis for describing the natural oscillations of a freely suspended, isotropic, and homogeneous elastic sphere with an eccentrically located inner spherical cavity is developed. The translational addition theorem for spherical vector wave functions is employed to impose the zero traction boundary conditions, leading to frequency equations in the form of exact determinantal equations involving spherical Bessel functions and Wigner 3j symbols. Extensive numerical calculations have been carried out for the first five clusters of eigenfrequencies associated with both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric spheroidal as well as toroidal oscillation modes for selected inner-outer radii ratios in a wide range of cavity eccentricities. Also, the corresponding three-dimensional deformed mode shapes are illustrated in vivid graphical forms for selected eccentricities. The numerical results describe the imperative influence of cavity eccentricity, mode type, and radii ratio on the vibrational characteristics of the hollow sphere. The existence of "multiple degeneracies" and the trigger of "frequency splitting" are demonstrated and discussed. The accuracy of solution is checked through appropriate convergence studies, and the validity of results is established with the aid of a commercial finite element package as well as by comparison with the data in the existing literature.

  13. A Hollow Sphere Soft Lithography Approach for Long-Term Hanging Drop Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Gu; Ortmann, Daniel; Hancock, Matthew J.; Bae, Hojae

    2010-01-01

    In conventional hanging drop (HD) methods, embryonic stem cell aggregates or embryoid bodies (EBs) are often maintained in small inverted droplets. Gravity limits the volumes of these droplets to less than 50 μL, and hence such cell cultures can only be sustained for a few days without frequent media changes. Here we present a new approach to performing long-term HD methods (10–15 days) that can provide larger media reservoirs in a HD format to maintain more consistent culture media conditions. To implement this approach, we fabricated hollow sphere (HS) structures by injecting liquid drops into noncured poly(dimethylsiloxane) mixtures. These structures served as cell culture chambers with large media volumes (500 μL in each sphere) where EBs could grow without media depletion. The results showed that the sizes of the EBs cultured in the HS structures in a long-term HD format were approximately twice those of conventional HD methods after 10 days in culture. Further, HS cultures showed multilineage differentiation, similar to EBs cultured in the HD method. Due to its ease of fabrication and enhanced features, this approach may be of potential benefit as a stem cell culture method for regenerative medicine. PMID:19505251

  14. Influence of TiO2 hollow sphere size on its photo-reduction activity for toxic Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiabai; Wu, Xueqing; Zheng, Fengying; Li, Shunxing; Wu, Yaling; Lin, Yanping; Lin, Liting; Liu, Biwen; Chen, Qiaoying; Lin, Luxiu

    2017-03-15

    After polystyrene@titanium dioxide (PS@TiO2) composite with different size was calcined at designated temperature, TiO2 hollow sphere with controllable size was obtained for high efficient photo-reduction of Cr(VI). The feature of the TiO2 hollow sphere was investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis, and photoluminescence. The photo-reduction of Cr(VI) were measured for the performance assessment of the TiO2 hollow sphere, Cr(VI) was used as an electron acceptor. After irradiation for 2h, the photo-reduction rate of Cr(VI) (pH=2.82) for TiO2(450nm) was 96%, which exhibited an increase of 5% and 8% compared with TiO2(370nm) and TiO2(600nm). The absorption edges of TiO2 hollow sphere (450nm) was largest with the increasing of hollow sphere size from 370 to 600nm. The optimal hollow sphere size of TiO2 was 450nm for the photo-reduction of Cr(VI), because the light-harvesting efficiency (the best of absorption edge) and photo-generated electron-hole separation rate (the best of photo-reduction rate) of TiO2 hollow sphere were controlled by its hollow sphere size. In addition, we find that the behavior of the hydrogen production was inhibited by the coexistence Cr(VI) solution. This study can improve our understanding of the mechanism for the activity enhancement by the optimal hollow sphere size of TiO2.

  15. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Umegaki, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Takato; Xu, Qiang; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Ti + Ni content. • The activity depends on the amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres. - Abstract: The present work reports influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}). The as-prepared hollow titania–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalytic activities of the hollow spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution improve with the decrease of Ti + Ni content. From the results of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis, the amount of residual polystyrene (PS) templates is able to be reduced by increasing aging time for the preparation, and the catalytic activity of the hollow spheres increases when the amount of residual PS templates decreases. The carbon content in the hollow spheres prepared with aging time = 24 h is 17.3 wt.%, and the evolution of 62 mL hydrogen is finished in about 22 min in the presence of the hollow spheres from aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution. The molar ratio of the hydrolytically generated hydrogen to the initial NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} in the presence of the hollow spheres is 2.7.

  16. Avalanches mediate crystallization in a hard-sphere glass.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Eduardo; Valeriani, Chantal; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K; Cates, Michael E; Pusey, Peter N

    2014-01-07

    By molecular-dynamics simulations, we have studied the devitrification (or crystallization) of aged hard-sphere glasses. First, we find that the dynamics of the particles are intermittent: Quiescent periods, when the particles simply "rattle" in their nearest-neighbor cages, are interrupted by abrupt "avalanches," where a subset of particles undergo large rearrangements. Second, we find that crystallization is associated with these avalanches but that the connection is not straightforward. The amount of crystal in the system increases during an avalanche, but most of the particles that become crystalline are different from those involved in the avalanche. Third, the occurrence of the avalanches is a largely stochastic process. Randomizing the velocities of the particles at any time during the simulation leads to a different subsequent series of avalanches. The spatial distribution of avalanching particles appears random, although correlations are found among avalanche initiation events. By contrast, we find that crystallization tends to take place in regions that already show incipient local order.

  17. Facile Au catalyst loading on the inner shell of hollow SnO2 spheres using Au-decorated block copolymer sphere templates and their selective H2S sensing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Minsoo P.; Lee, Seo-Jin; Kim, Bumjoon J.; Kim, Il-Doo

    2014-09-01

    Hollow SnO2 spheres functionalized by Au catalysts were synthesized via the use of Au-decorated block copolymer (Au-BCP) sphere templates. Uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles on BCP spheres were prepared by the infiltration of Au precursors into polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) spheres. A thin SnO2 layer was coated on the Au-BCP spheres using RF sputtering at room temperature without morphological deformation of the spheres. The Au nanoparticles were uniformly transferred from the Au-BCP spheres to the inner shells of the hollow SnO2 spheres followed by decomposition of BCP spheres. The Au-loaded hollow SnO2 spheres exhibited a superior H2S sensitivity (Rair/Rgas = 17.4 at 5 ppm) with remarkably selective characteristics with a minor response (Rair/Rgas < 2.5 at 5 ppm) toward other interfering gases. Our results pave the way for a new catalyst loading method using Au-BCP spheres for the uniformly distributed Au NPs on the SnO2 layers.Hollow SnO2 spheres functionalized by Au catalysts were synthesized via the use of Au-decorated block copolymer (Au-BCP) sphere templates. Uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles on BCP spheres were prepared by the infiltration of Au precursors into polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) spheres. A thin SnO2 layer was coated on the Au-BCP spheres using RF sputtering at room temperature without morphological deformation of the spheres. The Au nanoparticles were uniformly transferred from the Au-BCP spheres to the inner shells of the hollow SnO2 spheres followed by decomposition of BCP spheres. The Au-loaded hollow SnO2 spheres exhibited a superior H2S sensitivity (Rair/Rgas = 17.4 at 5 ppm) with remarkably selective characteristics with a minor response (Rair/Rgas < 2.5 at 5 ppm) toward other interfering gases. Our results pave the way for a new catalyst loading method using Au-BCP spheres for the uniformly distributed Au NPs on the SnO2 layers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hollow alpha-Fe2O3 spheres with carbon coating for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhijia; Zhang, Shichao; Zhao, Jianfeng; Wu, Xiaomeng; Lin, Ruoxu

    2013-05-01

    Carbon coated hollow alpha-Fe2O3 spheres were prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The appearance and crystalline structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology showed that the hollow spheres were composed of well crystallized nanoparticles after the first hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcinations. A thin carbon film was coated on each Fe2O3 nanoparticles after the second hydrothermal procedure. This carbon coating was probably beneficial to maintain the microstructure of the active material during repeatable lithiation and delithiation. Afterwards, the samples were assembled into half-cells to investigate the electrochemical properties. The electrode delivered relatively high initial discharge/charge capacities of 1291/890 mA h g(-1) at the rate of 0.3 C. The reversible capacity maintained very well in a prolonged 140 cycles. The capacity retention was 89% after 70 cycles, and that was 81% after 140 cycles. This exceptional lithium storage property was probably attributed to the porous and hollow structure which allowed the penetration of electrolyte to the inner of the electrode, the nanoscale Fe2O3 particles which shortened the migration pathway for lithium ion, and the carbon coating which kept the active materials structure intact. The attractive electrochemical performance suggested the carbon coated hollow Fe2O3 spheres would be the potential anode material for future lithium ion battery.

  19. Controllable synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres using ionic liquids as template for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aibing; Li, Yunqian; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Xia, Kechan; Wang, Yuying; Li, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and controllable synthesis of monodispersed nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres (N-HMCSs) using resorcinol/formaldehyde resin as a carbon precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a structure-assistant agent, ionic liquids (ILs) as soft template, partial carbon sources, and nitrogen sources. The sizes and the architectures including hollow and yolk-shell of resultant carbon spheres can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the content of ILs. Alkyl chain length of the ILs also has an important effect on the formation of N-HMCSs. With proper alkyl chain length and content of ILs, the resultant N-HMCSs show monodispersed hollow spheres with high surface areas (up to 1158 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (up to 1.70 cm3 g-1), and uniform mesopore size (5.0 nm). Combining the hollow mesoporous structure, high porosity, large surface area, and nitrogen functionality, the as-synthesized N-HMCSs have good supercapacitor performance with good capacitance (up to 159 F g-1) and favorable capacitance retention (88% capacitive retention after 5000 cycles).

  20. Polymeric hollow spheres assembled from ALG-g-PNIPAM and β-cyclodextrin for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Yu, Nana; Gao, Yurong; Tao, Qian; Liu, Xunyong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, thermo-sensitive polymeric hollow spheres assembled from sodium alginate-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (ALG-g-PNIPAM) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared for controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In aqueous solutions, β-CD and PNIPAM formed rod-like segments through inclusion complexation interactions and sodium alginate acted as coil segments, which resulted in the formation of hollow structures. The size and wall thickness of assemblies increased with the increase of β-CD in mixtures. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of hollow spheres varied in the range of 35-37°C. The hollow spheres exhibited high drug loading efficiency for 5-FU due to the hydrophilic cavities. The initial composition of mixtures, temperature and pH had a significant effect on the inclusion ability and drug release. Increasing temperatures above the LCST or decreasing pH to acidic conditions, a more rapid release rate was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Double-shelled plasmonic Ag-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres toward visible light-active photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into solar fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shichao; Wang, Meng; Li, Ping; Tu, Wenguang; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Double-shelled hollow hybrid spheres consisting of plasmonic Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through a simple reaction process. The analysis reveals that Ag nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly in the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle shell. The plasmonic Ag-TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere proves to greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity toward reduction of CO{sub 2} into renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH{sub 4}) in the presence of water vapor under visible-light irradiation. The possible formation mechanism of the hollow sphere and related plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic performance were also briefly discussed.

  2. Double-shelled plasmonic Ag-TiO2 hollow spheres toward visible light-active photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into solar fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shichao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Yong; Li, Ping; Tu, Wenguang; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Double-shelled hollow hybrid spheres consisting of plasmonic Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through a simple reaction process. The analysis reveals that Ag nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly in the TiO2 nanoparticle shell. The plasmonic Ag-TiO2 hollow sphere proves to greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity toward reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapor under visible-light irradiation. The possible formation mechanism of the hollow sphere and related plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic performance were also briefly discussed.

  3. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Madeline T.

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  4. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  5. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  6. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  7. Intelligent core-shell nanoparticles and hollow spheres based on gelatin and PAA via template polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansong; Zhang, Youwei; Du, Weiping; Wu, Chengxun; Zhao, Jiongxin

    2009-06-15

    PAA/gelatin nanoparticles, with interpolymer complexes of gelatin and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as the cores and gelatin as the shells, were prepared via facile polymerization of AA on gelatin template. The morphology change of the nanoparticles during the reaction was traced by a combined use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, which revealed a discrepancy among the structure of the nanoparticles formed at different stages of the reaction: as the reaction proceeds, nanoparticles with larger compact cores and thinner shells are produced. The resultant nanoparticles are multi-responsive. Especially, they exhibit a significant temperature-dependent size change: upon raising the temperature from 25 degrees C, the nanoparticle size decreases monotonically until reaching equilibrium at about 40 degrees C. This temperature-dependence of the nanoparticle size was found to be reversible provided the nanoparticle solution was cooled at a low temperature (4 degrees C). The thermo-sensitivity of the nanoparticles is attributed to the thermo-induced sol-gel transition of the gelatin shells. In addition, the nanoparticles were further converted to hollow spheres via successive locking the shell structure by the reaction of gelatin with cross-linker glutaraldehyde, and cavitation of the cross-linked nanoparticles by switching the medium from acidic to neutral. The cavitation process was monitored by DLS, which indicated a mass decrease and size shrinkage. AFM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to trace the morphology change of the nanoparticles during the cavitation. The hollow structure was confirmed by TEM observation.

  8. Hollow core optical fibres made by glass billet extrusion as sensors for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Hutchinson, M. R.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

    2016-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors for Raman spectroscopy based on hollow core optical fibers have shown great promise due to their low glass background, and high signal collection efficiency. We have previously demonstrated how glass billet extrusion can be used to make simplified hollow core fibers based on a single suspended ring. In this work we investigate the performance of these optical fibers as sensors for Raman spectroscopy. These fibers are used to excite samples at a range of laser excitation wavelengths to scan across the transmission profile of the optical fibers, allowing comparison of the performance of these fibers against commercially-available alternatives.

  9. Force distribution affects vibrational properties in hard-sphere glasses.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, Eric; Lerner, Edan; Brito, Carolina; Wyart, Matthieu

    2014-12-02

    We theoretically and numerically study the elastic properties of hard-sphere glasses and provide a real-space description of their mechanical stability. In contrast to repulsive particles at zero temperature, we argue that the presence of certain pairs of particles interacting with a small force f soften elastic properties. This softening affects the exponents characterizing elasticity at high pressure, leading to experimentally testable predictions. Denoting P(f) ~ f(θ(e)), the force distribution of such pairs and ϕ(c) the packing fraction at which pressure diverges, we predict that (i) the density of states has a low-frequency peak at a scale ω*, rising up to it as D(ω) ~ ω(2+a), and decaying above ω* as D(ω) ~ ω(-a) where a = (1 - θ(e))/(3 + θ(e)) and ω is the frequency, (ii) shear modulus and mean-squared displacement are inversely proportional with ⟨δR²⟩ ~ 1/μ ~ (ϕ(c) - ϕ)(κ), where κ = 2 - 2/(3 + θ(e)), and (iii) continuum elasticity breaks down on a scale ℓ(c) ~ 1/√(δz) ~ (ϕ(c) - ϕ)(-b), where b = (1 + θ(e))/(6 + 2θ(e)) and δz = z - 2d, where z is the coordination and d the spatial dimension. We numerically test (i) and provide data supporting that θ(e) ≈ 0.41 in our bidisperse system, independently of system preparation in two and three dimensions, leading to κ ≈ 1.41, a ≈ 0.17, and b ≈ 0.21. Our results for the mean-square displacement are consistent with a recent exact replica computation for d = ∞, whereas some observations differ, as rationalized by the present approach.

  10. General one-pot template-free hydrothermal method to metal oxide hollow spheres and their photocatalytic activities and lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Di; Qin, Qing; Duan, Xiaochuan; Yang, Jiaqin; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenjun

    2013-09-25

    A general and facile one-pot template-free hydrothermal strategy has been developed to synthesize various metal oxide (TiO2, SnO2 and α-Fe2O3) hollow spheres with unified morphologies. The formation of hollow structure involves a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-assisted Ostwald ripening process. Photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared TiO2 product are evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), which the TiO2 hollow spheres obtained from 450 °C thermal treatment exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than Degussa P25. In addition, electrochemical measurements demonstrate that all of the as-prepared metal oxides hollow spheres have the potential applications in lithium-ion battery. We have a great expectation that this synthesis strategy can afford a new universal route for functional metal oxide hollow materials preparation without using template.

  11. Highly efficient decomposition of organic dye by aqueous-solid phase transfer and in situ photocatalysis using hierarchical copper phthalocyanine hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyi; Shao, Changlu; Guo, Zengcai; Zhang, Zhenyi; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Tieping; Liu, Yichun

    2011-07-01

    The hierarchical tetranitro copper phthalocyanine (TNCuPc) hollow spheres were fabricated by a simple solvothermal method. The formation mechanism was proposed based on the evolution of morphology as a function of solvothermal time, which involved the initial formation of nanoparticles followed by their self-aggregation to microspheres and transformation into hierarchical hollow spheres by Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, the hierarchical TNCuPc hollow spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity and excellent simultaneously visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance for Rhodamine B (RB) under visible light. A possible mechanism for the "aqueous-solid phase transfer and in situ photocatalysis" was suggested. Repetitive tests showed that the hierarchical TNCuPc hollow spheres maintained high catalytic activity over several cycles, and it had a better regeneration capability under mild conditions.

  12. In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; Biener, Monika M.; Kim, Sung Ho; Willey, Trevor M.; Xiao, Xianghui; van Buuren, Anthony; Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen

    2016-02-03

    Hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. Here, we report on in-situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatio-temporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocity on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol-gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2mm inner diameter diamond shells.

  13. In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; Biener, Monika M.; Kim, Sung Ho; Willey, Trevor M.; Xiao, Xianghui; van Buuren, Anthony; Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen

    2016-02-03

    The hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site-controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. We report on in situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatiotemporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Furthermore, image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocity on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol–gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2 mm inner diameter diamond shells.

  14. Pseudo-bi-enzyme glucose sensor: ZnS hollow spheres and glucose oxidase concerted catalysis glucose.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Ying; Liu, Changhua; Wang, Jia; Cui, Xiaoyan; Nie, Ling

    2013-06-07

    This work creatively uses peroxidase-like ZnS hollow spheres (ZnS HSs) to cooperate with glucose oxidase (GOx) for glucose determinations. This approach is that the ZnS HSs electrocatalytically oxidate the enzymatically generated H2O2 to O2, and then the O2 circularly participates in the previous glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as electron transfer and enzyme immobilization matrices, respectively. The biosensor of glucose oxidase-carbon nanotubes-Au nanoparticles-ZnS hollow spheres-gold electrode (GOx-CNT-AuNPs-ZnS HSs-GE) exhibits a rapid response, a low detection limit (10 μM), a wide linear range (20 μM to 7 mM) as well as good anti-interference, long-term longevity and reproducibility.

  15. A slowly rotating hollow sphere in a magnetic field: First steps to de-spin a space object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Starr, Stanley O.; Leve, Frederick A.; Peck, Mason

    2016-03-01

    Modeling the interaction of a slowly rotating hollow conducting sphere in a magnetic field provided an understanding of the dynamics of orbiting space objects moving through the Earth's magnetic field. This analysis, performed in the late 1950s and limited to uniform magnetic fields, was innovative and acknowledged the pioneers who first observed rotary magnetism, in particular, the seminal work of Hertz in 1880. Now, there is interest in using a magnetic field produced by one space object to stop the spin of a second object so that docking can occur. In this paper, we consider, yet again, the interaction of a rotating hollow sphere in a magnetic field. We show that the predicted results can be tested experimentally, making this an interesting advanced student project. This analysis also sheds light on a rich set of previously unaddressed behaviors involving eddy currents.

  16. Fabrication of an IR hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glass extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Minming; Wang, Xunsi; Pan, Zhanghao; Cheng, Ci; Zhu, Qingde; Jiang, Chen; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Tao, Guangming; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-05-01

    The theoretical analysis and experimental preparation of a hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glasses are demonstrated. The fiber has potential applications in bio-sensing and IR energy transmission. Two chalcogenide glasses with, respectively, high and low refractive indexes are investigated in detail for the fabrication of hollow-core Bragg fibers. The most appropriate structure is selected; this structure is composed of four concentric rings and a center air hole . Its band gap for the Bragg fiber is analyzed by the plane wave method. The chalcogenide glasses Ge15Sb20S58.5I13 and Ge15Sb10Se75 are chosen to extrude the robust multi-material glass preform with a specialized punch and glass container. The glass preform is simultaneously protected with a polyetherimide polymer. The hollow-core Bragg fibers are finally obtained after glass preform extrusion, fiber preform fabrication, and fiber drawing. Results showed that the fiber has a transparency window from 2.5 to 14 μm, including a low-loss transmission window from 10.5 to 12 μm. The location of this low-loss transmission window matches the predicted photonic band gap in the simulation.

  17. Broadband micro-Michelson interferometer with multi-optical-path beating using a sphered-end hollow fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Kuang; Lu, Kuan-Yi; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Lin, Chinlon

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate a high-sensitivity broadband (1250-1650 nm) fiber micro-Michelson interferometer using a single-mode fiber end-spliced with a sphered-end hollow-core fiber. The hollow core is slightly smaller than the solid core of a single-mode fiber, so the fractional power of the core mode is converted into cladding modes. The excited cladding modes propagate at distinct optical paths along the hollow-core fiber and have individual foci outside the spherical lens. The reflected core mode, generated at the solid core-air interface, and the reflected cladding modes, generated at external material, interfere with each other to produce beating in the interference signals.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of millimeter-scale translucent La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haoting; Liao, Qilong; Dai, Yunya; Wang, Fu; Wang, Haiyang; Li, Xibo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Millimeter-scale translucent La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres have been prepared. • The diameters of the prepared hollow spheres are 500–1300μm. • The degree of sphericity for the prepared hollow spheres is above 98%. • The mechanisms of transparency are discussed. - Abstract: Millimeter-scale translucent La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic hollow spheres have been successfully prepared using the oil-in-water (paraffin-in-alumina sol) droplets as precursors made by self-made T-shape micro-emulsion device. The main crystalline phase of the obtained hollow sphere is alpha alumina. The prepared translucent La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic hollow spheres have diameters of 500–1300 μm, wall thickness of about 23 μm and the degree of sphericity of above 98%. With the increase of the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, grains and grain-boundaries of the alumina spherical shell for the prepared millimeter-scale hollow spheres become regular and clear gradually. When the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content is 0.1 wt.%, the crystal surface of the obtained Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical shell shows optimal grains and few pores, and its transmittance reaches 42% at 532 nm laser light. This method provides a promising technique of preparing millimeter-scale translucent ceramic hollow spheres for laser inertial confined fusion.

  19. Facile synthesis and luminescence of uniform Y2O3 hollow spheres by a sacrificial template route.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang; You, Hongpeng; Song, Yanhua; Huang, Yeju; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2010-09-06

    Uniform Y(2)O(3) hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared via a urea-based homogeneous precipitation technique with colloidal melamine formaldehyde (MF) microspheres as templates followed by a subsequent calcination process. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that the MF templates can be effectively removed, and the amorphous precursor has converted to crystalline Y(2)O(3) during the annealing process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the Y(2)O(3) hollow spheres inherit a spherical shape and good dispersion of MF templates, and the shell of the hollow spheres is composed of a large amount of uniform nanoparticles. The lanthanide activator ion Ln(3+)-doped Y(2)O(3) hollow microspheres exhibit bright down- and upconversion luminescence with different colors coming from different activator ions under ultraviolet or 980 nm light excitation, which may find potential applications in fields such as light phosphor powders, advanced flat panel displays, or drug delivery.

  20. Formation of hollow microcylinders from sputtered erbium-doped glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Madhu; McMullin, James N.; Keyworth, B. P.; Broughton, James N.

    1997-05-01

    A planar sputter-deposited erbium-doped glass ridge was re- shaped into a hollow microcylinder using only photolithography, wet-etching and annealing. It is believed that selective build-up of gas is primarily responsible for this phenomenon, which is similar to glass-blowing. Other factors, such as the width and depth of the original ridge, the adhesion of the ridge to the underlying surface and the duration of the anneal, influence the eventual shape of the hollow microcylinder. By varying the processing parameters, a wide range of microcylinder shapes and sizes were obtained: circular and semi-circular profiles with 9.0 micrometers diameter or flatter 'tunnel-shaped' profiles ranging u pt o 25 micrometers in height and 100 micrometers in width. Microcylinders up to 1 cm long were fabricated. Water was sen to enter these hollow devices through capillary action. He-Ne light propagation through the hollow portion of the device was observed. These observations confirm that the microcylinders are hollow over their entire length. Hollow microcylinders or microchannels may find application in microfluidics and micro-optics.

  1. Facile Au catalyst loading on the inner shell of hollow SnO2 spheres using Au-decorated block copolymer sphere templates and their selective H2S sensing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Minsoo P; Lee, Seo-Jin; Kim, Bumjoon J; Kim, Il-Doo

    2014-10-21

    Hollow SnO2 spheres functionalized by Au catalysts were synthesized via the use of Au-decorated block copolymer (Au-BCP) sphere templates. Uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles on BCP spheres were prepared by the infiltration of Au precursors into polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) spheres. A thin SnO2 layer was coated on the Au-BCP spheres using RF sputtering at room temperature without morphological deformation of the spheres. The Au nanoparticles were uniformly transferred from the Au-BCP spheres to the inner shells of the hollow SnO2 spheres followed by decomposition of BCP spheres. The Au-loaded hollow SnO2 spheres exhibited a superior H2S sensitivity (Rair/Rgas = 17.4 at 5 ppm) with remarkably selective characteristics with a minor response (Rair/Rgas < 2.5 at 5 ppm) toward other interfering gases. Our results pave the way for a new catalyst loading method using Au-BCP spheres for the uniformly distributed Au NPs on the SnO2 layers.

  2. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon hollow spheres as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Kaifu; An, Weili; Fu, Jijiang; Gao, Biao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Xiang; Cheng, Gary J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon hollow spheres (N-MCHSs) were prepared using mesoporous silica hollow spheres as template and dopamine as carbon precursor. The N-MCHSs demonstrate high specific surface area and vegetable sponge-like mesoporous shell with interconnected ;carbon bridges;, facilitating continuous electron transport and Li ion diffusion, and making the whole structure more stable. The influence of N contents and N-bonding configuration on the Li storage of N-MCHSs is discussed. The N-MCHSs carbonized at 800 °C demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance, delivering a capacity of 485 mAh g-1 at a current of 0.5 A g-1 after 1,100 cycles. Even up to 4.0 A g-1, a high capacity of 214 mAh g-1 can be remained. The high electrochemical performance of N-MCHSs can be ascribed to mesoporous carbon hollow spheres structure and high level pyridinic nitrogen doping.

  3. Uniform magnesium silicate hollow spheres as high drug-loading nanocarriers for cancer therapy with low systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baixiang; Meng, Weiyan; Bi, Ming; Ni, Yuxin; Cai, Qing; Wang, Jingyun

    2013-06-28

    Resulting from their versatile functionality, nanomaterials with low systemic toxicity have offered high-performance diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. Here, we designed and synthesized uniform magnesium silicate hollow spheres as high drug-loading nanocarriers for cancer therapy. Through a classical Stöber method and a hydrothermal process, well-defined MgSiO3 hollow spheres were prepared in a facile route with inexpensive inhesion. Compared with routinely used mesoporous silica nanoparticles, our MgSiO3 hollow spheres with larger void space and mesoporous shell endowed the structures with a much higher storage capacity of guest molecules (2140 mg DOX g(-1)) and a much more sustained release of anticancer drugs. In detail, the release property and therapeutic efficacy of DOX-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that these nanoparticles were mostly accumulated in lysosome, which facilitated continual drug release and efficient cancer cell destruction. We further demonstrated that these DOX-loaded nanoparticles could effectively suppress tumor growth compared to free DOX in vivo, as DOX-loaded-nanoparticle-treated mice survived over 15 days without obvious detectable tumor growth. Otherwise, long-term toxicity study was also evaluated, indicating their overall safety and great potential in biomedical applications.

  4. Synthesis of Na-doped ZnO hollow spheres with improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yaguang; Gao, Linjie; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng

    2016-07-05

    The fabrication of p-type doped ZnO nanostructures is key in opening up substantial opportunities for the application of ZnO nanostructures. Owing to their stable p-type property, Na ions are the best candidates for ZnO p-type doping. However, Na-doped ZnO nanostructures had never been prepared until now. For the first time, we successfully synthesized Na-doped ZnO ultrathin hollow spheres using an ion adsorption and templating method. The obtained hollow spheres have ultrathin shells, uniform Na elemental distribution and a controllable concentration of doped Na. The energy position of the Fermi level decreased with continuously increasing Na doping concentration, revealing the p-type conductivity of Na-doped ZnO. We demonstrate that the photocatalytic hydrogen generation efficiency (with methanol) using ZnO ultrathin hollow spheres can be enhanced by more than 50 times after Na-doping and that the quantum efficiency can be as high as 13.5%.

  5. Theoretical study of miscibility and glass-forming trends in mixtures of polystyrene spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-H.; Stroud, D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical study of glass-forming trends and miscibility in mixtures of polystyrene spheres (polyballs) of different diameters, suspended in an aqueous solution, is presented. The polyballs are assumed to be charged and to interact via a Debye-Hueckel screened Coulomb potential. The Helmholtz free energy is calculated from a variational principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality, in which a mixture of hard spheres of different diameters is chosen as the reference system. It is found that when the charges of the two types of polyballs are sufficiently different, the variationally determined ratio of hard-sphere diameters differs substantially, leading to packing difficulties characteristic of glass formation. The experimentally observed range of glass formation corresponds to a ratio of hard-sphere diameters of 0.8 or less. Calculations of the free energy as a function of concentration indicate that the liquid polyball mixture is stable against the phase separation, even for widely different polyball charges.

  6. Theoretical study of miscibility and glass-forming trends in mixtures of polystyrene spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-H.; Stroud, D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical study of glass-forming trends and miscibility in mixtures of polystyrene spheres (polyballs) of different diameters, suspended in an aqueous solution, is presented. The polyballs are assumed to be charged and to interact via a Debye-Hueckel screened Coulomb potential. The Helmholtz free energy is calculated from a variational principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality, in which a mixture of hard spheres of different diameters is chosen as the reference system. It is found that when the charges of the two types of polyballs are sufficiently different, the variationally determined ratio of hard-sphere diameters differs substantially, leading to packing difficulties characteristic of glass formation. The experimentally observed range of glass formation corresponds to a ratio of hard-sphere diameters of 0.8 or less. Calculations of the free energy as a function of concentration indicate that the liquid polyball mixture is stable against the phase separation, even for widely different polyball charges.

  7. Dynamic Response of a Pulse-Heated, Thick-Walled, Hollow Sphere: Validation of Code Numerics

    SciTech Connect

    Canaan, R.E.

    2000-01-19

    Volumetric pulse heating of a thick-walled hollow sphere is numerically investigated. The primary objective is to validate a variety of LLNL 30 hydrocodes for modeling the dynamic behavior of fissile/fissionable metals subject to rapid ''fission-heating'' transients. The 30 codes tested include both DYNA3D and NIKE3D, as well as the ''ASCI'' code, ALE3D. The codes are compared ''head-to-head'' and are benchmarked against a 1D finite difference solution to the problem that is derived from basic principles. Three pulse-heating transients are examined with full-width-half-maximum pulse durations of 41{micro}s, 85{micro}s, and 140{micro}s, respectively. These three transients produce a significant range of dynamic responses in the thermo-elastic regime. We present results for dynamic radial displacements and stresses for each pulse, and also discuss which code features/options worked best for these types of calculations. In general, the code results are in excellent agreement for the simple system considered. Validation of code numerics in simple systems is a key first step toward future application of the codes in more complicated geometries (U).

  8. Osteogenic potential of Sr-doped calcium phosphate hollow spheres in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Xia, Wei; Pankotai, Eszter; Weszl, Miklós; Carlsson, Elin; Forster-Horváth, Csaba; Larsson, Sune; Engqvist, Håkan; Lacza, Zsombor

    2013-08-01

    Treatment of osteoporotic fractures with conventional surgical methods is associated with a high rate of complications. Intense search for new treatment options includes development of specific biomaterials aimed to be part of the surgical armamentarium. Strontium doped calcium phosphate spheres (SrCPS) is a new material that might be of interest due to the influence on osteoclast and osteoblast activity. In the present study, we successfully constructed hollow spherical SrCPS particles with a diameter of ~700 nm and shell thickness of ~150 nm. The Sr content was about 20 wt %. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were investigated in vitro with concentrations from 0 to 1000 μg/mL of SrCPS in medium extract in a day chase study. The in vivo biocompatibility was tested in a delayed bone-healing model in a rat vertebral defect by histology, μCT, and nanoSPECT. The SrCPS showed no toxicity in vitro with comparable cell number in all concentrations. Increased metabolism was seen in the cell viability study in cells exposed to 400 and 600 μg/mL. SPECT showed good biocompatibility with no local adverse effects and an increased osteoblast activity as compared to adjacent vertebra. SrCPS implantation induced bone formation and resulted in complete resorption and defect consolidation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Facile fabrication and photoluminescence properties of rare-earth-doped Gd₂O₃ hollow spheres via a sacrificial template method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Zhao, Qian; Fang, Qinghong; Xu, Zhenhe

    2013-08-21

    Rare-earth-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd₂O₃) hollow spheres were successfully fabricated on a large scale by using PS spheres as sacrificed templates and urea as a precipitating agent, which involved the deposition of an inorganic coating Gd(OH)CO3 on the surface of PS spheres and subsequent calcination in the air. Various approaches including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), as well as photoluminescence spectroscopies were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that the sample is composed of uniform hollow Gd₂O₃ spheres with a mean particle size of about 2.3 μm and these hollow spheres have the mesoporous shell that are composed of a large amount of nanoparticles. The possible mechanism of evolution from PS spheres to the amorphous precursor and to the final hollow Gd₂O₃ spheres have been proposed. The as-obtained samples show strong light emission with different colors corresponding to different Ln³⁺ ions under ultraviolet-visible light and electron-beam excitation. Under 980 nm NIR irradiation, Gd₂O₃:Ln³⁺ (Ln³⁺ = Yb³⁺/Er³⁺, Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ and Yb³⁺/Ho³⁺) exhibit characteristic up-conversion (UC) emissions of red (Er³⁺, ²H11/2, ⁴S3/2, ⁴F9/2 → ⁴I15/2), blue (Tm³⁺, ¹G₄ → ³H₆) and green (Ho³⁺, ⁵F₄, ⁵S₂ → ⁵I₈), respectively. These merits of multicolor emissions in the visible region endow these kinds of materials with potential applications in the field of light display systems, lasers, optoelectronic devices, and MRI contrast agents.

  10. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Hollow Spheres Decorated with CeO2 Nanoparticles Heterostructure Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangyang; Dai, Mingjun; Wang, Tianshuang; Sun, Peng; Liang, Xishuang; Lu, Geyu; Shimanoe, Kengo; Yamazoe, Noboru

    2016-03-01

    CeO2 decorated SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal strategy. The morphology and structures of as-obtained CeO2/SnO2 composites were analyzed by various kinds of techniques. The SnO2 hollow spheres with uniform size around 300 nm were self-assembled with SnO2 nanoparticles and were hollow with a diameter of about 100 nm. The CeO2 nanoparticles on the surface of SnO2 hollow spheres could be clearly observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ce(3+) and the increased amount of both chemisorbed oxygen and oxygen vacancy after the CeO2 decorated. Compared with pure SnO2 hollow spheres, such composites revealed excellent enhanced sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration was 100 ppm, the sensitivity of the CeO2/SnO2 composites was 37, which was 2.65-times higher than that of the primary SnO2 hollow spheres. The sensing mechanism of the enhanced gas sensing properties was also discussed.

  11. Thermo- and pH-sensitive ionic-crosslinked hollow spheres from chitosan-based graft copolymer for 5-fluorouracil release.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Guo, Lei; Wen, Quanwu; Zhang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    Thermo- and pH-sensitive ionic-crosslinked hollow spheres from self-assembly of chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS-g-PNIPAM) for controlled release of 5-fluorouracil were studied. CS-g-PNIPAM aggregated into core-shell micelles with collapsed PNIPAM as the core and CS as the shell at the temperature above LCST. Ionic crosslinking reagent sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) was used to crosslink the shell to form hollow spheres after cooling to room temperature. The size of hollow spheres was manipulated by changing pH or temperature of the environment. The CS-g-PNIPAM hollow spheres with plenty of inner cavities showed high loading capacity for 5-fluorouracil due to the polymer-drug interactions. Release of 5-fluorouracil from nanoparticles was accelerated at the temperature above LCST ascribed to the destruction of polymer-drug interactions and the decrease of particles size. Changing pH or ionic strength deformed the structure hollow spheres, which led to the increase of drug release. These hollow nanoparticles with environmentally sensitive properties are expected to be utilized in the field of intelligent drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.

  13. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; ...

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleationmore » process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.« less

  14. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses. PMID:26412008

  15. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  16. Glass-NiP-CoFeP triplex-shell particles with hollow cores and tunable magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    An, Zhenguo; Zhang, Jingjie

    2013-02-01

    Low density (0.55-0.92g/mL, depending on the shell thickness and composition) glass-metal-metal triplex-shell hollow particles (TSHP) were prepared by a three-step route. First, micrometer-sized silicate glass particles with hollow cores, uniform shells, and high sphericity were prepared through spray drying and subsequent melting. NiP shell was uniformly assembled to the previously obtained glass hollow particles by silver seed induced chemical reduction of Ni(2+) by sodium hypophosphite, and glass-NiP double-shell hollow particles (DSHP) with compact and uniform shells were formed. The as-formed NiP particles further acted as the seeds for the directed formation and assembly of the CoFeP shell on the NiP shell to form the final glass-NiP-CoFeP triplex-shell hollow particles (TSHP). The influences of the component of the reaction system on the composition, structure, and magnetic properties of the hollow particles were studied. The multishell hollow particles thus obtained may have some promising applications in the fields of low-density magnetic materials, conduction, microwave absorbers, catalysis, etc. This work provides an additional strategy to fabricate multishell structured hollow particles with tailored shell composition and magnetic properties, which can be extended to the controlled preparation of multishell composite particles with the shells consisting of metal, oxides, or other compounds.

  17. Sonochemically assisted synthesis and application of hollow spheres, hollow prism, and coralline-like ZnO nanophotocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsari, E.

    2011-08-01

    Nanosheet-based microspheres of ZnO with hierarchical structures, hollow prism, and coralline-like ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared by ultrasonic irradiation in acidic ionic liquids (AILs). The hollow spherical is made up of many thin petals, the thickness of which is only about 90 nm. In the presence of AIL2, the one prepared at a frequency of 40 kHz is a mixture of nanofibers with diameters ranging from less than 30 nm to about 100 nm. ZnO nanostructure (with AIL1) reveals lozenge-shape hollow prism structures. The products were hollow prism structure covered with some nanometric-size nanoparticles. The average size of the nanoparticles is in the range of 40-80 nm. It is found that the ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic frequency, and the AILs influence the growth mechanism and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Producing Zno nanostructures by different traditional methods (e.g., hydrothermal method) requires basic media. These methods are not economical and environmentally friendly in many industrial processes. In so doing, a critical problem has been the point that, normally, a high concentration of base causes reactor metal corrosion. This is a simple and low-cost method, which can be expected to be applied in industry in the future. Also, importantly, the structures synthesized in this experiment can indicate a new way to construct nanodevices by self-organization in one step.

  18. Surfactant-free sacrificial template synthesis of submicrometer-sized YVO4:Eu3+ hierarchical hollow spheres with tunable textual parameters and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Lin; Zhai, Zheng; Li, Mingzhen; Li, Meng; Liu, Xiaolin; Hou, Wenhua

    2013-03-21

    For the first time, well-dispersed submicrometer-sized YVO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres were successfully synthesized though a surfactant-free method by employing Y(OH)CO(3):Eu(3+) colloidal spheres as a sacrificial template and NH(4)VO(3) as a vanadium source. The synthetic process mainly consists of two steps, i.e., hydrothermal reaction and acid erosion. By simply changing the amount of NH(4)VO(3) added, the textural parameters of the as-obtained hollow spheres, such as the inner diameter and shell-thickness, can be easily tuned. Moreover, double-shelled hollow spheres could also be obtained when the amount of NH(4)VO(3) was increased to a certain extent. Particularly, the amorphous colloidal spheres of the template could be completely consumed when the amount of NH(4)VO(3) was in large excess, giving rise to the direct formation of uniform hollow spheres without acid erosion. The possible formation process is discussed in detail. Under ultraviolet excitation, the obtained hollow YVO(4):Eu(3+) phosphors showed strong red emissions, and the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the YVO(4):Eu(3+) phosphors were closely related with the textural parameters such as the inner diameter, shell-thickness and number of shells, indicating a size-dependent characteristic.

  19. Mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres for improved stability lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongxue; Cao, Liufei; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Haihui; Zheng, Chunman; Xie, Kai; Kuang, Yafei

    2015-12-01

    Polyanionic compounds are regarded as one of the most promising cathode materials for the next generation lithium-ion batteries due to their abundant resource and thermal stability. LiFeBO3 has a relatively higher capacity than olivine LiFePO4, however, moisture sensitivity and low conductivity hinder its further development. Here, we design and synthesize mesoporous LiFeBO3/C (LFB/C) hollow spheres to enhance its structural stability and electric conductivity, two LiFeBO3/C electrodes with different carbon content are prepared and tested. The experimental results show that mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres with higher carbon content exhibit superior lithium storage capacity, cycling stability and rate capability. Particularly, the LFB/C electrode with higher carbon content demonstrates good structural stability, which can maintain its original crystal structure and Li storage properties even after three months of air exposure at room temperature. The exceptional structural stability and electrochemical performance may justify their potential use as high-performance cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the synthesis strategy demonstrated herein is simple and versatile for the fabrication of other polyanionic cathode materials with mesoporous hollow spherical structure.

  20. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  1. Selenium Embedded in Metal-Organic Framework Derived Hollow Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for Advanced Lithium-Selenium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Dai, Chunlong; Jia, Min; Liu, Dingyu; Bao, ShuJuan; Jiang, Jian; Xu, Maowen; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-06-29

    Metal-organic framework derived hollow hierarchical porous carbon spheres (MHPCS) have been fabricated via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a subsequent annealing treatment. Such MHPCS are composed of masses of small hollow carbon bubbles with a size of ∼20 nm and shells of ∼5 nm thickness interconnected to each other. MHPCS/Se composite is developed as a cathode for Li-Se cells and delivers an initial specific capacity up to 588.2 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 C, exhibiting an outstanding cycling stability over 500 cycles with a decay rate even down to 0.08% per cycle. This material is capable of retaining up to 200 mA h g(-1) even after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 C. Such good electrochemical performance may be ascribed to the distinct hollow structure of the carbon spheres and a large amount of Se wrapped within small carbon bubbles, thus not only enhancing the electronic/ionic transport but also providing additional buffer space to adjust volume changes of Se during charge/discharge processes.

  2. Multi-shelled ceria hollow spheres with a tunable shell number and thickness and their superior catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuan; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Yongxia; Ma, Danyang; Wang, Biqing; Wan, Yongxia; Zhong, Shengliang

    2017-01-31

    In this work, ceria multi-shelled nanospheres with a tunable shell number and thickness were prepared by a facile coordination polymer (CP) precursor method without the use of any template and surfactant. Interestingly, the number, thickness and structure of the shell can be tuned by varying the reaction time, reaction temperature, ratio of reagent and calcination temperature. The formation process of the multi-shelled hollow spheres was also investigated, which experienced a core contraction and shell separation process. Moreover, the multi-shelled CeO2 hollow nanospheres displayed excellent photocatalytic activity in the degradation of RhB. Au and AuPd nanoparticle loaded multi-shelled CeO2 nanocomposites were also prepared. Results show that Au/CeO2 multi-shelled hollow nanospheres showed eximious catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol with a reaction rate constant k of 0.416 min. In addition, AuPd/CeO2 exhibited a remarkable catalytic activity for the conversion of CO. Employing this method, heavy rare earth oxide multi-shelled structures and light rare earth oxide solid spheres were obtained. This method may be employed for the preparation of other materials with complex structures.

  3. Flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3} porous nanostructures: Selective synthesis and their photocatalysis property

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiarui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gu, Cuiping; Fu, Gujun; Wang, Weizhi; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow microsphere-like hydrated tungsten oxide architectures were selectively synthesized by acidic precipitation of sodium tungstate solution at mild temperature. Several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermalgravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption analyses, were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The experimental results show that the nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O architectures can be obtained by changing the concentration of sodium tungstate solution. The possible formation process based on the aggregation–recrystallization mechanism is proposed. The corresponding tungsten oxide three-dimensional architectures were obtained after calcination at 450 °C. Finally, the obtained WO{sub 3} three-dimensional architectures were used as photocatalyst in the experiments. Compared with WO{sub 3} microflowers, the as-prepared WO{sub 3} hollow microspheres exhibit superior photocatalytic property on photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B due to their hollow porous hierarchical structures.

  4. Enhanced removal of toxic Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater by photoelectrocatalysis with synthetic TiO2 hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Wenkai; Huang, Zhiding; Feng, Xugen; Ma, Lin; Qi, Xiaoxia; Li, Zenghe

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the acute toxicity and mobility, the Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater is a huge threat to biological and environmental systems. Herein, an effective photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was carried out by applying electric field to photocatalysis of as-prepared TiO2 spheres. The synthesis of spherical TiO2 catalytic materials with hollow structure and high surface areas was based on a self-assembly process induced by a mixture of organic acetic acid and ethanol. The possible formation mechanism of TiO2 spheres was proposed and verified by acid concentration-dependent and temperature-dependent experiments. It was found that the reaction rate constant of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) exhibited an almost 3 fold improvement (0.0362 min-1) as compared to that of photocatalysis (0.0126 min-1). As a result, the mechanism of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was described according to the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI), Cr(III) and total Cr in the system. In addition, the effect of pH value and voltage of potential were also discussed. Moreover, this photoelectrocatalysis with TiO2 hollow spheres exhibited excellent activity for reduction of Cr(VI) in actual tannery wastewater produced from three different tanning procedures. These attributes suggest that this photoelectrocatalysis has strong potential applications in the treatment of tannery pollutants.

  5. In situ bending and recovery characterization of hollow glass nanoneedle based on nanorobotic manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengfeng; Yang, Lijun; Shang, Wanfeng; Lu, Haojian; Wan, Wenfeng; Shen, Yajing

    2017-09-01

    Glass nanoneedles are important tools for injecting drugs and other materials into living cells. Although we know a great deal about the mechanical properties of glass structures at the millimeter scale, relatively little is known at the nanoscale. Here we investigate the mechanical performance of hollow glass nanoneedles by nanorobotic in situ manipulation inside SEM. Quartz and borosilicate nanoneedles fabricated from glass capillaries are assembled on the nanorobotic characterization system inside SEM and their behaviors during bending and recovery are studied in situ. The result indicates the glass nanoneedle could present a large elastic bending deformation (>90°). Specifically, the quartz nanoneedle takes on larger bending strength and its deformation can recover totally. In contrast, the borosilicate nanoneedle presents more flexible and still 20% of deformation is remained after 3 months. These results not only enhances our basic understanding on nanoglass materials but also provides references for practical nanomanipulation applications.

  6. Iron oxide nanoparticle layer templated by polydopamine spheres: a novel scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Ao, Lijiao; Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Foda, Mohamed F; Su, Wu

    2015-01-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layers with high packing density and controlled thickness were in situ deposited on metal-affinity organic templates (polydopamine spheres), via one-pot thermal decomposition. The as synthesized hybrid structure served as a facile nano-scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic carriers, through surfactant-assisted silica encapsulation and its subsequent calcination. Confined but accessible gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into these carriers to form a recyclable catalyst, showing quick magnetic response and a large surface area (642.5 m(2) g(-1)). Current nano-reactors exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in reduction of 4-nitrophenol, together with convenient magnetic separability and good reusability. The integration of compact iron oxide nanoparticle layers with programmable polydopamine templates paves the way to fabricate magnetic-response hollow structures, with high permeability and multi-functionality.

  7. One-pot synthesis of uniform hollow cuprous oxide spheres fabricated by single-crystalline particles via a simple solvothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Li, Chuan-Hao; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Wang, Yang; Shen, Yu-Hua; Xie, An-Jian; Wu, Qiong

    2011-07-01

    Uniform Cu2O hollow spheres fabricated by single-crystalline particles (smaller than 20 nm) are facile synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG) solution by a simple solvothermal route without using pre-fabricated templates and reductive agents. EG in this protocol is not only used as a solvent, complexing agent, and reducing agent, but also served as a structure-directing agent for the formation of hollow structure. By control of reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and the anions, the morphology and structure of the hollow spheres can be tuned. A coordination adsorption and oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening mechanism is proposed for explaining the formation process of hollow Cu2O spheres in EG solution; and importantly, the hollow Cu2O spheres exhibit an excellent property for the electro-catalytic oxidization of ascorbic acid in acetic acid buffer solution. Moreover, the hollow spherical Cu2O particles could be potentially applied in catalysis, sensor, and as model for fundamental research.

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticle layer templated by polydopamine spheres: a novel scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic nanoreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang; Ao, Lijiao; Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Foda, Mohamed F.; Su, Wu

    2014-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layers with high packing density and controlled thickness were in situ deposited on metal-affinity organic templates (polydopamine spheres), via one-pot thermal decomposition. The as synthesized hybrid structure served as a facile nano-scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic carriers, through surfactant-assisted silica encapsulation and its subsequent calcination. Confined but accessible gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into these carriers to form a recyclable catalyst, showing quick magnetic response and a large surface area (642.5 m2 g-1). Current nano-reactors exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in reduction of 4-nitrophenol, together with convenient magnetic separability and good reusability. The integration of compact iron oxide nanoparticle layers with programmable polydopamine templates paves the way to fabricate magnetic-response hollow structures, with high permeability and multi-functionality.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layers with high packing density and controlled thickness were in situ deposited on metal-affinity organic templates (polydopamine spheres), via one-pot thermal decomposition. The as synthesized hybrid structure served as a facile nano-scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic carriers, through surfactant-assisted silica encapsulation and its subsequent calcination. Confined but accessible gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into these carriers to form a recyclable catalyst, showing quick magnetic response and a large surface area (642.5 m2 g-1). Current nano-reactors exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in reduction of 4-nitrophenol, together with convenient magnetic separability and good reusability. The integration of compact iron oxide nanoparticle layers with programmable polydopamine templates paves the way to fabricate magnetic-response hollow structures, with high permeability and multi

  9. Targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of doxorubicin to cancer cells using calcium carbonate/hyaluronate/glutamate mesoporous hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Li, Han; Shi, Weike; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jing; Yang, Xiaoli; Wang, Kui; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Lin

    2017-09-15

    Currently, the efficacies of the existing anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy are still unsatisfactory. Therefore, drug delivery system has received considerable research interest. In the present study, calcium carbonate/hyaluronate/glutamate mesoporous hollow spheres are prepared through a facile method. The results indicate that the mesoporous hollow spheres can efficiently load the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Through the specific binding of hyaluronate on hollow spheres with CD44 receptors overexpressed on cancer cells, the drug-loaded hollow spheres can be specifically delivered to target cancer cells. Owing to the gradually dissolution of calcium carbonate in the weak acidic microenvironment of cancer cells, the loaded doxorubicin can be released over the period of 14days with pH-responsive and sustained manner to specifically and significantly treat cancers. Through loaded onto the hollow spheres, the IC50 value of doxorubicin for HeLa cancer cells is 0.0113μg/mL, much lower than that of the free doxorubicin (0.0801μg/mL). However, the IC50 value of doxorubicin for V79-4 cells is 0.2032μg/mL, obviously higher than that of the free DOX (0.1396μg/mL). The specificity of the doxorubicin between normal and cancer cells can be enhanced about 10-fold. The current study suggests the possible application of pH-responsive inorganic carriers for efficiently treatment of human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes using graphite carbon coating hollow CuFe2O4 spheres for the degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Wang, Kebai; Li, Dai; Qin, Jiabin

    2017-10-01

    The novel graphite carbon coating hollow CuFe2O4 spheres were fabricated through solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectra, etc. The catalytic performance of the graphite carbon coating hollow CuFe2O4 spheres was evaluated in photo-Fenton-like degradation of methylene blue (MB) using H2O2 as a green oxidant under light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results demonstrated that the hollow CuFe2O4 spheres with graphite carbon coating exhibited superior catalytic activity. In the preparation process of catalyst, the addition of glucose was very important to its catalytic performance. Photoresponse analysis of the typical samples proved that CuFe2O4@graphite carbon core-shell hollow spheres possessed excellent photocurrent response and lower electrochemical impedance. In addition, a possible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation of MB had been presumed. Moreover, after five regeneration cycles, the graphite carbon coating hollow CuFe2O4 spheres still exhibited better properties.

  11. Porphyrin entrapment and release behavior of microporous organic hollow spheres: fluorescent alerting systems for existence of organic solvents in water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jaewon; Kim, Bolyong; Park, Nojin; Kang, Sungah; Park, Joon Hyun; Lee, Sang Moon; Kim, Hae Jin; Son, Seung Uk

    2014-12-07

    This work reports on the controllable guest entrapment and release behavior of microporous organic hollow spheres (MOHs). Porphyrins which are soluble in both water and methanol were entrapped in the MOHs using methanol solution. The water-soluble porphyrins entrapped in MOHs were not extracted by water due to the hydrophobicity of microporous organic shells. In contrast, the porphyrins were released gradually into aqueous solution by adding water-soluble organic solvents. The release behavior depended on the kind of organic solvents used and on the alkyl chain length of the porphyrin compounds. These properties were applied for the fluorescent alert towards the existence of organic solvents in flowing aqueous media.

  12. Experimental stress analysis of large plastic deformations in a hollow sphere deformed by impact against a concrete block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental plastic strain measurement system is presented for use on the surface of high velocity impact test models. The system was used on a hollow sphere tested in impact against a reinforced concrete block. True strains, deviatoric stresses, and true stresses were calculated from experimental measurements. The maximum strain measured in the model was small compared to the true failure strain obtained from static tensile tests of model material. This fact suggests that a much greater impact velocity would be required to cause failure of the model shell structure.

  13. Three-dimensional ordered TiO2 hollow spheres as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Chen, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 nanostructure was constructed to obtain an improved photoelectric conversion performance. The design was based on the three-dimensional ordered assembly of TiO2 hollow spheres (3D-TiO2 HPs), which were synthesized using polystyrene colloidal crystals as sacrificial templates. Owing to this highly periodic structure and high specific surface area, the double-layered photoanode films derived from 3D-TiO2 HPs as light scattering layer exhibited enhanced conversion efficiency (7.0 %), thus leading to a 46 % increment of photovoltaic performance compared to the cell based on P25 TiO2 photoanode (4.8 %).

  14. Effective, Low-Cost Recovery of Toxic Arsenate Anions from Water by Using Hollow-Sphere Geode Traps.

    PubMed

    Shenashen, Mohamed A; Akhtar, Naeem; Selim, Mahmoud M; Morsy, Wafaa M; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Kawada, Satoshi; Alhamid, Abdulaziz A; Ohashi, Naoki; Ichinose, Izumi; Alamoudi, Ahmad S; El-Safty, Sherif A

    2017-08-04

    Because of the devastating impact of arsenic on terrestrial and aquatic organisms, the recovery, removal, disposal, and management of arsenic-contaminated water is a considerable challenge and has become an urgent necessity in the field of water treatment. This study reports the controlled fabrication of a low-cost adsorbent based on microscopic C-,N-doped NiO hollow spheres with geode shells composed of poly-CN nanospherical nodules (100 nm) that were intrinsically stacked and wrapped around the hollow spheres to form a shell with a thickness of 500-700 nm. This C-,N-doped NiO hollow-sphere adsorbent (termed CNN) with multiple diffusion routes through open pores and caves with connected open macro/meso windows over the entire surface and well-dispersed hollow-sphere particles that create vesicle traps for the capture, extraction, and separation of arsenate (AsO4(3-) ) species from aqueous solution. The CNN structures are considered to be a potentially attractive adsorbent for AsO4(3-) species due to 1) superior removal and trapping capacity from water samples and 2) selective trapping of AsO4(3-) from real water samples that mainly contained chloride and nitrate anions and Fe(2+) , and Mn(2+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) cations. The structural stability of the hierarchal geodes was evident after 20 cycles without any significant decrease in the recovery efficiency of AsO4(3-) species. To achieve low-cost adsorbents and toxic-waste management, this superior CNN AsO4(3-) dead-end trapping and recovery system evidently enabled the continuous control of AsO4(3-) disposal in water-scarce environments, presents a low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbent for AsO4(3-) species, and selectively produced water-free arsenate species. These CNN geode traps show potential as excellent adsorbent candidates in environment remediation tools and human healthcare. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. One-step synthesis of degradable T1-FeOOH functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanocomposites from mesoporous silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yung-Kang; Tseng, Yu-Jui; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chou, Shang-Wei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Tsang, S. C. Edman; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a hollow mesoporous structure and a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent has shown its potential in simultaneous drug delivery and cell tracking applications. However, the preparation of this kind of nanocomposite is complicated and usually takes several days, which is unsuitable for scaled-up production. To overcome these hurdles, we report herein a facile method to synthesize iron oxide hydroxide functionalized hollow mesoporous silica spheres (FeOOH/HMSS) in a one-step manner. By carefully controlling the reaction kinetics of K2FeO4 in water, the gram-scale production of FeOOH/HMSS can be readily achieved at 60 °C for as short as 30 min. Most importantly, this synthetic process is also cost-effective and eco-friendly in both the precursor (K2FeO4 and H2O) and the product (FeOOH). The mechanism for the formation of a hollow structure was carefully investigated, which involves the synergetic effect of the surfactant CTAB and the side product KOH. Having outstanding biocompatibility, these degradable nanocolloids also demonstrate their feasibility in in vitro/vivo MR imaging and in vitro drug delivery.The combination of a hollow mesoporous structure and a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent has shown its potential in simultaneous drug delivery and cell tracking applications. However, the preparation of this kind of nanocomposite is complicated and usually takes several days, which is unsuitable for scaled-up production. To overcome these hurdles, we report herein a facile method to synthesize iron oxide hydroxide functionalized hollow mesoporous silica spheres (FeOOH/HMSS) in a one-step manner. By carefully controlling the reaction kinetics of K2FeO4 in water, the gram-scale production of FeOOH/HMSS can be readily achieved at 60 °C for as short as 30 min. Most importantly, this synthetic process is also cost-effective and eco-friendly in both the precursor (K2FeO4 and H2O) and the product (FeOOH). The mechanism for the formation of a

  16. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Small, W; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L; Soltz, B A

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-mum-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance.

  17. Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Coating on the Surface of Hollow Glass Microspheres Using a Biomimetic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ying-Long; Duan, Rong-Shuai; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Microcarrier culture technology has attached more attention, especially for scale-up cell culture in the filed of tissue engineering. The present work introduces a microcarrier with hydroxyapatite (HA) on hollow glass microsphere. Hollow glass microspheres with a main composition of SiO2 (55-65 wt.%), Al2O3 (26-35 wt.%), were pretreated by NaOH, on which hydroxyapatite coating was deposited by biomimetic process. The phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that after immersion for 15 days in 1.5 SBF, the uniform and dense HA coating was formed and it has porous surface and low crystallinity.

  18. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W. IV; Celliers, P.M.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Soltz, B.A.

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-{mu}m-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  19. Optimization of the contents of hollow glass microsphere and sodium hexametaphosphate for glass fiber vacuum insulation panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. D.; Chen, Z. F.; Zhou, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, various additive amounts of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) powders were blended with flame attenuated glass wool (FAGW) to form hybrid core materials (HCMs) through the wet method. Among them, the SHMP was dissolved in the glass fiber suspension and coated on the surface of glass fibers while the HGMs were insoluble in the glass fiber suspension and filled in the fiber-fiber pores. The average pore diameter of the FAGW/HGM HCMs was 8-11 μm which was near the same as that of flame attenuated glass fiber mats (FAGMs, i.e., 10.5 µm). The tensile strength of the SHMP coated FAGMs was enhanced from 160 N/m to 370 N/m when SHMP content increased from 0 wt.% to 0.2 wt.%. By contrast, the tensile strength of the FAGW/HGM HCMs decreased from 160 N/m to 40 N/m when HGM content increased from 0 wt.% to 50 wt.%. Both the FAGW/HGM HCMs and SHMP coated FAGMs were vacuumed completely to form vacuum insulation panels (VIPs). The results showed that both the addition of SHMP and HGM led a slight increase in the thermal conductivity of the corresponding VIPs. To obtain a high-quality VIP, the optimal SHMP content and HGM content in glass fiber suspension was 0.12-0.2 wt.% and 0 wt.%.

  20. The relationship between efficient packing and glass-forming ability in hard-sphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    2014-03-01

    When supercooled liquids are rapidly quenched at rates R exceeding a critical value Rc, they avoid crystallization and form amorphous solids, such as bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). However, engineering applications of BMGs are often limited by the high cost of the constituent elements and their small casting thickness. Thus, we seek to design particular alloys with controllable stoichiometry and maximal critical cooling rate Rc. We perform numerical simulations to compress binary hard-sphere mixtures into glasses as a function of the particle size ratio and stoichiometry. We measure the packing fraction and local structural order for each glass to determine the critical compression rate. We find that large packing fraction differences between the crystalline and amorphous states implies poor glass forming ability, whereas small packing fraction differences yield better glass-formers. In addition, we show that an abundance of icosahedral order in amorphous packings enhances the glass forming ability of the mixtures. NSF MRSEC DMR-1119826, DMR-1006537, CBET-0968013.

  1. Monodisperse core-shell structured up-conversion Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄:Er³+ hollow spheres as drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenhe; Ma, Ping'an; Li, Chunxia; Hou, Zhiyao; Zhai, Xuefeng; Huang, Shanshan; Lin, Jun

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we report a facile solution-phase synthesis of monodisperse core-shell structured Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ hollow spheres (size around 380 nm) by utilizing the colloidal sphere of Yb(OH)CO₃ as the sacrificial template via the Kirkendall effect. The Er³+ doped Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ core-shell hollow spheres can be prepared similarly, which exhibit strong green emission under 980 nm NIR laser excitation even after loading with drug molecules. Most importantly, the sample can be used as an effective drug delivery carrier. The biocompatibility test on L929 fibroblast cells using MTT assay reveals low cytotoxicity of the system. A typical anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), is used for drug loading, and the release properties, cytotoxicity, uptake behavior and therapeutic effects were examined. It is found that DOX is shuttled into cell by core-shell hollow spheres carrier and released inside cells after endocytosis, and the DOX-loaded spheres exhibited greater cytotoxicity than free DOX. These results indicate that the core-shell Er³+ doped Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ hollow spheres have potential for drug loading and delivery into cancer cells to induce cell death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted synthesis of silicomolybdic acid (Keggin acid) inside mesoporous silica hollow spheres for Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jian; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-10-03

    Herein we report an inside-out preinstallation-infusion-hydration method for targeted synthesis of Keggin heteropoly acids (silicomolybdic acid, H(4)SiMo(12)O(40)) within mesoporous silica (SiO(2)) hollow spheres. In this process, discrete molybdenum dioxide (MoO(2)) nanoparticles with diameter size ranging from 25 to 60 nm were first prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal route in water/ethanol mixed solvents at 180 °C, which were then used as cores to grow the shell of supramolecular templated silica with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride (CTACl) in alkaline solution. By thermal treatment of as-synthesized MoO(2)@SiO(2) core-shell spheres, the organic template was burned off and mesoporous shell was formed (BET specific surface area was as high as 872 m(2)/g). Meanwhile, the encapsulated MoO(2) was oxidized to Mo(6+) and infused to the mesoporous silica shells, forming heptamolybdate species (Mo(7)O(24)(6-)) uniformly dispersed on the mesopore surfaces of silica, while generating void space at the center of spheres. After hydration with water, H(4)SiMo(12)O(40) was formed by reaction between the surface Mo(7)O(24)(6-) and silica species in the presence of water. The prepared H(4)SiMo(12)O(40) @mSiO(2) hollow spheres were tested for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of toluene by benzyl alcohol. The H(4)SiMo(12)O(40)@mSiO(2) catalysts fabricated via this novel route exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward benzylation of toluene, which was approximately 2.6 times as high as that of commercial Amberlyst-15 catalyst. In addition, the H(4)SiMo(12)O(40)@mSiO(2) catalyst was very robust and could be reused after regeneration.

  3. Shear Elastic and Strength Characteristics of Syntactics Based on Hollow Glass Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, A. M.; Turusov, R. A.; Gorenberg, A. J.; Solodilov, V. I.; Korokhin, R. A.; Gorbatkina, Yu. A.; Ivanova-Mumzhieva, V. G.; Zhuravleva, O. A.; Baikov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods to study the elastic and strength properties of syntactics — materials based on epoxy resins filled with hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) — are presented. Measurement results for the shear modulus and strength of the materials are analyzed. The effect of microsphere volume fraction in the polymeric matrix on the characteristics is shown. Experiments are performed to investigate the failure mechanisms of syntactics under compression.

  4. Avalanche mediated devitrification in a glass of pseudo hard-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Pelaez, P.; Montero de Hijes, P.; Sanz, E.; Valeriani, C.

    2016-09-01

    By means of molecular dynamics we analyse several aspects of the avalanche-mediated mechanism for glass crystallization recently reported for hard sphere glasses (Sanz et al 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 111 75). To investigate the role of inter-particle interaction softness on the devitrification path we use a continuous version of the hard-sphere potential: the pseudo-hard sphere potential (Jover et al 2012 J. Chem. Phys. 137 144505). We observe the same crystallization mechanism as in hard spheres. However, pseudo-hard sphere glasses crystallise earlier for a given density because the development of avalanches is eased by the small degree of overlapping allowed. We analyse the impact of density on the devitrification mechanism. When increasing the density, the avalanche mechanism becomes more evident and crystallisation is retarded due to a decrease of the avalanche emergence likelihood. To conclude, the observed avalanche-mediated mechanism and its density dependence do not substantially change with the employed simulation ensemble (constant volume versus constant pressure).

  5. Porous-wall hollow glass microspheres as novel potential nanocarriers for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuyi; Nguyen, Lynsa; Xiong, Hairong; Wang, Meiyao; Hu, Tom C.-C.; She, Jin-Xiong; Serkiz, Steven M.; Wicks, George G.; Dynan, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Porous-wall hollow glass microspheres (PW-HGMs) are a novel form of glass material consisting of a 10 to 100 micron-diameter hollow central cavity surrounded by a 1 micron-thick silica shell. A tortuous network of nanometer-scale channels completely penetrates the shell. We show here that these channels promote size-dependent uptake and controlled release of biological molecules in the 3–8 nm range, including antibodies and a modified single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv). In addition, a 6 nm (70 kDa) dextran can be used to gate the porous walls, facilitating controlled release of an internalized small interfering RNA. PW-HGMs remained in place after mouse intratumoral injection, suggesting a possible application for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs. The combination of a hollow central cavity that can carry soluble therapeutic agents with mesoporous walls for controlled release is a unique characteristic that distinguishes PW-HGMs from other glass materials for biomedical applications. PMID:19616128

  6. Preparation of SiO2@polystyrene@polypyrrole sandwich composites and hollow polypyrrole capsules with movable SiO2 spheres inside.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tongjie; Lin, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Dengfeng; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2007-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a flexible method for preparing conducting building blocks: SiO2@polystyrene@polypyrrole sandwich multilayer composites and hollow polypyrrole (PPy) capsules with movable SiO2 spheres inside. First, SiO2@polystyrene (PS) core/shell composites were synthesized, and then SiO2@PS@PPy sandwich multilayer composites were prepared by chemical polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the surface of SiO2@PS composites. Furthermore, hollow polypyrrole capsules with movable SiO2 spheres inside were obtained after removal of the middle PS layer. The diameter of sandwich multilayer composites could easily be controlled by adjusting the dosage of pyrrole monomer. The conductivities of composites increased with the increase of PPy content. After the insulating PS layer was selectively etched, the conductivities of hollow capsules with movable SiO2 spheres inside were much higher than those of the corresponding sandwich multilayer composites.

  7. Synthesis of Highly Uniform Molybdenum-Glycerate Spheres and Their Conversion into Hierarchical MoS2 Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawen; Yu, Le; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-06-20

    Highly uniform Mo-glycerate solid spheres are synthesized for the first time through a solvothermal process. The size of these Mo-glycerate spheres can be easily controlled in the range of 400-1000 nm by varying the water content in the mixed solvent. As a precursor, these Mo-glycerate solid spheres can be converted into hierarchical MoS2 hollow nanospheres through a subsequent sulfidation reaction. Owing to the unique ultrathin subunits and hollow interior, the as-prepared MoS2 hollow nanospheres exhibit appealing performance as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Impressively, these hierarchical structures deliver a high capacity of about 1100 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) with good rate retention and long cycle life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A one-pot synthetic approach to prepare palladium nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Lirong; Lu Xiaofeng; Bian Xiujie; Zhang Wanjin; Wang Ce

    2010-10-15

    A simple one-step method to fabricate hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres without any template was developed by using solvothermal treatment. Pd nanoparticles (2-5 nm) were well dispersed in the mesopores of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via in-situ reduction. In our experiment, polyvinylpyrrolidone played an important role in the synthetic process as the reducing agent and the connective material between TiO{sub 2} and Pd nanoparticles. HF species generated from solvothermal reaction leaded to the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and Ostwald ripening was another main factor that affected the size and structure of the hollow spheres. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The sensitivity was about 226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} with a detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. These results made the hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite a promising platform for fabricating new nonenzymic biosensors. - Graphical Abstract: A new one-step solvothermal method was developed to prepare Pd nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. Due to its unique nanostructure, the prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd modified GC electrode exhibit a high sensitivity (226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a relatively low reduction potential (-0.2 V), a fast response time (<3 s) and a relatively low detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M (S/N=3) towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  9. Self-assembly of triangular amphiphiles into diverse nano/microstructures and release behavior of the hollow sphere.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-12

    Amphiphilic triangular derivatives containing imine bond have been designed and used as building blocks for the construction of soft colloidal materials. The acylhydrazone derivative was found to form various nano/microstructures in different solvents. The microspheres, flower-like, and hollow spheres were formed in the polar solvents, while organogels with microporous structures were formed in nonpolar solvents. However, the simple Schiff base amphiphile without amide group did not form any ordered structures in the tested solvents. Therefore, besides the π-π stacking between the aromatic core and the van der Waals interactions between the alkyl chains, the hydrogen bonding between the acylhydrazone moieties played an important role in promoting the formation of various organized structures. More interestingly, the hollow sphere structure which was formed in THF could be used to encapsulate and release the rhodamine B. It was found that rhodamine B was encapsulated within their interiors under neutral conditions and released in an acidic condition due to the breakage of the imine bond.

  10. Synthesis of reticulated hollow spheres structure NiCo2S4 and its application in organophosphate pesticides biosensor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lei; Dong, Sheying; Wei, Wenbo; Yuan, Xiaojing; Huang, Tinglin

    2017-06-15

    Electrode materials play a key role in the development of electrochemical sensors, particularly enzyme-based biosensors. Here, a novel NiCo2S4 with reticulated hollow spheres assembled from rod-like structures was prepared by a one-pot solvothermal method and its formation mechanism was discussed. Moreover, comparison of NiCo2S4 materials from different experiment conditions as biosensors was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and the best one that was reticulated hollow spheres assembled from rod-like structures NiCo2S4 has been successfully employed as a matrix of AChE immobilization for the special structure, superior conductivity and rich reaction active sites. When using common two kinds of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) as model analyte, the biosensors demonstrated a wide linear range of 1.0×10(-12)-1.0×10(-8)gmL(-1) with the detection limit of 4.2×10(-13)gmL(-1) for methyl parathion, and 1.0×10(-13)-1.0×10(-10)gmL(-1) with the detection limit of 3.5×10(-14)gmL(-1) for paraoxon, respectively. The proposed biosensors exhibited many advantages such as acceptable stability and low cost, providing a promising tool for analysis of OPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xin; He Junhui

    2009-06-03

    Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

  12. One-step synthesis of degradable T(1)-FeOOH functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanocomposites from mesoporous silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yung-Kang; Tseng, Yu-Jui; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chou, Shang-Wei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Tsang, S C Edman; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2015-02-14

    The combination of a hollow mesoporous structure and a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent has shown its potential in simultaneous drug delivery and cell tracking applications. However, the preparation of this kind of nanocomposite is complicated and usually takes several days, which is unsuitable for scaled-up production. To overcome these hurdles, we report herein a facile method to synthesize iron oxide hydroxide functionalized hollow mesoporous silica spheres (FeOOH/HMSS) in a one-step manner. By carefully controlling the reaction kinetics of K2FeO4 in water, the gram-scale production of FeOOH/HMSS can be readily achieved at 60 °C for as short as 30 min. Most importantly, this synthetic process is also cost-effective and eco-friendly in both the precursor (K2FeO4 and H2O) and the product (FeOOH). The mechanism for the formation of a hollow structure was carefully investigated, which involves the synergetic effect of the surfactant CTAB and the side product KOH. Having outstanding biocompatibility, these degradable nanocolloids also demonstrate their feasibility in in vitro/vivo MR imaging and in vitro drug delivery.

  13. A Radically New Method for Hydrogen Storage in Hollow Glass Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Shelby; Matthew M. Hall; Fabienne C. Raszewski

    2007-08-31

    Photo-induced hydrogen diffusion has been applied to the problem of storage of high pressure hydrogen in hollow glass microspheres. Results of this study indicate that this phenomenon can be used to provide a high mass efficiency, safe, cheap, non-toxic method for storage of high pressure hydrogen. The photo-induced response is immediate upon exposure to infrared light for hollow glass microspheres doped with iron, nickel, or cobalt oxide, which is consistent with previous results for transition metal oxide-doped bulk glass samples. This effect is not observed for HGMS which do not contain these transition metal oxide, where the slight release of hydrogen observed occurs only by heating from absorption of the light. The initial rate of hydrogen release increases with increasing concentration of the metal oxide and with increasing hydrogen fill pressure within the microspheres. To date, hydrogen storage efficiencies of 2.2 wt% have been obtained, but results suggest that storage values can be increased to at least 6 wt%. Hydrogen losses over a 5 week period are minimal at room temperature in all compositions, with somewhat greater, but acceptable, losses at 50 C. Hollow glass microspheres have been produced from an alkali alkaline earth borosilicate glass containing either 1 or 5 wt% of the oxides of iron, nickel, and cobalt. Photo-driven gas diffusion has been demonstrated for these HGMS. Demonstration of photo-induced diffusion in these samples provides the first proof-of-concept for eventual applications of HGMS for large scale hydrogen storage.

  14. Bubble template synthesis of Sn2Nb2O7 hollow spheres for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Yufei; Bian, Tong; Shang, Lu; Yu, Huijun; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Zhang, Tierui

    2013-10-28

    Hierarchical Sn2Nb2O7 hollow spheres were prepared for the first time via a facile hydrothermal route using bubbles generated in situ from the decomposition of urea as soft templates. The as-obtained hollow spheres with a large specific surface area of 58.3 m(2) g(-1) show improved visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 production activity in lactic acid aqueous solutions, about 4 times higher than that of the bulk Sn2Nb2O7 sample prepared by a conventional high temperature solid state reaction method.

  15. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO2, the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO2@CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO2. After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO2-based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and magnetic properties of hollow nano-spheres of cobalt and cobalt oxide: Drastic cooling-field effects on remnant magnetization of antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hayashida, Kenta; Kozuka, Yasuharu; Horiguchi, Asami; Awaga, Kunio; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the making of magnetic hollow spheres of Co3O4 (2) and fcc Co (3) with diameter 500 nm and thickness 40 nm, using polystyrene-bead templates. The spheres are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on 2 reveal a drastic enhancement of remnant magnetization below TN induced by cooling-field, while measurements on 3 indicate a soft ferromagnetism similar to that of bulk fcc Co.

  17. Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 core-shell spheres encapsulated in three-dimensional graphene foams for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are fabricated using 300 nm spherical SiO2 particles as template. Then three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are successfully obtained through self-assembly in hydrothermal process from graphene oxide nanosheets and metal oxide hollow spheres. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated architectures could greatly improve the capacity, cycling stability and rate capability of hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres electrodes due to the highly conductive networks and flexible buffering matrix. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Hard sphere-like glass transition in eye lens α-crystallin solutions

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Gabriela; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Thurston, George M.; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the equilibrium liquid structure and dynamics of dilute and concentrated bovine eye lens α-crystallin solutions, using small-angle X-ray scattering, static and dynamic light scattering, viscometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and mode-coupling theory. We find that a polydisperse Percus–Yevick hard-sphere liquid-structure model accurately reproduces both static light scattering data and small-angle X-ray scattering liquid structure data from α-crystallin solutions over an extended range of protein concentrations up to 290 mg/mL or 49% vol fraction and up to ca. 330 mg/mL for static light scattering. The measured dynamic light scattering and viscosity properties are also consistent with those of hard-sphere colloids and show power laws characteristic of an approach toward a glass transition at α-crystallin volume fractions near 58%. Dynamic light scattering at a volume fraction beyond the glass transition indicates formation of an arrested state. We further perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of polydisperse hard-sphere systems and use mode-coupling theory to compare the measured dynamic power laws with those of hard-sphere models. The static and dynamic data, simulations, and analysis show that aqueous eye lens α-crystallin solutions exhibit a glass transition at high concentrations that is similar to those found in hard-sphere colloidal systems. The α-crystallin glass transition could have implications for the molecular basis of presbyopia and the kinetics of molecular change during cataractogenesis. PMID:25385638

  19. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer using a hollow glass optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W., IV.; Celliers, P.M.; Da Silva, L.D.; Matthews, D.L.

    1997-06-30

    A non-invasive two-color infrared thermometer has been developed for low-temperature biomedical applications. Mid-infrared radiation from the target is collected via a single 700 {mu}m-bore hollow glass optical fiber, simultaneously split into two paths and modulated by a gold-coated reflective optical chopper, and focused onto two thermoelectrically-cooled HgCdZnTe photoconductors (bandpasses of 2- 6 {mu}m and 2-12 {mu}m, respectively) by gold-coated spherical mirrors. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber provides high spatial resolution (is less than 1 mm), and the hollow bore eliminates reflective losses. The modulated detector signals are recovered using lock-in amplification, permitting measurement of small low-temperature signal buried in the background. A computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of the target in real time based on a previous blackbody (emissivity equal to 1) calibration, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface.

  20. Size-controlled SnO₂ hollow spheres via a template free approach as anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Akkisetty; Deepa, Melepurath; Rao, Tata Narasinga

    2014-09-21

    Tin oxide hollow spheres (SnO₂ HS) with high structural integrity were synthesized by using a one pot hydrothermal approach with organic moieties as structure controlling agents. By adjusting the proportion of acetylacetone (AcAc) in the precursor formulation, SnO₂ HS of 200 and 350 nm dimensions, with a uniform shell thickness of about 50 nm, were prepared. Using the optimized solution composition with a Sn precursor, heating duration dependent structural evolution of SnO₂ was performed at a fixed temperature of 160 °C, which revealed a transition from solid spheres (1 h) to aggregated spheres (4 h) to porous spheres (10 h) to optimized HS (13 h) and finally to broken enlarged HS (24 h). A heating temperature dependent study carried out with a constant heating span of 13 h showed a metamorphosis from spheres with solid cores (140 °C) to ones with hollow cores (160 °C), culminating with fragmented HS, expanded in dimensions (180 °C). A growth mechanism was proposed for the optimized SnO₂ HS (2.5 or 5.0 mL of AcAc, 160 °C, 13 h) and the performance of these HS as anodes for Li ions batteries was evaluated by electrochemical studies. The 200 nm SnO₂ HS demonstrated an initial lithium storage capacity of 1055 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), and they retained a capacity of 540 mA h g(-1) after 50 charge-discharge cycles. The SnO₂ HS also showed excellent rate capability as the electrode exhibited a capacity of 422 mA h g(-1) even at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1). The notable capacity of SnO₂ HS is a manifestation of the mono-disperse quality of the SnO₂ HS coupled with the high number of electrochemically addressable sites, afforded by the large surface area of the HS and the striking cyclability is also attributed to the unique structure of HS, which is resistant to degradation upon repeated ion insertion/extraction. The SnO₂ HS were also found to be luminescent, thus indicating their usefulness for not only energy

  1. Constructing magnetic polyaniline/metal hybrid nanostructures using polyaniline/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite hollow spheres as supports

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Lirong; Lu Xiaofeng; Jin, E; Jiang Shan; Bian Xiujie; Zhang Wanjin; Wang Ce

    2009-08-15

    Polyaniline (PANI)/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite hollow spheres have been successfully synthesized in one step using sulfonated polystyrene (PS) spheres as templates. The magnetic PANI hollow spheres were used as supports for noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as Au and Pd. The morphology, composition and magnetic properties of the resulting products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer. The catalytic activity of magnetic PANI/Au composite shells on the oxidation of dopamine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained results provide our product with a practical application for the detection of dopamine. On the other hand, the catalytic activity of magnetic PANI/Pd composite shells on the reduction of 4-nitroaniline was investigated by spectroscopic methods and compared with Pd/C catalyst which was already widely used in industrial production. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of PANI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow spheres which can be used as supports for a variety of catalysts such as noble metal nanoparticles. Based on the unique properties of polyaniline hollow spheres and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs, we designed the synthesis of polyaniline/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs composite hollow spheres as supports for catalysts such as noble metal NPs. As a result, the obtained composites exhibit enhanced catalytic activities and can be easily separated from reaction mixture by using an NdFeB permanent magnet.

  2. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  3. Scalable synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)(3)/C porous hollow spheres as a cathode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, JF; Luo, C; Gao, T; Fan, XL; Wang, CS

    2015-01-01

    Na3V2(PO4)(3) (NVP) has been considered as a very promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its typical NASICON structure, which provides an open and three dimensional (3D) framework for Na+ migration. However, the low electronic conductivity of NVP limits its rate capability and cycling ability. In this study, carbon coated hollow structured NVP/C composites are synthesized via a template-free and scalable ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process, where the carbon coated NVP particles are uniformly decorated on the inner and outer surfaces of the porous hollow carbon spheres. When evaluated as a cathode material for SIBs, the unique NVP/C porous hollow sphere cathode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 99.2 mA h g(-1) and retains 89.3 mA h g(-1) after 300 charge/discharge cycles with a very low degradation rate of 0.035% per cycle. For comparison, the NVP/C composite, prepared by the traditional sol-gel method, delivers a lower initial discharge capacity of 97.4 mA h g(-1) and decreases significantly to 71.5 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of NVP/C porous hollow spheres is attributed to their unique porous, hollow and spherical structures, as well as the carbon-coating layer, which provides a high contact area between electrode/electrolyte, high electronic conductivity, and high mechanical strength.

  4. Hollow Structured Micro/Nano MoS₂ Spheres for High Electrocatalytic Activity Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bangjun; Yu, Ke; Li, Honglin; Song, Haili; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lei, Xiang; Fu, Hao; Tan, Yinghua; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2016-03-02

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted extensive attention as a non-noble metal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Controlling the skeleton structure at the nanoscale is paramount to increase the number of active sites at the surface. However, hydrothermal synthesis favors the presence of the basal plane, limiting the efficiency of catalytic reaction. In this work, perfect hollow MoS2 microspheres capped by hollow MoS2 nanospheres (hH-MoS2) were obtained for the first time, which creates an opportunity for improving the HER electrocatalytic performance. Benefiting from the controllable hollow skeleton structure and large exposed edge sites, high-efficiency HER activity was obtained for stacked MoS2 thin shells with a mild degree of disorder, proving the presence of rich active sites and the validity of the combined structure. In general, the obtained hollow micro/nano MoS2 nanomaterial exhibits optimized electrocatalytic activity for HER with onset overpotential as low as 112 mV, low Tafel slope of 74 mV decade(-1), high current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at η = 214 mV, and high TOF of 0.11 H2 s(-1) per active site at η = 200 mV.

  5. Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Borujeni, Ahmad Reza Afraz; Najafi, Mojgan; Bagheri, Ahmad

    2011-01-15

    CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters ranging from 40 to 150 nm have been synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sonochemical route. The successful vesicle templating indicates that the outer leaflet of the bilayer is the receptive surface in the controlled growth of CdS nanoparticles which provide the unique reactor for the nucleation and mineralization growth of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Structural characterization of hollow CdS nanospheres indicates that these products packed with square subunits having sizes between 5 and 7 nm in diameter. The formation of the hollow nanostructure was explained by a vesicle template mechanism, in which sonication and surfactant play important roles. The band-edge emission and surface luminescence of the CdS nanoparticles were observed. -Research Highlights: {yields} CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters of 40-150 nm were synthesized. {yields} Nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Vis and photoluminescence. {yields} Nanospheres are composed of smaller nanocrystals with the average size of 6.8 nm. {yields} The band gap energy of the CdS nanoparticles is higher than its bulk value.

  6. Nanoparticle self-assembled hollow TiO2 spheres with well matching visible light scattering for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hongchang; Yang, Hongbin; Guo, Chun Xian; Lu, Jinlin; Li, Chang Ming

    2012-09-11

    Submicrometer-sized hollow TiO(2) spheres are directly self-assembled from TiO(2) nanoparticles without using any template or surfactant as a scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells, showing good visible light scattering match to significantly improve the photoconversion efficiency.

  7. Nanoscale copper sulfide hollow spheres with phase-engineered composition: covellite (CuS), digenite (Cu1.8S), chalcocite (Cu2S).

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Peter; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Feldmann, Claus

    2011-06-01

    Covellite (CuS), digenite (Cu(1.8)S) and chalcocite (Cu(2)S) are prepared as nanoscaled hollow spheres by reaction at the liquid-to-liquid phase boundary of a w/o-microemulsion. According to electron microscopy (SEM, STEM, TEM, HRTEM) the hollow spheres exhibit an outer diameter of 32-36 nm, a wall thickness of 8-12 nm and an inner cavity of 8-16 nm in diameter. The phase composition is determined based on HRTEM, electron-energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. In face of the advanced morphology of the hollow spheres, precise control of its phase composition is nevertheless possible by adjusting the experimental conditions (i.e. type and concentration of the copper precursor, concentration of ammonia inside of the micelle). Such phase-engineering of nanoscale hollow spheres is firstly observed and might allow adjusting even further compositions/structures as well as tailoring of phase-specific properties in the future.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. • Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550–700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  9. Inorganic polymer-derived hollow SiC and filled SiCN sphere assemblies from a 3DOM carbon template.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Jong-Sung; Li, Xiao-Dong; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2004-10-21

    Three-dimensional long range ordered hollow SiC and filled SiCN sphere assemblies were prepared for the first time by embedding low molecular weight pre-ceramic polymers of polymethylsilane and polysilazane into sacrificial 3DOM carbon templates which were subsequently burned out in air after pyrolysis under a nitrogen atmosphere.

  10. Connection between the packing efficiency of binary hard spheres and the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Smith, W. Wendell; Wang, Minglei; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2014-09-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to compress binary hard spheres into jammed packings as a function of the compression rate R, size ratio α, and number fraction xS of small particles to determine the connection between the glass-forming ability (GFA) and packing efficiency in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). We define the GFA by measuring the critical compression rate Rc, below which jammed hard-sphere packings begin to form "random crystal" structures with defects. We find that for systems with α ≳0.8 that do not demix, Rc decreases strongly with ΔϕJ, as Rc˜exp(-1/ΔϕJ2), where ΔϕJ is the difference between the average packing fraction of the amorphous packings and random crystal structures at Rc. Systems with α ≲0.8 partially demix, which promotes crystallization, but we still find a strong correlation between Rc and ΔϕJ. We show that known metal-metal BMGs occur in the regions of the α and xS parameter space with the lowest values of Rc for binary hard spheres. Our results emphasize that maximizing GFA in binary systems involves two competing effects: minimizing α to increase packing efficiency, while maximizing α to prevent demixing.

  11. Connection between the packing efficiency of binary hard spheres and the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Smith, W Wendell; Wang, Minglei; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2014-09-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to compress binary hard spheres into jammed packings as a function of the compression rate R, size ratio α, and number fraction x(S) of small particles to determine the connection between the glass-forming ability (GFA) and packing efficiency in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). We define the GFA by measuring the critical compression rate R(c), below which jammed hard-sphere packings begin to form "random crystal" structures with defects. We find that for systems with α≳0.8 that do not demix, R(c) decreases strongly with Δϕ(J), as R(c)∼exp(-1/Δϕ(J)(2)), where Δϕ(J) is the difference between the average packing fraction of the amorphous packings and random crystal structures at R(c). Systems with α≲0.8 partially demix, which promotes crystallization, but we still find a strong correlation between R(c) and Δϕ(J). We show that known metal-metal BMGs occur in the regions of the α and x(S) parameter space with the lowest values of R(c) for binary hard spheres. Our results emphasize that maximizing GFA in binary systems involves two competing effects: minimizing α to increase packing efficiency, while maximizing α to prevent demixing.

  12. Highly uniform distribution of Pt nanoparticles on N-doped hollow carbon spheres with enhanced durability for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Qiurong; Zhu, Chengzhou; Engelhard, Mark H.; ...

    2017-01-19

    Here, carbon-supported Pt nanostructures currently exhibited great potential in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) with extra low density and high specific surface area are promising carbon support for loading Pt NPs. The doped heteroatom of nitrogen could not only contribute to the active activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but also shows a strong interaction with Pt NPs for entrapping them from dissolution/migration. This synergetic effect/interaction resulted in the uniform dispersion and strong combination of the Pt NPs on the carbon support and thus play a significant role in hindering the degradation of themore » catalytic activities of Pt NPs. As expected, the as-obtained Pt/NHCSs displayed improved catalytic activity and superior durability toward ORR.« less

  13. Highly uniform distribution of Pt nanoparticles on N-doped hollow carbon spheres with enhanced durability for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Qiurong; Zhu, Chengzhou; Engelhard, Mark H.; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-supported Pt nanostructures currently exhibited great potential in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) with extra low density and high specific surface area are promising carbon support for loading Pt NPs. The doped heteroatom of nitrogen could not only contribute to the active activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but also shows a strong interaction with Pt NPs for entrapping them from dissolution/migration. This synergetic effect/interaction resulted in the uniform dispersion and strong combination of the Pt NPs on the carbon support and thus play a significant role in hindering the degradation of the catalytic activities of Pt NPs. As expected, the as-obtained Pt/NHCSs displayed improved catalytic activity and superior durability toward ORR.

  14. Using electroless deposition for the preparation of micron sized polymer/metal core/shell particles and hollow metal spheres.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Pietro; Goedel, Werner A

    2006-02-23

    Uniform and stable core-shell microspheres composed of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core and a thin metallic shell of nickel-phosphorus, cobalt-phosphorus, or mixed metal alloys (CoNiP, NiFeP, CoFeP) were prepared by dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate followed by electroless plating. The presence of the metallic shell around the particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy images of the cross-section of individual particles show that the thickness of the metal/alloy can be precisely tuned by adjusting the immersion time of the microspheres in the electroless bath. Depending on the deposited metallic material, various magnetic properties, from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, are achieved. Finally, uniform hollow metallic spheres composed of nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy are obtained by dissolving the polymer core.

  15. An ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor based on hollow-sphere microstructure induced elasticity in conducting polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lijia; Chortos, Alex; Yu, Guihua; Wang, Yaqun; Isaacson, Scott; Allen, Ranulfo; Shi, Yi; Dauskardt, Reinhold; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sensing is an important function of electronic skin devices. The development of pressure sensors that can mimic and surpass the subtle pressure sensing properties of natural skin requires the rational design of materials and devices. Here we present an ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor based on an elastic, microstructured conducting polymer thin film. The elastic microstructured film is prepared from a polypyrrole hydrogel using a multiphase reaction that produced a hollow-sphere microstructure that endows polypyrrole with structure-derived elasticity and a low effective elastic modulus. The contact area between the microstructured thin film and the electrodes increases with the application of pressure, enabling the device to detect low pressures with ultra-high sensitivity. Our pressure sensor based on an elastic microstructured thin film enables the detection of pressures of less than 1 Pa and exhibits a short response time, good reproducibility, excellent cycling stability and temperature-stable sensing.

  16. Evaluation of SiO2@CoFe2O4 nano-hollow spheres through THz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Pal, Monalisa; Serita, Kazunori; Chaudhuri, Arka; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Mandal, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    We have synthesized cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles (NPs) of diameter 100 nm and nano-hollow spheres (NHSs) of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm by a facile one step template free solvothermal technique and carried out SiO2 coating on their surface following Stöber method. The phase and morphology of the nanostructures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The magnetic measurements were carried out by vibrating sample magnetometer in order to study the influence of SiO2 coating on the magnetic properties of bare CFO nanostructures. Furthermore, we have applied THz time domain spectroscopy to investigate the THz absorption property of these nanostructures in the frequency range 1.0-2.5 THz. Detailed morphology and size dependent THz absorption study unfolds that the absorption property of these nanostructures sensitively carries the unique signature of its dielectric property.

  17. Encapsulating Pd nanoparticles in double-shelled graphene@carbon hollow spheres for excellent chemical catalytic property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheye; Xiao, Fei; Xi, Jiangbo; Sun, Tai; Xiao, Shuang; Wang, Hairong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2014-02-11

    Double-shelled hollow carbon spheres with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as inner shell and carbon (C) layer as outer shell have been successfully designed and prepared. This tailor-making structure acts as an excellent capsule for encapsulating with ultrafine Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs), which could effectively prevent Pd NPs from aggregation and leaching. As a result, the as-obtained RGO@Pd@C nanohybid exhibits superior and stable catalytic performance. With the aid of RGO@Pd@C, the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 as reducing agent can be finished within only 30 s, even the content of Pd is as low as 0.28 wt%. As far as we know, RGO@Pd@C is one of the most effective catalyst for 4-NP reducing reaction up to now.

  18. Design of Selective Gas Sensors Using Additive-Loaded In2O3 Hollow Spheres Prepared by Combinatorial Hydrothermal Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2011-01-01

    A combinatorial hydrothermal reaction has been used to prepare pure and additive (Sb, Cu, Nb, Pd, and Ni)-loaded In2O3 hollow spheres for gas sensor applications. The operation of Pd- and Cu-loaded In2O3 sensors at 371 °C leads to selective H2S detection. Selective detection of CO and NH3 was achieved by the Ni-In2O3 sensor at sensing temperatures of 371 and 440 °C, respectively. The gas responses of six different sensors to NH3, H2S, H2, CO and CH4 produced unique gas sensing patterns that can be used for the artificial recognition of these gases. PMID:22346661

  19. Controlling X-ray beam trajectory with a flexible hollow glass fibre

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Nakatani, Takashi; Onitsuka, Rena; Sawada, Kei; Takahashi, Isao

    2014-01-01

    A metre-length flexible hollow glass fibre with 20 µm-bore and 1.5 mm-cladding diameters for transporting a synchrotron X-ray beam and controlling the trajectory has been examined. The large cladding diameter maintains a moderate curvature to satisfy the shallow glancing angle of total reflection. The observed transmission efficiency was more than 20% at 12.4 keV. As a demonstration, a wide-area scan of a synchrotron radiation beam was performed to identify the elements for a fixed metal film through its absorption spectra. PMID:24365917

  20. Stressed waveguides with tubular depressed-cladding inscribed in phosphate glasses by femtosecond hollow laser beams.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuewen; Bai, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Stoian, Razvan; Hui, Rongqing; Cheng, Guanghua

    2012-08-01

    We report on the single-step fabrication of stressed optical waveguides with tubular depressed-refractive-index cladding in phosphate glasses by the use of focused femtosecond hollow laser beams. Tubelike low index regions appear under direct exposure due to material rarefaction following expansion. Strained compacted zones emerged in domains neighboring the tubular track of lower refractive index, and waveguiding occurs mainly within the tube core fabricated by the engineered femtosecond laser beam. The refractive index profile of the optical waveguide was reconstructed from the measured transmitted near-field intensity.

  1. Controlling X-ray beam trajectory with a flexible hollow glass fibre.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Nakatani, Takashi; Onitsuka, Rena; Sawada, Kei; Takahashi, Isao

    2014-01-01

    A metre-length flexible hollow glass fibre with 20 µm-bore and 1.5 mm-cladding diameters for transporting a synchrotron X-ray beam and controlling the trajectory has been examined. The large cladding diameter maintains a moderate curvature to satisfy the shallow glancing angle of total reflection. The observed transmission efficiency was more than 20% at 12.4 keV. As a demonstration, a wide-area scan of a synchrotron radiation beam was performed to identify the elements for a fixed metal film through its absorption spectra.

  2. A Facile Hydrothermal Route for Synthesis of ZnS Hollow Spheres with Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes Under Visible Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zh.; Wang, N.; Zhang, H.; Yang, X.

    2017-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal method was employed for the synthesis of ZnS hollow spheres by using thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a capping agent under hydrothermal condition. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). No diffraction peaks from other crystalline forms were detected, the synthesized ZnS hierarchical hollow spheres were relatively pure. The photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized samples were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB) under the condition of visible-light irradiation. The higher the initial MO and RhB concentrations, the longer it takes to reach the same residual concentration, implying that the apparent rates of MO and RhB degradation decrease with increase in the initial MO and RhB concentration. The increase of photocatalyst dosage from 0.2 to 0.6 g/L results in a sharp increase of the photodegradation efficiency from 68.50 to 92.66% after 180 min of visible-light irradiation for MO degradation, and the increase of photocatalyst dosage from 0.2 to 0.4 g/L results in a distinct increase of the photodegradation efficiency from 65.72 to 90.85% after 180 min of visible-light irradiation for RhB. The elution of intermediates generated in the photocatalytic mineralization of MO and RhB resulted in an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) level, leading to the difference between TOC removal rate and MO and RhB decolorization rates.

  3. Fabrication of non-enzymatic biosensor based on metallic catalyst-TiO2 hollow sphere nanocomposite for determining biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Kwen, Hai-Doo; Yang, Hee-Soo; Lee, In-Ho; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-07-01

    A PtRu@TiO2-hollow nanocomposite for the detection of biomolecules was synthesized by chemical reduction. First, poly(styrene-co-vinylphenylboronic acid), PSB, was prepared as a template (approximately 250 nm) by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Second, PSB/TiO2 core-shell spheres were prepared by sol-gel reaction. Finally, TiO2 hollow spheres (TiO2-H) were then formed after removing the PSB template by calcination at 450 degrees C under air atmosphere. To prepare the electrocatalyst, PtRu nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited onto the TiO2-H surface by chemical reduction. The prepared PtRu@TiO2-H nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analysis. A non-enzymatic sensor was fabricated by depositing the as-prepared PtRu@TiO2-H nanocomposite on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which was prepared by a hand casting method with Nafion solution as a binder. The sensor was tested as a biomolecule sensor, especially for the detection of glucose and dopamine. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) obtained during the oxidation studies revealed that the PtRu@TiO2-H nanocomposite showed better catalytic function toward the oxidation of dopamine. The sensing range of the non-enzymatic sensor for glucose was 5.0-100 mM in a phosphate buffer. The results demonstrated the potential usefulness of this bimetallic@TiO2-H bifunctional catalyst for biosensor applications.

  4. Sequential formation of calcium carbonate superstructure: From solid/hollow spheres to sponge-like/solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tark Han, Joong; Xu, Xurong; Cho, Kilwon

    2007-10-01

    Organisms produce complex nanostructured biomineral materials that are supported by acidic proteins and have excellent mechanical properties. The strategy of mimicking these natural processes opens new avenues for material design in both scientific and industrial fields. Interestingly, amorphous minerals, which are less stable and more soluble than crystalline ones, have an important basic function in many biomineral formation processes as transient precursor phase of crystalline ones. Here we introduce a robust demonstration of the role of an amorphous precursor phase in biomineralization, and the sequential formation of an exquisite CaCO 3 structures via a one-pot solution route, in which amorphous microparticles in the presence of a small amount of synthetic acidic macromolecules are sequentially transformed into hollow vaterite microparticles, sponge-like vaterite films and solid vaterite films by the CO 2 diffusion method. We propose a mechanism for the formation of hollow spheres, which may have potential applications as host capsule materials, namely, their formation by crystallization on the particle surface, and the subsequent dissolution of their core. Our findings provide a new strategy for the sequential formation of biominerals in the presence of small amount of organic additives.

  5. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hollow structure and huge specific surface area. The growth of HSS was an inward-growth mechanism along template. Notably, we have provided a new and interesting fundamental principle for HSS materials by precisely controlling the ethanol-to-water volume ratio. In addition, the as-obtained HSS were mixed with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to prepare WPU/HSS composite membrane. Various characterizations (SEM, TEM, FT-IR and TGA) revealed the morphology, polydispersity and adherence between HSS and WPU. Performance tests showed that the introduction of HSS can improve the water vapor permeability of composite membrane, promoting its water resistance and mechanical performance at the same time. PMID:28429740

  6. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hollow structure and huge specific surface area. The growth of HSS was an inward-growth mechanism along template. Notably, we have provided a new and interesting fundamental principle for HSS materials by precisely controlling the ethanol-to-water volume ratio. In addition, the as-obtained HSS were mixed with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to prepare WPU/HSS composite membrane. Various characterizations (SEM, TEM, FT-IR and TGA) revealed the morphology, polydispersity and adherence between HSS and WPU. Performance tests showed that the introduction of HSS can improve the water vapor permeability of composite membrane, promoting its water resistance and mechanical performance at the same time.

  7. Research Update: Facile synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-hollow spheres for efficient bilirubin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Pal, Monalisa; Chaudhuri, Arka; Mandal, Madhuri; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report an unprecedented bilirubin (BR) adsorption efficiency of CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanostructures in contrast to the commercially available activated carbon and resin which are generally used for haemoperfusion and haemodialysis. We have synthesized CFO nanoparticles of diameter 100 nm and a series of nano-hollow spheres of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm using a simple template free solvothermal technique through proper variation of reaction time and capping agent, oleylamine (OLA), respectively, and carried out SiO2 coating by employing Stöber method. The comparative BR adsorption study of CFO and SiO2 coated CFO nanostructures indicates that apart from porosity and hollow configuration of nanostructures, the electrostatic affinity between anionic carboxyl group of BR and cationic amine group of OLA plays a significant role in adsorbing BR. Finally, we demonstrate that the BR adsorption capacity of the nanostructures can be tailored by varying the morphology as well as size of the nanostructures. We believe that our developed magnetic nanostructures could be considered as a potential material towards therapeutic applications against hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. Improvements in processing characteristics and engineering properties of wood flour-filled high density polyethylene composite sheeting in the presence of hollow glass microspheres

    Treesearch

    Baris Yalcin; Steve E Amos; Andrew S D Souza; Craig M Clemons; I Sedat Gunes; Troy K Ista

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass microspheres were introduced into wood flour/high density polyethylene composites by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The prepared composites were subsequently converted to extruded profiles in order to obtain composite sheeting. The presence of hollow glass microspheres highly reduced the density of the extruded sheets down to 0.9 g/cc, while...

  9. Photochemistry in a soft-glass single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Cubillas, Ana M; Jiang, Xin; Euser, Tijmen G; Taccardi, Nicola; Etzold, Bastian J M; Wasserscheid, Peter; Russell, Philip St J

    2017-03-13

    A hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF), guided by photonic bandgap effects or anti-resonant reflection, offers strong light confinement and long photochemical interaction lengths in a microscale channel filled with a solvent of refractive index lower than that of glass (usually fused silica). These unique advantages have motivated its recent use as a highly efficient and versatile microreactor for liquid-phase photochemistry and catalysis. In this work, we use a single-ring HC-PCF made from a high-index soft glass, thus enabling photochemical experiments in higher index solvents. The optimized light-matter interaction in the fibre is used to strongly enhance the reaction rate in a proof-of-principle photolysis reaction in toluene.

  10. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-139549 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 crew member, works with the bowling ball-sized satellites known as SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage Reorient Experimental Satellites) to study how liquids behave inside containers in microgravity. The experiment, named SPHERES-Slosh, maneuvers the tiny satellites similar to an actual spacecraft with an externally mounted tank and observes the interaction between the sloshing fluid and the tank/vehicle dynamics.

  11. Probing the equilibrium dynamics of colloidal hard spheres above the mode-coupling glass transition.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; El Masri, D; Pierno, M; Berthier, L; Cipelletti, L; Petekidis, G; Schofield, A B

    2009-02-27

    We use dynamic light scattering and computer simulations to study equilibrium dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in concentrated suspensions of colloidal hard spheres. Our study covers an unprecedented density range and spans seven decades in structural relaxation time, tau(alpha0, including equilibrium measurements above phi(c), the location of the glass transition deduced from fitting our data to mode-coupling theory. Instead of falling out of equilibrium, the system remains ergodic above phi(c) and enters a new dynamical regime where tau(alpha) increases with a functional form that was not anticipated by previous experiments, while the amplitude of dynamic heterogeneity grows slower than a power law with tau(alpha), as found in molecular glass formers close to the glass transition.

  12. Preparation of Hollow CuO@SiO2 Spheres and Its Catalytic Performances for the NO + CO and CO Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Tieying; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    The hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres with a mean diameter of 240 nm and a thin shell layer of about 30 nm in thickness was synthesized using an inorganic SiO2 shell coating on the surface of Cu@C composite that was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method. The obtained hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres were characterized by ICP-AES, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, XRD, H2-TPR, CO-TPR, CO-TPD and NO-TPD. The results revealed that the hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres consist of CuO uniformly inserted into SiO2 layer. The CuO@SiO2 sample exhibits particular catalytic activities for CO oxidation and NO + CO reactions compared with CuO supported on SiO2 (CuO/SiO2). The higher catalytic activity is attributed to the special hollow shell structure that possesses much more highly dispersed CuO nanocluster that can be easy toward the CO and NO adsorption and the oxidation of CO on its surface. PMID:25777579

  13. Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu core-shell materials and hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guixia; Hong Guangyan . E-mail: gyhang@ns.ciac.jl.cn

    2005-05-15

    The SiO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu core-shell materials and hollow spheres were first synthesized by a template-mediated method. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the broadened diffraction peaks result from nanocrystals of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shells and hollow spheres. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shells are linked with silica cores by Si-O-Y chemical bond. SEM and TEM observations showed that the size of SiO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu core-shell structure is in the range of 140-180nm, and the thickness of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu hollow spherical shell is about 20-40nm. The photoluminescence spectra of SiO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu core-shell materials and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu hollow spheres have better red luminescent properties, and the broadened emission bands came from the size effects of nanocrystals composed of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shell.

  14. Preparation of Hollow CuO@SiO2 Spheres and Its Catalytic Performances for the NO + CO and CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Tieying; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2015-03-01

    The hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres with a mean diameter of 240 nm and a thin shell layer of about 30 nm in thickness was synthesized using an inorganic SiO2 shell coating on the surface of Cu@C composite that was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method. The obtained hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres were characterized by ICP-AES, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, XRD, H2-TPR, CO-TPR, CO-TPD and NO-TPD. The results revealed that the hollow CuO@SiO2 spheres consist of CuO uniformly inserted into SiO2 layer. The CuO@SiO2 sample exhibits particular catalytic activities for CO oxidation and NO + CO reactions compared with CuO supported on SiO2 (CuO/SiO2). The higher catalytic activity is attributed to the special hollow shell structure that possesses much more highly dispersed CuO nanocluster that can be easy toward the CO and NO adsorption and the oxidation of CO on its surface.

  15. Water-dispersible Hollow Microporous Organic Network Spheres as Substrate for Electroless Deposition of Ultrafine Pd Nanoparticles with High Catalytic Activity and Recyclability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifang; Chang, Jing; Hu, Yuchen; Yu, Yifu; Guo, Yamei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-11-22

    Microporous organic networks (MONs) have been considered as an ideal substrate to stabilize active metal nanoparticles. However, the development of highly water-dispersible hollow MONs nanostructures which can serve as both the reducing agent and stabilizer is highly desirable but still challenging. Here we report a template-assisted method to synthesize hollow microporous organic network (H-MON) spheres using silica spheres as hard template and 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene as the building blocks through a Glaser coupling reaction. The obtained water-dispersible H-MON spheres bearing sp- and sp(2) -hybridized carbon atoms possess a highly conjugated electronic structure and show low reduction potential; thus, they can serve as a reducing agent and stabilizer for electroless deposition of highly dispersed Pd clusters to form a Pd/H-MON spherical hollow nanocomposite. Benefitting from their high porosity, large surface area, and excellent solution dispersibility, the as-prepared Pd/H-MON hollow nanocomposite exhibits a high catalytic performance and recyclability toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Hierarchical SiO2@C/TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Shunsheng; Yin, Zhengliang; Cheng, Li; Wu, Limin

    2017-09-06

    TiO2 has been widely investigated as an electrode material because of its long cycle life and good durability, but the relatively low theoretical capacity restricts its practical application. Herein, we design and synthesize novel hierarchical SiO2@C/TiO2 (HSCT) hollow spheres via a template-directed method. These unique HSCT hollow spheres combine advantages from both TiO2 such as cycle stability and SiO2 with a high accessible area and ionic transport. In particular, the existence of a C layer is able to enhance the electrical conductivity. The SiO2 layer with a porous structure can increase the ion diffusion channels and accelerate the ion transfer from the outer to the inner layers. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the HSCT-hollow-sphere-based electrode manifests a high specific capacitance of 1018 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) which is higher than those for hollow TiO2 (113 F g(-1)) and SiO2/TiO2 (252 F g(-1)) electrodes, and substantially higher than those of all the previously reported TiO2-based electrodes.

  17. Synthesis of Micelles Guided Magnetite (Fe3O4) Hollow Spheres and their application for AC Magnetic Field Responsive Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Mandal Goswami, Madhuri

    2016-10-31

    This paper reports on synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite, guided by micelles and their application in drug release by the stimulus responsive technique. Here oleyelamine micelles are used as the core substance for the formation of magnetite nano hollow spheres (NHS). Diameter and shell thickness of NHS have been changed by changing concentration of the micelles. Mechanism of NHS formation has been established by investigating the aliquot collected at different time during the synthesis of NHS. It has been observed that oleyelamine as micelles play an important role to generate hollow-sphere particles of different diameter and thickness just by varying its amount. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements, SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the shape and size of the NHS. FTIR measurement support the formation of magnetite phase too. Frequency dependent AC magnetic measurements and AC magnetic field stimulated drug release event by these particles provide a direction of the promising application of these NHS for better cancer treatment in near future. Being hollow &porous in structure and magnetic in nature, such materials will also be useful in other applications such as in removal of toxic materials, magnetic separation etc.

  18. Synthesis of Micelles Guided Magnetite (Fe3O4) Hollow Spheres and their application for AC Magnetic Field Responsive Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Mandal Goswami, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite, guided by micelles and their application in drug release by the stimulus responsive technique. Here oleyelamine micelles are used as the core substance for the formation of magnetite nano hollow spheres (NHS). Diameter and shell thickness of NHS have been changed by changing concentration of the micelles. Mechanism of NHS formation has been established by investigating the aliquot collected at different time during the synthesis of NHS. It has been observed that oleyelamine as micelles play an important role to generate hollow-sphere particles of different diameter and thickness just by varying its amount. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements, SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the shape and size of the NHS. FTIR measurement support the formation of magnetite phase too. Frequency dependent AC magnetic measurements and AC magnetic field stimulated drug release event by these particles provide a direction of the promising application of these NHS for better cancer treatment in near future. Being hollow & porous in structure and magnetic in nature, such materials will also be useful in other applications such as in removal of toxic materials, magnetic separation etc. PMID:27796329

  19. Synthesis of Micelles Guided Magnetite (Fe3O4) Hollow Spheres and their application for AC Magnetic Field Responsive Drug Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal Goswami, Madhuri

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite, guided by micelles and their application in drug release by the stimulus responsive technique. Here oleyelamine micelles are used as the core substance for the formation of magnetite nano hollow spheres (NHS). Diameter and shell thickness of NHS have been changed by changing concentration of the micelles. Mechanism of NHS formation has been established by investigating the aliquot collected at different time during the synthesis of NHS. It has been observed that oleyelamine as micelles play an important role to generate hollow-sphere particles of different diameter and thickness just by varying its amount. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements, SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the shape and size of the NHS. FTIR measurement support the formation of magnetite phase too. Frequency dependent AC magnetic measurements and AC magnetic field stimulated drug release event by these particles provide a direction of the promising application of these NHS for better cancer treatment in near future. Being hollow & porous in structure and magnetic in nature, such materials will also be useful in other applications such as in removal of toxic materials, magnetic separation etc.

  20. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    Astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with the bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellite known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES in the International Space Stations Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibo laboratory. Also sent as Twitter message.

  1. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-11

    ISS020-E-019064 (11 July 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, perform a check of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) Beacon / Beacon Tester in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-13

    ISS020-E-018319 (11 July 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, perform a check of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) Beacon / Beacon Tester in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-11

    ISS020-E-019069 (11 July 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured near three Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) floating freely in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  4. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-13

    ISS020-E-018324 (11 July 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, perform a check of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) Beacon / Beacon Tester in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-26

    ISS020-E-014670 (26 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured near two Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) floating freely in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  6. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-13

    ISS020-E-018325 (11 July 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, perform a check of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) Beacon / Beacon Tester in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-11

    ISS020-E-019059 (11 July 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 20 flight engineer, writes notes while performing a check of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) Beacon / Beacon Tester in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029545 (7 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Nyberg and NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (not pictured) put the miniature satellites through their paces for a dry run of the SPHERES Zero Robotics tournament scheduled for Aug. 13. Teams of middle school students from Florida, Georgia, Idaho and Massachusetts will gather at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge to see which teams’ algorithms do the best job of commanding the free-flying robots through a series of maneuvers and objectives.

  9. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029521 (7 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Nyberg and NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (not pictured) put the miniature satellites through their paces for a dry run of the SPHERES Zero Robotics tournament scheduled for Aug. 13. Teams of middle school students from Florida, Georgia, Idaho and Massachusetts will gather at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge to see which teams’ algorithms do the best job of commanding the free-flying robots through a series of maneuvers and objectives.

  10. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029539 (7 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Nyberg and NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (not pictured) put the miniature satellites through their paces for a dry run of the SPHERES Zero Robotics tournament scheduled for Aug. 13. Teams of middle school students from Florida, Georgia, Idaho and Massachusetts will gather at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge to see which teams’ algorithms do the best job of commanding the free-flying robots through a series of maneuvers and objectives.

  11. SPHERES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029522 (7 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Nyberg and NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (not pictured) put the miniature satellites through their paces for a dry run of the SPHERES Zero Robotics tournament scheduled for Aug. 13. Teams of middle school students from Florida, Georgia, Idaho and Massachusetts will gather at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge to see which teams’ algorithms do the best job of commanding the free-flying robots through a series of maneuvers and objectives.

  12. Size Effect Suppresses Brittle Failure in Hollow Cu60Zr40 Metallic Glass Nanolattices Deformed at Cryogenic Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Woo; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Chen, David Z; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Greer, Julia R

    2015-09-09

    To harness "smaller is more ductile" behavior emergent at nanoscale and to proliferate it onto materials with macroscale dimensions, we produced hollow-tube Cu60Zr40 metallic glass nanolattices with the layer thicknesses of 120, 60, and 20 nm. They exhibit unique transitions in deformation mode with tube-wall thickness and temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical models were used to interpret these unique transitions in terms of size effects on the plasticity of metallic glasses and elastic instability.

  13. Improvement of catalytic activity in selective oxidation of styrene with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} over spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres in water

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Jinhui; Cai, Xiaodong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Qianping

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Uniform spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres as templates. Solid spinel Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanocrystals were also prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion, hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods for comparison. The samples were found to be efficient catalysts for oxidation of styrene using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Especially, in the case of Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hollow spheres, obvious improvement on catalytic activity was observed and 21.2% of styrene conversion and 75.2% of selectivity for benzaldehyde were obtained at 80 °C for 6 h reaction in water. The catalyst can be magnetically separated easily for reuse and no obvious loss of activity was observed when reused in six consecutive runs. - Highlights: • Uniform spinel ferrite hollow spheres were prepared by a simple method. • The catalyst has been proved much more efficient for styrene oxidation than the reported analogues. • The catalyst can be easily separated by external magnetic field and has exhibited excellent reusability. • The catalytic system is environmentally friendly. - Abstract: Uniform spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres as templates. For comparison, solid Mg–Cu ferrite nanocrystals were also prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion, hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. All the samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} physisorption. The samples were found to be efficient catalysts for oxidation of styrene using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Especially, in the case of Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hollow spheres, obvious improvement on catalytic activity was observed, and 21.2% of styrene conversion and 75.2% of selectivity for benzaldehyde were obtained at 80 °C for 6 h reaction in water. The catalyst can be

  14. Design and Preparation of MnO2/CeO2-MnO2 Double-Shelled Binary Oxide Hollow Spheres and Their Application in CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Cao, Yidan; Wang, Chang-An; Ran, Rui

    2016-04-06

    Herein, we designed an extremely facile method to prepare well-defined MnO2@CeO2-MnO2 ball-in-ball binary oxide hollow spheres by employing carbon spheres (CSs) as sacrificial templates. The synthesis process involves a novel self-assembled approach to prepare core-shell CSs@CeO2 precursor, which would directly react with KMnO4 aqueous solution to form yolk-shell CSs@MnO2/CeO2-MnO2 precursor in the following step. Well-dispersed Ce-Mn binary oxide with double-shelled hollow sphere structure could be achieved after annealing the precursor in air. The evolution process and formation mechanism of this novel structure were thoroughly studied in this paper. Especially the as-prepared double-shell MnO2/CeO2-MnO2 hollow spheres exhibited enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation compared with the pure MnO2 hollow spheres and pure CeO2 hollow spheres. We believe the high surface area, hierarchical porous structures, and strong synergistic interaction between CeO2 and MnO2 contribute to the excellent catalytic activity. Most importantly, this method could be extended to prepare other transition metal oxides. As an example, triple-shelled Co-Mn composite hollow spheres assembled by ultrathin nanoplates were successfully prepared.

  15. Surface characteristics of metallic glass spheres of Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the production of metallic glasses of high atomic number is currently of considerable importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target applications. In connection with the present investigation, spherules of the alloy Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5) were produced. Metallic glass was formed on solidification. With the aid of X-ray diffraction studies, it was established that the spheres were completely amorphous. A near-surface phase separation on spheres of the metallic glass could be observed. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements showed that the average composition of the surface differed from that of the bulk.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen in Cobalt Nitride and Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Spheres for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xing; Liu, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Guilin; Li, Xiaonian; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jian-guo; Su, Dang S.

    2015-06-15

    The need for inexpensive and high-activity oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts has attracted considerable research interest over the past years. Here we report a novel hybrid that contains cobalt nitride/nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres (CoxN/NHCS) as a high-performance catalyst for ORR. The CoxN nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and confined in the hollow NHCS shell. The performance of the resulting CoxN/NHCS hybrid was comparable with that of a commercial Pt/C at the same catalyst loading toward ORR, but the mass activity of the former was 5.7 times better than that of the latter. The nitrogen in both CoxN and NHCS, especially CoxN, could weaken the adsorption of reaction intermediates (O and OOH), which follows the favourable reaction pathway on CoxN/NHCS according to the DFT-calculated Gibbs free energy diagrams. Our results demonstrated a new strategy for designing and developing inexpensive, non-precious metal electrocatalysts for next-generation fuels. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Basic Research Program (973 program, No. 2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21306169, 21101137, 21136001, 21176221 and 91334013). Dr. D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO eggshell-like hollow spheres via thermal evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L. L.; Zhao, P. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Xiong, X.; Huang, G. S.; Chen, H. T.; Zhu, J.

    2007-08-01

    Hollow zinc oxide microspheres have been successfully synthesized on silicon substrate via simple thermal evaporation of pure zinc powder without any catalyst or template material at a relatively low temperature of 550 °C. The morphologies, chemical composition and crystal structure are characterized using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A smooth surface and rough ones with many nanopores are observed. The difference in the structures of the shells is discussed and a possible growth mechanism is proposed in detail. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum reveals a peak at 380 nm corresponding to free exciton emission and a strong green emission at ~ 525 nm associated with defect-related emission.

  18. Enhancement in hydrogen evolution using Au-TiO2 hollow spheres with microbial devices modified with conjugated oligoelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Ngaw, Chee Keong; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Liu, Zhengyi; Zhou, Yi; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhang, Qichun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting heralds the emergence of the hydrogen economy, the need for external bias and low efficiency stymies the widespread application of this technology. By coupling water splitting (in a PEC cell) to a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst, this work aims to successfully demonstrate a sustainable hybrid PEC–MFC platform functioning solely by biocatalysis and solar energy, at zero bias. Through further chemical modification of the photo-anode (in the PEC cell) and biofilm (in the MFC), the performance of the hybrid system is expected to improve in terms of the photocurrent generated and hydrogen evolved. Methods: The hybrid system constitutes the interconnected PEC cell with the MFC. Both PEC cell and MFC are typical two-chambered systems housing the anode and cathode. Au-TiO2 hollow spheres and conjugated oligoelectrolytes were synthesised chemically and introduced to the PEC cell and MFC, respectively. Hydrogen evolution measurements were performed in triplicates. Results: The hybrid PEC–MFC platform generated a photocurrent density of 0.35 mA/cm2 (~70× enhancement) as compared with the stand-alone P25 standard PEC cell (0.005 mA/cm2) under one-sun illumination (100 mW/cm2) at zero bias (0 V vs. Pt). This increase in photocurrent density was accompanied by continuous H2 production. No H2 was observed in the P25 standard PEC cell whereas H2 evolution rate was ~3.4 μmol/h in the hybrid system. The remarkable performance is attributed to the chemical modification of E. coli through the incorporation of novel conjugated oligoelectrolytes in the MFC as well as the lower recombination rate and higher photoabsorption capabilities in the Au-TiO2 hollow spheres electrode. Conclusions: The combined strategy of photo-anode modification in PEC cells and chemically modified MFCs shows great promise for future exploitation of such synergistic effects between MFCs and

  19. Enhancement in hydrogen evolution using Au-TiO2 hollow spheres with microbial devices modified with conjugated oligoelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ngaw, Chee Keong; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Liu, Zhengyi; Zhou, Yi; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhang, Qichun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Although photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting heralds the emergence of the hydrogen economy, the need for external bias and low efficiency stymies the widespread application of this technology. By coupling water splitting (in a PEC cell) to a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst, this work aims to successfully demonstrate a sustainable hybrid PEC-MFC platform functioning solely by biocatalysis and solar energy, at zero bias. Through further chemical modification of the photo-anode (in the PEC cell) and biofilm (in the MFC), the performance of the hybrid system is expected to improve in terms of the photocurrent generated and hydrogen evolved. The hybrid system constitutes the interconnected PEC cell with the MFC. Both PEC cell and MFC are typical two-chambered systems housing the anode and cathode. Au-TiO2 hollow spheres and conjugated oligoelectrolytes were synthesised chemically and introduced to the PEC cell and MFC, respectively. Hydrogen evolution measurements were performed in triplicates. The hybrid PEC-MFC platform generated a photocurrent density of 0.35 mA/cm(2) (~70× enhancement) as compared with the stand-alone P25 standard PEC cell (0.005 mA/cm(2)) under one-sun illumination (100 mW/cm(2)) at zero bias (0 V vs. Pt). This increase in photocurrent density was accompanied by continuous H2 production. No H2 was observed in the P25 standard PEC cell whereas H2 evolution rate was ~3.4 μmol/h in the hybrid system. The remarkable performance is attributed to the chemical modification of E. coli through the incorporation of novel conjugated oligoelectrolytes in the MFC as well as the lower recombination rate and higher photoabsorption capabilities in the Au-TiO2 hollow spheres electrode. The combined strategy of photo-anode modification in PEC cells and chemically modified MFCs shows great promise for future exploitation of such synergistic effects between MFCs and semiconductor-based PEC water splitting.

  20. Preparation of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres as an efficient anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongbo; Zhou, Qun; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei; Zheng, Junwei

    2014-04-07

    Herein we report the design and synthesis of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres (h-Fe3O4@C/F) through mild heating of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The spheres exhibit enhanced cyclic and rate performances. The as-prepared h-Fe3O4@C/F shows significantly improved electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities of over 930 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 C after 70 cycles, 800 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.5 C after 120 cycles and 620 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 1 C after 200 cycles. This improved lithium storage performance is mainly ascribed to the encapsulation of the spheres with fluorine-doped carbon, which not only improves the reaction kinetics and stability of the solid electrolyte interface film but also prevents aggregation and drastic volume change of the Fe3O4 particles. These spheres thus represent a promising anode material in lithium-ion battery applications.

  1. Y₂O₃:Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ Hollow Spheres with Controlled Inner Structures and Enhanced Upconverted Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zong, Lingbo; Xu, Pengfei; Ding, Yunji; Zhao, Kun; Wang, Zumin; Yan, Xuecheng; Yu, Ranbo; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2015-06-01

    Multishell Y2 O3 :Yb(3+) /Er(3+) hollow spheres with uniform morphologies and controllable inner structures are prepared successfully by using a glucose-template hydrothermal process followed by temperature-programmed calcination. Much enhanced upconverted photoluminescence of these Y2 O3 :Yb(3+) /Er(3+) are observed, which are due to the multiple reflections and the enhanced light-harvesting efficiency of the NIR light resulting from the special features of the multishell structures.

  2. Silver/polymer coated hollow glass waveguides for mid-IR transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Wesley; Harrington, James A.

    2017-02-01

    Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) have been successfully employed in surgical lasers, temperature and chemical sensors, and other applications requiring transmission of broadband, high-power infrared radiation. The design ofHGWsallows for fine-tuning of the optical response through the deposition of high-quality thin films within the hollowcore. One method of fabricatingHGWs for effective transmission in the infrared is to deposit a reflective metallic layer of silver, and then one or several dielectric layers on top of the silver layer. The addition of appropriate dielectric, or highly transmissive, layers to the HGW has shown to improve throughput and fibers can be modified to transmit optimally at particular wavelengths by altering the types of dielectrics used as well as their individual thicknesses. Increasingly, research in dielectric thin films for HGWs has gravitated towards polymers due to their inertness, ease of deposition, and thickness of film adjusted with concentration of solution instead of deposition kinetics. Poly (methyl methacrylate), polyethylene, and Chemours™ Teflon™ AF are three polymers previously untested as dielectric films in hollow waveguides in the mid-infrared. This work aims to assess the feasibility of these polymers as viable dielectric films in dichroic and multilayer thin-film stack waveguide applications. The three polymers were implemented as HGW dielectric thin films, and the resulting waveguides' straight and bending losses were measured at CO2 (λ= 10.6 μm) and Er:YAG (λ= 2.94μm) laser wavelengths.

  3. Novel systems for tailored neurotrophic factor release based on hydrogel and resorbable glass hollow fibers.

    PubMed

    Novajra, G; Tonda-Turo, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Ciardelli, G; Geuna, S; Raimondo, S

    2014-03-01

    A novel system for the release of neurotrophic factor into a nerve guidance channel (NGC) based on resorbable phosphate glass hollow fibers (50P2O5-30CaO-9Na2O-3SiO2-3MgO-2.5K2O-2.5TiO2 mol%) in combination with a genipin-crosslinked agar/gelatin hydrogel (A/G_GP) is proposed. No negative effect on the growth of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line (NOBEC) as well as on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was measured in vitro in the presence of fiber dissolution products in the culture medium. For the release studies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-20), taken as growth factor model molecule, was solubilized in different media and introduced into the fiber lumen exploiting the capillary action. The fibers were filled with i) FD-20/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, ii) FD-20/hydrogel solution before gelation and iii) hydrogel before gelation, subsequently lyophilized and then filled with the FD-20/PBS solution. The different strategies used for the loading of the FD-20 into the fibers resulted in different release kinetics. A slower release was observed with the use of A/G_GP hydrogel. At last, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nerve guides containing the hollow fibers and the hydrogel have been fabricated.

  4. Ultrafine Sn nanoparticles embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres as high rate anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Peng; Cao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Jiao; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-05-01

    A novel reversible interaction in polymeric nanoparticles is used to induce hollow Sn4+-MOPs. Then ultrafine Sn nanoparticles uniformly embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres is successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the Sn4+-MOPs precursor. In this architecture, the N-doped carbon shells can effectively avoid the direct exposure of embedded Sn nanoparticles to the electrolyte and efficiently accommodate the volume change of Sn nanoparticles. Furthermore, the hollow structure of carbon sphere can prevent Sn nanoparticles aggregation over repeated cycling and shorten the diffusion path of both electrons and ions. As a consequence, this N-doped hollow Sn/C anode delivers a reversible capacity of 606 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 after 250 cycles and a reversible capacity of 221 mA h g-1 even at a much higher current density of 10 A g-1, which are much better than those of pure Sn nanoparticles. The desirable cyclic stability and rate capability were attributed to the unique architecture that provided fast pathway for electron transport and simultaneously solved the major issues of Sn-based anodes, such as pulverization, aggregation and loss of electrical contact.

  5. Detail study on ac-dc magnetic and dye absorption properties of Fe3O4 hollow spheres for biological and industrial application.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debasish; Mandal, Kalyan; Mandal, Madhuri

    2014-03-01

    Here solvo-thermal technique has been used to synthesize hollow-nanospheres of magnetite. We have shown that PVP plays an important role to control the particle size and also helps the particles to take the shape of hollow spheres. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the hollow type spherical particles formation and their shape and sizes were also investigated. The detail ac-dc magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these nano spheres for hyperthermia therapy and spontaneous dye adsorption properties (Gibbs free energy deltaG0 = -0.526 kJ/mol for Eosin and -1.832 kJ/mol for MB) of these particles indicate its use in dye manufacturing company. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc.

  6. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived NiSb Alloy Embedded in Carbon Hollow Spheres as Superior Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Litao; Liu, Jun; Xu, Xijun; Zhang, Liguo; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-01-25

    The MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) have been extensively used for electrode materials due to their high surface area, permanent porosity, and hollow structure, but the role of antimony on the MOFs is unclear. In this work, we design the hollow spheres Ni-MOFs with SbCl3 to synthesize NiSb⊂CHSs (NiSb-embedded carbon hollow spheres) via simple annealing and galvanic replacement reactions. The NiSb⊂CHSs inherited the advantages of Ni-MOFs with hollow structure, high surface area, and permanent porosity, and the NiSb nanoparticles are coated by the formed carbon particles which could effectively solve the problem of vigorous volume changes during the Li(+) insertion/extraction process. The porous and network structure could well provide an extremely reduced pathway for fast Li(+) diffusion and electron transport and provide extra free space for alleviating the structural strain. The NiSb⊂CHSs with these features were used as Li-ion batteries for the first time and exhibited excellent cycling performance, high specific capacity, and great rate capability. When coupled with a nanostructure LiMn2O4 cathode, the NiSb⊂CHSs//LiMn2O4 full cell also characterized a high voltage operation of ≈3.5 V, high rate capability (210 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1)), and high Coulombic efficiency of approximate 99%, meeting the requirement for the increasing demand for improved energy devices.

  7. Two-color infrared thermometer for low-temperature measurement using a hollow glass optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W.

    1997-02-28

    In the thermometer, radiation from a target is collected via a single 700 {mu}m-bore hollow glass optical fiber coated with a metallic/dielectric layer on the inner surface, simultaneously split into two paths and modulated by a Au-coated reflective chopper, and focused onto two thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors by 128.8 mm-radius Au-coated spherical mirrors. The photoconductors have spectral bandpasses of 2-6 {mu}m and 2.12 {mu}m, respectively. The modulated detector signals are recovered using lock- in amplification. The two signals are calibrated using a blackbody (emissivity=1) of known temperature, and exponential fits are applied to the two resulting voltage vs temperature curves. Using the two calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the background radiation field from the target surface.

  8. A Radically New Method for Hydrogen Storage in Hollow Glass Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Shelby; Matthew M. Hall; Michael J. Snyder; Peter B. Wachtel

    2009-07-13

    The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate that hydrogen gas can be rapidly extracted from hollow glass microspheres (HGMS) using a photo-induced heating effect. The results of the project demonstrate that diffusion of hydrogen is readily induced by exposure to light from an IR lamp in transition metal-doped HGMS filled to as much as 5,000 psi with hydrogen gas, which contain approximately 2.2 wt% hydrogen. Doped HGMS in conjunction with optically induced outgassing provide a solution to the traditional limitation of HGMS – i.e., the slow release of hydrogen from HGMS that are heated using a furnace. This information will also be invaluable in designing process changes for future production of HGMS able to hold higher pressures of hydrogen.

  9. Acetone gas sensor based on NiO/ZnO hollow spheres: Fast response and recovery, and low (ppb) detection limit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Zhao, Liupeng; Wang, Boqun; Sun, Peng; Wang, Qingji; Gao, Yuan; Liang, Xishuang; Zhang, Tong; Lu, Geyu

    2017-06-01

    NiO/ZnO composites were synthesized by decorating numerous NiO nanoparticles on the surfaces of well dispersed ZnO hollow spheres using a facile solvothermal method. Various kinds of characterization methods were utilized to investigate the structures and morphologies of the hybrid materials. The results revealed that the NiO nanoparticles with a size of ∼10nm were successfully distributed on the surfaces of ZnO hollow spheres in a discrete manner. As expected, the NiO/ZnO composites demonstrated dramatic improvements in sensing performances compared with pure ZnO hollow spheres. For example, the response of NiO/ZnO composites to 100ppm acetone was ∼29.8, which was nearly 4.6 times higher than that of primary ZnO at 275°C, and the response/recovery time were 1/20s, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit could extend down to ppb level. The likely reason for the improved gas sensing properties was also proposed.

  10. Thermally Stable Hierarchical Nanostructures of Ultrathin MoS2 Nanosheet-Coated CeO2 Hollow Spheres as Catalyst for Ammonia Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xueyun; Gu, Ying-Qiu; Li, Na; Zhao, Hongyang; Jia, Chun-Jiang; Du, Yaping

    2016-04-18

    MoS2 ultrathin nanosheet-coated CeO2 hollow sphere (CeO2@MoS2) hybrid nanostructures with a 3D hierarchical configuration were successfully constructed from a facile two-step wet chemistry strategy: first, CeO2 formed on a silica core which served as a template and was subsequently removed by NaOH solution to attain hollow spheres, and then few-layered ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets were deposited on the CeO2 hollow spheres through a hydrothermal process. As a proof of concept application, the as-prepared CeO2@MoS2 hybrid nanostructures were used as catalytic material, which exhibited enhanced catalytic activity in ammonia decomposition for H2 production at high temperature. It was demonstrated that, even with a structural transformation from MoS2 to MoNx under harsh conditions of ammonia decomposition at high temperature (700 °C), the 3D hierarchical nanostructures of the CeO2@MoNx were well kept, indicating the important role of the CeO2 support.

  11. In Situ Localized Growth of Ordered Metal Oxide Hollow Sphere Array on Microheater Platform for Sensitive, Ultra-Fast Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ameya; Long, Hu; Harley-Trochimczyk, Anna; Pham, Thang; Zettl, Alex; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2017-01-25

    A simple and versatile strategy is presented for the localized on-chip synthesis of an ordered metal oxide hollow sphere array directly on a low power microheater platform to form a closely integrated miniaturized gas sensor. Selective microheater surface modification through fluorinated monolayer self-assembly and its subsequent microheater-induced thermal decomposition enables the position-controlled deposition of an ordered two-dimensional colloidal sphere array, which serves as a sacrificial template for metal oxide growth via homogeneous chemical precipitation; this strategy ensures control in both the morphology and placement of the sensing material on only the active heated area of the microheater platform, providing a major advantage over other methods of presynthesized nanomaterial integration via suspension coating or printing. A fabricated tin oxide hollow sphere-based sensor shows high sensitivity (6.5 ppb detection limit) and selectivity toward formaldehyde, and extremely fast response (1.8 s) and recovery (5.4 s) times. This flexible and scalable method can be used to fabricate high performance miniaturized gas sensors with a variety of hollow nanostructured metal oxides for a range of applications, including combining multiple metal oxides for superior sensitivity and tunable selectivity.

  12. Fullerene-Structured MoSe2 Hollow Spheres Anchored on Highly Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Conductive Catalyst for Photovoltaic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Yang, Xudong; Ye, Fei; Yin, Maoshu; Han, Liyuan

    2015-01-01

    A conductive catalyst composed of fullerene-structured MoSe2 hollow spheres and highly nitrogen-doped graphene (HNG-MoSe2) was successfully synthesized via a wet chemical process. The small molecule diethylenetriamine, which was used during the process, served as a surfactant to stabilize the fullerene-structured MoSe2 hollow spheres and to provide a high content of nitrogen heteroatoms for graphene doping (ca. 12% N). The superior synergistic effect between the highly nitrogen-doped graphene and the high surface-to-volume ratio MoSe2 hollow spheres afforded the HNG-MoSe2 composite high conductivity and excellent catalytic activity as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel measurements. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) prepared with HNG-MoSe2 as a counter electrode exhibited a conversion efficiency of 10.01%, which was close to that of a DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (10.55%). The synergy between the composite materials and the resulting highly efficient catalysis provide benchmarks for preparing well-defined, graphene-based conductive catalysts for clean and sustainable energy production. PMID:26279305

  13. Surfactant-free synthesis of Cu2O hollow spheres and their wavelength-dependent visible photocatalytic activities using LED lamps as cold light sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A facile synthesis route of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) hollow spheres under different temperatures without the aid of a surfactant was introduced. Morphology and structure varied as functions of reaction temperature and duration. A bubble template-mediated formation mechanism was proposed, which explained the reason of morphology changing with reaction temperature. The obtained Cu2O hollow spheres were active photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light. A self-designed equipment of light emitting diode (LED) cold light sources with the wavelength of 450, 550, and 700 nm, respectively, was used for the first time in the photocatalysis experiment with no extra heat introduced. The most suitable wavelength for Cu2O to photocatalytic degradation is 550 nm, because the light energy (2.25 eV) is closest to the band gap of Cu2O (2.17 eV). These surfactant-free synthesized Cu2O hollow spheres would be highly attractive for practical applications in water pollutant removal and environmental remediation. PMID:25489279

  14. Fullerene-Structured MoSe2 Hollow Spheres Anchored on Highly Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Conductive Catalyst for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Yang, Xudong; Ye, Fei; Yin, Maoshu; Han, Liyuan

    2015-08-01

    A conductive catalyst composed of fullerene-structured MoSe2 hollow spheres and highly nitrogen-doped graphene (HNG-MoSe2) was successfully synthesized via a wet chemical process. The small molecule diethylenetriamine, which was used during the process, served as a surfactant to stabilize the fullerene-structured MoSe2 hollow spheres and to provide a high content of nitrogen heteroatoms for graphene doping (ca. 12% N). The superior synergistic effect between the highly nitrogen-doped graphene and the high surface-to-volume ratio MoSe2 hollow spheres afforded the HNG-MoSe2 composite high conductivity and excellent catalytic activity as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel measurements. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) prepared with HNG-MoSe2 as a counter electrode exhibited a conversion efficiency of 10.01%, which was close to that of a DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (10.55%). The synergy between the composite materials and the resulting highly efficient catalysis provide benchmarks for preparing well-defined, graphene-based conductive catalysts for clean and sustainable energy production.

  15. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of defect-mediated Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres for highly efficient hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Du, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yihe; Li, Baoying; Yu, Xuelian; Liu, Huijuan; An, Xiaoqiang; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-06-28

    Moderate efficiency and the utilization of noble metal cocatalysts are the key factors that restrict the large-scale application of photocatalytic hydrogen production. To develop more efficient photocatalysts based on earth abundant elements, either a new material strategy or a fundamental understanding of the semiconductor/cocatalyst interfaces is highly desirable. In this paper, we studied the feasibility of in situ formation of defect-rich cocatalysts on graphene-based photocatalysts. A facile biomolecule-assisted strategy was used to self-assmble Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres. The defect-mediated cocatalyst and synergetic charge transfer around heterostructured interfaces exhibit a significant impact on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of multicomponent solid solutions. With engineered interfacial defects, Cd0.8Zn0.2S/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres exhibited a 63-fold improved H2 production rate, which was even 2 and 3.8 times higher than those of CdS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres and Cd0.8Zn0.2S/Pt. Therefore, our research provides a promising approach for the rational design of high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysts for solar fuel production.

  16. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres.

    PubMed

    Sarawade, Pradip; Tan, Hua; Anjum, Dalaver; Cha, Dongkyu; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-02-01

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures.

  17. N- and O-doped hollow carbonaceous spheres with hierarchical porous structure for potential application in high-performance capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ze; Cao, Rui; Ge, Yuanhang; Tu, Yingfeng; Xia, Yu; Yang, Xiaoming

    2017-09-01

    Hollow carbonaceous spheres (HCSs) have been extensively investigated due to their valuable potentials in the applications of energy storage devices such as solar cells, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. It is highly desirable to develop abundant pore structures and introduce heteroatoms in the resultant HCSs to improve capacitance of the devices. Herein, N-, and O-doped HCSs with macro/micro/mesoporous structures are successfully prepared by one-step carbonization of polypyrrole coated polystyrene nanoparticles followed by chemical activation with KOH. The huge specific surface area (up to 935 m2 g-1) and hierarchical porous structures can effectively facilitate the transportation and exchange of ions and electrons. Besides, high heteroatom content (∼30%) are believed to provide pseudocapacitance contributed from the redox faradic reactions of these electrochemically active functional groups. The as-prepared activated HCSs possess a high capacitance of 535 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and maintains 55% of the highest capacitance even at a current density of 10 A g-1. The newly prepared HCSs thus show great potential as the electrode materials of supercapacitors.

  18. Titania hollow spheres modified with tungstophosphoric acid with enhanced visible light absorption for the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Orellana, M Á; Osiglio, L; Arnal, P M; Pizzio, L R

    2017-01-18

    Titania hollow spheres were synthesized using silica nanospheres as the template. The core was removed using NaOH solution. They were subsequently impregnated with tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) solutions and annealed at two different temperatures (100 and 500 °C). These materials were characterized by several physicochemical techniques (XRD, BET, SEM, DRS, FT-IR, FT-Raman and (31)P MAS-NMR). The (31)P MAS-NMR and FT-IR characterization showed that the main species present in the samples was the [PW12O40](3-) anion, which was partially transformed into the [P2W21O71](6-) anion during the synthesis and drying step. (31)P MAS-NMR, and FT-Raman characterization revealed the evidence of a strong interaction between the Keggin anion of TPA and TiO2 surfaces, possibly due to the formation of surface heteropolyacid-TiO2 complexes. The DRS results showed that the absorption threshold onset continuously shifted to the visible region with increased TPA concentration and calcination at 500 °C. The enhanced visible light absorption could be related to the formation of a surface complex TPA Keggin anion-TiO2. The catalytic activity of the materials in the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol under UV and visible light irradiation increased when the TPA content and the calcination temperature of the samples were raised.

  19. Efficient and Stable Red Emissive Carbon Nanoparticles with a Hollow Sphere Structure for White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yongqiang; Lv, Ying; Zhao, Jialong; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-11-23

    Red-emissive solid-state carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with a hollow sphere structure for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were designed and synthesized by molecular self-assembly and microwave pyrolysis. Highly ordered graphite-like structures for CNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The emission mechanism of the red-emissive solid-state CNPs was investigated in detail by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The as-prepared CNPs showed a red emission band centered at 620 nm with excitation wavelength independence, indicating uniform size of sp(2) carbon domains in the CNPs. The CNPs also had a PL quantum yield (QY) of 17% under 380 nm excitation. Significantly, the PL QY of the organosilane-functionalized CNPs was 47%, which is the highest value recorded for red-emissive solid-state carbon-based materials under UV-light excitation. More importantly, the red-emissive CNPs exhibited a PL QY of 25% after storage in air for 12 months, indicating their excellent stability. The red-emissive CNP powders were used as environmentally friendly and low-cost phosphors on a commercial 460 nm blue GaN-based chip, and a pure white light with CIE coordinates of (0.35, 0.36) was achieved. The experimental results indicated that the red-emissive CNP phosphors have potential applications in WLEDs.

  20. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time <3 s, and wide linear range (0.04-8.62 mM). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m) and the maximum current density ( i max) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 μA cm-2 respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  1. Nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres wrapped with graphene nanostructure for highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of parachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yinhui; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Heng; Sun, Jianfan; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-12-15

    Owing to awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determination of parachlorophenol (PCP) is of great significance. In this paper, by using silica@polydopamine as template, nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (NHCNS@RG) nanostructure was prepared successfully via a self-assembly approach due to the electrostatic interaction, and the obtained NHCNS@RG could exhibit the unique properties of NHCNS and RG: the NHCNS could impede the aggregation tendency of RG and possess high electrocatalytic activity; the RG enlarges the contacting area and offers many area-normalized edge-plane structures and active sites. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical method were used to characterize the morphology and structure of NHCNS@RG. Then, the NHCNS@RG hybrids were applied for the electrochemical sensing of PCP, under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of PCP obtained in this work is 0.01μM and the linear range is 0.03-38.00μM.

  2. Double hollow MoS2 nano-spheres: Synthesis, tribological properties, and functional conversion from lubrication to photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueru; Hu, Kunhong; Hu, Enzhu; Guo, Jianhua; Han, Chengliang; Hu, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has extensive applications in industries as solid lubricants and catalysts. To improve the lubricating performance of MoS2, novel double-hollow-sphere MoS2 (DHSM) nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 90 nm were synthesized on sericite mica (SM). When the DHSM/SM composite was used as an additive in polyalphaolefin oil, friction and wear decreased by 22.4% and 63.5% respectively. The low friction and wear were attributed to the easy exfoliation of DHSM. The DHSM/SM composite was then rubbed under 40 MPa for 1 h to investigate the exfoliation and functional conversion behaviors of DHSM. Results showed that DHSM (lubricating structure) on SM could be completely exfoliated into nanosheets (catalytic structure) by rubbing. The nanosheets exfoliated from DHSM presented good photocatalytic activity for the removal of organic compounds from waste water. This work provided both a novel solid lubricant for industrial applications and a possible approach to designing a novel green lubricant for use as a photocatalyst in organic-waste treatment after lubricating service life.

  3. Motions in binary mixtures of hard colloidal spheres: melting of the glass.

    PubMed

    Williams, S R; van Megen, W

    2001-10-01

    Dynamic light-scattering experiments are performed on binary mixtures of hard-sphere-like colloidal suspensions with a size ratio of 0.6. The optical properties of the particles are such that the relative contrast of the two species is very sensitive to temperature, a feature that is exploited to obtain the three partial coherent intermediate scattering functions. The glass transition is identified by the onset of structural arrest, or arrest of the alpha process, on the time scale of the experiment. This is observed in a one-component suspension at a packing fraction of 0.575. The intermediate scattering functions measured on the mixtures quantify how, on introduction of the smaller spheres, the alpha process is released, i.e., how the glass melts. Increasing the fraction of smaller particles causes the alpha process to speed up but, at a given wave vector, also incurs a change to its amplitude in proportion to the change in the (partial) structure factor.

  4. Glass Transition and Re-entrant Melting in a Polydisperse Hard-Sphere Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyama, Michio; Terada, Yayoi

    2006-05-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a hard-sphere fluid at 6% polydispersity. The simulation results are then analyzed based on the mean-field theory proposed recently by Tokuyama (Physica A 364, 23-62 (2006)). The phase diagram and the dynamic behavior are investigated fully in each phase. It is then found that as the volume fraction φ is increased, a supercooled liquid phase appears at the supercooled point φβ (≃ 0.5524) and a transition from supercooled liquid to crystal then occurs at the melting volume fraction φm(1) (≃ 0.5625). As φ is further increased, a transition from crystal to supercooled liquid (re-entrant melting) is also observed at the second melting volume fraction φm(2) (≃ 0.5770) within a waiting time tw = 7 × 104t0, where t0 is a time for a particle to move over a distance of a particle radius with an average velocity. The glass transition is thus predicted to occur at the glass transition volume fraction φg (≃ 0.6005). The various aspects obtained in our study is quite similar to those in the experiment for the suspension of hard spheres, including the logarithmic growth of the mean-square displacement in fast-β stage, the non-singular behavior of the long-time self-diffusion coefficient, and the non divergence of any characteristic times, such as the α- and β-relaxation times.

  5. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; ...

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less

  6. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  7. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506

  8. Importance of many-body correlations in glass transition: An example from polydisperse hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leocmach, Mathieu; Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-03-01

    Most of the liquid-state theories, including glass-transition theories, are constructed on the basis of two-body density correlations. However, we have recently shown that many-body correlations, in particular, bond orientational correlations, play a key role in both the glass transition and the crystallization transition. Here we show, with numerical simulations of supercooled polydisperse hard spheres systems, that the length-scale associated with any two-point spatial correlation function does not increase toward the glass transition. A growing length-scale is instead revealed by considering many-body correlation functions, such as correlators of orientational order, which follows the length-scale of the dynamic heterogeneities. Despite the growing of crystal-like bond orientational order, we reveal that the stability against crystallization with increasing polydispersity is due to an increasing population of icosahedral arrangements of particles. Our results suggest that, for this type of systems, many-body correlations are a manifestation of the link between the vitrification and the crystallization phenomena. Whether a system is vitrified or crystallized can be controlled by the degree of frustration against crystallization, polydispersity in this case.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse LiFePO4 micro hollow spheres as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiliu; Hu, Mingjun; Xi, Liujiang; Ma, Ruguang; Dong, Yucheng; Chung, C Y

    2013-09-25

    A microspherical, hollow LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode material with polycrystal structure was simply synthesized by a solvothermal method using spherical Li3PO4 as the self-sacrificed template and FeCl2·4H2O as the Fe(2+) source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the LFP micro hollow spheres have a quite uniform size of ~1 μm consisting of aggregated nanoparticles. The influences of solvent and Fe(2+) source on the phase and morphology of the final product were chiefly investigated, and a direct ion exchange reaction between spherical Li3PO4 templates and Fe(2+) ions was firstly proposed on the basis of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) transformation of the products. The LFP nanoparticles in the micro hollow spheres could finely coat a uniform carbon layer ~3.5 nm by a glucose solution impregnating-drying-sintering process. The electrochemical measurements show that the carbon coated LFP materials could exhibit high charge-discharge capacities of 158, 144, 125, 101, and even 72 mAh g(-1) at 0.1, 1, 5, 20, and 50 C, respectively. It could also maintain 80% of the initial discharge capacity after cycling for 2000 times at 20 C.

  10. Distinctive morphology effects of porous-spherical/yolk-shell/hollow Pd-nitrogen-doped-carbon spheres catalyst for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Long, Yu; Liu, Yansheng; Zhao, Ziming; Luo, Sha; Wu, Wei; Wu, Li; Wen, He; Wang, Ren-Qi; Ma, Jiantai

    2017-06-15

    Pd-nitrogen-doped-carbon nanocatalysts (Pd-C/N) with different morphologies, such as porous spheres, yolk-shell and hollow structures, had been synthesized and compared. The yolk-shell Pd-nitrogen-doped-carbon nanocatalysts (YS-Pd-C/N) and hollow Pd-nitrogen-doped-carbon nanocatalysts (H-Pd-C/N) were prepared through different etch time using SiO2 spheres as hard-templates. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized thoroughly by TEM, BET, XRD, FT-IR, and XPS. Importantly, the catalysts have moderate BET specific surface area in the range from 200 to 300m(2)g(-1) and pore volume between 0.2 and 0.3cm(3)g(-1). The reduction of 4-nitrophenol is chosen as a model reaction to research the morphology effects of these prepared Pd-C/N catalysts with the same chemical compositions. Interestingly, H-Pd-C/N exhibited the best catalytic performance, which could be attributed to its high nitrogen content, the uniform distribution of abundant active sites, as well as the synergistic effect of graphitic C/N shell and Pd species for the catalytic reaction. Especially, the unique hollow morphology and porous shell of H-Pd-C/N made it to be a nanoreactor, which was beneficial to improve the catalytic activities. In addition, H-Pd-C/N nanocatalysts exhibited favorable stability in the recycling reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Eu{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Manisha Sharma, Prashant K.

    2016-05-06

    Multifunctional magnetic Nanoparticles (MFMNPs) are potentially applicable in both drug delivery systems (DDS) and hyperthermia treatment. Structural, surface morphology and optical property were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Uniform Eu{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow microspheres of 1.8-2.0 μm diameters were synthesized by template based approach. We found that synthesized Hollow spheres are 100 nm in thickness. FE-SEM images revealed that the synthesized material are hollow in structure with good porous structure and these pores work as pathway for releasing drugs from the hollow particle inside. Luminescent properties of material were studied by room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra under the excitation of 275 nm. Material exhibit bright red emission corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of the activator ions under ultraviolet light excitation, which might find potential applications in fields such as drug delivery or biological labeling because of their excellent luminescence properties.

  12. Spheres of the metallic glass Au55 Pb22.5 Sb22.5 and their surface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spheres of the metallic glass Au55 Pb22.5 Sb22.5 have been formed up to a size of approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. X-ray diffraction was used to establish the glassy nature of the samples and to provide evidence of two phase-separated glass regions. Scanning electron microscopy provided a direct visual observation of the two-phase amorphous network on the surface of the sphere. The physical dimensions of the phase-separated regions were observed to be cooling-rate sensitive. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that the compositions of these two glassy phases were Au-rich and Pb-rich, respectively, confirming the results of Kim and Johnson (1981). In addition, the spheres exhibited an unusual surface smoothness of better than + or - 250 A

  13. MnO2 Nanofilms on Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Graphene Spheres as a High-Performance Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiangmin; Xu, Jiaoxing; Wu, Chuxin; Zhang, Jianshuo; Guan, Lunhui

    2016-12-28

    Platinum is commonly chosen as an electrocatalyst used for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this study, we report an active catalyst composed of MnO2 nanofilms grown directly on nitrogen-doped hollow graphene spheres, which exhibits high activity toward ORR with positive onset potential (0.94 V vs RHE), large current density (5.2 mA cm(-2)), and perfect stability. Significantly, when it was used as catalyst for air electrode, a zinc-air battery exhibited a high power density (82 mW cm(-2)) and specific capacities (744 mA h g(-1)) comparable to that with Pt/C (20 wt %) as air cathode. The enhanced activity is ascribed to the synergistic interaction between MnO2 and the doped hollow carbon nanomaterials. This easy and cheap method paves a way of synthesizing high-performance electrocatalysts for ORR.

  14. Solvent-induced transition of hollow sphere to giant-tube from amphiphilic rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers of 2-vinylpyridine and n-hexyl isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Shahinur; Changez, M; Samal, Shashadhar; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2007-11-01

    The effect of solvent compositions on the micellization behaviors of amphiphilic poly(n-hexyl isocyanate)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHIC-b-P2VP-b-PHIC) rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer was studied. In absolute methanol the block copolymer formed hollow spherical micelles. These micelles transformed into giant-tubes by simply changing the solvent composition. With 20% THF in CH3OH hollow spheres got interconnected and formed species that are precursors of the giant tubes. When the composition of THF reached 50-70%, long giant tubes are formed. Further increasing THF content in the mixed solvent, fragmentation of the wall of the tubes was observed. In absolute THF, which is the common solvent for both the blocks, the usual phase separation occurred. TEM image of the giant tubes stained with iodine showed that the core of the tubes is made from PHIC rod block.

  15. Au/TiO2 Hollow Spheres with Synergistic Effect of Plasmonic Enhancement and Light Scattering for Improved Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Ying; Wang, Jian-Gan; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2017-09-20

    Au-decorated TiO2 hollow spheres (Au-THS) have been successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The Au-THS hybrid features unique hollow structure with a large specific surface area of 120 m(2) g(-1) and homogeneous decoration of Au nanoparticles, giving rise to enhanced light harvesting and charge generation/separation efficiency. When incorporated into the active layer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), an improved power conversion efficiency of 7.3% is obtained, which is increased by 37.7% compared with the controlled P25 DSSC. The underlying mechanism to rationalize the efficiency enhancement can be mainly attributed to the strong synergistic effect of superior light scattering ability of the THS and the plasmonic-enhanced effect rendered by the Au nanoparticles.

  16. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal crystallization of nanostructured lithium metasilicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) hollow spheres: (I) Synthesis, structural and microstructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Landeros, J.

    2011-05-15

    Lithium metasilicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) was successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants with cationic, non-ionic and anionic characters. The samples obtained were compared to a sample prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} powders were performed using various techniques. Diffraction analyses revealed the successful crystallization of pure Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} single phase by hydrothermal technique, even without further heat-treatments and independent of the surfactant used. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} powders were composed of uniform micrometric particles with a hollow sphere morphology and nanostructured walls. Finally, different thermal analyses showed that Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} samples preserved their structure and microstructure after further thermal treatments. Specific aspects regarding the formation mechanism of the spherical aggregates under hydrothermal conditions are discussed, and there is a special emphasis on the effect of the synthesis pathway on the morphological characteristics. -- Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} was synthesized using a hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants. Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} powders were composed of uniform micrometric particles with a hollow sphere morphology and nanostructured walls. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Pure Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. {yields} Surfactant addition produced microstructural and morphological variations. {yields} TEM reveled the generation of nanostructured hollow spheres.

  17. Dual-Confined Sulfur Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Hollow TiO2 Spheres Wrapped with Graphene for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haining; Tang, Qunli; Chen, Xiaohua; Fan, Binbin; Chen, Shanliang; Hu, Aiping

    2016-10-20

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive owing to their higher energy density and lower cost compared with the universally used lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but there are some problems that stop their practical use, such as low utilization and rapid capacity-fading of the sulfur cathode, which is mainly caused by the shuttle effect, and the uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide species. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of dual-confined sulfur nanoparticles that were encapsulated inside hollow TiO2 spheres; the encapsulated nanoparticles were prepared by a facile hydrolysis process combined with acid etching, followed by "wrapping" with graphene (G-TiO2 @S). In this unique composite architecture, the hollow TiO2 spheres acted as effective sulfur carriers by confining the polysulfides and buffering volume changes during the charge-discharge processes by means of physical force from the hollow spheres and chemical binding between TiO2 and the polysulfides. Moreover, the graphene-wrapped skin provided an effective 3D conductive network to improve the electronic conductivity of the sulfur cathode and, at the same time, to further suppress the dissolution of the polysulfides. As results, the G-TiO2 @S hybrids exhibited a high and stable discharge capacity of up to 853.4 mA h g(-1) over 200 cycles at 0.5 C (1 C=1675 mA g(-1) ) and an excellent rate capability of 675 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of 2 C; thus, G-TiO2 @S holds great promise as a cathode material for Li-S batteries.

  18. Silver/cyclic olefin copolymer hollow glass waveguides for infrared laser delivery.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jeffrey E; Harrington, James A

    2015-11-10

    Metal/dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) have been studied extensively for the efficient transmission of radiation over a broad spectral range. In this study, a low-absorption optical polymer, cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), is investigated as a dielectric material for HGWs designed for the delivery of various IR lasers. Using established silver (Ag) plating techniques and a newly optimized polymer-coating procedure, Ag/COC HGWs with low attenuation coefficients are fabricated for operation at the following three wavelengths: 808 nm, 1.064 μm, and 2.94 μm. The spectral responses of the HGW designs are used to develop a film thickness dependency of the COC layer formation based on the concentration of the solution used in the polymer deposition procedure. Further, the attenuation coefficients of the HGWs are measured using the cutback method at the three wavelengths as a function of the curvature of the waveguide. In order of increasing operation, the attenuation coefficients are measured to be 0.549, 0.095, and 0.298  dB/m for the HGWs in the straight configuration. These experimental values for the straight attenuation coefficients are compared to theoretical values calculated using a ray transfer matrix approach and are found to be in good agreement.

  19. Fire hazard reduction of hollow glass microspheres in thermoplastic polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chuanmei; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Shaoxiang; Chen, Xilei

    2017-06-15

    Nowadays, reducing the fire hazard of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an important research direction in the fields of fire safety materials. In this article, hollow glass microsphere (HGM) was used to reduce the fire hazard of TPU in combustion process. The fire characteristics including smoke and heat production of TPU composites were evaluated using smoke density test (SDT) and cone calorimeter test (CCT). And the thermal decomposition and flammable properties were further studied using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) and limiting oxygen index (LOI), etc. The SDT results showed that the luminous flux (LF) of TPU4 containing 2.00wt% HGM was up to 24% at the end of test without flame, which is much higher than that of TPU0 (5%). And, the CCT results indicated that 2.00wt% HGM could make the total smoke release (TSR) decrease from 1019m(2)/m(2) (TPU0) to 757m(2)/m(2) (TPU4), reduced by 26%. The TG-IR results confirmed that HGM could improve the thermal stability of composites and reduce the production of some toxic gases. The above results illustrated HGM had a good prospect in reducing the fire hazard for TPU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  1. Enhancing the Ignition, Hardness and Compressive Response of Magnesium by Reinforcing with Hollow Glass Microballoons

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)/glass microballoons (GMB) metal matrix syntactic foams (1.47–1.67 g/cc) were synthesized using a disintegrated melt deposition (DMD) processing route. Such syntactic foams are of great interest to the scientific community as potential candidate materials for the ever-changing demands in automotive, aerospace, and marine sectors. The synthesized composites were evaluated for their microstructural, thermal, and compressive properties. Results showed that microhardness and the dimensional stability of pure Mg increased with increasing GMB content. The ignition response of these foams was enhanced by ~22 °C with a 25 wt % GMB addition to the Mg matrix. The authors of this work propose a new parameter, ignition factor, to quantify the superior ignition performance that the developed Mg foams exhibit. The room temperature compressive strengths of pure Mg increased with the addition of GMB particles, with Mg-25 wt % GMB exhibiting the maximum compressive yield strength (CYS) of 161 MPa and an ultimate compressive strength (UCS) of 232 MPa for a GMB addition of 5 wt % in Mg. A maximum failure strain of 37.7% was realized in Mg-25 wt % GMB foam. The addition of GMB particles significantly enhanced the energy absorption by ~200% prior to compressive failure for highest filler loading, as compared to pure Mg. Finally, microstructural changes in Mg owing to the presence of hollow GMB particles were elaborately discussed. PMID:28841189

  2. A reporter assay for the next generation of biomaterials: porous-wall hollow glass microspheres.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Aaron; Faircloth, Hunter; Jones, Matthew; Johnson, Christopher; Coleman, Tiffany; Wicks, George; Postma, Gregory; Weinberger, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to design a reporter assay to measure molecular release kinetics from a new porous-wall hollow glass microsphere biomaterial with great potential in regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Second, future avenues for research will be discussed specifically in regard to potential clinical uses in laryngology. Basic science data report. We developed an assay using fluorescent nanocrystals or quantum dots (Qdot 605) as a reporter. A Nuance FX multispectral imaging system was used to detect fluorescence in aqueous phase. Spectral output of known concentrations of aqueous Qdot 605 was measured by the Nuance system to create a standard curve. These data were plotted and fit to a curve. Qdot 605 emission demonstrates excellent correlation with concentration in a log-log relationship [R(2) = 0.99649, median error = 9.9%], indicating that the Qdot 605 assay is reliable and should be explored regarding its ability to evaluate the drug-eluting properties of this material. We have derived a method to measure Qdot concentration using fluorescent microscopy, which will facilitate future research on this exciting new biomaterial. This material has great potential for use in head and neck surgery. Specific avenues within laryngology to be investigated include laryngeal and tracheal reconstruction, vocal fold healing, and nerve regeneration. Furthermore, we believe this is the first documented use of the Nuance system to determine aqueous molecular concentrations. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured Behind Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air–quartz and sample–quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40–60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Finally, empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300–2300 nm range.

  4. Intensity-value corrections for integrating sphere measurements of solid samples measured behind glass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Bernacki, Bruce E; Redding, Rebecca L; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S; Myers, Tanya L; Stephan, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40-60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300-2300 nm range.

  5. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingyuan; Wang, Jian-Gan; Liu, Huanyan; Liu, Hongzhen; Wei, Bingqing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28772435

  6. Facile Synthesis of V₂O₅ Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyuan; Wang, Jian-Gan; Liu, Huanyan; Liu, Hongzhen; Wei, Bingqing

    2017-01-18

    Three-dimensional V₂O₅ hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V₂O₅ materials are composed of microspheres 2-3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V₂O₅ hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V₂O₅ cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V₂O₅ hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and biosensing of glucose on hollow sphere-nanostructured conducting polymer/metal oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun Xian; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-10-14

    A hollow sphere-nanostructured conductive polymer/metal oxide composite was synthesized and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of glucose oxidase, demonstrating a significantly enhanced direct electron transfer ability of glucose oxidase. In particular, the long-standing puzzle of whether enzymatic glucose sensing involves an enzyme direct electron transfer process was studied. The results indicate the mechanism is indeed a glucose oxidase direct electron transfer process with competitive glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction to detect glucose. A glucose biosensor with the glucose oxidase-immobilized nanomaterial was further constructed, demonstrating superior sensitivity and reliability, and providing great potential in clinical applications.

  8. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doping of 3D hollow-structured carbon spheres as an efficient and stable metal free catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zexing; Liu, Rong; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Jing; Xiao, Weiping; Xuan, Cuijuan; Lei, Wen; Wang, Deli

    2016-12-07

    Three-dimensional, hollow-structured carbon sphere nanocomposites (N,S-hcs) doped with nitrogen and sulfur were prepared using a soft template approach followed by a high-temperature treatment. The synthesized N,S-hcs nanomaterials exhibited favourable catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to carbon spheres doped solely with nitrogen (N-hcs), polypyrrole (PPY) solid nanoparticles and irregular fragments of polyaniline (PAN). These results demonstrated the co-doping of N/S and the relatively large surface area of the mesoporous carbon structure that enhanced the catalytic activity of the resulting material. Notably, the prepared N,S-hcs electrocatalysts provided four electron oxygen reduction selectivity, long-term durability and high resistance to methanol poisoning, all of which represented improvements over the conventional Pt/C electrocatalyst. The progress represented by this reported work is of great importance in the development of outstanding non-metal based electrocatalysts for the fuel cell industry.

  9. Mo-doped SnO2 mesoporous hollow structured spheres as anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuekun; Li, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Qun; Guo, Enyan; Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei

    2015-02-28

    We designed a facile infiltration route to synthesize mesoporous hollow structured Mo doped SnO2 using silica spheres as templates. It is observed that Mo is uniformly incorporated into SnO2 lattice in the form of Mo(6+). The as-prepared mesoporous Mo-doped SnO2 LIBs anodes exhibit a significantly improved electrochemical performance with good cycling stability, high specific capacity and high rate capability. The mesoporous hollow Mo-doped SnO2 sample with 14 at% Mo doping content displays a specific capacity of 801 mA h g(-1) after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), about 1.66 times higher than that of the pure SnO2 hollow sample. In addition, even if the current density is as high as 1600 mA g(-1) after 60 cycles, it could still retain a stable specific capacity of 530 mA h g(-1), exhibiting an extraordinary rate capability. The greatly improved electrochemical performance of the Mo-doped mesoporous hollow SnO2 sample could be attributed to the following factors. The large surface area and hollow structure can significantly enhance structural integrity by acting as mechanical buffer, effectively alleviating the volume changes generated during the lithiation/delithiation process. The incorporation of Mo into the lattice of SnO2 improves charge transfer kinetics and results in a faster Li(+) diffusion rate during the charge-discharge process.

  10. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  11. L-cysteine-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres supported carbon nitride as photocatalysts with enhanced lifetime.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Kun; Xie, Jimin

    2017-03-17

    Novel hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres modified by graphite-like carbon nitride were prepared using a facile L-cysteine-assisted solvothermal route. The NiS2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency in rhodamine B, methyl orange and ciprofloxacin degradation as compared to single g-C3N4 and NiS2, which could be due to the synergistic effects of the unique hollow sphere-like structure, strong visible-light absorption and increased separation rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of heterojunctions. A suitable combination of g-C3N4 with NiS2 showed the best photocatalytic performance. In addition, an electron spin resonance and trapping experiment demonstrated that the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were the two main photoactive species in photocatalysis. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS2/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation is also proposed. The strategy presented here can be extended to a general strategy for constructing 3D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts for broad applications in photocatalysis.

  12. Pudding-typed cobalt sulfides/nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped hollow carbon spheres as a highly efficient and stable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Zhao, Chen; Hu, Chencheng; Xi, Jiangbo; Wang, Shuai

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are rarely reported to be grown at the templates due to the strong inherent driving force for crystallization. Herein, we report a pathway to successfully synthesize Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) grown at the unmodified SiO2 spheres from amorphous precursors, and further construct Pudding-typed electrocatalysts, where cobalt sulfides (CoSx) nanocrystals are embedded into nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped hollow carbon spheres (N, S-HCS). CoSx/N, S-HCS show good catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and the optimized performance is achieved with (CoSx/N, S-HCS)700 with the positive half-wave potentials of 0.90 V vs RHE, high selectivity, good long-term stability, and excellent tolerance against methanol-crossover effect in alkaline medium, which are even superior to that of the as-reported MOFs-derived catalysts and commercial Pt/C catalysts. The remarkable catalytic performance is originated from high reactivity of catalytic active sites composed of cobalt sulfides and nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon matrices, and Pudding-typed hollow structure with proper graphitization degree to facilitate fast electron and ion transport and limit the dissolution and agglomeration of active sites during long-term operation.

  13. Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous 3D-nanostructure as anode material for the lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhao; Su, Danyang; Yang, Jinping; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    3d transition-metal oxides, especially Fe3O4, as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries have been attracting intensive attentions in recent years due to their high energy capacity and low toxicity. A new Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure, which was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and porous spongy carbon as raw materials. The specific surface area and microstructures of composite were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. A homogeneous distribution of hollow Fe3O4 spheres (diameter ranges from 120 nm to 150 nm) in the spongy carbon (pore size > 200 nm) conductive 3D-network significantly reduced the lithium-ion diffusion length and increased the electrochemical reaction area, and further more enhanced the lithium ion battery performance, such as discharge capacity and cycle life. As an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, the title composite exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. The Fe3O4/C composite electrode achieved a relatively high reversible specific capacity of 1450.1 mA h g-1 in the first cycle at 100 mA g-1, and excellent rate capability (69% retention at 1000 mA g-1) with good cycle stability (only 10% loss after 100 cycles).

  14. Hierarchical NiCo2O4 Hollow Sphere as a Peroxidase Mimetic for Colorimetric Detection of H2O2 and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lin, Tianye; Cao, Yang; Lai, Xiaoyong; Peng, Juan; Tu, Jinchun

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow sphere synthesized via a “coordinating etching and precipitating” process was demonstrated to exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4, NiO, and Co3O4 hollow spheres were comparatively studied by the catalytic oxidation reaction of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in presence of H2O2, and a superior peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4 was confirmed by stronger absorbance at 652 nm. Furthermore, the proposed sensing platform showed commendable response to H2O2 with a linear range from 10 μM to 400 μM, and a detection limit of 0.21 μM. Cooperated with GOx, the developed novel colorimetric and visual glucose-sensing platform exhibited high selectivity, favorable reproducibility, satisfactory applicability, wide linear range (from 0.1 mM to 4.5 mM), and a low detection limit of 5.31 μM. In addition, the concentration-dependent color change would offer a better and handier way for detection of H2O2 and glucose by naked eye. PMID:28124997

  15. L-cysteine-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres supported carbon nitride as photocatalysts with enhanced lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Kun; Xie, Jimin

    2017-03-01

    Novel hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres modified by graphite-like carbon nitride were prepared using a facile L-cysteine-assisted solvothermal route. The NiS2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency in rhodamine B, methyl orange and ciprofloxacin degradation as compared to single g-C3N4 and NiS2, which could be due to the synergistic effects of the unique hollow sphere-like structure, strong visible-light absorption and increased separation rate of the photoinduced electron–hole pairs at the intimate interface of heterojunctions. A suitable combination of g-C3N4 with NiS2 showed the best photocatalytic performance. In addition, an electron spin resonance and trapping experiment demonstrated that the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were the two main photoactive species in photocatalysis. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS2/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation is also proposed. The strategy presented here can be extended to a general strategy for constructing 3D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts for broad applications in photocatalysis.

  16. Characterization of multi-scale porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures: from submillimeter to nano-scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Gaohui; Jiang, Longtao; Sun, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures (FPGHSS), prepared by pre-bonding and curing technology, has been characterized by multi-resolution methods from sub-millimeter to nano-scale. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy could provide the macroscopic distribution of porous structure on sub-millimeter scale, and hollow fly ashes with sphere shape and several sub-millimeter open cells with irregular shape were identified. SEM is more suitable to illustrate the distribution of micro-sized open and closed cells, and it was found that the open cells of FPGHSS were mainly formed in the interstitial porosity between fly ashes. Mercury porosimeter measurement showed that the micro-sized open cell of FPGHSS demonstrated a normal/bimodal distribution, and the peaks of pore size distribution were mainly around 100 and 10 μm. TEM observation revealed that the phosphate geopolymer was mainly composed of the porous area with nano-pores and dense areas, which were amorphous Al-O-P phase and α-Al2O3 respectively. The pore size of nano-pores demonstrated a quasi-normal distribution from about 10 to 100 nm. Therefore, detailed information of the porous structure of FPGHSS could be revealed using multiple methods.

  17. New dielectric coatings for low-loss hollow glass waveguides and bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Veena

    The dielectric coated metallic hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) are used for transmitting radiation of different wavelengths for a number of applications including laser power delivery and thermal imaging. HGWs with very small bore size, 320 mum down to 50 mum, are desirable to obtain good imaging resolution. In this study, we have succeeded in optimizing the deposition of silver (Ag) and silver iodide (AgI) thin films for these very small bore size HGWs. Rigid HGW bundles having 900 holes of bore size 50 mum have been made by coating the capillary arrays from Collimated HolesRTM. Ag and AgI films are characterized to correlate their morphology with their processing conditions. The spectral attenuation for these bundles is relatively low in the 8 to 12 mum region. The results of IR imaging using the rigid HGW bundles, having an active core area of 30%, are very promising. The loss measurements for a 100 mum HGW at 10.6 mum, using a CO2 laser, yield values around 33 dB/m. Therefore, these very small bore size HGW bundles are useful for short length imaging applications (<15 cm) such as image transfer faceplates. HGW theory shows that the loss of HGWs can be reduced by a factor of five by using a 3-layer high index contrast dielectric coated Ag HGW. We have subsequently studied new additive dielectric coatings such as polymers and metal sulfides such as cadmium sulfide (CdS), and lead sulfide (PbS). Optical polymers such as polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COP), and Teflon AF are good low index dielectric materials for HGWs and have excellent optical properties in the visible and IR. We have found that the morphology of these polymer films that are solution processed depends on the solvent, the deposition environment, and the curing process. CdS and PbS have excellent optical properties in the IR with a refractive index of 2.3 and 4, respectively at 10.6 mum. For the first time, dynamic liquid phase deposition has been used to deposit single and multilayers

  18. Well-dispersed platinum nanoparticles supported on hierarchical nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres with enhanced activity and stability for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Li; Gan, Mengyu; Yang, Fangfang; Fu, Shenna; Li, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (HNPHCS) with porous-thin mesoporous shell and hollow macroporous core structure have been prepared via in-situ oxidation polymerization method using polyaniline as the precursor. After carbonization at 900 °C, the average diameter of HNPHCS is ca. 140 nm with shell thickness of ∼1 nm. Pt nanoparticles with high dispersion and small size have been successfully deposited on the HNPHCS by a microwave-assisted polyol process to synthesize Pt/HNPHCS catalyst. The obtained samples are characterized by physical characterization and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical studies reveal that the prepared Pt/HNPHCS catalyst possesses notably higher catalytic activity and CO-tolerance, and better stability toward methanol electrooxidation in comparison with Pt/nitrogen-doped porous carbon and the commercial Pt/C catalysts. It is likely that enhanced catalytic properties of the Pt/HNPHCS could be due to the high dispersion of small Pt nanoparticles, the presence of nitrogen species, developed porous-thin mesoporous shell and hollow macroporous core structure of support HNPHCS. As a result, the as-developed Pt/HNPHCS present attractive advantages for the application in fuel cell electrocatalyst.

  19. Following the Evolution of Hard Sphere Glasses in Infinite Dimensions under External Perturbations: Compression and Shear Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainone, Corrado; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Yoshino, Hajime; Zamponi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic evolution of glassy states under external perturbations. The formalism we use is very general. Here we use it for infinite-dimensional hard spheres where an exact analysis is possible. We consider perturbations of the boundary, i.e., compression or (volume preserving) shear strain, and we compute the response of glassy states to such perturbations: pressure and shear stress. We find that both quantities overshoot before the glass state becomes unstable at a spinodal point where it melts into a liquid (or yields). We also estimate the yield stress of the glass. Finally, we study the stability of the glass basins towards breaking into sub-basins, corresponding to a Gardner transition. We find that close to the dynamical transition, glasses undergo a Gardner transition after an infinitesimal perturbation.

  20. Flow heterogeneity and correlations in a sheared hard sphere glass: Insight from computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Suvendu; Gross, Markus; Raabe, Dierk; Varnik, Fathollah

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the origin of flow heterogeneity in glassy systems is of high interest both due to its importance from theoretical standpoint as well as due to its occurrence in a large number of practical situations such as the flow of the so-called soft-glassy materials (foams, colloidal suspensions, granular media, etc). Detailed experimental investigations do indeed confirm that the flow of driven amorphous solids is not homogeneous, even if the macroscopic stress is constant across the system. We study this issue via large scale event driven molecular dynamics simulations of a hard sphere glass. We observe significant fluctuations of the velocity profile with a time scale of the order of a few hundreds percent strain. Furthermore, there appears to be a correlation between the fluctuations of the local volume fraction and the fluctuations of the local shear rate. The time scales of the fluctuations of density and shear rate are practically identical. These observations motivate an interpretation of our results via the shear concentration coupling (SCC) theory. A detailed comparison, however, reveals serious inconsistencies. In particular, the amplitude of the fluctuations of the shear rate seems to be decoupled from that of density, a feature which is rather unexpected within the SCC picture. An alternative interpretation of our observations is also discussed invoking dynamic heterogeneity.

  1. IMPACT OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2007-12-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique porous walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with porous walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the porous walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the

  2. Ferrule and use thereof for cooling a melt spun hollow glass fiber as it emerges from a spinnerette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the process of melt spinning thin walled, hollow fibers from relatively low melting glasses results if cooling of the emerging fiber is accomplished by use of a thin layer of gas to transfer heat from the fiber to a ferrule which fits closely to the spinnerette face and the individual fiber. The ferrule incorporates or is in contact with a heat sink and is slotted or segmented so that it may be brought into position around the moving fiber. Thinner walled, more uniform fibers may be spun when this method of cooling is employed.

  3. Ferrule and use thereof for cooling a melt spun hollow glass fiber as it emerges from a spinnerette

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William E.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the process of melt spinning thin walled, hollow fibers from relatively low melting glasses results if cooling of the emerging fiber is accomplished by use of a thin layer of gas to transfer heat from the fiber to a ferrule which fits closely to the spinnerette face and the individual fiber. The ferrule incorporates or is in contact with a heat sink and is slotted or segmented so that it may be brought into position around the moving fiber. Thinner walled, more uniform fibers may be spun when this method of cooling is employed.

  4. Ethylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis for the synthesis of hollow BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-04-01

    Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing ethylene glycol (EG) and precursors at 1000 degrees C. The effects of EG concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and magnetic properties were investigated. The hollow spherical particles were found to consist of primary particles, and higher EG concentration led to a bigger primary particle size. EG concentration did not show much effect on the hollow particle size. Better crystallinity and higher magnetic coercivity were obtained with higher EG concentration, which is attributed to further crystallization with the heat produced from EG combustion. Saturation magnetization (emu/g) decreased with increasing EG concentration due to residual carbon from EG incomplete combustion, contributing as a non-magnetic phase to the particles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Ultrasmall Catalyst Loaded ZnO/ZnCo2O4 Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Won-Tae; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-01-01

    To achieve the rational design of nanostructures for superior gas sensors, the ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on ternary metal oxide (TMO) hollow spheres (HS) were synthesized by using the polystyrene (PS) sphere template and bimetallic metal-organic framework (BM-MOFs) mold. The zinc and cobalt based zeolite imidazole frameworks (BM-ZIFs) encapsulating ultrasmall Pd NPs (2–3 nm) were assembled on PS spheres at room temperature. After calcination at 450 °C, these nanoscale Pd particles were effectively infiltrated on the surface of ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs. In addition, the heterojunctions of Pd-ZnO, Pd-ZnCo2O4, and ZnO-ZnCo2O4 were formed on each phase. The synthesized Pd-ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs exhibited extremely high selectivity toward acetone gas with notable sensitivity (S = 69% to 5 ppm at 250 °C). The results demonstrate that MOF driven ultrasmall catalyst loaded TMO HSs were highly effective platform for high performance chemical gas sensors. PMID:28327599

  6. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Ultrasmall Catalyst Loaded ZnO/ZnCo2O4 Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-03-01

    To achieve the rational design of nanostructures for superior gas sensors, the ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on ternary metal oxide (TMO) hollow spheres (HS) were synthesized by using the polystyrene (PS) sphere template and bimetallic metal-organic framework (BM-MOFs) mold. The zinc and cobalt based zeolite imidazole frameworks (BM-ZIFs) encapsulating ultrasmall Pd NPs (2–3 nm) were assembled on PS spheres at room temperature. After calcination at 450 °C, these nanoscale Pd particles were effectively infiltrated on the surface of ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs. In addition, the heterojunctions of Pd-ZnO, Pd-ZnCo2O4, and ZnO-ZnCo2O4 were formed on each phase. The synthesized Pd-ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs exhibited extremely high selectivity toward acetone gas with notable sensitivity (S = 69% to 5 ppm at 250 °C). The results demonstrate that MOF driven ultrasmall catalyst loaded TMO HSs were highly effective platform for high performance chemical gas sensors.

  7. Equilibration and aging of dense soft-sphere glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Díaz, Luis Enrique; Ramírez-González, Pedro; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2013-05-01

    The recently developed nonequilibrium extension of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [Ramírez-González and Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061503 82, 061503 (2010); Ramírez-González and Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061504 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the irreversible process of equilibration and aging of a glass-forming soft-sphere liquid that follows a sudden temperature quench, within the constraint that the local mean particle density remains uniform and constant. For these particular conditions, this theory describes the nonequilibrium evolution of the static structure factor S(k;t) and of the dynamic properties, such as the self-intermediate scattering function FS(k,τ;t), where τ is the correlation delay time and t is the evolution or waiting time after the quench. Specific predictions are presented for the deepest quench (to zero temperature). The predicted evolution of the α-relaxation time τα(t) as a function of t allows us to define the equilibration time teq(ϕ), as the time after which τα(t) has attained its equilibrium value ταeq(ϕ). It is predicted that both, teq(ϕ) and ταeq(ϕ), diverge as ϕ→ϕ(a), where ϕ(a) is the hard-sphere dynamic-arrest volume fraction ϕ(a)(≈0.582), thus suggesting that the measurement of equilibrium properties at and above ϕ(a) is experimentally impossible. The theory also predicts that for fixed finite waiting times t, the plot of τα(t;ϕ) as a function of ϕ exhibits two regimes, corresponding to samples that have fully equilibrated within this waiting time (ϕ≤ϕ(c)(t)), and to samples for which equilibration is not yet complete (ϕ≥ϕ(c)(t)). The crossover volume fraction ϕ(c)(t) increases with t but saturates to the value ϕ(a).

  8. Preparation and characterization of hollow glass microspheres coated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using urea as precipitator via coprecipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Xiaofen; Fu Wuyou; Yang Haibin Zhu Hongyang; Xu Jing; Li Xiang; Zou Guangtian

    2009-02-04

    The composite of hollow glass microspheres coated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles has been successfully prepared using urea as precipitator via coprecipitation method. The resultant composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the slow decomposition of urea could be beneficial to form uniform and entire cobalt ferrite coating layer on the surface of hollow glass microspheres. The smoothest morphology was obtained for the sample prepared from 0.7 M urea, while the sample prepared from 1.0 M urea had the thickest shell. This indicated that there was a competition between the morphology and thickness of the coated microspheres. A possible formation mechanism of hollow glass microspheres coated with cobalt ferrite was proposed. The magnetic properties of the samples were also investigated.

  9. Retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames using glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakam, Zeyad Hamed-Ramzy

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates that are epoxy-bonded to the exterior faces of the infill walls. An extensive experimental investigation using one-third scale modeling was conducted and consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 64 assemblages, half of which were retrofitted, were tested under various combined in-plane loading conditions similar to those which different regions of a typical infill wall are subjected to. In the second phase, one bare and four masonry-infilled steel frames representative of a typical single-story, single-bay panel were tested under diagonal loading to study the overall behavior and the infill-frame interaction. The relative infill-to-frame stiffness was varied as a test parameter by using two different steel frame sections. The laminates altered the failure modes of the masonry assemblages and reduced the variability and anisotropic nature of the masonry. For the prisms which failed due to shear and/or mortar joint slip, significant strength increases were observed. For those exhibiting compression failure modes, a marginal increase in strength resulted. Retrofitting the infilled frames resulted in an average increase in initial stiffness of two-fold compared to the unretrofitted infilled frames, and seemed independent of the relative infill-to-frame stiffness. However, the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the retrofitted frames compared to the unretrofitted counterparts was higher for those with the larger relative infill-to-frame stiffness parameter. Unlike the unretrofitted infill walls, the retrofitted panels demonstrated almost identical failure modes that were characterized as "strictly comer crushing" in the vicinity of the loaded comers whereas no signs of distress were evident throughout the remainder of the infill. The laminates also maintained the structural integrity of

  10. Method of forming frozen spheres in a force-free drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Hollow glass spheres are shaped by the effects of surface tension acting on bubbles of glass in its molten state. A downwardly flowing stream of air accelerated at a one-G rate of acceleration is established through a drop bubbles on molten glass are introduced into the stream of air and frozen and as they are accelerated at a one-G rate of acceleration.

  11. Controlled permeation of hydrogen through glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, T.; Shelby, J.E. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Storing hydrogen inside of hollow glass spheres requires that the gas permeate through the glass walls. Hydrogen permeation through glass is relatively slow and the time to charge a sphere or bed of spheres is dependent on many factors. Permeation processes are strongly temperature dependent with behavior that follows an Arrhenius function., Rate is also dependent on the pressure drop driving force across a membrane wall and inversely proportional to thickness. Once filled, glass spheres will immediately begin to leak once the pressure driving force is reversed. Practical systems would take advantage of the fact that keeping the glass at ambient temperatures can minimize outboard leakage even with significant internal pressures. If hydrogen could be loaded and unloaded from glass microspheres with significantly less energy and particularly at near ambient temperature, some of the key barriers to commercializing this storage concept would be broken and further system engineering efforts may make this approach cost-effective. There were two key objectives for this effort. The first was to evaluate the application of hollow glass microspheres for merchant hydrogen storage and distribution and then determine the hydrogen permeation performance required for practical commercial use. The second objective was to identify, through a series of fundamental experiments, a low energy, low temperature field effect that could significantly enhance hydrogen permeation through glass without application of heat. If such an effect could be found, hollow glass microspheres could be much more attractive for hydrogen storage or possibly gas separation applications.

  12. Hierarchical TiO2 /SnO2 Hollow Spheres Coated with Graphitized Carbon for High-Performance Electrochemical Li-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiqi; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2017-06-01

    A self-templated strategy is developed to fabricate hierarchical TiO2 /SnO2 hollow spheres coated with graphitized carbon (HTSO/GC-HSs) by combined sol-gel processes with hydrothermal treatment and calcination. The as-prepared mesoporous HTSO/GC-HSs present an approximate yolk-double-shell structure, with high specific area and small nanocrystals of TiO2 and SnO2 , and thus exhibit superior electrochemical reactivity and stability when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. A high reversible specific capacity of about 310 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 5 A g(-1) can be achieved over 500 cycles indicating very good cycle stability and rate performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluation of SiO{sub 2}@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-hollow spheres through THz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rakshit, Rupali Pal, Monalisa; Chaudhuri, Arka; Mandal, Kalyan; Serita, Kazunori; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2016-05-06

    We have synthesized cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles (NPs) of diameter 100 nm and nano-hollow spheres (NHSs) of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm by a facile one step template free solvothermal technique and carried out SiO{sub 2} coating on their surface following Stöber method. The phase and morphology of the nanostructures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The magnetic measurements were carried out by vibrating sample magnetometer in order to study the influence of SiO{sub 2} coating on the magnetic properties of bare CFO nanostructures. Furthermore, we have applied THz time domain spectroscopy to investigate the THz absorption property of these nanostructures in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 THz. Detailed morphology and size dependent THz absorption study unfolds that the absorption property of these nanostructures sensitively carries the unique signature of its dielectric property.

  14. Real-Time Fluorescence Detection in Aqueous Systems by Combined and Enhanced Photonic and Surface Effects in Patterned Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kuo; Wang, Ling; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Bartic, Carmen; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2017-05-16

    Hollow sphere colloidal photonic crystals (HSCPCs) exhibit the ability to maintain a high refractive index contrast after infiltration of water, leading to extremely high-quality photonic band gap effects, even in an aqueous (physiological) environment. Superhydrophilic pinning centers in a superhydrophobic environment can be used to strongly confine and concentrate water-soluble analytes. We report a strategy to realize real-time ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in patterned HSCPCs based on strongly enhanced fluorescence due to the photonic band-edge effect combined with wettability differentiation in the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic pattern. The orthogonal nature of the two strategies allows for a multiplicative effect, resulting in an increase of two orders of magnitude in fluorescence.

  15. Facile and controllable synthesis of monodisperse CaF2 and CaF2:Ce3+/Tb3+ hollow spheres as efficient luminescent materials and smart drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuimiao; Li, Chunxia; Peng, Chong; Chai, Ruitao; Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Dongmei; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2010-05-17

    Highly uniform and well-dispersed CaF(2) hollow spheres with tunable particle size (300-930 nm) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. Their shells are composed of numerous nanocrystals (about 40 nm in diameter). The morphology and size of the CaF(2) products are strongly dependent on experimental parameters such as reaction time, pH value, and organic additives. The size of the CaF(2) hollow spheres can be controlled from 300 to 930 nm by adjusting the pH value. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements suggest that mesopores (av 24.6 nm) exist in these hollow spheres. In addition, Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)-codoped CaF(2) hollow spheres can be prepared similarly, and show efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and strong green photoluminescence of Tb(3+) (541 nm, (5)D(4)-->(7)F(5) transition of Tb(3+), the highest quantum efficiency reaches 77%). The monodisperse CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) hollow spheres also have desirable properties as drug carriers. Ibuprofen-loaded CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) samples still show green luminescence of Tb(3+) under UV irradiation, and the emission intensity of Tb(3+) in the drug-carrier system varies with the released amount of ibuprofen, so that drug release can be easily tracked and monitored by means of the change in luminescence intensity. The formation mechanism and luminescent and drug-release properties were studied in detail.

  16. Multilayer CuO@NiO Hollow Spheres: Microwave-Assisted Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Highly Reversible Structure-Matched Stepwise Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxiang; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-24

    A unique CuO@NiO microsphere with three-layer ball-in-ball hollow morphology is successfully synthesized by Cu-Ni bimetallic organic frameworks. The beforehand facile microwave-assisted production of the Ni organic framework sphere is used as the template to induce the morphology control of bimetallic oxides. Designed by the controlled surface cationic exchange reactions between Cu and Ni ions, there is an elemental gradient (decreased amount of CuO but increased amount of NiO) from the shell to the core of the microsphere product. This ternary metal oxide hollow structure is found to be very suitable for solving the critical volume expansion problem, which is critical for all high-capacity metal oxide electrodes for lithium ion batteries. A reversible larger-than-theoretical capacity of 1061 mAh·g(-1) can be retained after a repetitive 200 cycles without capacity fading compared to the initial cycle. These excellent electrochemical properties are ascribed to the step-by-step lithium insertion reactions induced by the matched CuO@NiO composition from the shell to the core and facilitated lithium/electron diffusion and accommodated volume change in the porous bimetallic oxides microsphere with a multiple-layer yolk-shell nanostructure.

  17. Facile synthesis of hierarchical hollow ε-MnO{sub 2} spheres and their application in supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dandan; Jing, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pengcheng; Ding, Yuansheng; Liu, Jingyuan

    2014-10-15

    The hierarchical hollow microspheres of ε-MnO{sub 2} have been synthesized through a facile chemical method at room temperature followed by selective removal of manganese carbonate structures with HCl. The microstructure and morphologies of the resulting materials are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the product obtained by simple reaction for 3 min has a porous shell with excellent permeability and uniform pore-size distribution. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectra. As a result, the hierarchical hollow ε-MnO{sub 2} showed the specific capacitance of 115 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}. These results demonstrate that the ε-MnO{sub 2} as electrode materials have potential application for high-performance supercapacitors. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2} shell with MnCO{sub 3} intermediate core is prepared at room temperature; the hollow structure with excellent permeated shell enhanced the discharge capacity and electrochemical stability.

  18. Poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO4 hollow spheres for up-conversion cell imaging, MRI and pH-dependent drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Dongmei; Dai, Yunlu; Shang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Ziyong; Zhang, Xiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Ma, Ping'an; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, multifunctional poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO4 nanocomposites [PAA@GdVO4: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, Yb/Tm)] were constructed by filling PAA hydrogel into GdVO4 hollow spheres via photoinduced polymerization. The up-conversion (UC) emission colors (green, red and blue) can be tuned by changing the codopant compositions in the matrices. The composites have potential applications as bio-probes for cell imaging. Meanwhile, the hybrid spheres can act as T1 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) owing to the existence of Gd3+ ions on the surface of composites. Due to the nature of PAA, DOX-loaded PAA@GdVO4:Yb3+/Er3+ system exhibits pH-dependent drug releasing kinetics. A lower pH offers a faster drug release rate. Such character makes the loaded DOX easily released at cancer cells. The cell uptake process of drug-loaded composites was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicate the potential application of the multifunctional composites as theragnostics (effective bimodal imaging probes and pH-responsive drug carriers).

  19. Highly ordered monolayer/bilayer TiO2 hollow sphere films with widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qin, Yao; Jin, Chao; Li, Ying; Shi, Donglu; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Gan, Lihua; Yang, Jinhu

    2013-06-07

    Monolayer and bilayer TiO2 hollow hemisphere/sphere (THH/THS) films consisting of highly ordered hexagonal-patterned THHs/THSs with thin shells of ~10 nm and different diameters of ~170 and ~470 nm have been prepared by templating of two-dimensional polystyrene sphere (PS) assembly films coupled with TiO2 sputtering/wet coating approaches. Owing to their precisely adjustable structural parameters, such as THH/THS shape and diameter as well as film layer thickness, the prepared THH/THS films exhibit widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands, i.e. from 380 to 850 nm for reflection and 390 to 520 nm for absorption, respectively. The mechanism of the novel optical behaviors of the THH/THS films has been discussed in depth, combined with some calculations according to Bragg's law. In addition, photocatalytic experiments of RhB degradation employing the THH/THS films as recyclable catalysts have been conducted. The THH/THS films with controlled structures and precisely tunable optical properties are attractive for a wide range of applications, such as recyclable catalysts for photocatalysis, efficient oxide electrodes or scattering layers for solar cells, gas-permeable electrode materials for high-performance sensors and so on.

  20. Poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO4 hollow spheres for up-conversion cell imaging, MRI and pH-dependent drug release.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Dongmei; Dai, Yunlu; Shang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Ziyong; Zhang, Xiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Ma, Ping'an; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-07

    In this study, multifunctional poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO(4) nanocomposites [PAA@GdVO(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, Yb/Tm)] were constructed by filling PAA hydrogel into GdVO(4) hollow spheres via photoinduced polymerization. The up-conversion (UC) emission colors (green, red and blue) can be tuned by changing the codopant compositions in the matrices. The composites have potential applications as bio-probes for cell imaging. Meanwhile, the hybrid spheres can act as T(1) contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) owing to the existence of Gd(3+) ions on the surface of composites. Due to the nature of PAA, DOX-loaded PAA@GdVO(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) system exhibits pH-dependent drug releasing kinetics. A lower pH offers a faster drug release rate. Such character makes the loaded DOX easily released at cancer cells. The cell uptake process of drug-loaded composites was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicate the potential application of the multifunctional composites as theragnostics (effective bimodal imaging probes and pH-responsive drug carriers).

  1. Mussel-Inspired Photografting on Colloidal Spheres: A Generalized Self-Template Route to Stimuli-Responsive Hollow Spheres for Controlled Pesticide Release.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wenbo; Li, Wei; Li, Bin; Li, Cuihua; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong; Zhou, Feng; Jia, Xin

    2015-09-01

    A thermo-controlled pesticide release system composed of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) thin film grafted polydopamine (PDA) (PDMAEMA-g-PDA) microcapsules is reported. SiO2 microparticles are used as a template to prepare PDA-coated SiO2 microparticles. The thermally-responsive PDMAEMA thin films are grafted on PDA surfaces using a metal-free surface-initiated photopolymerization approach without adding any photo-initiator or photosensitizer under UV light irradiation. The subsequent acid etching yields PDMAEMA-g-PDA hollow microcapsules. PDMAEMA-g-PDA microcapsules exhibit well-controlled release of avermectin (Av). The results show that the loading ability of PDMAEMA-g-PDA microcapsules of Av is up to 52.7% (w/w). The release kinetics of Av demonstrate that Av@PDMAEMA-g-PDA microcapsules exhibit temperature-controlled release performance. This work is significant for controlled release systems. This simple design is expected to be used in various applications, such as in controlled drug release and agriculture-related fields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Biomimetic self-healing of advanced composite structures using hollow glass fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2006-06-01

    The use of functional repair components stored inside hollow reinforcing fibres is being considered as a self-repair system for future composite structures. The incorporation of a self-healing capability within a variety of materials, including fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), has been investigated by a number of workers previously. This paper considers the placement of self-healing plies within an FRP to mitigate damage occurrence and restore mechanical strength. The flexural strength results indicate that the inclusion of hollow fibres results in an initial strength reduction of 16% from a baseline FRP laminate. However, the effect of impact damage on the performance of the baseline FRP laminate and the laminate containing the hollow fibre layers was comparable, with a flexural strength typically 72-74% of the undamaged state. Self-healing of the damage site saw the laminate recover 87% of the undamaged baseline FRP laminate's strength. This study provides clear evidence that an FRP laminate containing hollow fibre layers can successfully self-heal. This result suggests that biomimetic repair is now possible for advanced composite structures.

  3. Enhanced sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for tritium gas analysis using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, S.; Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    The precise compositional analysis of tritium-containing gases is of high interest for tritium accountancy in future fusion power plants. Raman spectroscopy provides a fast and contact-free gas analysis procedure with high precision, thus being an advantageous tool for the named purpose. In this paper, it is shown that the sensitivity achieved with conventional Raman systems (in 90 degrees or forward/backward configurations) can be enhanced by at least one order of magnitude by using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber as the Raman cell. This leads to the ability of detecting low partial pressures of tritium within short measurement intervals (< 0.5 mbar in < 0.5 s) opening the way for real-time applications.

  4. Aluminum-coated hollow glass fibers for ArF-excimer laser light fabricated by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Miyagi, M

    1999-04-20

    A hollow fiber composed of a glass capillary tube and a metal thin film upon the inside of the tube is proposed for the delivery of ArF-excimer laser light. From theoretical analysis, aluminum is chosen as the metal layer. A thin aluminum film is deposited by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition, with dimethylethylamine alane employed as the source material. Measured loss spectra in vacuum-ultraviolet and ultraviolet regions and losses for ArF-excimer laser light show the low-loss property of the aluminum-coated fiber at the 193-nm wavelength of ArF-excimer laser light. The straight loss of the 1-m long, 1-mm-bore fiber is 1.0 dB.

  5. Aluminum-Coated Hollow Glass Fibers for ArF-Excimer Laser Light Fabricated by Metallorganic Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    1999-04-01

    A hollow fiber composed of a glass capillary tube and a metal thin film upon the inside of the tube is proposed for the delivery of ArF-excimer laser light. From theoretical analysis, aluminum is chosen as the metal layer. A thin aluminum film is deposited by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition, with dimethylethylamine alane employed as the source material. Measured loss spectra in vacuum-ultraviolet and ultraviolet regions and losses for ArF-excimer laser light show the low-loss property of the aluminum-coated fiber at the 193-nm wavelength of ArF-excimer laser light. The straight loss of the 1-m long, 1-mm-bore fiber is 1.0 dB.

  6. Inactivation of algal blooms in eutrophic water of drinking water supplies with the photocatalysis of TiO2 thin film on hollow glass beads.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-C; Lee, D-K

    2005-01-01

    Photocatalytic inactivation of algae, Anabaena, Microcystis, and Melosira, was carried out with TiO2-coated Pyrex hollow glass beads under the illumination of UV light (370 nm wavelength). After being irradiated with UV light in the presence of the TiO2-coated Pyrex glass beads, Anabaena and Microcystis, known as typical cyanobacteria, lost their photosynthetic activity, and the string of Anabaena cells and the colonies of Microcystis cells were completely separated into individual spherical ones. In the case of Melosira, which is a typical diatom, however, somewhat lower photocatalytic inactivation efficiency was obtained, which was believed to be due to the presence of the inorganic siliceous wall surrounding the cells of Melosira. The TiO2-coated hollow glass beads could successfully be employed for the practical application in a eutrophicated river under sunlight. More than 50% of the chlorophyll-a concentration could be reduced by the action of TiO2 photocatalysis.

  7. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  8. Structural evaluations and temperature dependent photoluminescence characterizations of Eu3+-activated SrZrO3 hollow spheres for luminescence thermometry applications

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subrata; Som, Sudipta; Yang, Che-Yuan; Chavhan, Sudam; Lu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    This research is focused on the temperature sensing ability of perovskite SrZrO3:Eu3+ hollow spheres synthesized via the sol-gel method followed by heating. The Rietveld refinement indicated that the precursors annealed at 1100 °C were crystallized to form orthorhombic SrZrO3. SrZrO3 particles exhibited non-agglomerated hollow spherical morphology with an average particle size of 300 nm. The UV-excited photoluminescence spectrum of SrZrO3:Eu3+ consisted of two regions. One region was associated with SrZrO3 trap emission, and the other one was related to the emission of Eu3+ ions. The intensity ratio of the emission of Eu3+ ions to the host emission (FIR) and the emission lifetime of Eu3+ ions were measured in the temperature range of 300–550 K. The sensitivity obtained via the lifetime method was 7.3× lower than that measured via the FIR. Within the optimum temperature range of 300–460 K, the as-estimated sensor sensitivity was increased from 0.0013 to 0.028 K−1. With a further increase in temperatures, the sensitivity started to decline. A maximum relative sensitivity was estimated to be 2.22%K−1 at 460 K. The resolutions in both methods were below 1K in the above temperature range. The results indicated the suitability of SrZrO3:Eu3+ for the distinct high temperature sensing applications. PMID:27189117

  9. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium–sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles. PMID:27762261

  10. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  11. Single-ring hollow core optical fibers made by glass billet extrusion for Raman sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsiminis, G; Rowland, K J; Schartner, E P; Spooner, N A; Monro, T M; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H

    2016-03-21

    We report the fabrication of the first extruded hollow core optical fiber with a single ring of cladding holes, and its use in a chemical sensing application. These single suspended ring structures show antiresonance reflection optical waveguiding (ARROW) features in the visible part of the spectrum. The impact of preform pressurization on the geometry of these fibers is determined by the size of the different hole types in the preform. The fibers are used to perform Raman sensing of methanol, demonstrating their potential for future fiber sensing applications.

  12. Formation of Mo-Polydopamine Hollow Spheres and Their Conversions to MoO2 /C and Mo2 C/C for Efficient Electrochemical Energy Storage and Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Sun, Lianshan; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Xuxu; Sun, Qujiang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2017-08-01

    Highly uniform hierarchical Mo-polydopamine hollow spheres are synthesized for the first time through a liquid-phase reaction under ambient temperature. A self-assembly mechanism of the hollow structure of Mo-polydopamine precursor is discussed in detail, and a determined theory is proposed in a water-in-oil system. Via different annealing process, these precursors can be converted into hierarchical hollow MoO2 /C and Mo2 C/C composites without any distortion in shape. Owing to the well-organized structure and nanosize particle embedding, the as-prepared hollow spheres exhibit appealing performance both as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries and as the catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Accordingly, MoO2 /C delivers a high reversible capacity of 940 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and 775 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) with good rate capability and long cycle performance. Moreover, Mo2 C/C also exhibits an enhanced electrocatalytic performance with a low overpotential for HER in both acidic and alkaline conditions, as well as remarkable stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials. PMID:24144278

  14. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-21

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  15. Infrared radiometry using a dielectric-silver-coated hollow glass waveguide for polymer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendada, A.; Cole, K.; Lamontagne, M.; Simard, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel on-line infrared method for remote sensing of the surface and the bulk temperatures of a polymer film during injection molding. The method may also be applied to other polymer forming processes such as extrusion and blow molding. The key feature of the new method is the use of a hollow waveguide that is incorporated into the injection mold to transmit the thermal radiation from the target to the sensor. The main characteristic of the hollow waveguide is that it exhibits low transmission loss of the thermal energy in the mid and far infrared, and no end reflection. This allows measurement of quite low temperatures, as low as near room temperature. Conventional optical fiber thermometers can neither measure such low temperature ranges nor measure the polymer surface temperature. In this article, we present the first on-line results of critical tests of the new device. A Husky injection molding press was used for the experiments. Good correlation was found between the radiometric results and those obtained with a thermal sensor inserted near the polymer mold interface, and with infrared imaging after the polymer part was ejected from the injection mold.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Architecture of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and Graphene Sheets on Hollow Carbon Spheres/Sulfur Composite for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Li, Jian; Su, Yuefeng; Wang, Jing; Yang, Wen; Li, Ning; Chen, Lai; Chen, Shi; Chen, Renjie; Bao, Liying

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) and graphene sheets are applied to sequentially coat on the surface of hollow carbon spheres/sulfur composite by a flexible layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly strategy. Owing to the strong electrostatic interactions between the opposite charged materials, the coating agents are very stable and the coating procedure is highly efficient. The LBL film shows prominent impact on the stability of the cathode by acting as not only a basic physical barrier, and more importantly, an ion-permselective film to block the polysulfides anions by Coulombic repulsion. Furthermore, the graphene sheets can help to stabilize the polyelectrolytes film and greatly reduce the inner resistance of the electrode by changing the transport of the electrons from a "point-to-point" mode to a more effective "plane-to-point'' mode. On the basis of the synergistic effect of the PEMs and graphene sheets, the fabricated composite electrode exhibits very stable cycling stability for over 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1), along with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 99%. With the advantages of rapid and controllable fabrication of the LBL coating film, the multifunctional architecture developed in this study should inspire the design of other lithium-sulfur cathodes with unique physical and chemical properties.

  17. Synthesis of CdS hollow spheres coupled with g-C3N4 as efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Qingqing; Hu, Juncheng

    2016-09-02

    CdS hollow spheres (CdS HS) coupled with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalysts are synthesized and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The effect of CdS content on CdS HS/g-C3N4 activity is investigated by  the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The sample of 20 wt% CdS content shows the best photocatalytic performance under visible-light irradiation, with the corresponding RhB degradation rate reaching 97.3%. The excellent photoactivity of CdS HS/g-C3N4 is attributed to the synergistic effect of g-C3N4 and CdS HS. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the CdS HS/g-C3N4 composite is proposed and corroborated by PL.

  18. Urchin-like cobalt incorporated manganese oxide OMS-2 hollow spheres: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation of RhB dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed; Li, Buyi; Tan, Bien; Huang, Kaixun

    2013-01-01

    Urchin-like KxCoyMn8-yO16 hollow spheres assembled from nanoplate building blocks were successfully fabricated via a one-pot hydrothermal route using cobalt acetate and potassium permanganate as raw material. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement. The thermal stability and surface areas of cobalt ion in the manganese sites of KMn8O16 structures were clearly evidenced by TGA and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms curves. Based on time depended experiment results, a possible formation mechanism for this structures was proposed. The catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) on KxCoyMn8-yO16 materials has, therefore been dependent for the molar precursor ratio and specific surface area of the as-fabricated products. UV-vis, LC-MS and barium hydroxide methods were utilized to monitor the temporal course of the catalytic reaction.

  19. Lutecium fluoride hollow mesoporous spheres with enhanced up-conversion luminescent bioimaging and light-triggered drug release by gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruichan; Yang, Piaoping; Dai, Yunlu; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Lin, Jun

    2014-09-10

    Uniform Na5Lu9F32 hollow mesoporous spheres (HMSs) have been successfully prepared by a facile and mild (50 °C for 5 h) coprecipitation process, and Au nanocrystals (NCs) with particle size of about 10 nm were conjugated to poly(ether imide) (PEI) modified HMSs by electrostatic interaction. Compared with Na5Lu9F32:Yb/Er HMSs, the up-conversion (UC) luminescence intensity of Na5Lu9F32:Yb/Er@Au HMSs was much higher under low pump power due to the local field enhancement (LFE) of Au NCs, and there is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect with nonradiative transitions which generates a thermal effect. These two effects have been proved by theoretical discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) simulation. The good biocompatibility of Na5Lu9F32:Yb/Er@Au HMSs indicates them as a promising candidate in the biological field. Particularly, under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, a rapid doxorubicin (DOX) release was achieved due to the thermal effect of Au NCs. In this case, Na5Lu9F32:Yb/Er@Au HMSs exhibit an apparent NIR light-controlled "on/off" drug release pattern. In addition, UC luminescent images uptaken by cells show brighter green and red emission under NIR laser excitation. Therefore, this novel multifunctional (mesoporous, enhanced UC luminescent, and light-triggered drug release) material should be potential as a suitable targeted cancer therapy carrier and bioimaging.

  20. Synthesis of CdS hollow spheres coupled with g-C3N4 as efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Qingqing; Hu, Juncheng

    2016-09-01

    CdS hollow spheres (CdS HS) coupled with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalysts are synthesized and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The effect of CdS content on CdS HS/g-C3N4 activity is investigated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The sample of 20 wt% CdS content shows the best photocatalytic performance under visible-light irradiation, with the corresponding RhB degradation rate reaching 97.3%. The excellent photoactivity of CdS HS/g-C3N4 is attributed to the synergistic effect of g-C3N4 and CdS HS. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the CdS HS/g-C3N4 composite is proposed and corroborated by PL.

  1. Designed Formulation of Se-Impregnated N-Containing Hollow Core Mesoporous Shell Carbon Spheres: Multifunctional Potential Cathode for Li-Se and Na-Se Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Balakumar; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi

    2017-08-16

    Nitrogen-containing carbon spheres with hollow core and mesoporous shell (NHCS), capable of confining Se at levels as high as 72 wt % has been demonstrated to exhibit appreciable electrochemical behavior with 52 and 61 wt % Se loading. In particular, 52 wt % Se confined NHCS cathode exhibits 265 mAh/g at 10C rate and retains 75% of initial capacity at 2C rate up to 10 000 cycles with an insignificant decay of 0.0025% per cycle, which is an ever first report on the extended cycle life of Li-Se batteries. Due to the negligible difference found between the transport kinetics of Se and that of Li2Se, irrespective of the cycling rate, 52 wt % Se @ NHCS performs better at high rates. Furthermore, capacity is governed by the extent of utilization of confined Se and cycle life by the extent of mitigation of volume expansion. Accordingly, rate capability studies recommend 52 wt % Se loaded cathode above 2C rate and 61 wt % Se loading up to 2C rate. Furthermore, NHCS/Se-52 cathode demonstrates suitability for Na-Se batteries by exhibiting 339 and 219 mAh/g of capacity at rates of C/5 and 2C rates, respectively. NHCS with select Se concentration could thus be exploited for multifunctional cathode behavior in Li-Se and Na-Se systems.

  2. Optimization of the Photoanode of CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Light-Scattering TiO2 Hollow Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Maziar; Rahmani, Elham; Ahangarani Farahani, Farzaneh

    2017-08-01

    CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been fabricated and their photoanode optimized by altering the thickness of the photoelectrode and CdS deposition conditions and applying a ZnS electron-blocking layer and TiO2 hollow spheres. Hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with dominant size of 20 nm were deposited as a sublayer in the photoanode with thickness in the range from 5 μm to 10 μm using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The number of deposition cycles was altered over a wide range to obtain optimized sensitization. Photoanode thickness and number of CdS sensitization cycles around the optimum values were selected and used for ZnS deposition. ZnS overlayers were also deposited on the surface of the photoanodes using different numbers of cycles of the SILAR process. The best QDSC with the optimized photoelectrode demonstrated a 153% increase in efficiency compared with a similar cell with ZnS-free photoanode. Such bilayer photoelectrodes were also fabricated with different thicknesses of TiO2 sublayers and one overlayer of TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs) with external diameter of 500 nm fabricated by liquid-phase deposition with carbon spheres as template. The optimization was performed by changing the photoanode thickness using a wide range of CdS sensitizing cycles. The maximum energy conversion efficiency was increased by about 77% compared with a similar cell with HS-free photoelectrode. The reason was considered to be the longer path length of the incident light inside the photoanode and greater light absorption. A ZnS blocking layer was overcoated on the surface of the bilayer photoanode with optimized thickness. The number of CdS sensitization cycles was also changed around the optimized value to obtain the best QDSC performance. The number of ZnS deposition cycles was also altered in a wide range for optimization of the photovoltaic performance. It was shown that the maximum efficiency was increased by

  3. Abundances and Distributions of Volatile Elements (Na, S, Cl, K) Within Lunar Volcanic Glass Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, John W.

    1999-01-01

    This research developed and applied high-precision analytical methods (electron microprobe) to determine the major- and minor-element abundances (Si, Ti, A], Cr, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K) in three suites of Apollo 14 volcanic green glasses. Since the precision of these data was a factor of 5-10 better than previously published results, the data provided the strongest constraints yet achieved on the geochemical processes that operated at depths less than 400 kilometers inside the Moon. The results of this work were submitted to the 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, formed the basis for a Master's Thesis, and were published in the top-tier geochemical journal. Additional high-precision data on the trace abundances of sodium (Na), sulfur (S), and potassium (K) in the Apollo 17 volcanic orange glasses (74220) were also acquired during this grant-period. These data show diffusion profiles within individual 200-micron diameter, glass spherules that were apparently generated during the fire-fountain eruption of this magma in the presence of a transient vapor phase. Although these results have not yet been published, publication is planned in 2001 after additional numerical modeling has been completed. This work has also catalyzed on-going collaborative work with Professor Timothy Grove (MIT) to analyze and understand the origin of the Apollo 15 volcanic green glasses. That work will be completed for publication in 2001.

  4. Abundances and Distributions of Volatile Elements (Na, S, Cl, K) Within Lunar Volcanic Glass Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, John W.

    1999-01-01

    This research developed and applied high-precision analytical methods (electron microprobe) to determine the major- and minor-element abundances (Si, Ti, A], Cr, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K) in three suites of Apollo 14 volcanic green glasses. Since the precision of these data was a factor of 5-10 better than previously published results, the data provided the strongest constraints yet achieved on the geochemical processes that operated at depths less than 400 kilometers inside the Moon. The results of this work were submitted to the 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, formed the basis for a Master's Thesis, and were published in the top-tier geochemical journal. Additional high-precision data on the trace abundances of sodium (Na), sulfur (S), and potassium (K) in the Apollo 17 volcanic orange glasses (74220) were also acquired during this grant-period. These data show diffusion profiles within individual 200-micron diameter, glass spherules that were apparently generated during the fire-fountain eruption of this magma in the presence of a transient vapor phase. Although these results have not yet been published, publication is planned in 2001 after additional numerical modeling has been completed. This work has also catalyzed on-going collaborative work with Professor Timothy Grove (MIT) to analyze and understand the origin of the Apollo 15 volcanic green glasses. That work will be completed for publication in 2001.

  5. Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers deposited on hollow glass microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lifeng; Wang Yuansheng; Niu Mutong; Chen Guoxin; Cheng Yao

    2009-10-15

    Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition and calcining treatment. The adherence of TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers to the surfaces of hollow glass microbeads prevented the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and benefited to their catalytic activity. The doping of Fe ions makes the absorption edge of the TiO{sub 2} based nano-composite red-shifted into the visible region. An effective photodegradation of the methyl orange aqueous solution was achieved under visible light (lambda>420 nm) irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields, such as air and water purifications. - Graphical abstract: Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition. Photodegradation of the methyl orange was achieved under visible light irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields.

  6. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Daniel G.; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  7. Investigation of silver-only and silver/TOPAS coated hollow glass waveguides for visible and NIR laser delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Harrington, James A.

    2015-03-01

    Hollow Glass Waveguides (HGWs) present a viable option for the low-loss transmission of radiation over a broad range spanning from visible to far-infrared wavelengths. Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC), a commercially available polymer known as TOPAS®, is chosen for this study due to its exceptionally low absorption losses throughout the spectrum, particularly in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions. While silver-coated HGWs are capable of transmitting visible and NIR radiation with low losses, theory predicts that the addition of a uniform dielectric thin film of quarter wavelength thickness will reduce these losses for both straight and bent configurations, while additionally providing a potentially more desirable modal output for laser applications. In this paper, the procedures for the deposition of the silver and subsequent COC films are outlined. Spectroscopy is used to obtain the thickness of the polymer film. The theoretical attenuation losses of the silver and Ag/COC HGWs are explored and experimental values are obtained using various visible and IR lasers. Moreover, the modal output of the silver and Ag/COC HGWs is qualitatively compared. The possibility of use of these Ag/COC HGWs at mid- and far-IR wavelengths is discussed.

  8. Preparation and microwave absorbing property of Ni-Zn ferrite-coated hollow glass microspheres with polythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lindong; Chen, Xingliang; Qi, Shuhua

    2016-11-01

    The composite of hollow glass microspheres (HMG) coated by Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 particles was fabricated via sol-gel method, and then the ternary composite (HMG/Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4/PT) was synthesized by in situ polymerization. The electrical property, magnetic performance and reflection loss of the composites were measured, and the results suggest that the conductivity and the saturation magnetization (Ms) of HMG/Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4/PT reach 6.87×10-5 S/cm and 11.627 emu/g, respectively. The ternary composite has good microwave absorbing properties (Rmin=-13.79 dB at 10.51 GHz) and the bandwidth less than -10 dB can reach 2.6 GHz (from 9.4 to 12.0 GHz) in X band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The morphology and chemical structure of the samples were measured through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This paper also analyzes the relationship between the reflection loss of the absorber and its thickness.

  9. Highly Durable Supportless Pt Hollow Spheres Designed for Enhanced Oxygen Transport in Cathode Catalyst Layers of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Didem C; Cho, Seonghun; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Kim, Young-Min; Guim, Hwanuk; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Park, Seok-Hee; Park, Gu-Gon; Yim, Sung-Dae

    2016-10-10

    Supportless Pt catalysts have several advantages over conventional carbon-supported Pt catalysts in that they are not susceptible to carbon corrosion. However, the need for high Pt loadings in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to achieve state-of-the-art fuel cell performance has limited their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Herein, we report a new approach to the design of a supportless Pt catalyst in terms of catalyst layer architecture, which is crucial for fuel cell performance as it affects water management and oxygen transport in the catalyst layers. Large Pt hollow spheres (PtHSs) 100 nm in size were designed and prepared using a carbon template method. Despite their large size, the unique structure of the PtHSs, which are composed of a thin-layered shell of Pt nanoparticles (ca. 7 nm thick), exhibited a high surface area comparable to that of commercial Pt black (PtB). The PtHS structure also exhibited twice the durability of PtB after 2000 potential cycles (0-1.3 V, 50 mV/s). A MEA fabricated with PtHSs showed significant improvement in fuel cell performance compared to PtB-based MEAs at high current densities (>800 mA/cm(2)). This was mainly due to the 2.7 times lower mass transport resistance in the PtHS-based catalyst layers compared to that in PtB, owing to the formation of macropores between the PtHSs and high porosity (90%) in the PtHS catalyst layers. The present study demonstrates a successful example of catalyst design in terms of catalyst layer architecture, which may be applied to a real fuel cell system.

  10. Non-conductive nanomaterial enhanced electrochemical response in stripping voltammetry: The use of nanostructured magnesium silicate hollow spheres for heavy metal ions detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Xia; Yu, Xin-Yao; Gao, Chao; Jiang, Yu-Jing; Han, Dong-Dong; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-08-06

    Nanostructured magnesium silicate hollow spheres, one kind of non-conductive nanomaterials, were used in heavy metal ions (HMIs) detection with enhanced performance for the first time. The detailed study of the enhancing electrochemical response in stripping voltammetry for simultaneous detection of ultratrace Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) was described. Electrochemical properties of modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The operational parameters which have influence on the deposition and stripping of metal ions, such as supporting electrolytes, pH value, and deposition time were carefully studied. The anodic stripping voltammetric performance toward HMIs was evaluated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) analysis. The detection limits achieved (0.186nM, 0.247nM, 0.169nM and 0.375nM for Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+)) are much lower than the guideline values in drinking water given by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the interference and stability of the modified electrode were also investigated under the optimized conditions. An interesting phenomenon of mutual interference between different metal ions was observed. Most importantly, the sensitivity of Pb(2+) increased in the presence of certain concentrations of other metal ions, such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) both individually and simultaneously. The proposed electrochemical sensing method is thus expected to open new opportunities to broaden the use of SWASV in analysis for detecting HMIs in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Creep and aging of hard-sphere glasses under constant stress.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, P; Petekidis, G

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the aging behavior of glassy suspensions of nearly hard-sphere colloids submitted to a constant shear stress. For low stresses, below the yield stress, the system is subject to creep motion. As the sample ages, the shear rate exhibits a power-law decrease with time with exponents that depend on the sample age. We use a combination of rheological experiments with time-resolved photon correlation spectroscopy to investigate the time evolution of the sample dynamics under shear on various time and length scales. Long-time light-scattering experiments reveal the occurrence of microscopic rearrangement events that are linked with the macroscopic strain deformation of the sample. Dynamic time sweep experiments indicate that while the internal microscopic dynamics slow down continuously with waiting time, the storage and loss moduli are almost constant after a fast, weak decrease, resembling the behavior of quenched systems with partially frozen-in stresses.

  12. Creep and aging of hard-sphere glasses under constant stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesta, P.; Petekidis, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the aging behavior of glassy suspensions of nearly hard-sphere colloids submitted to a constant shear stress. For low stresses, below the yield stress, the system is subject to creep motion. As the sample ages, the shear rate exhibits a power-law decrease with time with exponents that depend on the sample age. We use a combination of rheological experiments with time-resolved photon correlation spectroscopy to investigate the time evolution of the sample dynamics under shear on various time and length scales. Long-time light-scattering experiments reveal the occurrence of microscopic rearrangement events that are linked with the macroscopic strain deformation of the sample. Dynamic time sweep experiments indicate that while the internal microscopic dynamics slow down continuously with waiting time, the storage and loss moduli are almost constant after a fast, weak decrease, resembling the behavior of quenched systems with partially frozen-in stresses.

  13. Cell Isolation and Recovery Using Hollow Glass Microspheres Coated with Nanolayered Films for Applications in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ziye; Ahrens, Caroline C; Yu, Dan; Ding, Zhenya; Lim, HyunTaek; Li, Wei

    2017-05-10

    Established cell isolation and purification techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), isolation through magnetic micro/nanoparticles, and recovery via microfluidic devices have limited application as disposable technologies appropriate for point-of-care use in remote areas where lab equipment as well as electrical, magnetic, and optical sources are restricted. We report a simple yet effective method for cell isolation and recovery that requires neither specialized lab equipment nor any form of power source. Specifically, self-floating hollow glass microspheres were coated with an enzymatically degradable nanolayered film and conjugated with antibodies to allow both fast capture and release of subpopulations of cells from a cell mixture. Targeted cells were captured by the microspheres and allowed to float to the top of the hosting liquid, thereby isolating targeted cells. To minimize nonspecific adhesion of untargeted cells and to enhance the purity of the isolated cell population, an antifouling polymer brush layer was grafted onto the nanolayered film. Using the EpCAM-expressing cancer cell line PC-3 in blood as a model system, we have demonstrated the isolation and recovery of cancer cells without compromising cell viability or proliferative potential. The whole process takes less than 1 h. To support the rational extension of this platform technology, we introduce extensive characterization of the critical design parameters: film formation and degradation, grafting with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) sheath, and introducing functional antibodies. Our approach is expected to overcome practical hurdles and provide viable targeted cells for downstream analyses in resource-limited settings.

  14. The preparation of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifu, Chen; Xuqiang, Liu; Yunzhang, Liu; Gengyu, Cao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effective method for nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads is described, which uses titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti( iso-OC 3H 7) 4] as the raw materials and gaseous ammonia as a heat treatment atmosphere. The effects of heat treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2- xN x/beads are studied. The photocatalyst is characterized by the UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that when the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is the best. Compared with TiO 2, the photoabsorption wavelength range of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x red shifts of about 60 nm, and the photoabsorption intensity increases as well. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is higher than that of the TiO 2/beads under visible light irradiation. The presence of nitrogen neither influences on the transformation of anatase to rutile, nor creates new crystal phases. When the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the amount of nitrogen-doped is 0.53 wt.% in the TiO 2- xN x. As the density of TiO 2- xN x/beads prepared is lower than 1.0 g/cm 3, it may float on water surface and use broader sunlight spectrum directly.

  15. Hollow glass microsphere-epoxy composite material for helmet application to reduce impact energy due to collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Berata, Wajan; Wijanarko, Wahyu

    2017-06-01

    Helmet is used as a safety gear to prevent the impact energy from a collision, due to a motorcycle accident, from injuring the rider's head. Manufacturing of a light weighted helmet with a high absorption of impact energy, is much expected because it could increase the rider's safety and mobility. Meanwhile there are composites, which are made from two or more materials that have different characteristics, that will give a better mechanical properties compared to its original constituent material. In this research, a particular composite which is consist of 84% epoxy as its matrix and 16% Hollow Glass Microsphere (HGM) as its reinforce, is simulated by finite element method. The three-dimensional open-faced helmet model has an initial thickness of 4 mm, diameter of 87.57 mm, height 114 mm and foam thickness 20 mm. The experiment simulation is conducted according to the SNI 1811-2007 (Standar Nasional Indonesia) regulations. The penetration and absorption test instruments model are prepared also referring to the stated regulations, which are a three-dimensional head piece as the helmet holder, a 3 kg sharp pendulum, a 5 kg helmet weigh and a runway. The simulation concluded that the helmet with an 8 mm thickness has fulfilled the SNI 1811 - 2007 provisions, which stated that penetration should not happen on the lid of the helmet and the impact absorption forwarded by the helmet to the rider's head should not exceed 2000 kgf. The maximum stress and deformation are 15.44 Mpa and 8.28E-4 mm respectively. As for the impact energy forwarded by the helmet is only 460 kgf.

  16. Effect of Hollow Sphere Size and Distribution on the Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Properties of Al-A380-Al2O3 Syntactic Foams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    static and high strain rate compressive properties of Al-A380-Al2O3 syntactic foams J. A. Santa Maria 1 , B. F. Schultz 1 , J. B. Ferguson 1 , N...variety of matrices including aluminum [7-22], magnesium [23], zinc [24], iron [15,22,25-26] and titanium [15,27] alloys. Various hollow spheres have been...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) J. Santa Maria; B;. Schultz ; J. Ferguson; N. Gupta; P. Rohatgi 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  17. Lars Onsager Prize: The mean field solution for Hard Sphere Jamming and a new scenario for the low temperature landscape of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Giorgio

    In a hard spheres systems particles cannot overlap. Increasing the density we reach a point where most of the particles are blocked and the density cannot be increased any more: this is the jamming point. The jamming point separates the phase, where all the constraint can be satisfied, from an unsatifiable phase, where spheres do have to overlap. A scaling theory of the behavior around the jamming critical point has been formulated and a few critical exponents have been introduced. The exponents are apparently super-universal, as far as they do seem to be independent from the space dimensions. The mean field version of the model (i.e. the infinite dimensions limit) has been solved analytically using broken replica symmetry techniques and the computed critical exponents have been found in a remarkable agreement with three-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical results and experiments. The theory predicts in hard spheres (in glasses) a new transition (the Gardener transition) from the replica symmetric phase to the replica broken phase at high density (at low temperature), in agreement with simulations on hard sphere systems. I will briefly discuss the possible consequences of this new picture on the very low temperature behavior of glasses in the quantum regime.

  18. Hollow-Sphere Production Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    After initial formation, spheroids processed without contaminating touch of solid objects. Spheroid in process supported by acoustic levitation at each work station and transported between stations by combination of acoustic levritation and acoustic propulsion. Automatic sequence of target-pellet fabication allows no contact of solid ojbect with spheroids in process. Potential for manufacture of precise microcapsules for catalysts and medications.

  19. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  20. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.