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Sample records for holographic d4-d8 model

  1. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    PubMed

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  2. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    PubMed

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160

  3. Holographic model of hadronization.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well. PMID:18518189

  4. Holographic Model of Hadronization

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.

  5. Holographic model of hadronization.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.

  6. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  7. Matrix model and holographic baryons in the D0-D4 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Jia, Tuo

    2015-08-01

    We study the spectrum and short-distance two-body force of holographic baryons by the matrix model, which is derived from the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the D0-D4 background (D0-D4/D8 system). The matrix model is derived by using the standard technique in string theory, and it can describe multibaryon systems. We rederive the action of the matrix model from open string theory on the baryon vertex, which is embedded in the D0-D4/D8 system. The matrix model offers a more systematic approach to the dynamics of the baryons at short distances. In our system, we find that the matrix model describes stable baryonic states only if ζ =UQ0 3/UKK 3<2 , where UQ0 3 is related to the number density of smeared D0-branes. This result in our paper is exactly the same as some previous results studied in this system, presented in [W. Cai, C. Wu, and Z. Xiao, Phys. Rev. D 90, 106001 (2014)]. We also compute the baryon spectrum (k =1 case) and short-distance two-body force of baryons (k =2 case). The baryon spectrum is modified and could be able to fit the experimental data if we choose a suitable value for ζ . And the short-distance two-body force of baryons is also modified by the appearance of smeared D0-branes from the original Sakai-Sugimoto model. If ζ >2 , we find that the baryon spectrum will be totally complex and an attractive force will appear in the short-distance interaction of baryons, which may consistently correspond to the existence of unstable baryonic states.

  8. Scalar mesons and glueballs in Dp-Dq hard-wall models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; He, Song; Huang, Mei; Yan, Qi-Shu; Yang, Yi

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the light scalar mesons and glueballs in the Dp-Dq hard-wall models, including D3-Dq, D4-Dq, and D6-Dq systems. It is found that only in the D4-D6 and D4-D8 hard-wall models are the predicted masses of the bar qq scalar meson f0 scalar glueball consistent with their experimental or lattice results. This indicates that D4-D6 and D4-D8 hard-wall models are the favorite candidates of the realistic holographic QCD model.

  9. Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM5, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of "colours" N , thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a `Little Randall-Sundrum Model', which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM5 with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.

  10. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekjani, M.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of G, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of G. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of G-corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of G on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for G-corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in s- r plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  11. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  12. Holographic dark matter and Higgs models.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, J Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    We propose a dark matter candidate within the class of models where electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by a light composite Higgs boson. In these dual anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory models, the Higgs boson emerges as a holographic pseudo-Goldstone boson, while dark matter can be identified with a stable composite fermion X0. The effective Lagrangian description of the Higgs and X0-multiplets, including higher-dimensional operators, can be tested at future colliders (LHC, ILC) and through astrophysical signals (ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays). The expected mass of X0, mX0 < or approximately 4pif approximately O (TeV), satisfies the bounds extracted from the cosmological relic density, while the experimental searches for dark matter further constrains the possible models.

  13. Meson distribution amplitudes in holographic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chien-Wen

    2012-07-01

    We study the wave functions of light and heavy mesons in both hard-wall (HW) and soft-wall (SW) holographic models which use AdS/CFT correspondence. In the case of massless constituents, the asymptotic behaviors of the electromagnetic form factor, the distribution amplitudes, and the decay constants for the two models are the same, if the relation between the dilaton scale parameter and the size of meson is an inverse proportion. On the other hand, by introducing a quark mass dependence in the wave function, the differences of the distribution amplitudes between the two models are obvious. In addition, for the SW model, the dependences of the decay constants of meson on the dilaton scale parameter κ differ; especially fQq˜κ3/mQ2 is consistent with the prediction of the heavy quark effective theory if κ˜mQ1/2. Thus the parameters of the two models are fit by the decay constants of the distinct mesons; the distribution amplitudes and the ξ-moments are calculated and compared.

  14. Heal the world: Avoiding the cosmic doomsday in the holographic dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The current observational data imply that the universe would end with a cosmic doomsday in the holographic dark energy model. However, unfortunately, the big-rip singularity will ruin the theoretical foundation of the holographic dark energy scenario. To rescue the holographic scenario of dark energy, we employ the braneworld cosmology and incorporate the extra-dimension effects into the holographic theory of dark energy. We find that such a mend could erase the big-rip singularity and leads to a de Sitter finale for the holographic cosmos. Therefore, in the holographic dark energy model, the extra-dimension recipe could heal the world.

  15. Charmonium sum rules applied to a holographic model

    SciTech Connect

    Hohler, Paul M.

    2011-01-15

    The heavy-quark QCD sum rules are applied to a model of charmonium based upon the gauge/gravity duality. We find that there is strong agreement between the moments of the polarization function calculated from the holographic model and the experimental data suggesting that the model is consistent with the heavy-quark QCD sum rules at zero temperature.

  16. Quantum phase transitions in holographic models of magnetism and superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Nabil; Liu Hong; Mezei, Mark; Si Qimiao

    2010-08-15

    We study a holographic model realizing an 'antiferromagnetic' phase in which a global SU(2) symmetry representing spin is broken down to a U(1) by the presence of a finite electric charge density. This involves the condensation of a neutral scalar field in a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. We observe that the phase transition for both neutral and charged (as in the standard holographic superconductor) order parameters can be driven to zero temperature by a tuning of the UV conformal dimension of the order parameter, resulting in a quantum phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type. We also characterize the antiferromagnetic phase and an externally forced ferromagnetic phase by showing that they contain the expected spin waves with linear and quadratic dispersions, respectively.

  17. Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq

    2011-10-15

    We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.

  18. Quantisation of the holographic Ricci dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Albarran, Imanol; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam E-mail: mbl@ubi.pt

    2015-08-01

    While general relativity is an extremely robust theory to describe the gravitational interaction in our Universe, it is expected to fail close to singularities like the cosmological ones. On the other hand, it is well known that some dark energy models might induce future singularities; this can be the case for example within the setup of the Holographic Ricci Dark Energy model (HRDE). On this work, we perform a cosmological quantisation of the HRDE model and obtain under which conditions a cosmic doomsday can be avoided within the quantum realm. We show as well that this quantum model not only avoid future singularities but also the past Big Bang.

  19. Modeling swelling and absorption dynamics for holographic sensing in analytes sensitive photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Wang, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical model is developed to describe holographic sensing and swelling of grating fringe in photopolymer. In experiments, diffraction spectrum responses of grating are characterized to exhibit holographic sensing processes. Analytic expressions between swelling of grating fringe and environmental factors, such as relative humidity and organic vapor concentrations, are extracted based on experimental results. The primary factors are introduced into the model to simulate the sensing process, including swelling ratio, nanozeolites dispersion, and organic vapor absorption. Finally, numerical results are presented for improving the sensitivity of holographic sensor. This work can accelerate the development of holographic sensor and provide a theoretical base for exploring sensing mechanism of polymer.

  20. On a holographic model for confinement/deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando

    2008-02-15

    We study the thermodynamics of the hard wall model, which consists of the introduction of an infrared cutoff in asymptotically AdS spaces. This is a toy model for confining backgrounds in the context of the gauge/gravity correspondence. We use holographic renormalization and reproduce the existence of a Hawking-Page phase transition recently discussed by Herzog. We also show that the entropy jumps from N{sup 0} to N{sup 2}, which reinforces the interpretation of this transition as the gravity dual of confinement/deconfinement. We also show that similar results hold for the phenomenologically motivated soft wall model, underlining the potential universality of our analysis.

  1. Phenomenological models of holographic superconductors and hall currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, Francesco; Franco, Sebastián; Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G.

    2010-05-01

    We study general models of holographic superconductivity parametrized by four arbitrary functions of a neutral scalar field of the bulk theory. The models can accommodate several features of real superconductors, like arbitrary critical temperatures and critical exponents in a certain range, and perhaps impurities or boundary or thickness effects. We find analytical expressions for the critical exponents of the general model and show that they satisfy the Rushbrooke identity. An important subclass of models exhibit second order phase transitions. A study of the specific heat shows that general models can also describe holographic superconductors undergoing first, second and third (or higher) order phase transitions. We discuss how small deformations of the HHH model can lead to the appearance of resonance peaks in the conductivity, which increase in number and become narrower as the temperature is gradually decreased, without the need for tuning mass of the scalar to be close to the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. Finally, we investigate the inclusion of a generalized “theta term” producing Hall effect without magnetic field.

  2. Method of computer generation and projection recording of microholograms for holographic memory systems: mathematical modelling and experimental implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Evtikhiev, N N; Zherdev, A Yu; Zlokazov, E Yu; Lushnikov, D S; Markin, V V; Odinokov, S B; Starikov, S N; Starikov, R S

    2013-01-31

    A method of computer generation and projection recording of microholograms for holographic memory systems is presented; the results of mathematical modelling and experimental implementation of the method are demonstrated. (holographic memory)

  3. New holographic dark energy model inspired by the DGP braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.; Ghaffari, S.

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of the holographic dark energy (HDE) is based on the area law of entropy, and thus any modification of the area law leads to a modified holographic energy density. Inspired by the entropy expression associated with the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in DGP braneworld, we propose a new model for the HDE in the framework of DGP brane cosmology. We investigate the cosmological consequences of this new model and calculate the equation of state (EoS) parameter by choosing the Hubble radius, L = H-1, as the system’s IR cutoff. Our study show that, due to the effects of the extra dimension (bulk), the identification of IR cutoff with Hubble radius, can reproduce the present acceleration of the universe expansion. This is in contrast to the ordinary HDE in standard cosmology which leads to the zero EoS parameter in the case of choosing the Hubble radius as system’s IR cutoff in the absence of interaction between dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE).

  4. A general model for resolution of digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiupin; Gao, Wanrong

    2015-11-01

    For digital holographic microscopic imaging, the resolution in the reconstructed image is one of the most important parameters. To optimize the lateral resolution, a general model for the resolution of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is proposed in this work, in which the effects of the sizes of each pixel, total area of the charge coupled device (CCD) and the microscopic objective lens are taken into account. Comparison between our model and others was carried out by calculating the point spread function (PSF) of DHM at different reconstruction distances and with different fill factors. It is shown that the effect of fill factors on the resolution of DHM becomes significant when the reconstruction distance is long. For high resolution DHM imaging the influence of fill factors must be taken into account when estimating the resolution of the reconstructed image. Furthermore, It is also demonstrated that the sidelobe of PSF can be cut effectively choosing appropriate values of the fill factors. Finally, the reconstructions of polyethylene microspheres have been implemented to demonstrate the theoretical analysis. These results obtained are helpful for estimation of the resolution and design of the DHM systems.

  5. A holographic view on matrix model of black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Takao; Yi, Piljin

    2004-02-01

    We investigate a deformed matrix model proposed by Kazakov et.al. in relation to Witten's two-dimensional black hole. The existing conjectures assert the equivalence of the two by mapping each to a deformed c = 1 theory called the sine-Liouville theory. We point out that the matrix theory in question may be naturally interpreted as a gauged quantum mechanics deformed by insertion of an exponentiated Wilson loop operator, which gives us more direct and holographic map between the two sides. The matrix model in the usual scaling limit must correspond to the bosonic SL(2,Bbb R)/U(1) theory in genus expansion but exact in alpha'. We successfully test this by computing the Wilson loop expectation value and comparing it against the bulk computation. For the latter, we employ the alpha'-exact geometry proposed by Dijkgraaf, Verlinde, and Verlinde, which was further advocated by Tseytlin. We close with comments on open problems.

  6. Entropic information of dynamical AdS/QCD holographic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-11-01

    The Shannon based conditional entropy that underlies five-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity coupled to a dilaton field is investigated in the context of dynamical holographic AdS/QCD models. Considering the UV and IR dominance limits of such AdS/QCD models, the conditional entropy is shown to shed some light onto the meson classification schemes, which corroborate with the existence of light-flavor mesons of lower spins in Nature. Our analysis is supported by a correspondence between statistical mechanics and information entropy which establishes the physical grounds to the Shannon information entropy, also in the context of statistical mechanics, and provides some specificities for accurately extending the entropic discussion to continuous modes of physical systems. From entropic informational grounds, the conditional entropy allows one to identify the lower experimental/phenomenological occurrence of higher spin mesons in Nature. Moreover, it introduces a quantitative theoretical apparatus for studying the instability of high spin light-flavor mesons.

  7. Analysis of holographic interferograms of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic interferometry provides a non-invasive technique for estimating variations in the air density distribution around aerodynamic models in wind tunnels. The testing of this technique has been underway for some time and has been reported previously for a two dimensional aerodynamic model. Results obtained from tests using three dimensional aerodynamic models are summarized. Holograms were made of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel. Interferograms were made from these holograms. The interference fringes in these holographic interferograms were digitized and this information was entered into the HOLOFT program. The HOLOFT program successfully calculated the known stagnation air density at the nose of a model and the known air density distribution across the cross section passing through the stagnation point for the axisymmetrical case of this model at a Mach number of 0.8. Thus the technique of holographic interferometry does work.The HOLOFT program stands for HOLOgraphic Inversion by 2-D Fourier Transform.

  8. Nonequilibrium Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Holographic Models.

    PubMed

    Janik, Romuald A; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2016-08-26

    We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case. We establish the appearance of the spinodal region in the case of the first order phase transition at temperatures for which the speed of sound squared is negative. An estimate of the preferential scale attained by the unstable modes is also given. We additionally observe a novel diffusive regime for sound modes for a range of wavelengths. PMID:27610844

  9. Nonequilibrium Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Holographic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Romuald A.; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case. We establish the appearance of the spinodal region in the case of the first order phase transition at temperatures for which the speed of sound squared is negative. An estimate of the preferential scale attained by the unstable modes is also given. We additionally observe a novel diffusive regime for sound modes for a range of wavelengths.

  10. New model for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, J. C.; Urzua, D.; Olivares-Peréz, A.; Ortiz-Gutierrez, M.

    2006-05-01

    We describe a technique for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing to obtain a large-scale holographic memory. We recorded 72 objects at the same time in one point on holographic plate PFG-03M from Slavich Co., using a He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm). Each object is placed on a circular photographic transparency, separate 0.94 degree each one. The technique allows us simultaneous reconstruction of the 72 images without cross-talk. The diffraction efficiency obtained at order one is 6%. Experimental results are shown.

  11. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, R.

    2015-11-01

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c = 1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.

  12. Probing interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin E-mail: renzhe@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: wangyi@hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we place observational constraints on the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model. We consider three kinds of phenomenological interactions between holographic dark energy and matter, i.e., the interaction term Q is proportional to the energy densities of dark energy (ρ{sub Λ}), matter (ρ{sub m}), and matter plus dark energy (ρ{sub m}+ρ{sub Λ}). For probing the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model, we use the latest observational data including the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Constitution data, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our results show that the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model are both rather small. Besides, it is interesting to find that there exists significant degeneracy between the phenomenological interaction and the spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model.

  13. A Study of Holographic Dark Energy Models in Chern-Simon Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sarfraz; Amir, M. Jamil

    2016-09-01

    This paper is devoted to study some holographic dark energy models in the context of Chern-Simon modified gravity by considering FRW universe. We analyze the equation of state parameter using Granda and Oliveros infrared cut-off proposal which describes the accelerated expansion of the universe under the restrictions on the parameter α. It is shown that for the accelerated expansion phase -1<ω _{Λ }<-1/3, the parameter α varies according as 1<α <3/2. Furthermore, for 0<α<1, the holographic energy and pressure density illustrates phantom-like theory of the evolution when ω Λ<-1. Also, we discuss the correspondence between the quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models and holographic dark energy models on similar fashion. To discuss the accelerated expansion of the universe, we explore the potential and the dynamics of quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models.

  14. Five dimensional spherically symmetric minimally interacting holographic dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Raju, P.; Sobhanbabu, K.

    2016-04-01

    Five dimensional spherically symmetric space-time filled with two minimally interacting fields; matter and holographic dark energy components is investigated in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961). To obtain a determinate solution of the highly non-linear field equations we have used (i) a relation between metric potentials and (ii) an equation of state which represents disordered radiation in five dimensional universe. The solution obtained represents a minimally interacting and radiating holographic dark energy model in five dimensional universe. Some physical and Kinematical properties of the model are, also, studied.

  15. Notes on an interacting holographic dark energy model in a closed universe

    SciTech Connect

    Mohseni Sadjadi, H; Vadood, N E-mail: mohsenisad@ut.ac.ir

    2008-08-15

    We consider an interacting holographic dark energy model in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with positive spatial curvature and investigate the behavior of the geometric parameter and dark energy density in an accelerated expanding epoch. We also derive some conditions needed to cross the phantom dividing line in this model.

  16. On the Baryonic Density and Susceptibilities in a Holographic Model of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Keun-young; Liao, Jinfeng

    2009-06-16

    In this paper, we calculate analytically the baryonic density and susceptibilities, which are sensitive probes to the fermionic degrees of freedom, in a holographic model of QCD both in its hot QGP phase and in its cold dense phase. Interesting patterns due to strong coupling dynamics will be shown and valuable lessons for QCD will be discussed.

  17. Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2010-11-15

    We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2010), 3.] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For N{sub c}=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).

  18. Nucleon statistics in holographic QCD: Aharonov-Bohm effect in a matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2010-11-01

    We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the nuclear matrix model [K. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and P. Yi, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 10 (2010), 3.10.1007/JHEP10(2010)003] derives the statistical nature of nucleons in holographic QCD. For Nc=odd (even), the nucleon is shown to be a fermion (boson).

  19. Biomechanical model produced from light-activated dental composite resins: a holographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelić, Dejan; Vasiljević, Darko; Blažić, Larisa; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka; Nikolić, Marko

    2013-11-01

    Light-activated dental composites, commonly applied in dentistry, can be used as excellent material for producing biomechanical models. They can be cast in almost any shape in an appropriate silicone mold and quickly solidified by irradiation with light in the blue part of the spectrum. In that way, it is possible to obtain any number of nearly identical casts. The models can be used to study the behavior of arbitrary structure under mechanical loads. To test the technique, a simple mechanical model of the tooth with a mesio-occluso-distal cavity was manufactured. Composite resin restoration was placed inside the cavity and light cured. Real-time holographic interferometry was used to analyze the contraction of the composite resin and its effect on the surrounding material. The results obtained in the holographic experiment were in good agreement with those obtained using the finite element method.

  20. Revisit of the interacting holographic dark energy model after Planck 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the observational constraints on the interacting holographic dark energy model. We consider five typical interacting models with the interaction terms Q = 3βHρde, Q = 3βHρc, Q = 3βH(ρde+ρc), Q = 3βH√ρdeρc, and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc, respectively, where β is a dimensionless coupling constant. The observational data we use in this paper include the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae data, the Planck 2015 distance priors data of cosmic microwave background observation, the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, and the Hubble constant direct measurement. We make a comparison for these five interacting holographic dark energy models by employing the information criteria, and we find that, within the framework of holographic dark energy, the Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc model is most favored by current data, and the Q = 3βHρc model is relatively not favored by current data. For the Q = 3βHρde and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc models, a positive coupling β can be detected at more than 2σ significance.

  1. Five dimensional minimally interacting holographic dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Anitha, S.; Umadevi, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate five dimensional space-time filled with minimally interacting dark matter and holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961) scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained using (i) special law of variation for Hubble's parameter that yields constant value of deceleration parameter and (ii) a relation between metric potentials. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  2. Holographic Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Tom

    2012-10-01

    The theory of holographic spacetime (HST) generalizes both string theory and quantum field theory (QFT). It provides a geometric rationale for supersymmetry (SUSY) and a formalism in which super-Poincare invariance follows from Poincare invariance. HST unifies particles and black holes, realizing both as excitations of noncommutative geometrical variables on a holographic screen. Compact extra dimensions are interpreted as finite-dimensional unitary representations of super-algebras, and have no moduli. Full field theoretic Fock spaces, and continuous moduli are both emergent phenomena of super-Poincare invariant limits in which the number of holographic degrees of freedom goes to infinity. Finite radius de Sitter (dS) spaces have no moduli, and break SUSY with a gravitino mass scaling like Λ1/4. In regimes where the Covariant Entropy Bound is saturated, QFT is not a good description in HST, and inflation is such a regime. Following ideas of Jacobson, the gravitational and inflaton fields are emergent classical variables, describing the geometry of an underlying HST model, rather than "fields associated with a microscopic string theory". The phrase in quotes is meaningless in the HST formalism, except in asymptotically flat and AdS spacetimes, and some relatives of these.

  3. N-ification of forces: a holographic perspective on D-brane model building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego; Verlinde, Herman

    2009-06-01

    We study geometric aspects of extensions of the supersymmetric standard model that exhibit a periodic duality cascade. Via the holographic correspondence, the growth of the gauge group rank towards the UV is interpreted as a gradual decompactification transition. We show that this class of models typically develop a duality wall in the UV, and present an efficient method for estimating the hierarchy between the on-set of the cascade and the formation of the wall. As an illustrative example, we study the model introduced by Cascales, Saad and Uranga in [14], which has an known geometric realization in terms of D-branes on an SPP/Bbb Z3 singularity.

  4. Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we consider the non-viscous and viscous holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity in which the infra-red cutoff is set by the Hubble horizon. We find power-law and exponential form of scale factor for non-viscous and viscous models, respectively. It is shown that the Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is suitable for both the models to explain the recent accelerated expansion. In non-viscous model, we find that there is no phase transition. However, viscous model explains the phase transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase. The cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters are discussed to analyze the dynamics of evolution of the Universe for both the models. The trajectories for viscous model are plotted in r-s and r-q planes to discriminate our model with the existing dark energy models which show the quintessence like behavior.

  5. Anisotropic holographic dark energy model in Bianchi type-VI0 universe in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Anitha, S.; Umadevi, S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate Bianchi type VI0 universe filled with two minimally interacting fields, matter and anisotropic holographic dark energy components in the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113: 467, 1986). Solving the field equations of the theory using a relation between metric potentials and special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Bermann (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) we have presented an anisotropic holographic dark energy model in this theory. The physical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  6. Three-dimensional numerical model of holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoyu; Qi, Yue; Malallah, Ra'ed; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-05-01

    When the large thickness is used as the holographic storage materials, a non-ignorable problem is the light intensity attenuation in depth due to high absorptive of the dye. For this reason more completely modeling the evolutions inside the material is necessary to consider into the developed standard kinetic model. In this paper the photo-polymerization processes during the large thickness holographic grating formation are analyzed. A 3-dimensional algorithm is present by deriving the system partial differential rate equations governing each associated chemical species, and using the finite difference approximation, these equations can be solved numerically. This extended model describes the time varying behaviors of the non-uniform photo-physical and the photochemical evolutions in photopolymer materials. In this model both dye molecules consumption and light energy absorption are calculated time varyingly, and then the polymer and monomer concentrations distributions are obtained. Applying the Lorenz-Lorenz relationship, the non-uniform grating formatted in material depth, and its refractive index, which is distorted from ideal sinusoidal spatial distribution, can be more accurately predicted.

  7. An exemplar model of performance in the artificial grammar task: holographic representation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Hauri, Brian R

    2012-06-01

    We apply a multitrace model of memory to explain performance in the artificial grammar task. The model blends the convolution method for representation from Jones and Mewhort's BEAGLE model (Jones, M. N., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (2007). Representing word meaning and order information in a composite holographic lexicon. Psychological Review, 114, 1-37) of semantic memory with the multitrace storage and retrieval model from Hintzman's MINERVA 2 model (Hintzman, D. L. (1986). "Schema abstraction" in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review, 93, 411-428) of episodic memory. We report an artificial grammar experiment, and we fit the model to those data at the level of individual items. We argue that performance in the artificial grammar task is best understood as a process of retrospective inference from memory.

  8. Instability in interacting dark sector: an appropriate holographic Ricci dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Videla, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the consequences of phantom crossing considering the perturbative dynamics in models with interaction in their dark sector. By mean of a general study of gauge-invariant variables in comoving gauge, we relate the sources of instabilities in the structure formation process with the phantom crossing. In order to illustrate these relations and its consequences in more detail, we consider a specific case of an holographic dark energy interacting with dark matter. We find that in spite of the model is in excellent agreement with observational data at background level, however it is plagued of instabilities in its perturbative dynamics. We reconstruct the model in order to avoid these undesirable instabilities, and we show that this implies a modification of the concordance model at background. Also we find drastic changes on the parameters space in our model when instabilities are avoided.

  9. Pomeron and odderon Regge trajectories from a dynamical holographic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capossoli, Eduardo Folco; Li, Danning; Boschi-Filho, Henrique

    2016-09-01

    In this work we use gauge/string dualities and a dynamical model that takes into account dynamical corrections to the metric of the anti de Sitter space due to a quadratic dilaton field and calculate the masses of even and odd spin glueball states with P = C = + 1, and P = C = - 1, respectively. Then we construct the corresponding Regge trajectories which are associated with the pomeron for even states with P = C = + 1, and with the odderon for odd states with P = C = - 1. We compare our results with those coming from experimental data as well as other models.

  10. A holographic model of d-wave superconductor vortices with Lifshitz scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Shu, Fu-Wen; Chen, Jing-He; Li, Hui; Yu, Ze

    2016-02-01

    We study analytically the d-wave holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in the presence of external magnetic field. The vortex lattice solutions of the model have also been obtained with different Lifshitz scaling. Our results imply that holographic d-wave superconductor is indeed a type II one even for different Lifshitz scaling. This is the same as the conventional d-wave superconductors in the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. Our results also indicates that the dynamical exponent z cannot affect the droplet solutions, and the vortex lattice solutions receive its effects only in the radial part. This naively implies that it does not have direct influence on the shape of vortex lattice even after the higher-order corrections are taken into consideration (away from the phase transition point Bc). However, it has effects on the upper critical magnetic field Bc2 through the fact that a larger z results in a smaller Bc2 and therefore influences the size (characterized by r0 ≡ 1/Bc2) of the vortex lattices. Furthermore, close comparisons between our results and those of the GL theory reveal the fact that the upper critical magnetic field Bc2 is inversely proportional to the square of the superconducting coherence length ξ, regardless of the anisotropy between space and time.

  11. Modeling and analysis of vibration effects on signal quality for angular multiplexed holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Toshiki; Shimada, Ken-ichi; Hoshizawa, Taku; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-09-01

    A practical optical system design that takes into account environmental factors is highly desirable. However, it is in general a time-consuming process, which requires a massive iterations of simulations. This is also one of the bottlenecks of the optical design of angular multiplexed holographic data storage systems. To develop a practical method to evaluate the effect of vibrations, a three-dimensional vibration model is developed. The model describes the vibration effect on normalized intensity on the basis of a single statistical figure of merit. Such a single figure of merits is adopted for designing a robust and efficient write strategy, which is applicable to a wide range of vibration waveforms to increase write data transfer rate. Also, optimum optical system parameters are identified. We propose a numerical aperture of 0.572 and a pixel pitch of 6.9 µm which can improve capacity and data transfer rate without sacrificing the vibration margin.

  12. Use of computer-aided holographic models improves performance in a cadaver dissection-based course in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A compelling, innovative approach to teaching gross anatomy is the use of computer-aided holographic models. They allow for clean, time-saving dissection, manipulation of structures and appreciation of anatomical relationships, and potential elimination of the need for cadavers. The present study tests the hypothesis that using holographic models improves mastery of anatomical information. First-year medical students were taught gross anatomy using the dissection of donor cadavers, manipulation of digitized 3-dimensional holographic renderings, and examination of plastinated specimens. The effectiveness of these approaches was assessed by comparing students' performance on identification questions on cadavers (qC), holographic models (qH), and plastinated specimens (qP). Students in the top quintile of the class performed strongly on qC, qH, and qP. In contrast, performance by students in the bottom quintile was uneven; they scored best on qH. Performance on the qP was relatively non-discriminating. Students in the top quintile scored higher on the biological sciences section of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) than students in the lowest quintile, whereas students in the lowest quintile had higher scores on the verbal section of their MCATs. The availability of different approaches for presenting gross anatomy improves the success of students in mastering the material, particularly for students struggling with the information. The use of holographic models apparently reaches students who may be challenged to learn the material using traditional approaches. This may be linked to potentially predictive information gleaned through performance on the MCAT. Clin. Anat. 29:917-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27501404

  13. Use of computer-aided holographic models improves performance in a cadaver dissection-based course in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A compelling, innovative approach to teaching gross anatomy is the use of computer-aided holographic models. They allow for clean, time-saving dissection, manipulation of structures and appreciation of anatomical relationships, and potential elimination of the need for cadavers. The present study tests the hypothesis that using holographic models improves mastery of anatomical information. First-year medical students were taught gross anatomy using the dissection of donor cadavers, manipulation of digitized 3-dimensional holographic renderings, and examination of plastinated specimens. The effectiveness of these approaches was assessed by comparing students' performance on identification questions on cadavers (qC), holographic models (qH), and plastinated specimens (qP). Students in the top quintile of the class performed strongly on qC, qH, and qP. In contrast, performance by students in the bottom quintile was uneven; they scored best on qH. Performance on the qP was relatively non-discriminating. Students in the top quintile scored higher on the biological sciences section of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) than students in the lowest quintile, whereas students in the lowest quintile had higher scores on the verbal section of their MCATs. The availability of different approaches for presenting gross anatomy improves the success of students in mastering the material, particularly for students struggling with the information. The use of holographic models apparently reaches students who may be challenged to learn the material using traditional approaches. This may be linked to potentially predictive information gleaned through performance on the MCAT. Clin. Anat. 29:917-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Interacting cosmic fluids and phase transitions under a holographic modeling for dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepe, Samuel; Peña, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the consequences of possible sign changes of the Q-function which measures the transfer of energy between dark energy and dark matter. We investigate this scenario from a holographic perspective by modeling dark energy by a linear parametrization and CPL-parametrization of the equation of state (ω ). By imposing the strong constraint of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the change of sign for Q, due to the cosmic evolution, imply changes in the temperatures of dark energy and dark matter. We also discuss the phase transitions, in the past and future, experienced by dark energy and dark matter (or, equivalently, the sign changes of their heat capacities).

  15. Reconstruction of f(R) Gravity with Ordinary and Entropy-Corrected (m, n)-Type Holographic Dark Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabir, Rudra

    2016-07-01

    In this assignment we will present a reconstruction scheme between f(R) gravity with ordinary and entropy corrected (m,n)-type holographic dark energy. The correspondence is established and expressions for the reconstructed f(R) models are determined. To study the evolution of the reconstructed models plots are generated. The stability of the calculated models are also investigated using the squared speed of sound in the background of the reconstructed gravities.

  16. Holographic art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryskin, V. Z.; Prostev, A.

    1991-02-01

    The authors of the present paper have been working together in the field of holographic art during the last three years. Our holographic works of art are based on the use of the Denisyuk reflection holograms. These holograms make it possible to creat an art image with the help of the completely new means of representation. The increase of the reflection holograms size could widen the possibilites of art holography. For example , the high quality holograms C size 60x80 cm ) are produced in the USSR. Assembled into large-sized panels, they can be used both in advertisments, interior decoration and in creating unique works of art. They can also be used for decoration of Christian cathedrals and churches, where such art holographic compositions would produce great impressin on people. Here we'd like to discuss the problem of an aesthetic perception of a holographic image.

  17. Holographic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    2000-10-01

    Holographic thinking is everywhere although we do not realize it. Turn on your TV and you will see many representations of holographic images. It is in many science fiction movies, as well as in books and the news. Now, start your computer and search the Web. What do you see, a screen with plenty of little boxes or frames, each one containing information. You can choose to go deeper by clicking here and there, but ultimately all the little boxes are related to each other. What do you have? A holographic principle where each point stands by itself, containing the whole entity while composing part of it at the same time. The following paragraphs, discussing and evaluating the characteristics of holographic thinking can be read in any order you wish. Each paragraph contributes an understanding of just one aspect of all the ideas which cannot be limited to this paper alone.

  18. Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

  19. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  20. SU-E-T-196: Heat Diffusion Modeling for Digital Holographic Interferometry Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, A; Meyer, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that with Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) 2D spatial calorimetric measurements of high dose rate radiation sources can be obtained. The impact of heat transfer must be considered when undertaking any form of calorimetric measurement, as the radiation induced temperature distributions are subject to degradation due to heat diffusion. Unaccounted for, this limits the accuracy of the approach especially for long delivery times. Methods: 3D modelling of the heat diffusion in water was undertaken, and two different approaches developed to account for this effect. The mathematical framework to describe heat diffusion in 3D was applied, with the differential equations solved numerically using an implicit method. The first approach involved the comparison of the DHI measurements to an independent dose model of the source. The model was forward modeled to account for the heat diffusion during irradiation, allowing a direct comparison to validate the measured results. The second approach involved the correction of the measured data directly, by comparing the temperature distribution of two instances and subtracting the effects of heat diffusion of the first distribution from the second instance. This required the use of the Abel transform to approximate the 3D dose distribution from the 2D DHI results, thus limiting the approach to radiation applications possessing cylindrical symmetry. Results: The first approach resulted in higher accuracy and was more straightforward, but has a major limitation in that the measured results are only able to be utilized in comparison with an independent dose model. The applicability of the second approach is affected by noise in the measurement data and introduces higher uncertainties, but results in higher usability of the final data. Conclusion: Both approaches were implemented, and if used in conjunction would provide the most utility for the interpretation and use of DHI measurements.

  1. Phase transitions in a holographic s + p model with back-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Cai, Rong-Gen; Gao, Xin; Li, Li; Zeng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nie et al. in JHEP 1311:087, arXiv:1309.2204 [hep-th], 2013), we presented a holographic s + p superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk. We also study the competition and coexistence of the s-wave and p-wave orders in the probe limit. In this work we continue to study the model by considering the full back-reaction. The model shows a rich phase structure and various condensate behaviors such as the "n-type" and "u-type" ones, which are also known as reentrant phase transitions in condensed matter physics. The phase transitions to the p-wave phase or s + p coexisting phase become first order in strong back-reaction cases. In these first order phase transitions, the free energy curve always forms a swallow tail shape, in which the unstable s + p solution can also play an important role. The phase diagrams of this model are given in terms of the dimension of the scalar order and the temperature in the cases of eight different values of the back-reaction parameter, which show that the region for the s + p coexisting phase is enlarged with a small or medium back-reaction parameter but is reduced in the strong back-reaction cases.

  2. Holographic Reticle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henn, Edward A.; Scribner, Marc M.

    1990-01-01

    Holographic reticle proposed for use in nondestructive evaluation of surface irregularities. Extends inspection capability to include measurements of depth. Surfaces inspected without contamination, damage, or costly disassembly. Provides valuable information difficult to obtain. For example, surface defects as corrosion and porosity, as well as propagation of cracks, measured accurately. Roughness, wear, and plating thickness also measured. Also used to determine quality of microcircuits.

  3. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  4. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  5. Constraints on Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy with the observational Hubble parameter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zhong-Xu; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2011-08-01

    The newly released observational H(z) data (OHD) is used to constrain Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy. By the use of the length scale and time scale as the IR cut-off including Hubble horizon (HH), future event horizon (FEH), age of the universe (AU), and conformal time (CT), we achieve four different Λ(t)CDM models which can describe the present cosmological acceleration respectively. In order to get a comparison between such Λ(t)CDM models and standard ΛCDM model, we use the information criteria (IC), Om(z) diagnostic, and statefinder diagnostic to measure the deviations. Furthermore, by simulating a larger Hubble parameter data sample in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 2.0, we get the improved constraints and more sufficient comparison. We show that OHD is not only able to play almost the same role in constraining cosmological parameters as SNe Ia does but also provides the effective measurement of the deviation of the DE models from standard ΛCDM model. In the holographic and agegraphic scenarios, the results indicate that the FEH is more preferable than HH scenario. However, both two time scenarios show better approximations to ΛCDM model than the length scenarios.

  6. Holographic dark energy in a cyclic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingfei; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Hongya

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we study the cosmological evolution of the holographic dark energy in a cyclic universe, generalizing the model of holographic dark energy proposed by Li. The holographic dark energy with c<1 can realize a quintom behavior; namely, it evolves from a quintessence-like component to a phantom-like one. The holographic phantom energy density grows rapidly and dominates the late-time expanding phase, helping to realize a cyclic universe scenario in which the high energy regime is modified by the effects of quantum gravity, causing a turn-around (and a bounce) of the universe. The dynamical evolution of holographic dark energy in the regimes of low energy and high energy is governed by two differential equations, respectively. It is of importance to link the two regimes for this scenario. We propose a link condition giving rise to a complete picture of holographic evolution of a cyclic universe.

  7. Holographic vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  8. Gaps, Pseudogaps, and the Nature of Charge in Holographic Fermion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, Garrett; Phillips, Philip

    Building on prior holographic constructions of Fermi arcs and Mott physics, we investigate the landscape of gapped and gapless strongly-correlated phases resulting from bulk fermion interactions in gauge/gravity duality. We test a proposed connection between bulk chiral symmetry and gapless boundary states, and discuss implications for discrete symmetry breaking in pseudogapped systems like the cuprate superconductors. Numerical methods are used to treat gravitational backreaction of bulk fermions, allowing more rigorous investigation of the existence of holographic Fermi surfaces and their adherence to Luttinger's rule. We use these techniques to study deviations from Luttinger's rule in holography, testing a recent claim that momentum-deconfined charges are at the heart of the Mott state.

  9. Intelligent holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  10. Holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Briones, R A; Heflinger, L O; Wuerker, R F

    1978-03-15

    An off-axis transmission holographic scheme, in which a 1:1 lens and a hologram are treated as a single rigid entity, is found to reconstruct a 3-D diffraction-limited image when reconstructed, with a reference beam reversed back through the original lens-hologram unit. Reconstruction can be performed with wavelengths other than the recording wavelength, provided achromatic lenses are used, and the reference beam angle is properly changed for reconstruction. Comparisons are made between He-Ne and ruby laser holograms. Two-micron resolution of the combustion of solid rocket propellants at high pressures is achieved at a working distance of 6 cm.

  11. Holographic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

    2014-04-18

    We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3.

  12. Unifying phantom inflation with late-time acceleration: scalar phantom-non-phantom transition model and generalized holographic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2006-08-01

    The unifying approach to early-time and late-time universe based on phantom cosmology is proposed. We consider gravity-scalar system which contains usual potential and scalar coupling function in front of kinetic term. As a result, the possibility of phantom-non-phantom transition appears in such a way that universe could have effectively phantom equation of state at early time as well as at late time. In fact, the oscillating universe may have several phantom and non-phantom phases. Role in each of two phase and can be absorbed into the redefinition of the scalar field. Right on the transition point, however, the factor cannot be absorbed into the redefinition and play the role to connect two phases smoothly. Holographic dark energy where infrared cutoff is identified with combination of FRW parameters: Hubble constant, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant and universe life-time (if finite). Depending on the specific choice of the model the number of interesting effects occur: the possibility to solve the coincidence problem, crossing of phantom divide and unification of early-time inflationary and late-time accelerating phantom universe. The bound for holographic entropy which decreases in phantom era is also discussed.

  13. Holographic Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  14. Holographic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1996-09-01

    A unique method for the construction and display of a 3D holographic movie is developed. An animated film is produced by rotating a 3D object in steps between successive holographic exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70-mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11-mm high and 55-mm high and 55-mm wide. The object was rotated 2 deg between successive exposures. A complete cycle of the object motion was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is not shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier transform hologram construction, as predicted by the theoretical analysis. The movie can be viewed for an unlimited time because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D effect. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can simultaneously view the movie.

  15. Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-09-01

    In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ΛCDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ΛCDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ΛCDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

  16. Study of some cosmological parameters for interacting new holographic dark energy model in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Chayan; Rudra, Prabir

    2016-10-01

    The present work is based on the idea of an interacting framework of new holographic dark energy (HDE) with cold dark matter in the background of f(T) gravity. Here, we have considered the flat modified Friedmann universe for f(T) gravity which is filled with new HDE and dark matter. We have derived some cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter, equation of state (EoS) parameter, state-finder parameters, cosmographic parameters, Om parameter and graphically investigated the nature of these parameters for the above mentioned interacting scenario. The results are found to be consistent with the accelerating universe. Also, we have graphically investigated the trajectories in ω-ω‧ plane for different values of the interacting parameter and explored the freezing region and thawing region in ω-ω‧ plane. Finally, we have analyzed the stability of this model.

  17. Holographic effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Luca; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  18. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less

  19. Introducing the Pointon: A Heuristic Model for the Holographic Encoding of the Universe from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Ronald; Rheinhart, Maximilian

    2012-03-01

    Contraction of a cyclic (3+1)d universe is described topologically as the collapse of 3-sphere to a ``pointon.'' A spinning universal energy quantum, characterized by an anti-symmetric relativistic angular momentum 6-tensor, M^ab. Holographic duals over fractal dimensions persist via spin-spin-spin couplings as r->0. A self-referential proper frame preserves continuity and causality, with t'Hooft conditions shown in equivalence classes of pointonic degrees of freedom, quantized temporally as f(nπ)-1 at first principles. A spin operator, S, and propagator (generator), ξ^abc, with recursive self-referential coefficient, Ae^iln(i), and coupling constant, α´, where A is a complex number. Recursive cycling over O(3) spin symmetry can describe generally covariant operations on a universal wavefunction. Unwinding of successive rotations of pointon's ``effective'' angular momentum characterized as Markovian quanta over Hausdorff fractal topology, ``act-ing'' over temporal units, per 2π rotation, and helicity of proper frame governed by the self-backreaction,. ``Effective'' indicating normalization of, , per cost in entropy, kB. Paths of least action for pointon's unwinding to spontaneous symmetry-breaking, from discrete non-interacting regime to surface area maximizing tetron (topological tetrahedroid) regime -> rapid expansion. Duals of ``effective'' informational action and angular momentum transform to linear momentum, mass-energy, and quasi- and virtual bound-state of spacetime fabric.

  20. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe (according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from Om and Om3 analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe (within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^'_{de}, ω_{de}) has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. Our study showed that theoretical results from considered phenomenological models are consistent with the available observational data and symmetries.

  1. Engineering holographic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2012-09-24

    We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.

  2. Some recent advances in the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, S. S.

    2014-07-23

    We give a brief report on our recent results in the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD. The holographic description of the heavy vector quarkonia and generalization of the Soft Wall model are discussed.

  3. Interactive holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Beam-Ryeol; Kim, Jin-Woong; Chernyshov, Oleksii O.; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    A holographic display which is capable of displaying floating holographic images is introduced. The display is for user interaction with the image on the display. It consists of two parts; multiplexed holographic image generation and a spherical mirror. The time multiplexed image from 2 X 10 DMD frames appeared on PDLC screen is imaged by the spherical mirror and becomes a floating image. This image is combined spatially with two layered TV images appearing behind. Since the floating holographic image has a real spatial position and depth, it allows a user to interact with the image.

  4. Holographic Gratings for Optical Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of astronomical objects and tracking of man-made space objects lead to generation of huge amount of information for optical processing. Traditional big-size optical elements (such as optical telescopes) have a tendency for increasing aperture size in order to improve sensitivity. This tendency leads to increasing of weight and costs of optical systems and stimulate search for the new, more adequate technologies. One approach to meet these demands is based on developing of holographic optical elements using new polymeric materials. We have investigated possibility to use new material PQ-PMMA (phenantrenequinone-doped PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate)) for fabrication of highly selective optical filters and fast spatial-temporal light modulators. This material was originally developed in Russia and later was tested in CalTech as a candidate material for optical storage. Our theoretical investigation predicts the possibility of realization of fast spatial and temporal light modulation, using volume reflection-type spectral filter. We have developed also model of holographic-grating recording in PQ-PMMA material, based on diffusional amplification. This mechanism of recording allow to receive high diffraction efficiency during recording of reflection-type volume holographic grating (holographic mirror). We also investigated recording of dynamic gratings in the photorefractive crystals LiNbO3 (LN) for space-based spectroscopy and for adaptive correction of aberrations in the telescope's mirrors. We have shown, that specific 'photogalvanic' mechanism of holographic grating recording in LN allow to realize recording of blazed gratings for volume and surface gratings. Possible applications of dynamic gratings in LN for amplification of images, transmitted through an imaging fiber guide was also demonstrated.

  5. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  6. Striped holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico; Papanikolaou, Stefanos

    2011-03-15

    We study inhomogeneous solutions of a 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. Our results provide a holographic model of superconductivity in the presence of a charge density wave sourced by a modulated chemical potential. We find that below a critical temperature T{sub c} superconducting stripes develop. We show that they are thermodynamically favored over the normal state by computing the grand canonical potential. We investigate the dependence of T{sub c} on the modulation's wave vector, which characterizes the inhomogeneity. We find that it is qualitatively similar to that expected for a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer theory, but we point out a quantitative difference. Finally, we use our solutions to compute the conductivity along the direction of the stripes.

  7. Holographic quenches with a gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    In order to holographically model quenches with a gapped final hamiltonian, we consider a gravity-scalar theory in anti-de Sitter space with an infrared hard wall. We allow a time dependent profile for the scalar field at the wall. This induces an energy exchange between bulk and wall and generates an oscillating scalar pulse. We argue that such backgrounds are the counterpart of quantum revivals in the dual field theory. We perform a qualitative comparison with the quench dynamics of the massive Schwinger model, which has been recently analyzed using tensor network techniques. Agreement is found provided the width of the oscillating scalar pulse is inversely linked to the energy density communicated by the quench. We propose this to be a general feature of holographic quenches.

  8. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    We study SU( N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  9. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-06-28

    Here, we study SU(N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of themore » defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.« less

  10. Holographic string encoding.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Christophe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we apply a special case of holographic representations to letter position coding. We translate different well-known schemes into this format, which uses distributed representations and supports constituent structure. We show that in addition to these brain-like characteristics, performances on a standard benchmark of behavioral effects are improved in the holographic format relative to the standard localist one. This notably occurs because of emerging properties in holographic codes, like transposition and edge effects, for which we give formal demonstrations. Finally, we outline the limits of the approach as well as its possible future extensions.

  11. Shape of mesons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2009-10-15

    Based on the expectation that the constituent quark model may capture the right physics in the large N limit, we point out that the orbital angular momentum of the quark-antiquark pair inside light mesons of low spins in the constituent quark model may provide a clue for the holographic dual string model of large N QCD. Our discussion, relying on a few suggestive assumptions, leads to a necessity of world-sheet fermions in the bulk of dual strings that can incorporate intrinsic spins of fundamental QCD degrees of freedom. We also comment on the interesting issue of the size of mesons in holographic QCD.

  12. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  13. Digital Holographic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.

  14. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  15. Cosmological properties and reconstruction of scalar field models of the Holographic Dark Energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off in Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model in the context of Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology with infrared cut-off given by the recently proposed by Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one proportional to the Hubble parameter squared. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two free parameters which are the proportional constants of the two terms of the cut-off. We derive the expression of the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ωD and of the deceleration parameter q for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors and in the limiting case of a flat Dark Dominated Universe. Moreover, we study the squared speed of the sound vs2 and the statefinder diagnostic \\{r,s\\} in order to understand the cosmological properties of the model considered. We also develop a correspondence between the model considered and three scalar field models: the tachyon, the k-essence and the quintessence ones.

  16. A computer test of holographic flavour dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filev, Veselin G.; O'Connor, Denjoe

    2016-05-01

    We perform computer simulations of the Berkooz-Douglas (BD) matrix model, holographically dual to the D0/D4-brane intersection. We generate the fundamental condensate versus bare mass curve of the theory both holographically and from simulations of the BD model. Our studies show excellent agreement of the two approaches in the deconfined phase of the theory and significant deviations in the confined phase. We argue the discrepancy in the confined phase is explained by the embedding of the D4-brane which yields stronger α' corrections to the condensate in this phase.

  17. Reconstructions of f( T) gravity from entropy-corrected holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models in power-law and logarithmic versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Pameli; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-09-01

    Here, we peruse cosmological usage of the most promising candidates of dark energy in the framework of f( T) gravity theory where T represents the torsion scalar teleparallel gravity. We reconstruct the different f( T) modified gravity models in the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe according to entropy-corrected versions of the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models in power-law and logarithmic corrections, which describe an accelerated expansion history of the universe. We conclude that the equation of state parameter of the entropy-corrected models can transit from the quintessence state to the phantom regime as indicated by recent observations or can lie entirely in the phantom region. Also, using these models, we investigate the different areas of the stability with the help of the squared speed of sound.

  18. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni; Harlow, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2015-06-01

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an isometry from the bulk Hilbert space to the boundary Hilbert space. The entire tensor network is an encoder for a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindlerwedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed in [1].

  19. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306

  20. Dynamical behavior of the extended holographic dark energy with the Hubble horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie; Gong Yungui; Chen Ximing

    2010-04-15

    The extended holographic dark energy model with the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff avoids the problem of the circular reasoning of the holographic dark energy model. Unfortunately, it is hit with the no-go theorem. In this paper, we consider the extended holographic dark energy model with a potential, V({phi}), for the Brans-Dicke scalar field. With the addition of a potential for the Brans-Dicke scalar field, the extended holographic dark energy model using the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff is a viable dark energy model, and the model has the dark energy dominated attractor solution.

  1. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  2. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  3. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1998-01-01

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.

  4. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-03-17

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

  5. Spectrally nonselective holographic objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardosanidze, Zurab V.

    1991-10-01

    Reflection holograms and holographic optical elements fabricated by the Denisyuk method are spectrally selective. In certain applications there may be a need for the development of holographic structures that are not selective in terms of the spectral composition of the reconstructing light. This paper describes the possibility of creating spectral nonselective optical elements and reflection holograms on a dichromate gelatin layer (DGL). The essential condition for achieving nonselectivity in this case is a strong absorption of actinic radiation in the initial emulsion layer conditioning the strongly damping character of the summary field in thickness.

  6. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  7. Holographic lateral shear interferometer.

    PubMed

    Malacara, D; Mallick, S

    1976-11-01

    A new type of lateral shear holographic interferometer is described. It can be used to test lenses as well as spherical and aspherical surfaces. A null pattern with straight fringes can be obtained for an aspherical surface, provided one has a prototype that can be used for making the hologram.

  8. Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Terning, John

    2001-03-01

    We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowski space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.

  9. Holographic Optical Elements Using Polyvinyl Carbazole Holographic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kuwayamo, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-06-01

    We developed a new holographic material: polyvinyl carbazore material. The advantage or the material over conventional DCC material is that it has high durability against humidity and transparency. Some optical properties of the material and some applications are presented. We have already installed the holographic display element using polyvinyl carbazole in a commercialized 8mm movie camera. The letters "END" are displayed on an imaging plane of the finder system by using an image plane hologram. We also present the holographic lens of which aberration is well corrected at laser diode wavelength. We made this holographic lens using a new aberration correcting method.

  10. Friedmann Propulsion in an Flat Holographic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Because of inversion symmetries in holographic systems, the spatial compression of lower-dimensional holographic memory leads to an expansion of the holographic image and vice versa (scaling duality), where the geometric mean between the small quantum memory and cosmic image scale defines the inversion scale, the unit scale to normalize the global holographic currents of momentum exchange. Assigning to the cosmic image (bulk) a 4d, to the quantum memory (baryon) a 2d, and to the inversion scale a 3d spherical topology, the cosmic critical density in the flat FRW cosmic test model corresponds to 1 memory unit (baryon). Otherwise, if we expect expansion driven by 3d Einstein gravity on all scales, we get the well known cosmic ``dark matter'' deficit of 96% or 0.04 baryons per unit volume. The cosmic deficit or quantum excess is assigned by Gauss law to the topological ratio 4d bulk surface S3 to 2d quantum surface S1, which dilutes gravity or the mass density by the dimensionless factor 0.04~S3/2/S13 = 1/(8π) leading to a theoretical Hubble parameter of 73.2 kms-1 Mpc-1. Regarding propulsion based on fractional linear transforms mapping the quantum compression by inversion to a cosmic expansion, the anisotropic transform resembles the Alcubierre mechanism if expansion is behind and the compression ahead of the spaceship.

  11. Holographic spectrograph for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.

  12. Characterization of quantum phase transition using holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-06-01

    The entanglement exhibits extremal or singular behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) in many condensed matter models. These intriguing phenomena, however, still call for a widely accepted understanding. In this paper we study this issue in holographic framework. We investigate the connection between the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) and the quantum phase transition (QPT) in a lattice-deformed Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. Novel backgrounds exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT) have been constructed in which both metallic phase and insulating phase have vanishing entropy density in zero temperature limit. We find that the first order derivative of HEE with respect to lattice parameters exhibits extremal behavior near QCPs. We propose that it would be a universal feature that HEE or its derivatives with respect to system parameters can characterize QPT in a generic holographic system. Our work opens a window for understanding the relation between entanglement and the QPT from a holographic perspective.

  13. Assembling a holographic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-03-01

    A series of art projects that use multiplex holography as a medium to combine and spatially animate multiple photographic perspectives are presented. Through the process of image collection and compilation into holograms, several concepts are explored. The animate spatial qualities of multiplex holograms are used to express an urban gaze of moving through cites and the multiplicity of perceptual experience. A question of how we understand ourselves to be located and the complexity of this sense is also addressed. The ability to assemble multiple photographic views together into a scene is considered as a method to document the collective experience of event. How these holographic scenes are viewed is compared to the compositional activity, showing both how the holographic medium inspired the compositions and is used as a means of expression.

  14. Holographic Quantum Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Karch, A.; Son, D. T.; Starinets, A. O.

    2009-02-06

    Quantum liquids are characterized by the distinctive properties such as the low-temperature behavior of heat capacity and the spectrum of low-energy quasiparticle excitations. In particular, at low temperature, Fermi liquids exhibit the zero sound, predicted by Landau in 1957 and subsequently observed in liquid He-3. In this Letter, we ask whether such characteristic behavior is present in theories with a holographically dual description. We consider a class of gauge theories with fundamental matter fields whose holographic dual in the appropriate limit is given in terms of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action in anti-de Sitter space. We find that these systems also exhibit a sound mode at zero temperature despite having a non-Fermi-liquid behavior of the specific heat. These properties suggest that holography identifies a new type of quantum liquid which potentially could be experimentally realized in strongly correlated systems.

  15. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  16. Analytic holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.

  17. Holographic Plossl Retroreflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Holographic retroreflectors that function equivalently to Plossl eyepieces have been developed and used in free-space optical communication systems that utilize laser beams. Plossl eyepieces are well known among telescope designers. They have been adopted for use a retroreflectors and as focusing elements (for reception) and collimating elements (for transmission) in optical communication systems. A retro-reflector that incorporates a Plossl eyepiece is termed a cat's-eye retroreflector.

  18. Holographic subsonic flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, C J; Wiswall, C E; Schmiege, R A; Harris, R J; Dueker, J E

    1970-09-01

    A pulsed ruby laser holographic interferometer was used to detect density gradients in the airflow around an airfoil at subsonic speeds in a low speed wind tunnel. These experiments proved that vibration of the optical components or object between exposures of the interferometric hologram does not destroy the detection of density gradients but actually can aid in the flow visualization. The density gradients determined from the fringe pattern analysis are consistent with the anticipated flow pattern.

  19. Representing Word Meaning and Order Information in a Composite Holographic Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a computational model that builds a holographic lexicon representing both word meaning and word order from unsupervised experience with natural language. The model uses simple convolution and superposition mechanisms to learn distributed holographic representations for words. The structure of the resulting lexicon can account…

  20. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  1. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  2. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  3. HOMES Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; McGrew, Stephen P.

    2013-09-01

    A novel telescope architecture is proposed specifically for the purpose of taking spectra of exoplanets orbiting stars within 10 pc ("the neighborhood"). The primary objective and the secondary spectrograph are holographic optical elements (HOEs) formed on flat membrane substrates of low areal mass that can be transported on cylinder rolls that are compatible with the payload geometry of delivery vehicles. Ribbon-shaped HOEs of up to 100 x 10 meters are contemplated. Computer models are presented with these dimensions. The models predict resolving power better than 10 mas. Because the primary separates wavelengths, we consider coronagraphs that use the divide and conquer strategy of one wavelength at a time. After delivery at the second Lagrange point, the stowed membranes are unfurled into flat holographic optics positioned in a four part formation spanning 1 km of open space.

  4. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.

  5. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  6. Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, Ricardo C. G.

    2016-02-01

    We embed models of holographic dark energy (HDE) coupled to dark matter (DM) in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared (IR) cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the DE. The second case has the future event horizon as IR cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.

  7. Holographic associative memory of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariaev, Peter P.; Chudin, Viktor I.; Komissarov, Gennady G.; Berezin, Andrey A.; Vasiliev, Anatoly A.

    1991-11-01

    We consider some specific problems and phenomena of morphogenetic information storage, reproduction, and transfer including phantom leaf effect and field-induced morphogenetic translations between different taxonomic units. Several experimental results are presented and their explanation is given using a new approach to morphogenesis which combines some physical models of holographic associative memory and the mathematical formalism of Fermi- Pasta-Ulam recurrence for solitary waves in deoxyribonucleic acid.

  8. Holographic Jet Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based

  9. Holographic movie: the first step to holographic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1992-05-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. With this in mind, we have developed an experimental holographic movie system and produced a short duration 3D movie. A number of dolls and moving objects were positioned within a background and illuminated with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). Conventional film-making techniques were used during holographic recording to create a more attractive sequence. The techniques included stop-motion, tracking, enhanced depth perception, up-shots, and overlaps. A series of 300 Fresnel type holograms was recorded on standard holographic films. An interesting technical point is that the film was 10 mm high by 200 mm wide. After developing, the films were sandwiched between two rigid acrylic drums (about 1 m in diameter). The drum is rotated and the films illuminated with the He-Ne laser. The display speed can be varied from 6 to 24 frames per second. The films are viewed through a window. Even though this prototype is relatively primitive the resulting holographic movie is quite effective. Several interesting effects were noted. For example, it was found that objects in the movie must not rapidly shift their depth because the human eye cannot track them is they do.

  10. Holographic Interferometry Applications In External Osteosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, P.; Rastogi, P. K.; Pflug, L.

    1985-08-01

    In order to maintain fragments of fractured bones in a state of immobilization, the use of an external rigid frame has proved to be very advantageous. Confronted by contradictory requirements, the conception of external fixation has, however, been a difficult task. The present paper aims to show, through three examples of varied bearings, the interest of holographic interferometry in external osteosynthesis. The first example deals with the mechanical behavior of a key element of the fixation device the ball joint submitted to realistic loads. The last two examples compare two models of ball joints as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping. Whereas in the former case holographic interferometry primarily fulfills the function of a prelude to the modelization work, in the latter cases it serves to formulate an engineering diagnostic. The findings relate to the remarkable elastic behavior of the ball joint, to the effectiveness of a lightened bowl design, and to the fact that cousin models may behave quite differently as to their resistance to slipping rotations of the bar. In comparison with other experimental methods, holographic interferometry appears to be very competitive and result-oriented and, as such, is expected to multiply applications in similar evaluation tasks.

  11. Constraints on holographic cosmologies from strong lensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Bonilla, Alexander; Motta, Verónica; Campo, Sergio del E-mail: alex.bonilla@uv.cl E-mail: sdelcamp@ucv.cl

    2013-11-01

    We use strongly gravitationally lensed (SGL) systems to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. Data available in the literature (redshift and velocity dispersion) is used to obtain the Einstein radius and compare it with model predictions. We found that the ΛCDM is the best fit to the data. Although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that two of the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, a stringent test lead us to the result that neither of the holographic models are competitive with the ΛCDM. These results highlight the importance of Strong Lensing measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to shed some light into the dark universe.

  12. Holographic interference filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  13. Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Trolinger, J.D.; Hess, C.F.; Yip, B.; Battles, B.; Hanson, R.K. Stanford University, CA )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes experimentation with a new type of flow diagnostics referred to as Resonant Holographic Interferometry Spectroscopy (RHIS). This technique combines the power of holography with the species selectivity of spectroscopy to provide three-dimensional images of the density profile of selected species in complex flows. The technique is particularly suitable to study mixing processes as well as to measure minor species in combustion processes. The method would allow the measurement of minor species in the presence of major species, as well as major species in a heterogeneous low pressure environment. Both experiments and modeling are being conducted to establish the feasibility of RHIS in measuring the hydroxyl concentrations in combustion processes. It is expected that in addition to the species concentration, the resonant holographic technique has the potential of providing temperature, pressure, and flow velocity. 28 refs.

  14. Holographic renormalization and the electroweak precision parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Round, Mark

    2010-09-01

    We study the effects of holographic renormalization on an AdS/QCD inspired description of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Our model is a 5D slice of AdS{sub 5} geometry containing a bulk scalar and SU(2)xSU(2) gauge fields. The scalar field obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV) which represents a condensate that triggers electroweak symmetry breaking. Fermion fields are constrained to live on the UV brane and do not propagate in the bulk. The two-point functions are holographically renormalized through the addition of boundary counterterms. Measurable quantities are then expressed in terms of well-defined physical parameters, free from any spurious dependence on the UV cutoff. A complete study of the precision parameters is carried out and bounds on physical quantities derived. The large-N scaling of results is discussed.

  15. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shinsuke; Nakayama, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  16. Virtual holographic laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Alieva, T.; Rodrigo, J. A.; Martínez-Matos, O.; Moreno, A.; Aliev, T.

    2007-06-01

    In this work we present a Virtual Holographic Laboratory for educational purposes. This project is edited on DVD support and it has been designed to be interactive: schemes, pictures, videos in order to clarify the theoretical description of the phenomena improving the understanding of its fundamental concepts. We believe that this project is helpful for undergraduate and graduate students in physics and engineering to obtain the solid knowledge about holography and to prepare for practical lessons on holography or partially substitute the lasts in the case of absence of appropriated technical base at a specific university level.

  17. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Yu N.; Bezruk, M. N.; Ermolaev, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa-1 in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz.

  18. Holographic quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Tordrup, Karl; Negretti, Antonio; Mølmer, Klaus

    2008-07-25

    We propose to use a single mesoscopic ensemble of trapped polar molecules for quantum computing. A "holographic quantum register" with hundreds of qubits is encoded in collective excitations with definite spatial phase variations. Each phase pattern is uniquely addressed by optical Raman processes with classical optical fields, while one- and two-qubit gates and qubit readout are accomplished by transferring the qubit states to a stripline microwave cavity field and a Cooper pair box where controllable two-level unitary dynamics and detection is governed by classical microwave fields.

  19. Intellectual property in holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.

  20. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  1. The traveltime holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  2. New holographic overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, Anthony I.

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

  3. Holographic thermalization in a quark confining background

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, D. S. Aref’eva, I. Ya.

    2015-03-15

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact, a trapped surface formation. As the vacuum confining background, we considered the well-know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential and reproduces the QCD β-function. We perturb the vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of trapped surface formation, which results in a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain, we can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. We find that the dependence of the multiplicity on energy for the intermediate background has an asymptotic expansion whose first term depends on energy as E{sup 1/3}, which is very similar to the experimental dependence of particle multiplicities on the colliding ion energy obtained from the RHIC and LHC. However, this first term, at the energies where the approximation of the confining metric by the intermediate background works, does not saturate the exact answer, and we have to take the nonleading terms into account.

  4. Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

    SciTech Connect

    Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T; Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V

    2010-02-28

    The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L{sup -1}). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Organic Materials for Holographic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alan Gengsheng

    Volume holography plays an important role in modern optical technology. This research explores organic materials for holographic applications in optical systems. A novel medium composed of azo dye molecules (methyl red sodium salt) and liquid crystals (PCB) was developed for holographic applications. A conformation change of azo dye molecules in cis-trans isomerization reorients liquid crystal molecules. Reversible polarization holograms are recorded dynamically with a threshold intensity as low as 3.0 mW/cm^2 and a response time from 1 ms to 100 ms depending on the recording spatial frequencies. Surface anchoring forces play a key role in holographic storage. We investigated these forces with differently treated substrates. Optical surface memory effects are described experimentally. We also seek novel materials for dynamic volume holography. Liquid crystal molecules (EBBA and MBBA) have been dispersed in polymer matrices for volume holographic storage. Dynamic holographic effects due to thermal and optically driven anisotropies are observed. A programmable multilayer holographic storage device using a stack of polarization sensitive polymer films and liquid crystals is developed. The parallel access time is about 10 ms. This device is useful for real-time holographic displays, optical interconnections, and high -density optical data storage. In addition, holography has been employed for spectral filtering. Filtering by a thick hologram can manipulate the amplitude and phase of the spectral components of an optical pulse. A camphorquinone doped polymer resin is used as a volume holographic element. Pulses from a CPM laser are filtered into two or three different frequency components, which beat in the time domain to generate a sub-picosecond pulse with very different shape. The device will find applications in optical communications and time-resolved spectroscopy.

  6. Hyperspectral holographic Fourier-microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenkov, G. S.; Kalenkov, S. G.; Shtan'ko, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    A detailed theory of the method of holographic recording of hyperspectral wave fields is developed. New experimentally obtained hyperspectral holographic images of microscopic objects are presented. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally using the examples of urgent microscopy problems: speckle noise suppression, obtaining hyperspectral image of a microscopic object, as well as synthesis of a colour image and obtaining an optical profile of a phase object.

  7. Holographic Entanglement Entropy in NMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basanisi, Luca; Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show that a higher derivative theory, such as New Massive Gravity, allows the existence of new entangling surfaces with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We perform the analysis for Lifshitz and Warped AdS spacetimes, revealing the role of the higher derivative contributions in the calculation of the holographic entanglement entropy. Finally, as an outcome of our holographic analysis we briefly comment on the dual boundary theory.

  8. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  9. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Miao E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn E-mail: zhangzhh@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω{sub hde} are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ{sup 2}{sub min}=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07<Ω{sub Λ0}<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ω{sub hde0}<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  10. Nd:YAG holographic interferometer for aerodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.; Lee, G.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system has been installed in the NASA Ames 2- by 2-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The system incorporates a modern 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described, as well as the integration of the system into the existing schlieren system. A two-plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models, the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  11. Engineering holographic phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-10-01

    By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.

  12. Holographic Recording Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.

  13. Holographic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  14. Stability of holographic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2010-10-15

    We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

  15. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  17. Combined constraints on holographic bosonic technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, Christopher D.; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-07-01

    We consider a model of strong electroweak symmetry breaking in which the expectation value of an additional, possibly composite, scalar field is responsible for the generation of fermion masses. The dynamics of the strongly coupled sector is defined and studied via its holographic dual, and does not correspond to a simple, scaled-up version of QCD. We consider the bounds from perturbative unitarity, the S parameter, and the mass of the Higgs-like scalar. We show that the combination of these constraints leaves a relatively limited region of parameter space viable, and suggests the qualitative features of the model that might be probed at the LHC.

  18. Internet-based preproduction system for holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Jonny

    2001-01-01

    A system has been designed with the aim of helping the communication between a produce of holographic stereograms and users of 3D computer graphics. The user of the system communicates with the producer through a small program, an applet, which is transferred over the Internet. In the applet the user makes all settings necessary for producing the hologram, and then sends the 3D file together with its settings to a holographic printer for production of the hologram. The system uses virtual reality modeling language as an interchangeable graphics format and Java as programming language. It is believed that the system will significantly improve the dissemination of holographic hard copies to ordinary users of computer graphics.

  19. Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.

  20. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  1. In-line digital holographic imaging in volume holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaomin; Lin, Wei-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wang, Po-Hao; Yeh, Li-Hao; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Singh, Vijay Raj; Luo, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A dual-plane in-line digital holographic imaging method incorporating volume holographic microscopy (VHM) is presented to reconstruct objects in a single shot while eliminating zero-order and twin-image diffracted waves. The proposed imaging method is configured such that information from different axial planes is acquired simultaneously using multiplexed volume holographic imaging gratings, as used in VHM, and recorded as in-line holograms where the corresponding reference beams are generated in the fashion of Gabor's in-line holography. Unlike conventional VHM, which can take axial intensity information only at focal depths, the proposed method digitally reconstructs objects at any axial position. Further, we demonstrate the proposed imaging technique's ability to effectively eliminate zero-order and twin images for single-shot three-dimensional object reconstruction. PMID:26625046

  2. Holographic quenches and anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Grieninger, Sebastian; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Melgar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    We study the response of the chiral magnetic effect due to continuous quenches induced by time dependent electric fields within holography. Concretely, we consider a holographic model with dual chiral anomaly and compute the electric current parallel to a constant, homogeneous magnetic field and a time dependent electric field in the probe approximation. We explicitly solve the PDEs by means of pseudospectral methods in spatial and time directions and study the transition to an universal "fast" quench response. Moreover, we compute the amplitudes, i.e., residues of the quasi normal modes, by solving the (ODE) Laplace transformed equations. We investigate the possibility of considering the asymptotic growth rate of the amplitudes as a well defined notion of initial time scale for linearized systems. Finally, we highlight the existence of Landau level resonances in the electrical conductivity parallel to a magnetic field at finite frequency and show explicitly that these only appear in presence of the anomaly. We show that the existence of these resonances induces, among others, a long-lived AC electric current once the electric field is switched off.

  3. Holographic framework for eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2006-10-15

    In this paper we provide some circumstantial evidence for a holographic duality between bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating universe and a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT). The holographic correspondence (which is different than Strominger's de Sitter (dS)/CFT duality) relates the decay of (3+1)-dimensional de Sitter space to a two-dimensional CFT. It is not associated with pure de Sitter space, but rather with Coleman-De Luccia bubble nucleation. Alternatively, it can be thought of as a holographic description of the open, infinite, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology that results from such a bubble. The conjectured holographic representation is of a new type that combines holography with the Wheeler-DeWitt formalism to produce a Wheeler-DeWitt theory that lives on the spatial boundary of a k=-1 FRW cosmology. We also argue for a more ambitious interpretation of the Wheeler-DeWitt CFT as a holographic dual of the entire Landscape.

  4. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  5. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars. PMID:27472110

  6. Holographic Metals and the Fractionalized Fermi Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Sachdev, Subir

    2010-10-08

    We show that there is a close correspondence between the physical properties of holographic metals near charged black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and the fractionalized Fermi liquid phase of the lattice Anderson model. The latter phase has a ''small'' Fermi surface of conduction electrons, along with a spin liquid of local moments. This correspondence implies that certain mean-field gapless spin liquids are states of matter at nonzero density realizing the near-horizon, AdS{sub 2}xR{sup 2} physics of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes.

  7. Holographic metals and the fractionalized fermi liquid.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Subir

    2010-10-01

    We show that there is a close correspondence between the physical properties of holographic metals near charged black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and the fractionalized Fermi liquid phase of the lattice Anderson model. The latter phase has a "small" Fermi surface of conduction electrons, along with a spin liquid of local moments. This correspondence implies that certain mean-field gapless spin liquids are states of matter at nonzero density realizing the near-horizon, AdS₂ × R² physics of Reissner-Nordström black holes. PMID:21230891

  8. Observational constraints on holographic tachyonic dark energy in interaction with dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Micheletti, Sandro M. R.

    2010-05-01

    We discuss an interacting tachyonic dark energy model in the context of the holographic principle. The potential of the holographic tachyon field in interaction with dark matter is constructed. The model results are compared with CMB shift parameter, baryonic acoustic oscilations, lookback time and the Constitution supernovae sample. The coupling constant of the model is compatible with zero, but dark energy is not given by a cosmological constant.

  9. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  10. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  11. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  12. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  13. Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Christoph; Otis, Thomas S.; DeSars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge; DiGregorio, David A.; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of light-sensitive chemical probes has become a powerful tool for the study of dynamic signaling processes in living tissue. Classically, this approach has been constrained by limitations of lens–based and point-scanning illumination systems. Here we describe a novel microscope configuration that incorporates a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to generate holographic patterns of illumination. This microscope can produce illumination spots of variable size and number and patterns shaped to precisely match user-defined elements in a specimen. Using holographic illumination to photolyse caged glutamate in brain slices, we demonstrate that shaped excitation on segments of neuronal dendrites and simultaneous, multi-spot excitation of different dendrites enables precise spatial and rapid temporal control of glutamate receptor activation. By allowing the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible method for activation of various photosensitive proteins and small molecules. PMID:19160517

  14. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  15. Advances with holographic DESA emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dünkel, Lothar; Eichler, Jürgen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2006-02-01

    DESA emulsions represent layer systems based on ultra-fine grained silver halide (AgX) technology. The new layers have an excellent performance for holographic application. The technology has been presented repeatedly in recent years, including the emulsion characterization and topics of chemical and spectral sensitization. The paper gives a survey of actual results referring to panchromatic sensitization and other improvements like the application of silver halide sensitized gelatine (SHSG) procedure. These results are embedded into intensive collaborations with small and medium enterprises (SME's) to commercialize DESA layers. Predominant goals are innovative products with holographic components and layers providing as well as cost effectiveness and high quality.

  16. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  17. LCTV Holographic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts are required to interface with complex systems that require sophisticated displays to communicate effectively. Lightweight, head-mounted real-time displays that present holographic images for comfortable viewing may be the ideal solution. We describe an implementation of a liquid crystal television (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the display of holograms. The implementation required the solution of a complex set of problems. These include field calculations, determination of the LCTV-SLM complex transmittance characteristics and a precise knowledge of the signal mapping between the LCTV and frame grabbing board that controls it. Realizing the hologram is further complicated by the coupling that occurs between the phase and amplitude in the LCTV transmittance. A single drive signal (a gray level signal from a framegrabber) determines both amplitude and phase. Since they are not independently controllable (as is true in the ideal SLM) one must deal with the problem of optimizing (in some sense) the hologram based on this constraint. Solutions for the above problems have been found. An algorithm has been for field calculations that uses an efficient outer product formulation. Juday's MEDOF 7 (Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter) algorithm used for originally for filter calculations has been successfully adapted to handle metrics appropriate for holography. This has solved the problem of optimizing the hologram to the constraints imposed by coupling. Two laboratory methods have been developed for determining an accurate mapping of framegrabber pixels to LCTV pixels. A friendly software system has been developed that integrates the hologram calculation and realization process using a simple set of instructions. The computer code and all the laboratory measurement techniques determining SLM parameters have been proven with the production of a high quality test image.

  18. Low temperature properties of holographic condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab

    2011-03-01

    In the current work we study various models of holographic superconductors at low temperature. Generically the zero temperature limit of those models are solitonic solution with a zero sized horizon. Here we generalized simple version of those zero temperature solutions to small but non-zero temperature T. We confine ourselves to cases where near horizon geometry is AdS 4. At a non-zero temperature a small horizon would form deep inside this AdS 4 which does not disturb the UV physics. The resulting geometry may be matched with the zero temperature solution at an intermediate length scale. We understand this matching from separation of scales by setting up a perturbative expansion in gauge potential. We have a better analytic control in abelian case and quantities may be expressed in terms of hypergeometric function. From this we calculate low temperature behavior of various quatities like entropy, charge density and specific heat etc. We also calculate various energy gaps associated with p-wave holographic superconductor to understand the underlying pairing mechanism. The result deviates significantly from the corresponding weak coupling BCS counterpart.

  19. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  20. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  1. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  2. Holographic Interferometry based on photorefractive crystal to measure 3D thermo-elastic distortion of composite structures and comparison with finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thizy, C.; Eliot, F.; Ballhause, D.; Olympio, K. R.; Kluge, R.; Shannon, A.; Laduree, G.; Logut, D.; Georges, M. P.

    2013-04-01

    Thermo-elastic distortions of composite structures have been measured by a holographic camera using a BSO photorefractive crystal as the recording medium. The first test campaign (Phase 1) was performed on CFRP struts with titanium end-fittings glued to the tips of the strut. The samples were placed in a vacuum chamber. The holographic camera was located outside the chamber and configured with two illuminations to measure the relative out-of-plane and in-plane (in one direction) displacements. The second test campaign (Phase 2) was performed on a structure composed of a large Silicon Carbide base plate supported by 3 GFRP struts with glued Titanium end-fittings. Thermo-elastic distortions have been measured with the same holographic camera used in phase 1, but four illuminations, instead of two, have been used to provide the three components of displacement. This technique was specially developed and validated during the phase 2 in CSL laboratory. The system has been designed to measure an object size of typically 250x250 mm2; the measurement range is such that the sum of the largest relative displacements in the three measurement directions is maximum 20 μm. The validation of the four-illuminations technique led to measurement uncertainties of 120 nm for the relative in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, 230 nm for the absolute in-plane displacement and 400 nm for the absolute out-of-plane displacement. For both campaigns, the test results have been compared to the predictions obtained by finite element analyses and the correlation of these results was good.

  3. Tuning Ion Conducting Pathways Using Holographic Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derrick; Li, Christopher; Dong, Bin; Bunning, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    While much research has demonstrated repeatable characteristics of electrolyte membranes, the fundamentals behind the interactions during ionic diffusion in solid polymer electrolyte membranes for battery applications are not well understood, specifically the role of nanostructures, which hold the key to improving performance of energy storage devices such as fuel cells and Lithium ion batteries. The challenges in fabricating highly controlled model systems are largely responsible for the interdependent ambiguities between nanostructures and the corresponding ion conducting behavior. In this work, Holographic Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (hPEM) volume gratings comprised of alternating layers of crosslinked polymer resin and lithium ion salt were fabricated using holographic polymerization with an average d-spacing of approximately 200 nm. These one-dimensional confinement structures were used to quantitatively study the anisotropic ionic conductivity between the directions of in-plane and normal to the layers, and the unique ion conducting behavior was correlated with nanoscale phase separation. These volume gratings also offer an exciting route to fabricate multifunctional gratings for optic and sensing applications.

  4. Holoviewer system for preproduction of holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Jonny

    1999-03-01

    A system for transmission and previsualization of digital data for production of holographic stereograms has been developed. The aim of this system is to help the communication between producers of holographic stereograms and their clients. The client accesses the system through a Java applet, a small program, which is automatically downloaded and run on the clients local computer. The client loads a file in VRML format into the applet and the 3D model is displayed using the VRML browser plug-in usually delivered with WWW browsers. The Java applet overrides the controls of the VRML browser and provides only the manipulations possible and necessary for preparing the hologram production and visualizing the result. The applet permits the client to somewhat modify the scene e.g. by adding lights and manipulating them. After finishing the settings and visualizations of the hologram, the client may save the file with the new settings on her own computer in order to resume work later on. When satisfied she may upload the file with all settings to the hologram producer. The computer of the hologram producer is running a small, specially designed http server which will receive the file from the client for further handling.

  5. Riccati equations for holographic 2-point functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2014-04-01

    Any second order homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation can be transformed into a first order non-linear Riccati equation. We argue that the Riccati form of the linearized fluctuation equations that determine the holographic 2-point functions simplifies considerably the numerical computation of such 2-point functions and of the corresponding transport coefficients by computing directly the response functions, eliminating the arbitrary source from the start. Moreover, it provides a neat criterion for the infrared regularity of the fluctuations. In particular, it is shown that the infrared regularity conditions for scalar and tensor fluctuations coincide, and hence they are either both regular or both singular. We demonstrate our numerical recipe based on the Riccati equations by computing the holographic 2-point functions for the stress tensor and a scalar operator in a number of asymptotically anti de Sitter backgrounds of bottom up scalar-gravity models. Analytical results are obtained for the 2-point function of the transverse traceless part of the stress tensor in two confining geometries, including a geometry that belongs to the class of IHQCD. We find that in this background the spin-2 spectrum is linear and, as expected, the position space 2-point function decays exponentially at large distances at a rate proportional to the confinement scale.

  6. Holographic Ricci dark energy as running vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Paxy; Mathew, Titus K.

    2016-04-01

    Holographic Ricci dark energy (DE) that has been proposed ago has faced problems of future singularity. In the present work, we consider the Ricci DE with an additive constant in its density as running vacuum energy. We have analytically solved the Friedmann equations and also the role played by the general conservation law followed by the cosmic components together. We have shown that the running vacuum energy status of the Ricci DE helps to remove the possible future singularity in the model. The additive constant in the density of the running vacuum played an important role, such that, without that, the model predicts either eternal deceleration or eternal acceleration. But along with the additive constant, equivalent to a cosmological constant, the model predicts a late time acceleration in the expansion of the universe, and in the far future of the evolution it tends to de Sitter universe.

  7. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  8. Holographic projection with higher image quality.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weidong; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2016-08-22

    The spatial resolution limited by the size of the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the holographic projection can hardly be increased, and speckle noise always appears to induce the degradation of image quality. In this paper, the holographic projection with higher image quality is presented. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is 2 times of that of the existing holographic projection, and speckles are suppressed well at the same time. Finally, the effectiveness of the holographic projection is verified in experiments. PMID:27557197

  9. Photopolymerizable nanocomposite photonic materials and their holographic applications in light and neutron optics

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yasuo; Hata, Eiji; Momose, Keisuke; Takayama, Shingo; Liu, Xiangming; Chikama, Katsumi; Klepp, Jürgen; Pruner, Christian; Fally, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of recent investigations of photopolymerizable nanocomposite photonic materials in which, thanks to their high degree of material selectivity, recorded volume gratings possess high refractive index modulation amplitude and high mechanical/thermal stability at the same time, providing versatile applications in light and neutron optics. We discuss the mechanism of grating formation in holographically exposed nanocomposite materials, based on a model of the photopolymerization-driven mutual diffusion of monomer and nanoparticles. Experimental inspection of the recorded grating’s morphology by various physicochemical and optical methods is described. We then outline the holographic recording properties of volume gratings recorded in photopolymerizable nanocomposite materials consisting of inorganic/organic nanoparticles and monomers having various photopolymerization mechanisms. Finally, we show two examples of our holographic applications, holographic digital data storage and slow-neutron beam control.

  10. Photopolymerizable nanocomposite photonic materials and their holographic applications in light and neutron optics

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yasuo; Hata, Eiji; Momose, Keisuke; Takayama, Shingo; Liu, Xiangming; Chikama, Katsumi; Klepp, Jürgen; Pruner, Christian; Fally, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of recent investigations of photopolymerizable nanocomposite photonic materials in which, thanks to their high degree of material selectivity, recorded volume gratings possess high refractive index modulation amplitude and high mechanical/thermal stability at the same time, providing versatile applications in light and neutron optics. We discuss the mechanism of grating formation in holographically exposed nanocomposite materials, based on a model of the photopolymerization-driven mutual diffusion of monomer and nanoparticles. Experimental inspection of the recorded grating’s morphology by various physicochemical and optical methods is described. We then outline the holographic recording properties of volume gratings recorded in photopolymerizable nanocomposite materials consisting of inorganic/organic nanoparticles and monomers having various photopolymerization mechanisms. Finally, we show two examples of our holographic applications, holographic digital data storage and slow-neutron beam control. PMID:27594769

  11. Light-front holographic QCD and emerging confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Erlich, Joshua

    2015-05-21

    In this study we explore the remarkable connections between light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to gravity in a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and conformal quantum mechanics. This approach provides new insights into the origin of a fundamental mass scale and the physics underlying confinement dynamics in QCD in the limit of massless quarks. The result is a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin with an effective confinement potential derived from a conformal action and its embedding in AdS space. This equation allows for the computation of essential features of hadron spectra in terms of a single scale. The light-front holographic methods described here give a precise interpretation of holographic variables and quantities in AdS space in terms of light-front variables and quantum numbers. This leads to a relation between the AdS wave functions and the boost-invariant light-front wave functions describing the internal structure of hadronic bound-states in physical spacetime. The pion is massless in the chiral limit and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states lie on linear Regge trajectories with identical slopes in the radial and orbital quantum numbers. In the light-front holographic approach described here currents are expressed as an infinite sum of poles, and form factors as a product of poles. At large q2 the form factor incorporates the correct power-law fall-off for hard scattering independent of the specific dynamics and is dictated by the twist. At low q2 the form factor leads to vector dominance. The approach is also extended to include small quark masses. We briefly review in this report other holographic approaches to QCD, in particular top-down and bottom-up models based on chiral symmetry breaking. We also include a discussion of open problems and future applications.

  12. Persistent superconductor currents in holographic lattices.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Maeda, Kengo

    2014-07-01

    We consider a persistent superconductor current along the direction with no translational symmetry in a holographic gravity model. Incorporating a lattice structure into the model, we numerically construct novel solutions of hairy charged stationary black branes with momentum or rotation along the latticed direction. The lattice structure prevents the horizon from rotating, and the total momentum is only carried by matter fields outside the black brane horizon. This is consistent with the black hole rigidity theorem, and it suggests that in dual field theory with lattices, superconductor currents are made up of "composite" fields, rather than "fractionalized" degrees of freedom. We also show that our solutions are consistent with the superfluid hydrodynamics. PMID:25032917

  13. Holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Matos, O; Rodrigo, José A; Vaveliuk, P; Calvo, M L

    2011-02-15

    We propose a spectrum analyzer based on the properties of a hologram recorded with the field transmitted by a Fabry-Perot etalon. The spectral response of this holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer (HFPS) is analytically investigated in the paraxial approximation and compared with a conventional Fabry-Perot etalon of similar characteristics. We demonstrate that the resolving power is twice increased and the free spectral range (FSR) is reduced to one-half. The proposed spectrometer could improve the operational performance of the etalon because it can exhibit high efficiency and it would be insensible to environmental conditions such as temperature and vibrations. Our analysis also extends to another variant of the HFPS based on holographic multiplexing of the transmitted field of a Fabry-Perot etalon. This device increases the FSR, keeping the same HFPS performance.

  14. Medium consumption in holographic memories.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Mark R; McLeod, Robert R

    2009-07-01

    The dynamic range of holographic storage media is traditionally characterized in terms of M/#. However, this is a system parameter that assumes simple, uniform plane-wave holograms. Realistic architectures violate this assumption so that M/# measured with plane waves cannot be used to predict system diffraction efficiency. Thus, there currently is no systematic method predicting signal strength and medium consumption for holographic storage architectures a priori. We define a new material parameter, the modulation integral, M(I), and show how this may be used for dynamic range budgeting and diffraction efficiency prediction in complex storage systems. The method is illustrated by applying it to two architectures, collinear and angle polytopic, in order to estimate the M/# required for achieving a target storage density in the presence of empirical optical scatter noise.

  15. Advances in holographic particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David

    1993-12-01

    Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.

  16. Beam shaping for holographic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2014-09-01

    Uniform intensity of laser radiation is very important in holographic and interferometry technologies, therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Holography and interferometry have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam, most important of them are flatness of phase front and extended depth of field. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers piShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. This approach is used in SLM-based technologies of Computer Generated Holography, Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms, holographic data storage, holographic projection, lithography, interferometric recording of Volume Bragg Gratings. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to vary beam size and shape, thus adapting an optical system to requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  17. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  18. Holographic recording materials - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.

  19. Holographic superconductors with Weyl corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Raza, Muhammad; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-10-01

    A quick review on the analytical aspects of holographic superconductors (HSCs) with Weyl corrections has been presented. Mainly, we focus on matching method and variational approaches. Different types of such HSC have been investigated — s-wave, p-wave and Stúckelberg ones. We also review the fundamental construction of a p-wave type, in which the non-Abelian gauge field is coupled to the Weyl tensor. The results are compared from numerics to analytical results.

  20. RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2μm size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.

  1. Holographic Laser-Protective Eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, James M.

    1988-04-01

    Holographic filters in spectacle lenses, helmet visors and other types of substrates have been proposed for eye protection against visible lasers. Dyes and filter glasses, commonly used as laser protection at visible wavelengths, typically suffer from poor visual transmittance. Holographic filters offer potentially high visual transmittance due to a narrow spectral notch, but the angular dependence of the spectral notch position dictates a tradeoff between eye protection and visual transmittance. The relative merits of various exposure and substrate configurations for laser-protective eyewear are compared. Emphasis is placed on single-beam exposure, surface-conformal fringe structures in which the local Bragg angle is determined by the fringe spacing as opposed to the fringe tilt. This type of hologram is readily made free from flare or multiple images in transmission. Performance is evaluated in terms of visual transmittance versus eye protection, including retinal area and eye rotation. The relationship between angular and spectral response of holographic laser filters determines the exposure source for optimum performance to be roughly coincident with the center of eye rotation, regardless of the substrate geometry. Performance may be improved by locating the filters a greater distance from the eye. A more dramatic improvement in performance may be achieved by increasing the curvature of the substrate so that it is concentric with the eye.

  2. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to

  3. 3D holographic portraits: presence and absence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveria, Rosa M.; Bernardo, Luís Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Authors writing about the portrait insist on the status of extending the model image portrayed beyond the absence and even death. The portrait also has this ability and suggests immortality. The picture suspends the time, making the absent present. The portrait has been, over time, one of the themes mostly used in art. No wonder that in holography it is an important subject as well. The face is a body area of privileged communication and expression. It expresses emotions through looks, smiles, movements and expressions. Being Holography, so far, the recording technology that represents the object most similar to the original, with the same parallax, we may fall into a mimetic representation of reality. On Art Holography even by following paths already traversed, the resulting holograms are always different because of the unique concept that each artist-holographer puts into his work. As with any other artistic technology, each artist uses the medium differently and with different results.

  4. Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan; Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva

    2011-08-15

    We present an infinite class of 2+1 dimensional field theories which, after coupling to semi-holographic fermions, exhibit strange metallic behavior in a suitable large N limit. These theories describe lattices of hypermultiplet defects interacting with parity-preserving supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories with U(N) x U(N) gauge groups at levels {+-}k. They have dual gravitational descriptions in terms of lattices of probe M2 branes in AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} (for N >> 1,N >> k{sup 5}) or probe D2 branes in AdS{sub 4} x CP{sup 3} (for N >> k >> 1,N << k{sup 5}). We discuss several challenges one faces in maintaining the success of these models at finite N, including backreaction of the probes in the gravity solutions and radiative corrections in the weakly coupled field theory limit.

  5. Vortex flow for a holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi

    2011-03-15

    We investigate energy dissipation associated with the motion of the scalar condensate in a holographic superconductor model constructed from the charged scalar field coupled to the Maxwell field. Upon application of constant magnetic and electric fields, we analytically construct the vortex-flow solution and find the vortex-flow resistance near the second-order phase transition where the scalar condensate begins. The characteristic feature of the nonequilibrium state agrees with the one predicted by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) theory. We evaluate the kinetic coefficient in the TDGL equation along the line of the second-order phase transition. At zero magnetic field, the other coefficients in the TDGL equation are also evaluated just below the critical temperature.

  6. Printable Nanophotonic Devices via Holographic Laser Ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Yetisen, Ali K; Sabouri, Aydin; Yun, Seok Hyun; Butt, Haider

    2015-09-22

    Holography plays a significant role in applications such as data storage, light trapping, security, and biosensors. However, conventional fabrication methods remain time-consuming, costly, and complex, limiting the fabrication of holograms and their extensive use. Here, we demonstrate a single-pulse laser ablation technique to write parallel surface gratings and Fresnel zone plates. We utilized a 6 ns high-energy green laser pulse to form interference patterns to record a surface grating with 820 nm periodicity and asymmetric zone plate holograms on 4.5 nm gold-coated substrates. The holographic recording process was completed within seconds. The optical characteristics of the interference patterns have been computationally modeled, and well-ordered polychromatic diffraction was observed from the fabricated holograms. The zone plate showed a significant diffraction angle of 32° from the normal incident for the focal point. The nanosecond laser interference ablation for rapid hologram fabrication holds great potential in a vast range of optical devices.

  7. Second-harmonic diffraction from holographic volume grating.

    PubMed

    Nee, Tsu-Wei

    2006-10-01

    The full polarization property of holographic volume-grating enhanced second-harmonic diffraction (SHD) is investigated theoretically. The nonlinear coefficient is derived from a simple atomic model of the material. By using a simple volume-grating model, the SHD fields and Mueller matrices are first derived. The SHD phase-mismatching effect for a thick sample is analytically investigated. This theory is justified by fitting with published experimental SHD data of thin-film samples. The SHD of an existing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) holographic 2-mm-thick volume-grating sample is investigated. This sample has two strong coupling linear diffraction peaks and five SHD peaks. The splitting of SHD peaks is due to the phase-mismatching effect. The detector sensitivity and laser power needed to measure these peak signals are quantitatively estimated. PMID:16985536

  8. Holographic brain: a good analogy gone bad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2002-07-01

    One way of honoring the world's two greatest holographers is to remove from their field the association with the offbeat world of the holographic mind. Basing itself on analogical musings of two very creative scientists who were themselves not holographers, this 'field' of the holographic brain has strayed far from science and into the absurd. So much absurdity has been written by so many people that the one legitimate study of holographic principle in dolphins has been grouped too often with the nonsense. Here is taken most of the 'target statements' form one book. We could not bear to read them all this closely. We will attempt to determine what tidbit of fact led to the statements and to suggest alternative explanations when there is something to explain.

  9. New recording materials for the holographic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurbergs, David; Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Deuber, Francois; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Volkov, Andy

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a new class of recording materials for volume holographic applications suitable to meet commercial manufacturing needs. These next-generation holographic photopolymers have the ability to satisfy the unmet demand for color and depth tuning that is only possible with volume holograms. Unlike earlier holographic photopolymers, these new materials offer the advantages of no chemical or thermal processing combined with low shrinkage and detuning. Furthermore, these materials exhibit high transparency, a high resolution of more than 5000 lines/mm and are environmentally robust. Bayer MaterialScience plans to commercialize these materials, which combine excellent holographic characteristics with compatibility to mass-production processes. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the potential markets and applications for a new photopolymer, describe the attributes of this new class of photopolymers, relate their ease of use in holographic recording, and discuss potential applications of such materials..

  10. Bidirectional holographic codes and sub-AdS locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhao; Hayden, Patrick; Qi, Xiaoliang

    Tensor networks implementing quantum error correcting codes have recently been used as toy models of the holographic duality which explicitly realize some of the more puzzling features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. These models reproduce the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula for boundary intervals, and allow bulk operators to be mapped to the boundary in a redundant fashion. These exactly solvable, explicit models have provided valuable insight but nonetheless suffer from many deficiencies, some of which we attempt to address in this talk. We propose a new class of tensor network models that subsume the earlier advances and, in addition, incorporate additional features of holographic duality, including: (1) a holographic interpretation of all boundary states, not just those in a ''code'' subspace, (2) a set of bulk states playing the role of ''classical geometries'' which reproduce the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for boundary intervals, (3) a bulk gauge symmetry analogous to diffeomorphism invariance in gravitational theories, (4) emergent bulk locality for sufficiently sparse excitations, and the ability to describe geometry at sub-AdS resolutions or even flat space. David and Lucile Packard Foundation.

  11. Bidirectional holographic codes and sub-AdS locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhao; Hayden, Patrick; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tensor networks implementing quantum error correcting codes have recently been used to construct toy models of holographic duality explicitly realizing some of the more puzzling features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. These models reproduce the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula for boundary intervals, and allow bulk operators to be mapped to the boundary in a redundant fashion. These exactly solvable, explicit models have provided valuable insight but nonetheless suffer from many deficiencies, some of which we attempt to address in this article. We propose a new class of tensor network models that subsume the earlier advances and, in addition, incorporate additional features of holographic duality, including: (1) a holographic interpretation of all boundary states, not just those in a "code" subspace, (2) a set of bulk states playing the role of "classical geometries" which reproduce the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for boundary intervals, (3) a bulk gauge symmetry analogous to diffeomorphism invariance in gravitational theories, (4) emergent bulk locality for sufficiently sparse excitations, and (5) the ability to describe geometry at sub-AdS resolutions or even flat space.

  12. Resolution enhancement of holographic printer using a hogel overlapping method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Keehoon; Park, Soon-gi; Yeom, Jiwoon; Kim, Jonghyun; Chen, Ni; Pyun, Kyungsuk; Choi, Chilsung; Kim, Sunil; An, Jungkwuen; Lee, Hong-Seok; Chung, U-in; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-06-17

    We propose a hogel overlapping method for the holographic printer to enhance the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms. The hogel size is directly related to the lateral resolution of the holographic stereogram. Our analysis by computer simulation shows that there is a limit to decreasing the hogel size while printing holographic stereograms. Instead of reducing the size of hogel, the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms can be enhanced by printing overlapped hogels, which makes it possible to take advantage of multiplexing property of the volume hologram. We built a holographic printer, and recorded two holographic stereograms using the conventional and proposed overlapping methods. The images and movies of the holographic stereograms experimentally captured were compared between the conventional and proposed methods. The experimental results confirm that the proposed hogel overlapping method improves the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms compared to the conventional holographic printing method.

  13. Holographic nondestructive testing for ortopedical stomatology and dental implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, Victor A.; Soboleva, Nataly N.; Vitrik, Oleg B.; Vitrik, Yana I.; Guserv, Michel E.; Bukayev, Murat F.; Alexeenko, Igor V.; Kuzmina, Elena V.; Malov, Alexander N.; Antonyuk, Serge V.; Vigovsky, Yury N.; Levit, Vasily V.; Qutyakova, Nataly V.; Malov, Sergey N.

    2003-09-01

    The results of the mathematical calculations for the tooth bridge prostheses are discussed. Holographic interferometry with double exposition is used for verification of the model calculation results. This method may be used to define the safety degree and the quality of the implant and besides, the dentures influence on the bone tissue. There were given the results of the experimental work on different kinds of implants and the way they can be inserted into the jaw.

  14. Holographic flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, W. K.; Burner, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic system used for flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube is described. A ruby laser which can be singly or doubly pulsed during the short run time of less than 300 microns is used as the light source. With holography, sensitivity adjustments can be optimized after a run instead of before a run as with conventional flow visualization techniques. This results in an increased reliability of the flow visualization available for the study of real-gas effects on flow about models. Holographic techniques such as single-plate schlieren and shadowgraph, two plate interferometry, double pulse interferometry for perfect infinite-fringe interferograms, and double-pulse interferometry used to examine changes in the flow over a short time period are described and examples presented.

  15. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  16. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  17. Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.

  18. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  19. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-13

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature. PMID:27232013

  20. Artist Projects at Holographics North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John, Dr

    2013-02-01

    The New York Times has declared the concept of holography in art as "laughably dated". And yet fine art remains one of the most durable applications of the medium. Holographics North Inc. has produced work for over 50 artists in 28 years. In many cases, new techniques and systems were required in order to implement the client's vision. The technical and conceptual challenges involved in several of these projects will be discussed, including photos of the work and the systems built to produce it. Among the artists addressed will be James Turrell, Michael Snow, Frank Stella, Michael Hayden, Harriet Casdin-Silver and Chris Levine.

  1. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  2. Pyroelectric and ferroelectric semiconductors: dynamic holographic grating recording, generation of self-focused electron beam, X-rays, and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T. V.; Land, P.; Wang, J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Optical and electrical effects in semiconductors and ferroelectric crystals will be modeled. Standard photorefractive equations are supplemented by the equation of state for the polarization density following Devonshire-Ginsburg-Landau (DGL) approach. We have derived equations for pyroelectric and photogalvanic contribution to the holographic grating recording in ferroelectric materials. We will consider double-functional holographic interferometer, based on holographic pyroelectric current and optical beam coupling. Crystal electrostatic accelerators, based on charging of ferroelectric crystals by pyroelectric and photogalvanic effects are discussed in relation to generation of self-focused electron beam, X-rays and neutrons.

  3. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  4. Adaptive holographic implementation of a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John D.; Hine, Butler P., III; Reid, Max B.

    1990-07-01

    A holographic implementation for neural networks is proposed and demonstrated as an alternative to the optical matrix-vector multiplier architecture. In comparison, the holographic architecture makes more efficient use of the system space-bandwidth product for certain types of neural networks. The principal network component is a thermoplastic hologram, used to provide both interconnection weights and beam redirection. Given the updatable nature of this type of hologram, adaptivity or network learning is possible in the optical system. Two networks with fixed weights are experimentally implemented and verified, and for one of these examples we demonstrate the advantage of the holographic implementation with respect to the matrix-vector processor.

  5. Breast cancer detection by holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Sheffer, Daniel B.; Mikati, H.; Somasundaram, Kavitha; Loughry, C. William; Chawla, Surendra K.; Wesolowski, Piotr J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall breast cancer mortality rate has remained unchanged the last 50 years. The most significant factor in the treatment is its early detection which will alter the mortality rate. In this investigation, the feasibility of holographic interferometry for the purpose of detecting breast cancer was examined. Optical setups were developed to enable the collection of holographic interferograms in vivo of asymptomatic breasts and those containing cancerous lesions. Different stressing concepts of holographic nondestructive testing and their applicability for the detection of breast cancer were tested.

  6. Intellectual property analysis of holographic materials business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of intellectual property in the field of holographic photosensitive materials and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic materials have been uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, and Japanese Patent Office for the time frame of 1971 through November 2005. The patent analysis has unveiled trends in patent temporal distribution, leading IP portfolios, companies competition within the holographic materials market and other interesting insights.

  7. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  8. Holographically generated twisted nematic liquid crystal gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyunhee; Wu, J.W.; Chang, Hye Jeong; Park, Byoungchoo

    2006-01-09

    A reflection holographic method is introduced to fabricate an electro-optically tunable twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal (LC) grating, forgoing the geometrical drawing. The photoisomerization process occurring on the LC alignment layers of an LC cell in the reflection holographic configuration gives a control over the twist angle, and the grating spacing is determined by the slant angle of reflection holographic configuration. The resulting diffraction grating is in a structure of a reverse TN LC, permitting a polarization-independent diffraction efficiency. The electro-optic tunability of the diffraction efficiency is also demonstrated.

  9. Holographic conductivity for logarithmic charged dilaton-Lifshitz solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Kord Zangeneh, M.

    2016-07-01

    We disclose the effects of the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics on the holographic conductivity of Lifshitz dilaton black holes/branes. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions as a necessary requirement for applying gauge/gravity duality, by calculating conserved and thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature, entropy, electric potential and mass of the black holes/branes. We calculate the holographic conductivity for a (2 + 1)-dimensional brane boundary and study its behavior in terms of the frequency per temperature. Interestingly enough, we find out that, in contrast to the Lifshitz-Maxwell-dilaton black branes which have conductivity for all z, here in the presence of nonlinear gauge field, the holographic conductivity does exist provided z ≤ 3 and vanishes for z > 3. It is shown that independent of the nonlinear parameter β, the real part of the conductivity is the same for a specific value of frequency per temperature in both AdS and Lifshitz cases. Besides, the behavior of real part of conductivity for large frequencies has a positive slope with respect to large frequencies for a system with Lifshitz symmetry whereas it tends to a constant for a system with AdS symmetry. This behavior may be interpreted as existence of an additional charge carrier rather than the AdS case, and is due to the presence of the scalar dilaton field in model. Similar behavior for optical conductivity of single-layer graphene induced by mild oxygen plasma exposure has been reported.

  10. Method of creating microscale prototypes using SLM based holographic lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Joseph L.; Jenness, Nathan; Wilson, Scott; Clark, Robert L.

    2013-03-01

    A method of generating arbitrary structures using spatial light modulator (SLM) based holograms with multiphoton absorption is presented. Current methodologies for designing 3D prototyping, such as G-code, are not ideally suited for holographic lithography and therefore limit its functionality or requires additional complex processing. The process outlined here allows a microstructure to be fabricated based on designs from commercially available CAD software. CAD software enables the microstructures to be designed and then realized using dynamic holographic lithography methods enabling designers a simple, quick, and robust method of fabricating novel microstructures. Holographic patterning routines such as raster scans of one or multiple focal points, holograms encoded with two or three dimensional spatial information, or a combination of both techniques may be utilized with this methodology. The process described allows for the development of complex structures that would be difficult to otherwise program using traditional methods. No limitations are placed on the form or function of the designed components, enabling undercut and interlocking features to be fabricated. This methodology also enables the location and orientation of the structures to be controlled dynamically simplifying the process of creating multi-scaled structures or complex arrays of arbitrary structures. As a proof of concept demonstration, a simple cantilever beam was modeled and fabricated.

  11. Holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Guo, Wu-zhong

    2015-08-01

    The holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity is investigated. We find a new type of Wald entropy, which appears on entangling surface without the rotational symmetry and reduces to usual Wald entropy on Killing horizon. Furthermore, we obtain a formal formula of HEE for the most general higher derivative gravity and work it out exactly for some squashed cones. As an important application, we derive HEE for gravitational action with one derivative of the curvature when the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We also study some toy models with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We prove that our formula yields the correct universal term of entanglement entropy for 4d CFTs. Furthermore, we solve the puzzle raised by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that the logarithmic term of entanglement entropy derived from Weyl anomaly of CFTs does not match the holographic result even if the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We find that such mismatch comes from the `anomaly of entropy' of the derivative of curvature. After considering such contributions carefully, we resolve the puzzle successfully. In general, we need to fix the splitting problem for the conical metrics in order to derive the holographic entanglement entropy. We find that, at least for Einstein gravity, the splitting problem can be fixed by using equations of motion. How to derive the splittings for higher derivative gravity is a non-trivial and open question. For simplicity, we ignore the splitting problem in this paper and find that it does not affect our main results.

  12. A holographic critical point

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher; Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-04-15

    We numerically construct a family of five-dimensional black holes exhibiting a line of first-order phase transitions terminating at a critical point at finite chemical potential and temperature. These black holes are constructed so that the equation of state and baryon susceptibilities approximately match QCD lattice data at vanishing chemical potential. The critical end point in the particular model we consider has temperature 143 MeV and chemical potential 783 MeV. Critical exponents are calculated, with results that are consistent with mean-field scaling relations.

  13. Noncontact dimensional measurement system using holographic scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Stephen F.; Rosso, Robert S.; Rowe, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic scanning systems have been used for years in point-of-sale bar code scanners and other low resolution applications. These simple scanning systems could not successfully provide the accuracy and precision required to measure, inspect and control the production of today's high tech optical fibers, medical extrusions and electrical cables. A new class of instruments for the precision measurement of industrial processes has been created by the development of systems with a unique combination of holographic optical elements that can compensate for the wavelength drift in laser diodes, the application of proprietary post-processing algorithms, and the advancements in replication methods to fabricate low cost holographic scanning discs. These systems have improved upon the performance of traditional polygon mirror scanners. This paper presents the optical configuration and design features that have been incorporated into a holographic scanning inspection system that provides higher productivity, increased product quality and lower production costs for many manufacturers.

  14. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  15. Holographic Interferometry--A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Frutos, A. M.; de la Rosa, M. I.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the problem of analyzing a phase object, separating the contribution due to thickness variations and that due to refractive index variations. Discusses the design of an interferometer and some applications. Provides diagrams and pictures of holographic images. (YP)

  16. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  17. Partitioned-field uniaxial holographic lenses.

    PubMed

    López, Ana M; Atencia, Jesús; Tornos, José; Quintanilla, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    The efficiency and aberration of partitioned-field uniaxial volume holographic compound lenses are theoretically and experimentally studied. These systems increase the image fields of holographic volume lenses, limited by the angular selectivity that is typical of these elements. At the same time, working with uniaxial systems has led to a decrease in aberration because two recording points (that behave as aberration-free points) are used. The extension of the image field is experimentally proved.

  18. Operating manual holographic interferometry system for 2 x 2 foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system was installed in a 2X2 foot transonic wind tunnel. The system incorporates a modern, 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described as well as the integration of the system into the existing Schieren system. A two plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  19. Improved experimental holographic movie to estimate picture quality for holographic television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1993-09-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. As a step towards the development of truly practical holographic movies, we have built an improved experimental holographic movie system and produced short duration holographic 3D films. In the improved system, various objects were positioned within a scene and illuminated with He-Ne lasers (632.8 nm). Conventional film-making techniques were adopted during the holographic recordings to create a more attractive sequence. These techniques included stop-motion, tracking, up-shots, overlaps, and pans. A series of Fresnel type frame holograms was recorded on perforated 35 mm holographic film. An interesting technical point is that the frame holograms were 12 mm high by 122 mm wide at maximum, and consisted of two diamond- shaped elemental holograms, one for the left eye and one for the right. Frame holograms were recorded diagonally at an angle of 10 degrees of the film to reduce the film driving length. After developing, the films were driven intermittently with a shutter, and the films were illuminated by the same type of laser as that used in the recording. The films were viewed through a pair of diamond-shaped windows, and the display speed could be varied from 8 to 16 frames per second.

  20. Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.

    PubMed

    Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

    2007-03-01

    A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nf or =1/4pi. Given the known results for the entropy density, the contribution of the fundamental matter eta fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta fund approximately lambda NcNfT3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential. PMID:17358523

  1. Moderate-resolution holographic spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, E. R.; Pavlycheva, N. K.; Valyavin, G. G.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new scheme of a moderate-resolution spectrograph based on a cascade of serial holographic gratings each of which produces an individual spectrum with a resolution of about 6000 and a bandwidth of 80 nm. The gratings ensure centering of each part of the spectrum they produce so as to provide uniform coverage of the broadest possible wavelength interval. In this study we manage to simultaneously cover the 430-680 nm interval without gaps using three gratings. Efficiency of the spectrograph optical system itself from the entrance slit to the CCD detector is typically of about 60% with a maximum of 75%. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the new spectrograph scheme as well as the astrophysical tasks for which the instrument can be used.

  2. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Fiol, Bartomeu

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  3. Holographic Equilibration of Nonrelativistic Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Umut; Jansen, Aron; Sybesma, Watse; Vandoren, Stefan

    2016-07-29

    We study far-from-equilibrium physics of strongly interacting plasmas at criticality and zero charge density for a wide range of dynamical scaling exponents z in d dimensions using holographic methods. In particular, we consider homogeneous isotropization of asymptotically Lifshitz black branes with full backreaction. We find stable evolution and equilibration times that exhibit small dependence of z and are of the order of the inverse temperature. Performing a quasinormal mode analysis, we find a corresponding narrow range of relaxation times, fully characterized by the fraction z/(d-1). For z≥d-1, equilibration is overdamped, whereas for z

  4. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  5. Holographic correspondence in topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2016-09-01

    We analytically derive a compatible family of effective field theories that uniquely describe topological superconductors in 3D, their 2D boundary and their 1D defect lines. We start by deriving the topological field theory of a 3D topological superconductor in class DIII, which is consistent with its symmetries. Then we identify the effective theory of a 2D topological superconductor in class D living on the gapped boundary of the 3D system. By employing the holographic correspondence we derive the effective chiral conformal field theory that describes the gapless modes living on the defect lines or effective boundary of the class D topological superconductor. We demonstrate that the chiral central charge is given in terms of the 3D winding number of the bulk which by its turn is equal to the Chern number of its gapped boundary.

  6. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  7. Light-front holographic QCD and emerging confinement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Erlich, Joshua

    2015-05-21

    In this study we explore the remarkable connections between light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to gravity in a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and conformal quantum mechanics. This approach provides new insights into the origin of a fundamental mass scale and the physics underlying confinement dynamics in QCD in the limit of massless quarks. The result is a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin with an effective confinement potential derived from a conformal action and its embedding in AdS space. This equation allows for the computation of essential features of hadron spectra in terms of a single scale. Themore » light-front holographic methods described here give a precise interpretation of holographic variables and quantities in AdS space in terms of light-front variables and quantum numbers. This leads to a relation between the AdS wave functions and the boost-invariant light-front wave functions describing the internal structure of hadronic bound-states in physical spacetime. The pion is massless in the chiral limit and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states lie on linear Regge trajectories with identical slopes in the radial and orbital quantum numbers. In the light-front holographic approach described here currents are expressed as an infinite sum of poles, and form factors as a product of poles. At large q2 the form factor incorporates the correct power-law fall-off for hard scattering independent of the specific dynamics and is dictated by the twist. At low q2 the form factor leads to vector dominance. The approach is also extended to include small quark masses. We briefly review in this report other holographic approaches to QCD, in particular top-down and bottom-up models based on chiral symmetry breaking. We also include a discussion of open problems and future applications.« less

  8. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jun

    Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals are composite materials that are rich in physical phenomena and useful for electrically or thermally switchable hologram and grating applications. They are formed through a self-diffusion process using an interference pattern to initiate and drive the kinetics of formation, which is generated through two or more coherent laser beams. The information from the interference pattern is permanently recorded through a phase separation process or optical alignment of polymer in liquid crystal/polymer composites. The recorded holograms are erasable or tunable by applying sufficient external field or temperature variation. The formation kinetics of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals can be modeled by a set of reaction-diffusion equations. By analyzing the optical performance of resulting gratings, we found that the phase separation process is dominated by a photo-polymerization induced diffusion in the fast polymerization regime rather than the thermal diffusion in the slow polymerization regime. The effective diffusion constant of oligomers can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude. This diffusion model is verified by in-situ spectroscopy measurements of reflective holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. Through experiments and modeling, the shrinkage of the polymer matrix is determined. In addition, we have expanded our diffusion formalism to model two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases and temporally multiplexed systems. The Freedericksz transition, based on the elastic theory of liquid crystals, is used to model various morphologies of confined liquid crystals. A polymer scaffolding model and a cylindrical cavity model are proposed, which enable us to make an order of magnitude estimation of the surface anchoring strength of liquid crystal/polymer interfaces in different systems. From the applied physics standpoint, we have also made a number of valuable contributions to optical and photonic

  9. Matrix theory for baryons: an overview of holographic QCD for nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Sinya; Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2013-10-01

    We provide, for non-experts, a brief overview of holographic QCD (quantum chromodynamics) and a review of the recent proposal (Hashimoto et al 2010 (arXiv:1003.4988[hep-th])) of a matrix-like description of multi-baryon systems in holographic QCD. Based on the matrix model, we derive the baryon interaction at short distances in multi-flavor holographic QCD. We show that there is a very universal repulsive core of inter-baryon forces for a generic number of flavors. This is consistent with a recent lattice QCD analysis for Nf = 2, 3 where the repulsive core looks universal. We also provide a comparison of our results with the lattice QCD and the operator product expansion analysis.

  10. Matrix theory for baryons: an overview of holographic QCD for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sinya; Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro

    2013-10-01

    We provide, for non-experts, a brief overview of holographic QCD (quantum chromodynamics) and a review of the recent proposal (Hashimoto et al 2010 (arXiv:1003.4988[hep-th])) of a matrix-like description of multi-baryon systems in holographic QCD. Based on the matrix model, we derive the baryon interaction at short distances in multi-flavor holographic QCD. We show that there is a very universal repulsive core of inter-baryon forces for a generic number of flavors. This is consistent with a recent lattice QCD analysis for Nf = 2, 3 where the repulsive core looks universal. We also provide a comparison of our results with the lattice QCD and the operator product expansion analysis.

  11. The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that…

  12. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  13. Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.

    2008-04-01

    Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.

  14. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media. PMID:26146767

  15. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  16. Printable Nanophotonic Devices via Holographic Laser Ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Yetisen, Ali K; Sabouri, Aydin; Yun, Seok Hyun; Butt, Haider

    2015-09-22

    Holography plays a significant role in applications such as data storage, light trapping, security, and biosensors. However, conventional fabrication methods remain time-consuming, costly, and complex, limiting the fabrication of holograms and their extensive use. Here, we demonstrate a single-pulse laser ablation technique to write parallel surface gratings and Fresnel zone plates. We utilized a 6 ns high-energy green laser pulse to form interference patterns to record a surface grating with 820 nm periodicity and asymmetric zone plate holograms on 4.5 nm gold-coated substrates. The holographic recording process was completed within seconds. The optical characteristics of the interference patterns have been computationally modeled, and well-ordered polychromatic diffraction was observed from the fabricated holograms. The zone plate showed a significant diffraction angle of 32° from the normal incident for the focal point. The nanosecond laser interference ablation for rapid hologram fabrication holds great potential in a vast range of optical devices. PMID:26301907

  17. Holographic Wave Functions, Meromorphization and Counting Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-05-10

    We study the large-Q{sup 2} behavior of the meson form factor F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) constructed using the holographic light-front wave functions proposed recently by Brodsky and de Teramond. We show that this model can be also obtained within the Migdal's regularization approach (''meromorphization''), if one applies it to 3-point function for scalar currents made of scalar quarks. We found that the asymptotic 1/Q{sup 2} behavior of F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) is generated by soft Feynman mechanism rather than by short distance dynamics, which causes very late onset of the 1/Q{sup 2} asymptotic behavior. It becomes visible only for unaccessible momenta Q{sup 2} {approx}> 10, GeV{sup 2}. Using meromorphization for spin-1/2 quarks, we demonstrated that resulting form factor F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) has 1/Q{sup 4} asymptotic behavior. Now, owing to the late onset of this asymptotic pattern, F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) imitates the 1/Q{sup 2} behavior in the few GeV{sup 2} region.

  18. Holographic interpretation of acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Sun, Jia-Rui; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2015-10-01

    With the attempt to find the holographic description of the usual acoustic black holes in fluid, we construct an acoustic black hole formed in the d -dimensional fluid located at the timelike cutoff surface of a neutral black brane in asymptotically AdSd +1 spacetime; the bulk gravitational dual of the acoustic black hole is presented at the first order of the hydrodynamic fluctuation. Moreover, the Hawking-like temperature of the acoustic black hole horizon is showed to be connected to the Hawking temperature of the real anti-de Sitter (AdS) black brane in the bulk, and the duality between the phonon scattering in the acoustic black hole and the sound channel quasinormal mode propagating in the bulk perturbed AdS black brane is extracted. We thus point out that the acoustic black hole appearing in fluid, which was originally proposed as an analogous model to simulate Hawking radiation of the real black hole, is not merely an analogy, it can indeed be used to describe specific properties of the real AdS black holes, in the spirit of the fluid/gravity duality.

  19. Marker-free cell discrimination by holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, F.; Warber, M.; Zwick, S.; van der Kuip, H.; Haist, T.; Osten, W.

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a method for marker-free cell discrimination based on optical tweezers. Cancerous, non-cancerous, and drug-treated cells could be distinguished by measuring the trapping forces using holographic optical tweezers. We present trapping force measurements on different cell lines: normal pre-B lymphocyte cells (BaF3; "normal cells"), their Bcr-Abl transformed counterparts (BaF3-p185; "cancer cells") as a model for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Imatinib treated BaF3-p185 cells. The results are compared with reference measurements obtained by a commercial flow cytometry system.

  20. Holographic interferometry and tomography at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G.

    1982-01-01

    A YAG laser holographic interferometer system and reconstruction laboratory for the Ames 2- by 2-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel are discussed. This system provides dual plate and double pulse holography for quantitative and qualitative measurements, respectively. Interferometric measurements of two-dimensional airfoils and three-dimensional bodies of revolution for a tomography feasibility study were made. The two-dimensional work included supercritical airfoils, an oscillating airfoil undergoing dynamic stall, and a circulation control airfoil. The tomography experiments centered around hemispherical nose and tangent ogive models. In addition, the tomography work covered the development of a Fourier transform code for the retrieval of the three dimensional density distributions from the interferograms.

  1. Holography and the virtual patient: the holographic medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kathryn; Erickson, Ronald R.; Webster, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Practical holographic systems utilizing the pulsed laser are finding potential applications in medicine. Exploiting both the hologram's true 3D image and holographic interferometry these techniques enhance the physician's vision beyond the 2D radiological imaging of even the best CT and MRI. The authors describe the use of pulsed laser holography as applied to the morphological specialties: anatomy, pathology, and surgery. The authors report on the Holographic Brain Anatomy Atlas for medical education; pathologic documentation with holography, and the use of holographic interferometry in surgical planning. The techniques are outlined and a discussion on the interpretation of holographic interferometry with living subjects is provided.

  2. Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason

    2016-08-01

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.

  3. Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light

  4. Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-11-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  5. Broadband behavior of transmission volume holographic optical elements for solar concentration.

    PubMed

    Bañares-Palacios, Paula; Álvarez-Álvarez, Samuel; Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, María-Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    A ray tracing algorithm is developed to analyze the energy performance of transmission and phase volume holographic lenses that operate with broadband illumination. The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical treatment has been tested. The model has been applied to analyze the optimum recording geometry for solar concentration applications.

  6. Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2013-09-01

    We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup −1}Mpc{sup −1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}−χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ{sup 2} is equal to 6

  7. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-03-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, e.g., lenslet arrays for sensing or multi-acuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach to adaptive optics based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile is possible not only with the conventional coherent type of digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates complex - i.e. amplitude plus phase - hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using a guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. The adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  8. Low holographic concentration effects on CIGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jose E.; Russo, Juan M.; Zhang, Deming; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of combining copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic cells with holographic planar concentrating film over a broad range of illumination levels. The film, originally designed for silicon bifacial solar applications worked well with the CIGS cells. The Voc, cell efficiency and fill factor reached full operating values at lower light levels; with a significant boost in performance being recorded. The holographic regions of the concentrator act as extended heat transfer surfaces, allowing the CIGS cells to operate at lower operational temperatures than they normally would in a traditional PV application.

  9. Digital holographic Michelson interferometer for nanometrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevrygin, Alexander A.; Korotkov, V. I.; Pulkin, S. A.; Tursunov, I. M.; Venediktov, D. V.; Venediktov, V. Yu.; Volkov, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper considers the dynamic holographic interferometry schemes with amplification (multiplication) of holographic fringes and with correction for distortions, imposed by the interferometer scheme elements. The use of digital microscope and of the matrix light modulator with direct addressing provides the completely digital closed-loop performance of the overall system for real-time evaluation of nano-scale objects size. Considered schemes were verified in the laboratory experiment, using the Michelson micro-interferometer, equipped by the USB-microscope and digital holography stage, equipped by the Holoeye spatial light modulator.

  10. Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, D.

    1993-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.

  11. Holographic currents and Chern-Simons terms

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2010-11-15

    Holographic currents and their associated Ward identities are derived in the framework of gravity/gauge duality. Holographic improvements of the energy-momentum tensor and R-symmetry current which are consistent with the Ward identities are displayed. The effects of specific string loop corrections to the bulk action are included as four derivative effective Lagrangian terms and their contributions to the trace and R-symmetry anomalies of the boundary theory are determined. As an example, the construction is applied to the N=2 conformal supergravity which is taken to be dual to a boundary SU(N)xSU(N), N=1 superconformal field theory.

  12. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  13. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  14. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  15. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  16. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  17. Persistent holographic storage in photorefractive crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibi, Ali

    2000-11-01

    The work presented in this thesis has been focused on solving the most important and long-lasting problem of destructive read-out in holographic recording in photorefractive crystals. Several interesting methods for solving this problem were proposed and demonstrated by researchers for more than two decades. However, none of them were practical for read/write applications. The most promising all-optical method, which is still being pursued by some researchers, was two-step recording. However, the method suffers from low sensitivity and dynamic range, even in the optimized conditions. Furthermore, several experimental results were not explained due to the lack of a complete understanding of the dominant phenomena that were involved. Our strategy in solving the problem of destructive read- out of holograms was to first provide a complete understanding of physics of the method by appropriate modeling, and to explain the experimental results that had not been explained before. Such an understanding gave us a good idea about the major problem of the method, and we were able to find a solution to that problem by adding one dopant to the recording crystal. The method we developed both theoretically and experimentally in this thesis is called two-center holographic recording. The initial results of the method (without any optimization) offer more than one order of magnitude (and for some parameters, two orders of magnitude) improvement over the optimized two-step recording method. In this thesis, we provide a complete modeling for two- center recording that agrees very well with the experimental results, provides us with the understanding of the main physical phenomena that are involved, and helps us in optimizing the method. The next step is to relate the materials and system parameters for the system design. We present in this thesis a standard framework for such a relation, and outline the main general steps in the system design using two-center recording. The idea

  18. Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-01

    A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally. PMID:27244395

  19. Experimental holographic movie to estimate picture quality for holographic television (III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1994-05-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. The authors have previously developed two versions of an experimental holographic movie system, and this paper is a report on an improved version 3 of the system. The new version features a newly-developed recording system which utilizes a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an injection seeder, and an automatic film driver unit which moves perforated 35 mm holographic film intermittently. The system is mounted on a dolly to which a hydraulic lifter is attached. A twin diamond-shaped hologram format, developed for an earlier version of the system, is adopted for the films. After the films are developed, they are driven intermittently with a shutter, illuminated by the LD pumped CW Nd:YAG laser, and viewed through twin diamond-shaped windows. This version 3 system makes it possible to record live scenes, including those of the human body, flowing liquids, smoke, etc., which was impossible in the version 1 and version 3 systems. As a consequence, the characteristics of holographic 3D images with motion can be studied over an area covered by both eyes, and the labor required of animators in taking holograms is greatly reduced.

  20. A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.

  1. Retractions of the gingival margins evaluated by holographic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Manole, Marius; de Sabata, Aldo; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Stratul, Stefan; Dudea, Diana; Dughir, Ciprian; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2015-05-01

    The periodontal disease is one of the most common pathological states of the teeth and gums system. The issue is that its evaluation is a subjective one, i.e. it is based on the skills of the dental medical doctor. As for any clinical condition, a quantitative evaluation and monitoring in time of the retraction of the gingival margins is desired. This phenomenon was evaluated in this study with a holographic method by using a He-Ne laser with a power of 13 mW. The holographic system we have utilized - adapted for dentistry applications - is described. Several patients were considered in a comparative study of their state of health - regarding their oral cavity. The impressions of the maxillary dental arch were taken from a patient during his/her first visit and after a period of six months. The hologram of the first model was superposed on the model cast after the second visit. The retractions of the gingival margins could be thus evaluated three-dimensionally in every point of interest. An evaluation of the retraction has thus been made. Conclusions can thus be drawn for the clinical evaluation of the health of the teeth and gums system of each patient.

  2. Feature based recognition of submerged objects in holographic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baldwin, Kevin C.; Shipley, Kara R.; Sternberger, Wayne I.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to autonomously sense and characterize underwater objects in situ is desirable in applications of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). In this work, underwater object recognition was explored using a digital holographic system. Two experiments were performed in which several objects of varying size, shape, and material were submerged in a 43,000 gallon test tank. Holograms were collected from each object at multiple distances and orientations, with the imager located either outside the tank (looking through a porthole) or submerged (looking downward). The resultant imagery from these holograms was preprocessed to improve dynamic range, mitigate speckle, and segment out the image of the object. A collection of feature descriptors were then extracted from the imagery to characterize various object properties (e.g., shape, reflectivity, texture). The features extracted from images of multiple objects, collected at different imaging geometries, were then used to train statistical models for object recognition tasks. The resulting classification models were used to perform object classification as well as estimation of various parameters of the imaging geometry. This information can then be used to inform the design of autonomous sensing algorithms for UUVs employing holographic imagers.

  3. Layers of deformed instantons in holographic baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We discuss homogeneous baryonic matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model, improving existing approximations based on flat-space instantons. We allow for an anisotropic deformation of the instantons in the holographic and spatial directions and for a density-dependent distribution of arbitrarily many instanton layers in the bulk. Within our approximation, the baryon onset turns out to be a second-order phase transition, at odds with nature, and there is no transition to quark matter at high densities, at odds with expectations from QCD. This changes when we impose certain constraints on the shape of single instantons, motivated by known features of holographic baryons in the vacuum. Then, a first-order baryon onset and chiral restoration at high density are possible, and at sufficiently large densities two instanton layers are formed dynamically. Our results are a further step towards describing realistic, strongly interacting matter over a large density regime within a single model, desirable for studies of compact stars.

  4. Holographic quantum liquids in 1+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ling-Yan; Sinha, Aninda

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we initiate the study of holographic quantum liquids in 1+1 dimensions. Since the Landau Fermi liquid theory breaks down in 1+1 dimensions, it is of interest to see what holographic methods have to say about similar models. For theories with a gapless branch, the Luttinger conjecture states that there is an effective description of the physics in terms of a Luttinger liquid which is specified by two parameters. The theory we consider is the defect CFT arising due to a probe D3 brane in the AdS Schwarzschild planar black hole background. We turn on a fundamental string density on the worldvolume. Unlike higher dimensional defects, a persistent dissipationless zero sound mode is found. The thermodynamic aspects of these models are considered carefully and certain subtleties with boundary terms are explained which are unique to 1+1 dimensions. Spectral functions of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations are also considered and quasinormal modes are analysed. A prescription is given to compute spectral functions when there is mixing due to the worldvolume gauge field. We comment on the Luttinger conjecture in the light of our findings.

  5. Holographic flow visualization in rotating turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. J.; Reeves, M.

    1990-11-01

    Holographic flow visualization has found many applications in rotating turbomachinery. Applications in the design of aeroengine fans, automotive turbochargers, turbines, helicopter rotors, and advanced propfans are discussed. Work in ducted rotating flows and rotating free aerofoils is brought together and new developments in each field are revealed.

  6. Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears. PMID:26964671

  7. Testing and inspecting lens by holographic means

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-01-01

    Processes for the accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of oncave and convex lens surfaces through holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and said convex surfaces to be so tested.

  8. Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears.

  9. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  10. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.

  11. Laser-actuated holographic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Nagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device permits automatic selection of one out of thousands of pages in holographic memory system by using laser beam. In typical operation for 2 to 3 C temperature interval, using dc power supply with no power regulation, holograms were successfully written and erased over 2- by 2-cm area, using 80-mW argon laser beam.

  12. The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R.

    Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…

  13. Holographic Compact Disk Read-Only Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1996-01-01

    Compact disk read-only memories (CD-ROMs) of proposed type store digital data in volume holograms instead of in surface differentially reflective elements. Holographic CD-ROM consist largely of parts similar to those used in conventional CD-ROMs. However, achieves 10 or more times data-storage capacity and throughput by use of wavelength-multiplexing/volume-hologram scheme.

  14. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.

    2015-04-06

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.

  15. Active holographic interconnects for interfacing volume storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.; Schwartz, Jay R.; Nelson, Arthur R.; Levin, Philip S.

    1992-04-01

    In order to achieve the promise of terabit/cm3 data storage capacity for volume holographic optical memory, two technological challenges must be met. Satisfactory storage materials must be developed and the input/output architectures able to match their capacity with corresponding data access rates must also be designed. To date the materials problem has received more attention than devices and architectures for access and addressing. Two philosophies of parallel data access to 3-D storage have been discussed. The bit-oriented approach, represented by recent work on two-photon memories, attempts to store bits at local sites within a volume without affecting neighboring bits. High speed acousto-optic or electro- optic scanners together with dynamically focused lenses not presently available would be required. The second philosophy is that volume optical storage is essentially holographic in nature, and that each data write or read is to be distributed throughout the material volume on the basis of angle multiplexing or other schemes consistent with the principles of holography. The requirements for free space optical interconnects for digital computers and fiber optic network switching interfaces are also closely related to this class of devices. Interconnects, beamlet generators, angle multiplexers, scanners, fiber optic switches, and dynamic lenses are all devices which may be implemented by holographic or microdiffractive devices of various kinds, which we shall refer to collectively as holographic interconnect devices. At present, holographic interconnect devices are either fixed holograms or spatial light modulators. Optically or computer generated holograms (submicron resolution, 2-D or 3-D, encoding 1013 bits, nearly 100 diffraction efficiency) can implement sophisticated mathematical design principles, but of course once fabricated they cannot be changed. Spatial light modulators offer high speed programmability but have limited resolution (512 X 512 pixels

  16. An application of holographic interferometry for dynamic vibration analysis of a jet engine turbine compressor rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Howard

    2003-09-01

    Holographic Interferometry has been successfully employed to characterize the materials and behavior of diverse types of structures under dynamic stress. Specialized variations of this technology have also been applied to define dynamic and vibration related structural behavior. Such applications of holographic technique offer some of the most effective methods of modal and dynamic analysis available. Real-time dynamic testing of the modal and mechanical behavior of jet engine turbine, rotor, vane, and compressor structures has always required advanced instrumentation for data collection in either simulated flight operation test or computer-based modeling and simulations. Advanced optical holography techniques are alternate methods which result in actual full-field behavioral data in a noninvasive, noncontact environment. These methods offer significant insight in both the development and subsequent operational test and modeling of advanced jet engine turbine and compressor rotor structures and their integration with total vehicle system dynamics. Structures and materials can be analyzed with very low amplitude excitation and the resultant data can be used to adjust the accuracy of mathematically derived structural and behavioral models. Holographic Interferometry offers a powerful tool to aid in the developmental engineering of turbine rotor and compressor structures for high stress applications. Aircraft engine applications in particular most consider operational environments where extremes in vibration and impulsive as well as continuous mechanical stress can affect both operation and structural stability. These considerations present ideal requisites for analysis using advanced holographic methods in the initial design and test of turbine rotor components. Holographic techniques are nondestructive, real-time, and definitive in allowing the identification of vibrational modes, displacements, and motion geometries. Such information can be crucial to the

  17. HOMER: the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luviano, Anali

    Holography was invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor and has undergone major advancements since the 2000s leading to the development of commercial digital holographic microscopes (DHM). This noninvasive form of microscopy produces a three-dimensional (3-D) digital model of a sample without altering or destroying the sample, thus allowing the same sample to be studied multiple times. HOMER-the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research-produces a 3-D image from a two-dimensional (2-D) interference pattern captured by a camera that is then put through reconstruction software. This 2-D pattern is created when a reference wave interacts with the sample to produce a secondary wave that interferes with the unaltered part of the reference wave. I constructed HOMER to be an efficient, portable in-line DHM using inexpensive material and free reconstruction software. HOMER uses three different-colored LEDs as light sources. I am testing the performance of HOMER with the goal of producing tri-color images of samples. I'm using small basic biological samples to test the effectiveness of HOMER and plan to transition to complex cellular and biological specimens as I pursue my interest in biophysics. Norwich University.

  18. Zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Li; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun

    2016-08-01

    We initiate the investigation of the zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders, where besides the vacuum phase, two one component superfluid phases, the coexistent superfluid phase has also been found in the anti-de Sitter soliton background for the first time. We construct the complete phase diagram in the e - μ plane by numerics, which is consistent with our qualitative analysis. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding optical conductivity and sound speed by the linear response theory. The onset of the pole of optical conductivity at ω =0 indicates that the spontaneous breaking phase always represents the superfluid phase, and the residue of the pole is increased with the chemical potential, which is consistent with the fact that the particle density is essentially the superfluid density for zero temperature superfluids. In addition, the resulting sound speed demonstrates the nonsmoothness at the critical points as the order parameter of the condensate, which indicates that the phase transitions can also be identified by the behavior of the sound speed. Moreover, as expected from the boundary conformal field theory, the sound speed saturates to 1/√{2 } at the large chemical potential limit for our two component holographic superfluid model.

  19. High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.

  20. Realization of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelabi, Kaddour; Fang, Zhen; Huang, Mei; Li, Danning; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2016-05-01

    With proper profiles of the scalar potential and the dilaton field, for the first time, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature are correctly realized in the holographic QCD framework. In the chiral limit, a nonzero chiral condensate develops in the vacuum and decreases with temperature, and the phase transition is of the second order for a two-flavor case and of the first order for a three-flavor case. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, in the two-flavor case, the second-order phase transition turns into a crossover with any nonzero current quark mass, and in the three-flavor case, the first-order phase transition turns into a crossover at a finite current quark mass. The correct description of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration makes the holographic QCD models more powerful in dealing with nonperturbative QCD phenomena. This framework can be regarded as a general setup in an application of AdS/CFT to describe conventional Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson-type phase transitions, e.g. in condensed matter and cosmology systems.

  1. Supercurrent in a p-wave holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Huabi; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2011-02-15

    The p-wave and p+ip-wave holographic superconductors with fixed DC supercurrent are studied by introducing a nonvanishing vector potential. We find that close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of zero current, the numerical results of both the p-wave model and the p+ip model are the same as those of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory; for example, the critical current is j{sub c}{approx}(T{sub c}-T){sup 3/2} and the phase transition in the presence of a DC current is a first-order transition. Beside the similar results between both models, the p+ip superconductor shows isotropic behavior for the supercurrent, while the p-wave superconductor shows anisotropic behavior for the supercurrent.

  2. Robust Topological and Holographic Degeneracies of Classical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh; Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo

    We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display non-local entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that in certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, one can find a ground state entropy that is ''holographic'', i.e., extensive in the system's boundary.

  3. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T.

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  4. Violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargın, Ozan; Faizal, Mir

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic principle using loop quantum gravity (LQG). This will be done by using polymeric quantization for analysing Yurtsever's holographic bound on the entropy, which is obtained from local quantum field theories. As the polymeric quantization is the characteristic feature of loop quantum gravity, we will argue that this calculation will indicate the effect of loop quantum gravity on the holographic principle. Thus, we will be able to explicitly demonstrate the violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity.

  5. A treatment of the general volume holographic grating as an array of parallel stacked mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.

    2012-07-01

    An alternative model to Kogelnik's coupled wave theory of the volume holographic grating is developed in terms of an infinite array of parallel stacked mirrors. The model is based on summing the individual Fresnel reflections from an infinite number of infinitesimal discontinuities in the permittivity profile. The resulting first-order coupled partial differential equations are solved in a rotated frame of reference in order to derive analytical expressions for the diffraction efficiency of the general slanted grating at an arbitrary angle of incidence. The model has been tested using computational solutions of the Helmholtz equation for the unslanted reflection grating. For index modulations characteristic of modern silver halide and photopolymer materials used in display and optical element holography the new model shows excellent agreement with the numerical results. Kogelnik's model also provides good agreement as long as the dephasing parameter is not too large. The model has been tested against Kogelnik's theory for a variety of cases with finite fringe slant with good agreement for typical index modulations. A further advantage of the new model is that colour holographic gratings may be treated at and away from Bragg resonance. Numerical and analytical results are presented concerning the diffractive efficiency of two- and three-colour holographic gratings.

  6. Spatial modulation and conductivities in effective holographic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangamani, Mukund; Rozali, Moshe; Smyth, Darren

    2015-07-01

    We analyze a class of bottom-up holographic models for low energy thermo-electric transport. The models we focus on belong to a family of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories parameterized by two scalar functions, characterizing the dilaton self-interaction and the gauge coupling function. We impose spatially inhomogeneous lattice boundary conditions for the dilaton on the AdS boundary and study the resulting phase structure attained at low energies. We find that as we dial the scalar functions at our disposal (changing thus the theory under consideration), we obtain either (i) coherent metallic, or (ii) insulating, or (iii) incoherent metallic phases. We chart out the domain where the incoherent metals appear in a restricted parameter space of theories. We also analyze the optical conductivity, noting that non-trivial scaling behaviour at intermediate frequencies appears to only be possible for very narrow regions of parameter space.

  7. Gravitational backreaction effects on the holographic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Konstandin, T.; Nardini, G.; Quiros, M.

    2010-10-15

    We study radion stabilization in the compact Randall-Sundrum model by introducing a bulk scalar field, as in the Goldberger and Wise mechanism, but (partially) taking into account the backreactions from the scalar field on the metric. Our generalization reconciles the radion potential found by Goldberger and Wise with the radion mass obtained with the so-called superpotential method where backreaction is fully considered. Moreover we study the holographic phase transition and its gravitational wave signals in this model. The improved control over backreactions opens up a large region in parameter space and leads, compared to former analysis, to weaker constraints on the rank N of the dual gauge theory. We conclude that, in the regime where the 1/N expansion is justified, the gravitational wave signal is detectable by LISA.

  8. Biometric Identification Using Holographic Radar Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  9. Capability enhancement in compact digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weijuan; Wen, Yongfu; Wang, Zhaomin; Yang, Fang; Asundi, Anand

    2015-03-01

    A compact reflection digital holographic microscopy (DHM) system integrated with the light source and optical interferometer is developed for 3D topographic characterization and real-time dynamic inspection for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Capability enhancement methods in lateral resolution, axial resolving range and large field of view for the compact DHM system are presented. To enhance the lateral resolution, the numerical aperture of a reflection DHM system is analyzed and optimum designed. To enhance the axial resolving range, dual wavelengths are used to extend the measuring range. To enable the large field of view, stitching of the measurement results is developed in the user-friendly software. Results from surfaces structures on silicon wafer, micro-optics on fused silica and dynamic inspection of MEMS structures demonstrate applications of this compact reflection digital holographic microscope for technical inspection in material science.

  10. Holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Arbitrary and variable beam shaping of femtosecond pulses by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) have been applied to femtosecond laser processing. The holographic femtosecond laser processing has been widely used in many applications such as two-photon polymerization, optical waveguide fabrication, fabrication of volume phase gratings in polymers, and surface nanostructuring. A vector wave that has a spatial distribution of polarization states control of femtosecond pulses gives good performances for the femtosecond laser processing. In this paper, an in- system optimization of a CGH for massively-parallel femtosecond laser processing, a dynamic control of spatial spectral dispersion to improve the focal spot shape, and the holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing are demonstrated.

  11. Note on zero temperature holographic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Minyong; Lan, Shanquan; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2016-06-01

    In this note, we have addressed various issues on zero temperature holographic superfluids. First, inspired by our numerical evidence for the equality between the superfluid density and particle density, we provide an elegant analytic proof for this equality by a boost trick. Second, using not only the frequency domain analysis but also the time domain analysis from numerical relativity, we identify the hydrodynamic normal modes and calculate out the sound speed, which is shown to increase with the chemical potential and saturate to the value predicted by the conformal field theory in the large chemical potential limit. Third, the generic non-thermalization is demonstrated by the fully nonlinear time evolution from a non-equilibrium state for our zero temperature holographic superfluid. Furthermore, a conserved Noether charge is proposed in support of this behavior.

  12. Biometric identification using holographic radar imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  13. Exploring unconventional capabilities of holographic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. J.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2011-06-01

    We report an investigation of manipulation and trapping capabilities of polarization holographic tweezers. A polarization gradient connected with a modulation of the ellipticity shows an optical force related to the polarization of the light that can influence optically isotropic particles. While in the case of birefringent particles an unconventional trapping in circularly polarized fringes is observed. A liquid crystal emulsion has been adopted to investigate the capabilities of the holographic tweezers. The unusual trapping observed for rotating bipolar nematic droplets has suggested the involvement of the lift hydrodynamic force responsible of the Magnus effect, originating from the peculiar optical force field. We show that the Magnus force which is ignored in the common approach can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  14. Holographic entanglement entropy in imbalanced superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arghya; Modak, Sujoy Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior of holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for imbalanced holographic superconductors. We employ a numerical approach to consider the robust case of fully back-reacted gravity system. The hairy black hole solution is found by using our numerical scheme. Then it is used to compute the HEE for the superconducting case. The cases we study show that in presence of a mismatch between two chemical potentials, below the critical temperature, superconducting phase has a lower HEE in comparison to the AdS-Reissner-Nordström black hole phase. Interestingly, the effects of chemical imbalance are different in the contexts of black hole and superconducting phases. For black hole, HEE increases with increasing imbalance parameter while it behaves oppositely for the superconducting phase. The implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.

  16. Development of 3D holographic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Meriç; Önal Tayyar, Duygu

    2016-03-01

    Here we present the development of a 3D holographic endoscope with an interferometer built around a commercial rigid endoscope. We consider recording the holograms with coherent and incoherent light separately without compromising the white light imaging capacity of the endoscope. In coherent light based recording, reference wave required for the hologram is obtained in two different ways. First, as in the classical holography, splitting the laser beam before the object illumination, and secondly creating the reference beam from the object beam itself. This second method does not require path-length matching between the object wave and the reference wave, and it allows the usage of short coherence length light sources. For incoherent light based holographic recordings various interferometric configurations are considered. Experimental results on both illumination conditions are presented.

  17. Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani

    2000-01-01

    The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.

  18. Holographic Associative Memory Employing Phase Conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, B. H.; Marom, E.; Owechko, Y.; Dunning, G.

    1986-12-01

    The principle of information retrieval by association has been suggested as a basis for parallel computing and as the process by which human memory functions.1 Various associative processors have been proposed that use electronic or optical means. Optical schemes,2-7 in particular, those based on holographic principles,8'8' are well suited to associative processing because of their high parallelism and information throughput. Previous workers8 demonstrated that holographically stored images can be recalled by using relatively complicated reference images but did not utilize nonlinear feedback to reduce the large cross talk that results when multiple objects are stored and a partial or distorted input is used for retrieval. These earlier approaches were limited in their ability to reconstruct the output object faithfully from a partial input.

  19. Advanced Compact Holographic Data Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George

    2000-01-01

    JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Advanced Holographic Memory (AHM) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electro-optic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and highspeed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology to enhance mission capabilities for all NASA's Earth Science Mission. In this paper, recent technology progress in developing this CHDS at JPL will be presented.

  20. Interpixel grating noise in holographic memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin; Panotopoulos, George; Psaltis, Demetri

    1998-11-01

    We have experimentally discovered that the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of holograms initially remains constant as the number of holograms stored increases and drops significantly only after a large number of holograms are recorded. This suggests that in a large-scale memory, the limiting noise source is not crosstalk between holograms but holographic noise due to the prolonged exposure of the signal beam. We have carried out experiments to investigate the formation and influence of the inter-pixel grating noise and shown that it is a very important form of holographic noise. We also proposed and demonstrated the use of random-phase modulation in the signal to suppress the inter-pixel grating noise.

  1. Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2015-07-01

    We study collective excitations of cold (2 + 1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.

  2. Formation of temperature dependable holographic memory using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu

    2013-04-01

    Grating devices using photosensitive organic materials play an important role in the development of optical and optoelectronic systems. High diffraction efficiency and polarization dependence achieved in a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating are expected to provide polarization controllable optical devices, such as the holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs). However, the optical property is affected by the thermal modulation around the transition temperature (T(ni)) that the liquid crystal (LC) changes from nematic to isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the diffraction efficiency in HPDLC grating is discussed with two types of LC composites comprised of isotropic and LC diacrylate monomers. The holographic memory formed by the LC and LC diacrylate monomer performs precise reconstruction of the context information for ORGAs at high temperatures more than 150°C. PMID:23546276

  3. Moduli spaces of cold holographic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Jensen, Kristan; Kim, Keun-Young; Laia, João N.; O'Bannon, Andy

    2012-11-01

    We use holography to study (3 + 1)-dimensional {N}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU( N c ), in the large- N c and large-coupling limits, coupled to a single massless ( n + 1)-dimensional hypermultiplet in the fundamental representation of SU( N c ), with n = 3, 2, 1. In particular, we study zero-temperature states with a nonzero baryon number charge density, which we call holographic matter. We demonstrate that a moduli space of such states exists in these theories, specifically a Higgs branch parameterized by the expectation values of scalar operators bilinear in the hypermultiplet scalars. At a generic point on the Higgs branch, the R-symmetry and gauge group are spontaneously broken to subgroups. Our holographic calculation consists of introducing a single probe D p-brane into AdS 5 × {{{S}}^5} , with p = 2 n + 1 = 7, 5, 3, introducing an electric flux of the D p-brane worldvolume U(1) gauge field, and then obtaining explicit solutions for the worldvolume fields dual to the scalar operators that parameterize the Higgs branch. In all three cases, we can express these solutions as non-singular self-dual U(1) instantons in a four-dimensional space with a metric determined by the electric flux. We speculate on the possibility that the existence of Higgs branches may point the way to a counting of the microstates producing a nonzero entropy in holographic matter. Additionally, we speculate on the possible classification of zero-temperature, nonzero-density states described holographically by probe D-branes with worldvolume electric flux.

  4. Quantitative roadmap of holographic media performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Benjamin A.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2015-09-01

    For holographic photopolymer media, the "formula limit" concept enables facile calculation of the fraction of writing chemistry that is usefully patterned, and the fraction that is wasted. This provides a quantitative context to compare the performance of a diverse range of media formulations from the literature, using only information already reported in the original works. Finally, this analysis is extended to estimate the scope of achievable future performance improvements.

  5. Using a portable holographic camera in cosmetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanas, R.; Gudaitis, G. A.; Zacharovas, S. J.; Ratcliffe, D. B.; Hirsch, S.; Frey, S.; Thelen, A.; Ladrière, N.; Hering, P.

    2006-07-01

    The HSF-MINI portable holographic camera is used to record holograms of the human face. The recorded holograms are analyzed using a unique three-dimensional measurement system that provides topometric data of the face with resolution less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The main advantages of this method over other, more traditional methods (such as laser triangulation and phase-measurement triangulation) are discussed.

  6. Holographic consequences of a no transmission principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2016-01-01

    Two quantum field theories whose Hilbert spaces do not overlap cannot transmit a signal to one another. From this simple principle, we deduce some highly nontrivial consequences for holographic quantum gravity. These include: (i) certain cosmological bounces are forbidden, (ii) generic singularities inside black holes cannot be resolved, and (iii) traversable wormholes do not exist. At the classical level, this principle rules out certain types of naked singularities and suggests that new singularity theorems should exist.

  7. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  8. Some aspects of holographic W-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Theisen, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    We use the Chern-Simons formulation of higher spin theories in three dimensions to study aspects of holographic W-gravity. Concepts which were useful in studies of pure bulk gravity theories, such as the Fefferman-Graham gauge and the residual gauge transformations, which induce Weyl transformations in the boundary theory and their higher spin generalizations, are reformulated in the Chern-Simons language. Flat connections that correspond to conformal and lightcone gauges in the boundary theory are considered.

  9. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  10. Compact, holographic correction of aberrated telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, G; Munch, J; Veitch, P

    1997-03-01

    We demonstrate a compact reflector telescope design that incorporates the holographic correction of a large, low-quality primary spherical mirror by using a laser beacon located at the center of curvature. The simple design makes use of conventional optics and is easily scalable to much larger apertures. Experimental results indicate diffraction-limited performance from a heavily aberrated 0.5-m-diameter spherical mirror.

  11. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  12. Innovative re-creation of realities in a holographic digital form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Hebblewhite, Richard; Osanlou, Ardieshir; Excell, Peter; Di Gennaro, Sonia; Shi, Lishen

    2014-02-01

    Only nature can create, whereas humans can only re-create. This article is an exploration of synergies between art and science in digital holography in relation to art practice and the making of holograms as art works. This is achieved through involvement in the re-creation of a real object (a telescope) as a case study. A digital three-dimensional model suitable for holographic hard copy re-creation is produced. To explore special and immersive environment, real geographical landscape background from Google Earth is added to the model. After a brief introduction to visual art within the context of two and three-dimensional imaging in the form photography and holography, the whole process of producing the three-dimensional model and the environment in which it should be presented, ready for holographic printing is explained.

  13. Holographic Flow Visualization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadow-graph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

  14. Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Adrian, R.J.; Barnhart, D.H.; Papen, G.A.

    1996-08-20

    A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time. 13 figs.

  15. Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Adrian, Ronald J.; Barnhart, Donald H.; Papen, George A.

    1996-01-01

    A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time.

  16. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

  17. An optical space domain volume holographic correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Philip; Gardezi, Akber; Mitra, Bhargav; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2009-04-01

    We propose a novel space domain volume holographic correlator system. One of the limitations of conventional correlators is the bandwidth limits imposed by updating the filter and the readout speed of the CCD. The volume holographic correlator overcomes these by storing a large number of filters that can be interrogated simultaneously. By using angle multiplexing, the match can be read out onto a high speed linear array of sensors. A scanning window can be used to implement shift invariance, thus, making the system operate like a space domain correlator. The space domain correlation method offers an advantage over the frequency domain correlator in that the correlation filter no longer has shift invariance imposed on it since the kernel can be modified depending on its position. This maybe used for normalising the kernel or imposing some non-linearity in an attempt to improve performance. However, one of the key advantages of the frequency domain method is lost using this technique, namely the speed of the computation. A large kernel space-domain correlation, performed on a computer, will be very slow compared to what is achievable using a 4f optical correlator. We propose a method of implementing this using the scanning holographic memory based correlator.

  18. Drawing Lines with Light in Holographic Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.

  19. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for the measurement of temperature and concentration in various crystal growth experiments destined for space. The method measures refractive index changes in the experiment test cell. A refractive index change can be caused by concentration changes, temperature changes, or a combination of temperature and concentration changes. If the refractive index changes are caused by temperature and concentration changes occurring simultaneously in the experiment test cell, the contributions by the two effects cannot be separated by conventional measurement methods. By using two wavelengths, two independent interferograms can be produced from the reconstruction of the hologram. The two interferograms will be different due to dispersion properties of fluid materials. These differences provide the additional information that allows the separation of simultaneously occurring temperature and concentration gradients. There is no other technique available that can provide this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort are to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. To achieve these objectives, the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique must be determined for geometry's and materials that are relevant to the Materials Processing in the Space program of NASA. This will be achieved through the use of a specially designed two-color holographic interferometry breadboard optical system. In addition to experiments to achieve the primary goals, the breadboard will also provide inputs to the design of an optimum space flight system.

  20. A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Henrique; Gryb, Sean; Koslowski, Tim; Mercati, Flavio; Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial conformal (Weyl) invariance. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to advertise the simple classical mechanism, trading off gauge symmetries, that underlies the bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics to readers interested in dualities of the type of AdS/conformal field theory (CFT); and (2) to highlight that this mechanism can be used to explain certain results of holographic renormalization, providing an alternative to the AdS/CFT conjecture for these cases. To make contact with the usual semiclassical AdS/CFT correspondence, we provide, in addition, a heuristic argument that makes it plausible that the classical equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics turns into a duality between radial evolution in gravity and the renormalization group flow of a CFT. We believe that Shape Dynamics provides a new perspective on gravity by giving conformal structure a primary role within the theory. It is hoped that this work provides the first steps toward understanding what this new perspective may be able to teach us about holographic dualities.

  1. Holographic flow visualization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1979-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadowgraph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With double pulse capability of 20 to 1200 microseconds pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one later after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

  2. Read-out optical schemes for holographic memory system based on multiplexed computer generated 1D Fourier holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Bobrinev, Vladimir I.; Betin, Alexandr Y.; Zlokazov, Evgenie Y.

    2015-05-01

    Computer holographic synthesis allows to significantly simplify the recording scheme of microholograms in holographic memory system as the classic high precision holographic setup based on two-beam interference is removed by simple scale reduction projection scheme. Application of computer generated 1D-Fourier holograms provides the possibility of selective reconstruction of the multiplexed holograms with different orientation of data lines by corresponding rotation of anamorphic objective (cylindrical lens), used in the read-out systems. Two configurations of read-out optical scheme were investigated by our team: full-page scheme and line-by-line scheme. In the present article we report the specificities of these schemes and consider their advantages and disadvantages. The results of experimental modeling of both read-out configurations are also presented.

  3. Phase control during reconstruction of holographically recorded flow fields using real-time holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms is demonstrated in which the recorded scene beam with disturbance present is made to interfere with the real-time scene beam after the disturbance is removed. The reference phase is adjusted during reconstruction by manipulating either the scene or reference beams. Comparisons are made between the present technique and the two-reference-beam and two-plate techniques, more commonly used for phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms for flow visualization.

  4. Holographic Ricci dark energy: Current observational constraints, quintom feature, and the reconstruction of scalar-field dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constraints on the holographic Ricci dark energy proposed by Gao et al. [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 043511 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.043511], by using the observational data currently available. The main characteristic of holographic Ricci dark energy is governed by a positive numerical parameter α in the model. When α<1/2, the holographic Ricci dark energy will exhibit a quintomlike behavior; i.e., its equation of state will evolve across the cosmological-constant boundary w=-1. The parameter α can be determined only by observations. Thus, in order to characterize the evolving feature of dark energy and to predict the fate of the Universe, it is of extraordinary importance to constrain the parameter α by using the observational data. In this paper, we derive constraints on the holographic Ricci dark energy model from the latest observational data including the Union sample of 307 type Ia supernovae, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The joint analysis gives the best-fit results (with 1σ uncertainty): α=0.359-0.025+0.024 and Ωm0=0.318-0.024+0.026. That is to say, according to the observations, the holographic Ricci dark energy takes on the quintom feature. Finally, in light of the results of the cosmological constraints, we discuss the issue of the scalar-field dark energy reconstruction, based on the scenario of the holographic Ricci vacuum energy.

  5. Holographic instrumentation for monitoring crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Lal, Ravindra B.; Batra, Ashok K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement requirements and candidates for measuring crystal growth in space are described, emphasizing holographic instrumentation. Existing instrumentation planned for the IML-1 Spaceflight is described along with advanced concepts for future application which incorporate diode lasers, fiber optics, and holographic optical elements. Particle image displacement velocimetry in crystal growth chambers is described.

  6. A Holographic c-Theorem for Schrodinger Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weishun; Liu, James

    2016-03-01

    We prove a c-theorem for holographic renormalization group flows in a Schrodinger spacetime that demonstrates that the effective radius L (r) monotonically decreases from the UV to the IR, where r is the bulk radial coordinate. This result assumes that the bulk matter satisfies the null energy condition, but holds regardless of the value of the critical exponent z. We also construct several numerical examples in a model where the Schrodinger background is realized by a massive vector coupled to a real scalar. The full Schrodinger group is realized when z = 2 , and in this case it is possible to construct solutions with constant effective z (r) = 2 along the entire flow.

  7. Holographic vortices in the presence of dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.

    2015-12-01

    The dark matter seem to be an inevitable ingredient of the total matter configuration in the Universe and the knowledge how the dark matter affects the properties of superconductors is of vital importance for the experiments aimed at its direct detection. The homogeneous magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the surface of (2+1) dimensional s-wave holographic superconductor in the theory with dark matter sector has been modeled by the additional U(1)-gauge field representing dark matter and coupled to the Maxwell one. As expected the free energy for the vortex configuration turns out to be negative. Importantly its value is lower in the presence of dark matter sector. This feature can explain why in the Early Universe first the web of dark matter appeared and next on these gratings the ordinary matter forming cluster of galaxies has formed.

  8. Holographic antiferromagnetic quantum criticality and AdS2 scaling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2015-08-01

    A holographic description on the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by the magnetic field and the criticality in the vicinity of the quantum critical point have been investigated numerically recently. In this paper, we show that the properties of QPT in this holographic model are governed by a CFT dual to the emergent AdS2 in the IR region, which confirms that the dual boundary theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and logarithmic corrections appearing. We also compare them with the results from the Hertz model by solving the RG equation at its upper critical dimension and with some experimental data from pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2 O7 and BiCoPO5 .

  9. Holographic flow visualisation applied to very small flow sections in turbomachinery research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. J.; Brownell, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization has been successfully employed by Rolls-Royce to investigate three dimensional flows in rotating aero-engine fans and two dimensional flows in cascades of blades in wind tunnels. In a development of the latter technique, flow fields in life-size models of labyrinth seals have been investigated. These tiny components are used to block gas flow between rotating and stationary parts of the engine without physical contact. The models are typically 20 mm across with gaps of less than 0.5 mm. Careful design of the optical system and the use of broadband reconstruction techniques minimize the deleterious effects of diffraction and laser speckle. High resolution interferograms of the complicated flow field can be achieved. The paper discusses the optical system and presents examples of the holographic reconstructions.

  10. Entanglement Holographic Mapping of Many-Body Localized System by Spectrum Bifurcation Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Cenke

    We introduce the spectrum bifurcation renormalization group (SBRG) as a generalization of the real-space renormalization group for the many-body localized (MBL) system without truncating the Hilbert space. Starting from a disordered many-body Hamiltonian in the full MBL phase, the SBRG flows to the MBL fixed-point Hamiltonian, and generates the local conserved quantities and the matrix product state representations for all eigenstates. The method is applicable to both spin and fermion models with arbitrary interaction strength on any lattice in all dimensions, as long as the models are in the MBL phase. In particular, we focus on the 1 d interacting Majorana chain with strong disorder, and map out its phase diagram using the entanglement entropy. The SBRG flow also generates an entanglement holographic mapping, which duals the MBL state to a fragmented holographic space decorated with small blackholes.

  11. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  12. Holographic illuminator for synchrotron-based projection lithography systems

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-08-09

    The effective coherence of a synchrotron beam line can be tailored to projection lithography requirements by employing a moving holographic diffuser and a stationary low-cost spherical mirror. The invention is particularly suited for use in an illuminator device for an optical image processing system requiring partially coherent illumination. The illuminator includes: (1) a synchrotron source of coherent or partially coherent radiation which has an intrinsic coherence that is higher than the desired coherence, (2) a holographic diffuser having a surface that receives incident radiation from said source, (3) means for translating the surface of the holographic diffuser in two dimensions along a plane that is parallel to the surface of the holographic diffuser wherein the rate of the motion is fast relative to integration time of said image processing system; and (4) a condenser optic that re-images the surface of the holographic diffuser to the entrance plane of said image processing system.

  13. Depth perception and user interface in digital holographic television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabas, James; Jolly, Sundeep; Smalley, Daniel E.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    A holographic television system, featuring realtime incoherent 3D capture and live holographic display is used for experiments in depth perception. Holographic television has the potential to provide more complete visual representations, including latency-free motion parallax and more natural affordances for accommodation. Although this technology has potential to improve realism in many display applications, we investigate benefits in uses where direct vision of a workspace is not possible. Applications of this nature include work with hazardous materials, teleoperation over distance, and laparoscopic surgery. In this study, subjects perform manual 3D object manipulation tasks where they can only see the workspace through holographic closed-circuit television. This study is designed to compare performance at manual tasks using holographic television compared to performance with displays that mimic 2D, and stereoscopic television.

  14. Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2005-09-01

    Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.

  15. On the reliability of the holographic method for measurement of soft tissue modifications during periodontal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; de Sabata, Aldo; Rominu, Mihai; Ogodescu, Alexandru; Rusu, Darian

    2014-01-01

    Holographic evaluations count among recent measurement tools in orthodontics and prosthodontics. This research introduces holography as an assessment method of 3D variations of gingival retractions. The retraction of gingiva on frontal regions of 5 patients with periodontitis was measured in six points and was evaluated by holographic methods using a He-Ne laser device (1mV, Superlum, Carrigtwohill, Ireland) inside a holographic bank of 200 x 100cm. Impressions were taken during first visit and cast models were manufactured. Six months after the end of periodontal treatment, clinical measurements were repeated and the hologram of the first model was superimposed on a final model cast, by using reference points, while maintaining the optical geometric perimeters. The retractions were evaluated 3D in every point using a dedicated software (Sigma Scan Pro,Systat Software, SanJose, CA, USA). The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the mean recession changes between baseline and six months after treatment, and between values in vivo and the values on hologram. No statistically significant differences between values in vivo and on the hologram were found. In conclusion, holography provides a valuable tool for assessing gingival retractions on virtual models. The data can be stored, reproduced, transmitted and compared at a later time point with accuracy.

  16. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  17. Holographic associative memory and information transmission by solitary waves in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariaev, Peter P.; Vasiliev, Anatoly A.; Berezin, Andrey A.

    1993-09-01

    We consider some specific problems and phenomena of morphogenetic information storage, reproduction, and transfer including phantom leaf effect and field-induced morphogenetic translations between different taxonomic units. Several experimental results are presented and their explanation is given using a new approach to morphogenesis which combines some physical models of holographic associative memory and mathematical formalism of Fermi- Pasta-Ulam recurrence for solitary waves in deoxyribonucleic acid.

  18. Simultaneous temperature and concentration measurement in front of solidifying monotectic systems using the two wavelength holographic technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecker, A.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Frazier, D. O.

    1987-01-01

    A holographic technique for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration in solidifying transparent model alloy systems was developed. Its application to the study of the interactions between the temperature, concentration, and fluid flow fields in such systems at 1 g and micro-g conditions is discussed.

  19. A two wavelength holographic technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration during the solidification of two component systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, A.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the temperature and concentration distribution within a fluid can be made using a 'two wavelength holographic' setup. The technique is successfully applied to the study of temperature, concentration, and flow fields in the melt of a transparent 'model alloy' during solidification.

  20. Simultaneous temperature and concentration measurement in front of solidifying monotectic systems using the two wavelength holographic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, A.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Frazier, D. O.

    1987-02-01

    A holographic technique for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration in solidifying transparent model alloy systems was developed. Its application to the study of the interactions between the temperature, concentration, and fluid flow fields in such systems at 1 g and micro-g conditions is discussed.

  1. Land mine detection applying holographic neural technology (HNeT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, John G.; Radzelovage, William C.

    2007-04-01

    Provided is a summary of Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT) and its application in detecting land mines using airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Tests were performed for three surface mine classes (small metallic, large metallic, and medium-sized plastic) located within variable indigenous background clutter (bare dirt, short/tall grass). This work has been performed as part of the Wide Area Airborne Minefield Detection (WAAMD) Program at the U. S. Army Night Vision Labs and Electronic Sensors Directorate in Fort Belvoir, VA. The ATR algorithm applied was Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT); a neuromorphic model based upon non-linear phase coherence/de-coherence principles. The HNeT technology provides rapid learning capabilities and an advanced capability in learning and generalization of non-linear relationships. Described is a summary of the underlying HNeT technology and the methodologies applied in the training of the neuromorphic system for mine detection using target images (land mines) and back ground clutter images. Provided also is a summary description of the software tools applied in the development of the mine detection capability. Performance testing of the mine detection algorithm separated training and testing sensor image sets by airborne sensor depression angle and surface ground condition indigenous to site location (Countermine Alpha, Yellow Sands). Detection performance was compared in the analysis of complex versus magnitude sensor data. Performance results from independent test imagery indicated a reasonable level of clutter rejection, providing > 50% probability of detection at a false detection rate < 10 -3/m2. A description of the test scenarios applied and performance results for these scenarios are summarized in this report.

  2. Form Factors and Wave Functions of Vector Mesons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannes R. Grigoryan; Anatoly V. Radyushkin

    2007-07-01

    Within the framework of a holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism for calculating form factors of vector mesons. We show that the holographic bound states can be described not only in terms of eigenfunctions of the equation of motion, but also in terms of conjugate wave functions that are close analogues of quantum-mechanical bound state wave functions. We derive a generalized VMD representation for form factors, and find a very specific VMD pattern, in which form factors are essentially given by contributions due to the first two bound states in the Q^2-channel. We calculate electric radius of the \\rho-meson, finding the value < r_\\rho^2>_C = 0.53 fm^2.

  3. Holographic superconductors in IR modified Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Wang; Wu, Ya-Bo; Xiao, Jian; Lu, Cui-Juan; Liu, Mo-Lin

    2016-07-01

    In the probe limit, we study the holographic s- and p-wave superconductors in the IR modified Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and obtain the effect of the gravity parameter α on the condensate and the AC conductivity. Concretely, for the two models, the increasing α makes the superconductor phase transition more difficult. Moreover, at the critical point, both systems undergo a second-order phase transition as expected from the mean field theory, and the superfluid density decreases with the temperature linearly, which is consistent with the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Meanwhile, the analytical results back up the numerical results. What is more, in the superconducting phase, the ratio of the energy gap to the critical temperature, i.e. ωg/Tc, decreases with the increasing α. In addition, our results generalize the previous work on holographic superconductors in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity to some extent.

  4. Inverse Mellin Transformation of Continuous Singular Value Decomposition: A Route to Holographic Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsueda, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    We examine holographic renormalization by singular value decomposition (SVD) of matrix data generated by a Monte Carlo snapshot of the two-dimensional (2D) classical Ising model at criticality. Taking the continuous limit of the SVD enables us to find the mathematical form of each SVD component by the inverse Mellin transformation as well as the power-law behavior of the SVD spectrum. We find that each SVD component is characterized by the two-point spin correlator with a finite correlation length. Then, the continuous limit of the decomposition index in the SVD corresponds to the inverse of the correlation length. These features strongly indicate that the SVD contains the same mathematical structure as the holographic renormalization.

  5. Chaotic maps, Hamiltonian flows, and Holographic methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami

    2010-01-01

    Holographic functional methods are introduced as probes of discrete time-stepped maps that lead to chaotic behavior. The methods provide continuous time interpolation between the time steps, thereby revealing the maps to be quasi-Hamiltonian systems underlain by novel potentials that govern the motion of a perceived point particle. Between turning points, the particle is strictly driven by Hamiltonian dynamics, but at each encounter with a turning point the potential changes abruptly, loosely analogous to the switchbacks on a mountain road. A sequence of successively deepening switchback potentials explains, in physical terms, the frequency cascade and trajectory folding that occur on the particular route to chaos revealed by the logistic map.

  6. National Holographic Centre, England: proposal report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Andrew T.

    1998-02-01

    A National Holographic Center has been proposed for construction in England. Its aim is to offer teaching facilities for creative holography to degree level students, the design based holography industry, the local community, school children and members of the public. There are also plans to provide advanced studies and master classes from artists and scientists renowned for their work in the field as well as formal artist-in-residencies. Unlike other teaching and display facilities, this will be a purpose- designed building with labs, gallery space and accommodation for users.

  7. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  8. Nuclear shadowing in the holographic framework.

    PubMed

    Agozzino, L; Castorina, P; Colangelo, P

    2014-01-31

    The nucleon structure function F2(N) computed in a holographic framework can be used to describe nuclear deep inelastic scattering effects provided that a rescaling of the Q2 momentum and of the IR hard-wall parameter z0 is made. The ratios RA=F2(A)/F2(N) can be obtained in terms of a single rescaling parameter λA for each nucleus. The resulting ratios agree with the experiment in a wide range of the shadowing region.

  9. Self-assembling nanoparticles into holographic nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Heon; Diana, Frédéric S.; Badolato, Antonio; Petroff, Pierre M.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2004-05-01

    We demonstrate a method to self-assemble metal nanoparticles into two-dimensional lattices. Monodisperse cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized within inverse micelles of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer in toluene. A periodic hole pattern of photoresist (PR) was fabricated on a GaAs substrate by holographic lithography. The nanoparticles as prepared above were self-assembled onto the PR nanopatterns by dip or spin casting. They were selectively positioned in the holes due to the capillary forces related to the pattern geometry. Our study reveals that self-assembled nanoparticles in two-dimensional lattices can be obtained with a controllable number of particles per lattice point.

  10. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  11. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities.

  12. A ballistic gravimeter with dropping holographic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. L.; Kotova, E. I.; Nikushchenko, E. M.; Smirnova, A. L.; Prokopenko, V. T.

    2014-11-01

    The principle of operation of a ballistic laser gravimeter based on a dropping holographic diffraction grating is described. The free-fall acceleration of the grating is determined from a change in the frequency of beats that arise during the interference of light beams diffracted on the hologram in the zeroth and first orders of diffraction. An experiment demonstrating this principle of measurement is described. The main distinctive features of the proposed gravimeter are simple design, compact size, and the possibility of using this device for analysis of high-frequency fluctuations in the gravitational-field strength.

  13. Measurement of a three-dimensional hypersonic density field using holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stephen Eugene

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a holographic interferometry system to measure and analyze density distributions about a generic maneuvering reentry vehicle in a hypersonic wind tunnel. This data is needed to understand the flow physics better so that accurate models of the processes that govern the dynamics and thermodynamics of the flow can be developed and validated. A dual-plate holographic interferometry system, providing full-field, non-intrusive measurements, was developed to acquire data at a given projection angle. The phase of the modulated laser wave was determined from the interferograms using a digital phase shifting method with a measurement resolution of 100 microns. Cross sectional distributions were then recovered from the phase measurements using an algebraic reconstruction technique. The data base obtained consisted of a series of density distributions at axial locations of interest. The interferometric data was supplemented with surface measurements, schlieren and oil flow photographs. Analysis of the data showed an extensive region of separated flow around the control surfaces, resulting in loss of control effectiveness and severe localized heating, which could not be modeled by the computational solution used for comparison. Holographic interferometry was shown to be a viable measurement technique for obtaining accurate, 3D density distributions in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  14. Holographic sensors for the detection of bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D; Christie, G; Madrigal-González, B; Blyth, J; Lowe, C R

    2007-11-30

    Holographic sensors for the detection of Bacillus species spore germination and vegetative growth are described. Reflection holograms were fabricated using a diffusion method for the distribution of ultra-fine silver bromide grains into pre-formed polymer films, followed by holographic recording using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser. Changes in holographic replay wavelength or diffraction intensity were used to characterise the swelling behaviour or structural integrity of a range of holographic matrices in response to various extracellular products of bacterial spore germination and vegetative metabolism. Divalent metal ion-sensitive holograms containing a methacrylated analogue of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as the chelating monomer were successfully used to monitor Ca2+ ions released during B. subtilis spore germination in real-time, which was within minutes of sample addition; the holographic response manifested as a 16 nm blue-shift in diffraction wavelength over the progress of germination. Similarly, pH-sensitive holograms comprising methacrylic acid (MAA) as the ionisable monomer were responsive to changes in pH associated with early vegetative metabolism following germination of B. megaterium spores; a visually perceptible blue-shift in holographic replay wavelength of 75 nm was observed. Casein and starch-based holographic matrices, prepared by co-polymerisation of the appropriate substrate with acrylamide, were used to detect exo-enzymes released during later stages of B. megaterium and B. subtilis vegetative cell growth; holographic responses of both matrices were visible as a reduction in diffraction intensity due to progressive fringe disruption caused by enzymatic cleavage. The combined monitoring of various germination and growth events using the range of aforementioned holographic sensors provides a novel, comprehensive means for the detection of viable bacterial spores.

  15. Compact holographic memory using E - O beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George; Hanan, Jay

    2002-01-01

    An innovative holographic memory system has been developed at JPL for high-density and high speed data storage in a space environment. This system ulitlizes a newly developed electro-optic (E-O) beam steering technology for beam steering to enable high-speed random access memory read/write without moving parts. Recently, a compact CD-sized holographic memory broadboard has been developed and demonstrated for holographic data storage adn retrieval. Detail technical progress will be presented in this paper.

  16. Deterministic Phase Encoded Holographic Data Storage Using Lenticular Lens Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi Ching; Chen, Gu Liang; Young, Wen Kuei; Lin, Ching Yang; Yau, Hon Fai

    2007-07-01

    This work presents a novel optical holographic encrypted data storage approach based on a phase encoding multiplexed scheme. In the proposed data storage scheme, patterns to be encrypted are stored holographically in a photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystal using a lenticular lens array (LLA) sheet phase-encoded multiplexing. Experimental results reveal that rotating an LLA placed as a phase modulator in the path of the reference beam is a simple but effective method of increasing the phase addresses for holographic memory in a crystal. Combining this rotational multiplexing with two-axis rotating multiplexing provides further data storage and data encryption capacity.

  17. Status of holographic interferometry at Wright Patterson Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, George

    1987-01-01

    At Wright Patterson AFB, holographic interferometry has been used for nearly 15 years in a variety of supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels. Specifically, holographic interferometry was used to study boundary layers, shock boundary layer interaction, and general flow diagnostics. Although a considerable amount of quantitative work was done, the difficulty of reducing data severely restricted this. In the future, it is of interest to use holographic interferometry in conjunction with laser Doppler velocimetry to do more complete diagnostics. Also, there is an interest to do particle field diagnostics in the combustion research facility. Finally, there are efforts in nondestructive testing where automated fringe readout and analysis would be extremely helpful.

  18. Holographic optical grating and method for optimizing monochromator configuration

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masato

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a novel apparatus for recording a holographic groove pattern on a diffraction grating blank. The recording apparatus is configured using newly developed groups of analytical equations. The invention further comprises the novel holographic diffraction grating made with the inventive recording apparatus. The invention additionally comprises monochromators and spectrometers equipped with the inventive holographic diffraction grating. Further, the invention comprises a monochromator configured to reduce aberrations using a newly developed group of analytical equations. Additionally, the invention comprises a method to reduce aberrations in monochromators and spectrometers using newly developed groups of analytical equations.

  19. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  20. Holographic optical element for visual display applications.

    PubMed

    McCauley, D G; Simpson, C E; Murbach, W J

    1973-02-01

    Off-axis and off-bisector reflection-type holographic visual display elements have been recorded in dichromated gelatin deposited on planar or spherical shell substrates of glass or Plexiglas. A procedure for bonding gelatin to Plexiglas is given. Holographic elements are recorded at the argon wavelength of 514.5 nm and reconstructed with spectral lines from a low pressure mercury arc lamp. Measured image characteristics for a flat substrate hologram agree with ray-tracing calculations. A swelling of the gelatin by approximately 6.6% after processing does not perceptibly affect the dispersion, astigmatism, or distortion in the image, that is, the grating equation depends on the spacing between the fringes on the surface of the gelatin and is not affected by the swelling or shrinking. However, the Bragg equation depends on the distance normal to the fringe planes and is affected by thickness changes of the gelatin. Therefore, this thickness change is taken as an independent parameter and used to adjust the wavelength for maximum diffraction efficiency, without affecting the image angle. Data reveal a near linear relationship between the dichromate concentration of 0.5-10% used to photosensitive the gelatin and the display wavelength of maximum diffraction efficiency. Lateral dispersion is 0.12 +/- 0.01 degrees / nanometer for both planar and spherical shell substrate elements recorded in quite similar geometry, but their astigmatisms are not alike. PMID:20125273

  1. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  2. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Biochrome photosensitive films in particular Bacteriorhodopsin exhibit features which make these materials an attractive recording medium for optical data storage and processing. Bacteriorhodopsin films find numerous applications in a wide range of optical data processing applications; however the short-term memory characteristics of BR limits their applications for holographic data storage. The life-time of the BR can be extended using cryogenic temperatures [1], although this method makes the system overly complicated and unstable. Longer life-times can be provided in one modification of BR - the "blue" membrane BR [2], however currently available films are characterized by both low diffraction efficiency and difficulties in providing photoreversible recording. In addition, as a dynamic recording material, the BR requires different wavelengths for recording and reconstructing of optical data in order to prevent the information erasure during its readout. This fact also put constraints on a BR-based Optical Memory, due to information loss in holographic memory systems employing the two-lambda technique for reading-writing thick multiplexed holograms.

  3. A compact holographic optical tweezers instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. M.; Bowman, R. W.; Linnenberger, A.; Dienerowitz, M.; Phillips, D. B.; Carberry, D. M.; Miles, M. J.; Padgett, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    Holographic optical tweezers have found many applications including the construction of complex micron-scale 3D structures and the control of tools and probes for position, force, and viscosity measurement. We have developed a compact, stable, holographic optical tweezers instrument which can be easily transported and is compatible with a wide range of microscopy techniques, making it a valuable tool for collaborative research. The instrument measures approximately 30×30×35 cm and is designed around a custom inverted microscope, incorporating a fibre laser operating at 1070 nm. We designed the control software to be easily accessible for the non-specialist, and have further improved its ease of use with a multi-touch iPad interface. A high-speed camera allows multiple trapped objects to be tracked simultaneously. We demonstrate that the compact instrument is stable to 0.5 nm for a 10 s measurement time by plotting the Allan variance of the measured position of a trapped 2 μm silica bead. We also present a range of objects that have been successfully manipulated.

  4. Diffusion in solids with holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dingyu

    1996-12-01

    It is of great importance for the formation of p-n junction in semiconductors by penetrating some impurities through the depth near the surface, so it has long been paid attention to control the concentration distribution of impurities during the diffusion process. In recent years, ionic carburizing, and ion bombardment penetration etc. for the treatment of metal surface have also attracted by material sciences. It requires that the diffusion depth and the diffusion time of the impurities should be under precise control. Different methods, such as the method of radioisotopic detection and the method of chemical analysis have been adopted, however, the reports of different workers are very different, especially in the real time measurement, so, finding new method is never ending. In 1984, H. Fenichel have performed experiments on the solutions of table salt and sugar with the method of holographic interferometry. As for metals which are opaque for the visible light, but they become transparent by making them into a very thin film so that, in principle, the diffusion of atoms within a film is capable of measure by holographic interferometry. Alternatively, the electromagnetic waves within 1 - 70 micrometers wavelengths may be utilized, some materials, such as high purified germanium and silicon are good materials for infrared transmission. Some fluorides of alkaline-earth metals have high transmittance in the range of 1 - 8 micrometers , the concentration of impurities in the semiconductor and metal surface treatment are of 1015 - 1020 atoms per cubic cm, which is capable of detection.

  5. Archiving Saudi heritage using the holographic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althagafi, A.; Richardson, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of the Yuri Nikolaevich DENISYUK holographic recording process to document, archive and display Saudi heritage. The goal of this research is to develop a technique of archiving heritage by using a high-tech holographic process to capture a three-dimensional presentation of ancient jewelry artifacts of the Saudi Heritage in particular. This study concentrates on five particular items of handmade authentic ancient metal jewelry from different parts of Saudi Arabia. When conducting this research experiments were conducted using both red-green sensitive plates sensitive to 633 nm and 532 nm respectively. Material thickness ranged between 1.5 and 3 millimeters were used, consequently in the dark room, varied chemicals for developing the holograms were employed. Red and green laser devices were also used with exposure times between 8 to 18 seconds of laser light dispersion through diffused surfaces in reflection holography. The outcome in each case was varied. The holograms captured the jewelry pieces with all the engravings and minute details, thus archiving the Saudi Heritage of that time. What makes holograms a revolutionary method for presenting valuable and/or ancient artifacts is the fact that they offer a more practical and convenient solution to travel around the world than displaying the originals items. Thus, museum visitors can enjoy and appreciate the precious artifacts otherwise unseen and lost without holography.

  6. Holographic generation of non-diffractive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Choi, Dawoon; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Kyookeun; Kim, Kyoung-Youm

    2014-11-01

    An Airy beam is a non-diffractive wave which propagates along a ballistic trajectory without any external force. Although it is impossible to implement ideal Airy beams because they carry infinite power, so-called finite Airy beams can be achieved by tailoring infinite side lobes with an aperture function and they have similar propagating characteristics with those of ideal Airy beams. The finite Airy beam can be optically generated by several ways: the optical Fourier transform system with imposing cubic phase to a broad Gaussian beam, nonlinear generation of Airy beams, curved plasma channel generation, and electron beam generation. In this presentation, a holographic generation of the finite Airy beams will be discussed. The finite Airy beams can be generated in virtue of holographic technique by `reading' a hologram which is recorded by the interference between a finite Airy beam generated by the optical Fourier transform and a reference plane wave. Moreover, this method can exploit the unique features of holography itself such as successful reconstruction with the imperfect incidence of reference beam, reconstruction of phase-conjugated signal beam, and multiplexing, which can shed more light on the characteristics of finite Airy beams. This method has an advantage in that once holograms are recorded in the photopolymer, a bulky optics such as the SLM and lenses are not necessary to generate Airy beams. In addition, multiple Airy beams can be stored and reconstructed simultaneously or individually.

  7. 3D behaviour of photopolymers as holographic recording material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, S.; Ortuño, M.; Neipp, C.; Márquez, A.; Kelly, J. V.; Sheridan, J. T.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2006-05-01

    Research dealing with models to predict and understand the behaviour of photopolymers have generated many interesting studies considering a 2-dimensional geometry. These models suppose that the photopolymer layer is homogeneous in depth. Using this approximation good results can be obtained if the thickness of photopolymers is less than 200 μm. However, it is well known that Lambert-Beer's law predicts an exponential decay of the light inside the material. In recent years intensive efforts have been made to develop new holographic memories based on photopolymers. For this application the thickness of the layer is increased, usually to more than 500 μm, and Lambert-Beer's law plays a significant role in the recording step. The attenuation of the index profile inside these materials has been measured, showing that it is an important phenomenon. This attenuation limits the maximum effective optical thickness of the grating and shows that the 2-D models can not be applied in these cases. For this reason in this work a 3-dimensional model is presented to analyze the real behaviour of the photopolymers and study the variations in the index profile in depth. In this work we examine the predictions of the model in the case of a general dependence of the polymerisation rate with respect to the intensity pattern, and the effects of varying the exposure intensity are also compared in 3-D cases. Finally, the limitation of the data storage capacity of the materials due to the Lambert-Beer law is evaluated.

  8. Parallel database search and prime factorization with magnonic holographic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we describe the capabilities of Magnonic Holographic Memory (MHM) for parallel database search and prime factorization. MHM is a type of holographic device, which utilizes spin waves for data transfer and processing. Its operation is based on the correlation between the phases and the amplitudes of the input spin waves and the output inductive voltage. The input of MHM is provided by the phased array of spin wave generating elements allowing the producing of phase patterns of an arbitrary form. The latter makes it possible to code logic states into the phases of propagating waves and exploit wave superposition for parallel data processing. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating parallel database search and prime factorization. The results of numerical simulations on the database search are in agreement with the available experimental data. The use of classical wave interference may results in a significant speedup over the conventional digital logic circuits in special task data processing (e.g., √n in database search). Potentially, magnonic holographic devices can be implemented as complementary logic units to digital processors. Physical limitations and technological constrains of the spin wave approach are also discussed.

  9. Parallel database search and prime factorization with magnonic holographic memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Khitun, Alexander

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we describe the capabilities of Magnonic Holographic Memory (MHM) for parallel database search and prime factorization. MHM is a type of holographic device, which utilizes spin waves for data transfer and processing. Its operation is based on the correlation between the phases and the amplitudes of the input spin waves and the output inductive voltage. The input of MHM is provided by the phased array of spin wave generating elements allowing the producing of phase patterns of an arbitrary form. The latter makes it possible to code logic states into the phases of propagating waves and exploit wave superposition for parallel data processing. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating parallel database search and prime factorization. The results of numerical simulations on the database search are in agreement with the available experimental data. The use of classical wave interference may results in a significant speedup over the conventional digital logic circuits in special task data processing (e.g., √n in database search). Potentially, magnonic holographic devices can be implemented as complementary logic units to digital processors. Physical limitations and technological constrains of the spin wave approach are also discussed.

  10. Holographic recording materials development. [development of cis-trans isomerization for holographic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Developments in the area of organic cis-trans isomerization systems for holographic memory applications are reported. The chemical research effort consisted of photochemical studies leading to the selection of a stilbene derivative and a polymer matrix system which have greatly improved refractive index differences between the cis and trans isomers as well as demonstrated efficiency of the photoisomerization process. In work on lithium niobate effects of sample stoichiometry and of read and write beam polarizations on recording efficiency were investigated. LiNbO3 was used for a study of angular sensitivity and of capability for simultaneous recording of extended objects without interference. The current status of LiNbO3 as a holographic recording material is summarized.

  11. Holographic optics: Design and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 13, 14, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindrich, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in design and analysis methods for holographic optics, as well as their materials and fabrication techniques and their applications. Attention is given to novel holographic helmet display designs, holographic optics optimization by damped least-squares and wavefront matching, the optical performance of holographic kinoforms, a cascaded transmission hologram for HUDs, a multilayer thin film simulation of volume holograms, and the DMP-128 holographic-recording photopolymer. Also discussed are a uniform hologram construction layout, diffractive optics with incoherent optical systems, holographic laser-protective eyewear, novel applications for embossed holograms, and hologon deflectors with dispersive optical elements for scan line bow correction.

  12. 3D Holographic Technology and Its Educational Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangsook

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a number of significant developments in 3D holographic technology, its potential to revolutionize aspects of teaching and learning, and challenges of implementing the technology in educational settings.

  13. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  14. Study on spectrometer based upon volume holographic transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Guodong; Ren, Zhong; Zeng, Lvming

    2010-10-01

    In this present paper, a spectrometer based upon axial transmissive optical structure with the volume-phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating technology is introduced. We give a physical insight for the structure and mechanism of photorefractive volume holographic gratings and theoretically analyze some important performance parameters of the spectrometer device using the coupled wave theory, which should be considered in the process of the following design for the device with volume phase holographic transmission gratings. The experimental results show, owing to its axial transmissive optical geometry and the perfect performance of the VPH transmission grating, the spectrometer based on the volume-phase holographic transmission grating has satisfactory high resolution and wavelength accuracy. It has great promise to be widely used in the future.

  15. Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d = 2 and in d > 2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.

  16. Tunably Soft Colloids Synthesis and Characterization by Holographic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Shpaisman, Hagay; Grier, David

    2014-03-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) is an industrially important, widely used silicon-based organic polymer. Previous work showed that the addition of trivalent cross-linker transforms PDMS emulsion droplets into complied spheres, whose elasticity scales with the concentration of cross-linker. We use holographic video microscopy to characterize the synthesized PDMS with varying degree of deformability. Holographic characterization yields measurements of cross-linker concentration through the influence on the particles' sizes and refractive indices. In the performed experiments, we are able to detect the transition between liquid droplets and complied particles. and monitor the polymerization progress. The particles' compliance can be gauged in their interactions with rigid surfaces that we measure with holographic optical trapping and holographic particle characterization.

  17. ROM type holographic disk using computer generated hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, K.; Kubota, E.; Watanabe, D.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    2006-05-01

    ROM type holographic disk that can be made by the optical disk cutting method and has compatibility with the recordable holographic memory was studied. Computer generated hologram data was recorded on the master disk by bit-by-bit recording. Then, after making a stamper, a holographic disk was made by the injection molding. To this holographic disk, it was confirmed that the data reproduction of low bit error rate is possible. In order to enable data reproduction by using a continuously rotating disk, the recorded data was made in such a way that random phase is given to the reproduced data. It became possible to distribute data to the entire area of the hologram and it enabled the reproduction of all the data of the hologram by reproducing a part of the hologram. This made it possible to reproduce data with a continuously rotating disk. Furthermore, the simulation showed that multiplex recoding became possible by the aperture multiplexing.

  18. Compact optical data processor employing holographic reflective lenses.

    PubMed

    Mehta, P C; Swami, S; Rampal, V V

    1977-02-01

    A compact optical data processor is described that employs holographic reflective lenses. The processor is inexpensive and requires one-half of the length of the optical bench as that required for using glass lenses. The fabrication of the holographic lenses is described, and the results of optical processing reported. The results show that an inexpensive data processor employing holographic lenses is a feasible project. The processor may find use for onboard optical processing on spacecrafts and satellites. The most distinguishing characteristic of such a processor is its extreme light weight. The angular alignment tolerances for holographic lenses are very low. The processor must, therefore, be made rugged, designed, and mounted to withstand vibrations, shocks, and other environmental problems associated with spacecrafts and satellites.

  19. Novel Aspects of Holographic Technologies and Applications Based on New Stationary and Dynamic Holographic Recording Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Irina

    2002-06-01

    This report results from a contract tasking of the Ioffe Institute as follows: Historically Russian holographic research laboratories developed many unique materials having no analogs in other countries. This effort leverages that expertise and investigates two aspects related to correction of distortion of laser communications signals: 1. Development of the technique for compensation of atmospheric distortions in laser communication systems by means of dynamic holograms. We expect that depending upon the chosen holographic medium the following operational characteristics are attainable: Duration of a write/read/erase cycle - 1.0 msecond; Quality of correction - 80%; Improvement of the signal to noise ratio - 90%. The device will be automatic, real-time and reliable. 2. Development of a new holographic material based on self-developing dichromated colloids, for recording of stationary volume holograms. This task will include measurement of the optical effects caused by photo induced structural changes and hopes to achieve a resolution of up to 5000 l/mm and sensitivity down to 100 mJ/cm2.

  20. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm. PMID:27661578

  1. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  2. A low-dimensional analogue of holographic baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Baryons in holographic QCD correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. The most prominent example is the Sakai-Sugimoto model, where the bulk soliton in the five-dimensional spacetime of AdS-type can be approximated by the flat space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size. Recently, the validity of this approximation has been verified by comparison with the numerical field theory solution. However, multi-solitons and solitons with finite density are currently beyond numerical field theory computations. Various approximations have been applied to investigate these important issues and have led to proposals for finite density configurations that include dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn. Here we introduce and investigate a low-dimensional analogue of the Sakai-Sugimoto model, in which the bulk soliton can be approximated by a flat space sigma model instanton. The bulk theory is a baby Skyrme model in a three-dimensional spacetime with negative curvature. The advantage of the lower-dimensional theory is that numerical simulations of multi-solitons and finite density solutions can be performed and compared with flat space instanton approximations. In particular, analogues of dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn configurations are found and analysed.

  3. Generalized holographic dark energy and the IR cutoff problem

    SciTech Connect

    Guberina, B.; Horvat, R.; Nikolic, H.

    2005-12-15

    We consider a holographic dark energy model, in which both the cosmological-constant (CC) energy density {rho}{sub {lambda}} and the Newton constant G{sub N} are varying quantities, to study the problem of setting an effective field-theory IR cutoff. Assuming that ordinary matter scales canonically, we show that the continuity equation univocally fixes the IR cutoff, provided a law of variation for either {rho}{sub {lambda}} or G{sub N} is known. Previous considerations on holographic dark energy disfavor the Hubble parameter as a candidate for the IR cutoff (for spatially flat universes), since in this case the ratio of dark energy to dark matter is not allowed to vary, thus hindering a deceleration era of the universe for the redshifts z > or approx. 0.5. On the other hand, the future event horizon as a choice for the IR cutoff is being favored in the literature, although the 'coincidence problem' usually cannot be addressed in that case. We extend considerations to spatially curved universes, and show that with the Hubble parameter as a choice for the IR cutoff one always obtains a universe that never accelerates or a universe that accelerates all the time, thus making the transition from deceleration to acceleration impossible. Next, we apply the IR cutoff consistency procedure to a renormalization-group (RG) running CC model, in which the low-energy variation of the CC is due to quantum effects of particle fields having masses near the Planck scale. We show that bringing such a model (having the most general cosmology for running CC universes) in full accordance with holography amounts to having such an IR cutoff which scales as a square root of the Hubble parameter. We find that such a setup, in which the only undetermined input represents the true ground state of the vacuum, can give early deceleration as well as late-time acceleration. The possibility of further improvement of the model is also briefly indicated.

  4. Holographic anyonization: a systematic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihl, Matthias; Jokela, Niko; Zingg, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Anyons have garnered substantial interest theoretically as well as experimentally. Due to the intricate nature of their interactions, however, even basic notions such as the equation of state for any kind of anyon gas have eluded a profound understanding so far. Using holography as a guiding principle, we propose a general method for an alternative quantization of electromagnetic degrees of freedom in the gravitational dual to obtain an effective physical description of strongly correlated anyonic systems. We then demonstrate the application of this prescription in a toy model of an anyonic fluid at finite charge density and magnetic field, dual to a dyonic black brane in AdS 4, and compute the equation of state and various transport coefficients explicitly.

  5. Ground states of holographic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.; Nellore, Abhinav

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the ground states of the Abelian Higgs model in AdS{sub 4} with various choices of parameters, and with no deformations in the ultraviolet other than a chemical potential for the electric charge under the Abelian gauge field. For W-shaped potentials with symmetry-breaking minima, an analysis of infrared asymptotics suggests that the ground state has emergent conformal symmetry in the infrared when the charge of the complex scalar is large enough. But when this charge is too small, the likeliest ground state has Lifshitz-like scaling in the infrared. For positive mass quadratic potentials, Lifshitz-like scaling is the only possible infrared behavior for constant nonzero values of the scalar. The approach to Lifshitz-like scaling is shown in many cases to be oscillatory.

  6. Holographic Setup With Phase Control For High Efficiency Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzinski, Christel

    1990-04-01

    An active stabilizied holographic setup for production of corrected concave gratings is decribed. Phase perturbations during exposure decrease diffraction efficiency. Two-wave interference at a holographic phase grating in a positive photoresist coated film is used for phase controlling during recording. The basic feature is the possibility of stabilization and resetting of the setup by the reference grating. Positive resist PFKL S-1 manufactured by VEB Foto-chemische Werke Berlin was used for recording deep grooves on plan and concave blanks.

  7. Recent developments in stereoscopic and holographic 3D display technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there is increasing interest in the development of high performance 3D display technologies to support a variety of applications including medical imaging, scientific visualization, gaming, education, entertainment, air traffic control and remote operations in 3D environments. In this paper we will review the attributes of the various 3D display technologies including stereoscopic and holographic 3D, human factors issues of stereoscopic 3D, the challenges in realizing Holographic 3D displays and the recent progress in these technologies.

  8. Holographic Investigation Of Different Types Of Surgical Fixing Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podbielska, Halina; Kasprzak, Henryk; von Bally, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The method of double-exposure holographic interferometry was applied to study the behavior of lower leg bones supported with different fixing devices. The torsion and bending was examined for both types of fixators: an external one (Orthofix type 10000) and an internal one (osteosynthesis AO plate, Howmedica). The influence of the fixation on the mechanical response to the external load of the supported tibial shaft is discussed. The advantages of holographic interferometry in the above investigation are pointed out.

  9. Optical holographic structural analysis of Kevlar rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, W. J.

    1981-05-01

    The methodology of applying optical holography to evaluation of subscale Kevlar 49 composite pressure vessels is explored. The results and advantages of the holographic technique are discussed. The cases utilized were of similar design, but each had specific design features, the effects of which are reviewed. Burst testing results are presented in conjunction with the holographic fringe patterns obtained during progressive pressurization. Examples of quantitative data extracted by analysis of fringe fields are included.

  10. Odd Viscosity in the Quantum Critical Region of a Holographic Weyl Semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-08-01

    We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterized by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are nonvanishing in the quantum critical region and nonzero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point.

  11. Meson transition form factors in light-front holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao Fuguang; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2011-10-01

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M}{gamma}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}{sup *}{yields}M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, is required to describe the anomalous coupling of mesons to photons using holographic methods and leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the qq component of the pion wave function, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the qq component of the pion wave function P{sub qq}=0.5 is required, thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wave function need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks P{sub qqqq}{approx}10%, which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements for a dressed current model, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wave function. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} TFFs.

  12. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

    1992-04-24

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  13. Signal tracking approach for phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Rahul G; Mishra, Deepak; Sai Subrahmanyam, G R K; Banoth, Earu; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-07-01

    In this research work, we introduce a novel approach for phase estimation from noisy reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry using an unscented Kalman filter. Unlike conventionally used unwrapping algorithms and piecewise polynomial approximation approaches, this paper proposes, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a signal tracking approach for phase estimation. The state space model derived in this approach is inspired from the Taylor series expansion of the phase function as the process model, and polar to Cartesian conversion as the measurement model. We have characterized our approach by simulations and validated the performance on experimental data (holograms) recorded under various practical conditions. Our study reveals that the proposed approach, when compared with various phase estimation methods available in the literature, outperforms at lower SNR values (i.e., especially in the range 0-20 dB). It is demonstrated with experimental data as well that the proposed approach is a better choice for estimating rapidly varying phase with high dynamic range and noise. PMID:25089973

  14. Cavity techniques for holographic data storage recording.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-03-21

    Conventionally, reading and writing of data holograms utilizes a fraction of the light power because of a trade off in write and read efficiencies. This system constraint can be mitigated by applying a resonator cavity. Cavities enable more efficient use of the available light leading to enhanced read and write data rates with no additional energy cost. This enhancement is inversely related to diffraction efficiency, so these techniques work well for large capacity holographic data storage having low diffraction efficiency. The enhancement in write data transfer rate is evaluated by writing plane wave holograms and image bearing holograms in Fe:LiNbO3 with a 532 nm wavelength laser. We confirmed 1.2 times enhancement in write data rate, out of a 1.4 theoretical maximum for materials absorption of 16%. PMID:27136822

  15. Entanglement tsunami: universal scaling in holographic thermalization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Suh, S Josephine

    2014-01-10

    We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, resulting in regimes of pre-local-equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

  16. Properties of DMDs for holographic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Chernyshov, Oleksii

    2015-11-01

    Digital micromirror device's (DMD) properties as being a display device for holographic displays are investigated. High speed, a large separation between reconstructed image and reconstruction beam, two symmetric diffraction patterns, and low intensity (0,0)th-order beam at a blazed grating condition are the desired properties for the displays. The blazed grating condition of a DMD can reconstruct images with higher diffraction efficiency than the line grating condition. DMD's high speed enables to present colors and gray levels to the reconstructed image. However, reconstructed images from a gray-level computer-generated hologram (CGH) and its binary form hologram reveal no noticeable difference between them, except the background noise in the image from the CGH.

  17. Holographic considerations on a Machian Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    MOND theory explains the rotation curves of the galaxies. Verlinde's ideas establish an entropic origin for gravitational forces and Tsallis principle generalizes the theory of Boltzmann-Gibbs. In this work we have promoted a connection between these recent approaches, that at first sight seemed to have few or no points in common, using the Mach's principle as the background. In this way we have used Tsallis formalism to calculate the main parameters of the Machian Universe including the Hubble parameter and the age of the Universe. After that, we have also obtained a new value for the Tsallis parameter via Mach's principle. Using Verlinde's entropic gravity we have obtained new forms for MOND's well established ingredients. Finally, based on the relations between particles and bits obtained here, we have discussed the idea of bits entanglement in the holographic screen.

  18. Investigative study of holographic recording materials development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The potential of certain cis-trans isomers and doped LiNbO3 for the holographic read/write/erase memory application was investigated. The cis-trans work involved the photochemical investigation of a number of potential materials as well as specific molecular engineering efforts on alpha-methyl stilbene and its derivatives. These efforts resulted in an increase in the change in index of refraction, and thereby, in potential recording utility, of an order of magnitude. The work on LiNbO3 was directed toward a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of the writing process. Several samples and a variety of writing conditions were investigated. An unexpected and as yet unexplained improvement in material behavior with continued recycling was observed. In addition, some effort was devoted to an analysis of the physical conditions under which several current theories of the optical damage process are valid.

  19. Noncommutative effects of spacetime on holographic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Debabrata; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-07-01

    The Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue method is employed to analytically investigate the properties of holographic superconductors in higher dimensions in the framework of Born-Infeld electrodynamics incorporating the effects of noncommutative spacetime. In the background of pure Einstein gravity in noncommutative spacetime, we obtain the relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also obtain the value of the condensation operator and the critical exponent. Our findings suggest that the higher value of noncommutative parameter and Born-Infeld parameter make the condensate harder to form. We also observe that the noncommutative structure of spacetime makes the critical temperature depend on the mass of the black hole and higher value of black hole mass is favourable for the formation of the condensate.

  20. Holographic considerations on a Machian Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    MOND theory explains the rotation curves of the galaxies. Verlinde’s ideas establish an entropic origin for gravitational forces and Tsallis principle generalizes the theory of Boltzmann–Gibbs. In this work we have promoted a connection between these recent approaches, that at first sight seemed to have few or no points in common, using the Mach’s principle as the background. In this way we have used Tsallis formalism to calculate the main parameters of the Machian Universe including the Hubble parameter and the age of the Universe. After that, we have also obtained a new value for the Tsallis parameter via Mach’s principle. Using Verlinde’s entropic gravity we have obtained new forms for MOND’s well established ingredients. Finally, based on the relations between particles and bits obtained here, we have discussed the idea of bits entanglement in the holographic screen.

  1. Holographic system for filing and retrieving patents.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, T; Ishikawa, M; Hoshino, I; Iwamoto, A

    1981-09-15

    A large-capacity high-speed holographic system has been developed for filing and retrieving the patent literature. This machine can store 280,000 pages of the Japanese patents journal (or the U.S. Official Gazette) and any one page can be retrieved within 1 sec. A high-resolution TV camera with 2110 scanning lines and a CRT display terminal with 1055 scanning lines were also developed to clearly represent fine drawings and letters in the patents. The system developed is equipped with a momentary 2.6-Mbyte electric one-frame memory for scanning mode conversion. Any image on the CRT can be printed out on a plain sheet of paper with a laser beam printer. PMID:20333108

  2. Holographic p-wave superconductor with disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areán, D.; Farahi, A.; Pando Zayas, L. A.; Salazar Landea, I.; Scardicchio, A.

    2015-07-01

    We implement the effects of disorder on a holographic p-wave superconductor by introducing a random chemical potential which defines the local energy of the charge carriers. Since there are various possibilities for the orientation of the vector order parameter, we explore the behavior of the condensate in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the introduced disorder. We clarify the nature of various branches representing competing solutions and construct the disordered phase diagram. We find that moderate disorder enhances superconductivity as determined by the value of the condensate. Though we mostly focus on uncorrelated noise, we also consider a disorder characterized by its spectral properties and study in detail its influence on the spectral properties of the condensate and charge density. We find fairly universal responses of the resulting power spectra characterized by linear functions of the disorder power spectrum.

  3. Real time moving scene holographic camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A holographic motion picture camera system producing resolution of front surface detail is described. The system utilizes a beam of coherent light and means for dividing the beam into a reference beam for direct transmission to a conventional movie camera and two reflection signal beams for transmission to the movie camera by reflection from the front side of a moving scene. The system is arranged so that critical parts of the system are positioned on the foci of a pair of interrelated, mathematically derived ellipses. The camera has the theoretical capability of producing motion picture holograms of projectiles moving at speeds as high as 900,000 cm/sec (about 21,450 mph).

  4. Astronomical telescope with holographic primary objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Content, David A.

    2011-09-01

    A dual dispersion telescope with a plane grating primary objective was previously disclosed that can overcome intrinsic chromatic aberration of dispersive optics while allowing for unprecedented features such as million object spectroscopy, extraordinary étendue, flat primary objective with a relaxed figure tolerance, gossamer membrane substrate stowable as an unsegmented roll inside a delivery vehicle, and extensibility past 100 meter aperture at optical wavelengths. The novel design meets many criteria for space deployment. Other embodiments are suitable for airborne platforms as well as terrestrial and lunar sites. One problem with this novel telescope is that the grazing exodus configuration necessary to achieve a large aperture is traded for throughput efficiency. Now we show how the hologram of a point source used in place of the primary objective plane grating can improve efficiency by lowering the diffraction angle below grazing exodus. An intermediate refractive element is used to compensate for wavelength dependent focal lengths of the holographic primary objective.

  5. Universal properties of cold holographic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2015-07-01

    We study the collective excitations of holographic quantum liquids formed in the low energy theory living at the intersection of two sets of D-branes. The corresponding field theory dual is a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with massless matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which generically live on a defect of the unflavored theory. Working in the quenched (probe) approximation, we focus on determining the universal properties of these systems. We analyze their thermodynamics, the speed of first sound, the diffusion constant, and the speed of zero sound. We study the influence of temperature, chemical potential, and magnetic field on these quantities, as well as on the corresponding collisionless/hydrodynamic crossover. We also generalize the alternative quantization for all conformally AdS4 cases and study the anyonic correlators.

  6. Electron stars for holographic metallic criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Tavanfar, Alireza

    2011-02-15

    We refer to the ground state of a gravitating, charged ideal fluid of fermions held at a finite chemical potential as an ''electron star.'' In a holographic setting, electron stars are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting finite fermion density systems. We show how electron stars develop an emergent Lifshitz scaling at low energies. This IR scaling region is a consequence of the two-way interaction between emergent quantum critical bosonic modes and the finite density of fermions. By integrating from the IR region to an asymptotically AdS{sub 4} spacetime, we compute basic properties of the electron stars, including their electrical conductivity. We emphasize the challenge of connecting UV and IR physics in strongly interacting finite density systems.

  7. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agón, Cesar A.; Faulkner, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy [1]. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal [2] this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  8. Experimental research of digital holographic microscopic measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xueliang; Chen, Feifei; Li, Jicheng

    2013-06-01

    Digital holography is a new imaging technique, which is developed on the base of optical holography, Digital processing, and Computer techniques. It is using CCD instead of the conventional silver to record hologram, and then reproducing the 3D contour of the object by the way of computer simulation. Compared with the traditional optical holographic, the whole process is of simple measuring, lower production cost, faster the imaging speed, and with the advantages of non-contact real-time measurement. At present, it can be used in the fields of the morphology detection of tiny objects, micro deformation analysis, and biological cells shape measurement. It is one of the research hot spot at home and abroad. This paper introduced the basic principles and relevant theories about the optical holography and Digital holography, and researched the basic questions which influence the reproduce images in the process of recording and reconstructing of the digital holographic microcopy. In order to get a clear digital hologram, by analyzing the optical system structure, we discussed the recording distance and of the hologram. On the base of the theoretical studies, we established a measurement and analyzed the experimental conditions, then adjusted them to the system. To achieve a precise measurement of tiny object in three-dimension, we measured MEMS micro device for example, and obtained the reproduction three-dimensional contour, realized the three dimensional profile measurement of tiny object. According to the experiment results consider: analysis the reference factors between the zero-order term and a pair of twin-images by the choice of the object light and the reference light and the distance of the recording and reconstructing and the characteristics of reconstruction light on the measurement, the measurement errors were analyzed. The research result shows that the device owns certain reliability.

  9. Holographic methods for quality monitoring and stress visualization in biological and mechanical prosthetic heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarubin, Alexander M.; von Bally, Gert; Deiwick, M.; Geiger, A. W.; Scheld, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    A new application of holographic interferometry in biomedicine and bioengineering is presented. Holographic interferometry techniques for non-destructive testing and biomechanical evaluation of prosthetic heart valves are developed, and experimental results obtained with tissue and mechanical values are demonstrated.

  10. Speckle reference beam holographic and speckle photographic interferometry in non-destructive test systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques of speckle beam holographic interferometry and speckle photographic interferometry are described. In particular, their practical limitations and their applications to the existing holographic nondestructive test system are discussed.

  11. Constraining vectors and axial-vectors in walking technicolor by a holographic principle

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Kouvaris, Chris

    2008-09-01

    We use a holographic principle to study the low-energy spectrum of walking technicolor models. In particular, we predict the masses of the axial-vectors as well as the decay constants of vectors and axial-vectors as functions of the mass of the techni-{rho}. Given that there are very few nonperturbative techniques to study strongly coupled theories, using holography might provide us with insight into how to constrain the parameters of the low-energy effective action of walking technicolor models. We also compare our results with findings from other setups.

  12. Holographic implementation of a binary associative memory for improved recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Ajay; Datta, Asit K.

    1998-03-01

    Neural network associate memory has found wide application sin pattern recognition techniques. We propose an associative memory model for binary character recognition. The interconnection strengths of the memory are binary valued. The concept of sparse coding is sued to enhance the storage efficiency of the model. The question of imposed preconditioning of pattern vectors, which is inherent in a sparsely coded conventional memory, is eliminated by using a multistep correlation technique an the ability of correct association is enhanced in a real-time application. A potential optoelectronic implementation of the proposed associative memory is also described. The learning and recall is possible by using digital optical matrix-vector multiplication, where full use of parallelism and connectivity of optics is made. A hologram is used in the experiment as a longer memory (LTM) for storing all input information. The short-term memory or the interconnection weight matrix required during the recall process is configured by retrieving the necessary information from the holographic LTM.

  13. Holographic recording aspects of high-resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berneth, Horst; Bruder, Friedrich K.; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Jurbergs, David; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan

    2011-02-01

    We have been developing a new class of recording materials for volume holography, offering the advantages of full color recording and depth tuning without any chemical or thermal processing, combined with low shrinkage and detuning. These photopolymers are based on the two-chemistry concept in which the writing chemistry is dissolved in a preformed polymeric network. This network gives the necessary mechanical stability to the material prior to recording. In this paper we describe several aspects of holographic recording into Bayfol® HX which are beneficial for its effective use and discuss them within a more elaborate reaction-diffusion model. Inhibition phenomena and the influence of precure are studied within this model and are investigated experimentally for single hologram recording and angular multiplexed hologram recordings. Also the dark reaction after the exposure period and the minimum allowable waiting time for full hologram formation are addressed. The proper understanding of these phenomena is important for the optimal usage of these new materials, in for example step-and-repeat mass production of holograms.

  14. [The holographic principle of the systemic organization of vital activity processes].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    1997-01-01

    Holographic properties of vital activities are considered. The holographic properties are shown to reveal itselves in functional systems of different levels of organization. Separate elements from different functional systems reflect the condition of final useful results in their rhythmical activities. The interaction of leading motivation and reinforcement proceeds according to holographic principle. Holographic homology is revealed in systemic interactions of individuals with environments and in systemic populations' organizations with environment.

  15. Sol-Gel Glass Holographic Light-Shaping Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Savant, Gajendra; Yin, Khin Swe (Lillian)

    2005-01-01

    Holographic glass light-shaping diffusers (GLSDs) are optical components for use in special-purpose illumination systems (see figure). When properly positioned with respect to lamps and areas to be illuminated, holographic GLSDs efficiently channel light from the lamps onto specified areas with specified distributions of illumination for example, uniform or nearly uniform irradiance can be concentrated with intensity confined to a peak a few degrees wide about normal incidence, over a circular or elliptical area. Holographic light diffusers were developed during the 1990s. The development of the present holographic GLSDs extends the prior development to incorporate sol-gel optical glass. To fabricate a holographic GLSD, one records a hologram on a sol-gel silica film formulated specially for this purpose. The hologram is a quasi-random, micro-sculpted pattern of smoothly varying changes in the index of refraction of the glass. The structures in this pattern act as an array of numerous miniature lenses that refract light passing through the GLSD, such that the transmitted light beam exhibits a precisely tailored energy distribution. In comparison with other light diffusers, holographic GLSDs function with remarkably high efficiency: they typically transmit 90 percent or more of the incident lamp light onto the designated areas. In addition, they can withstand temperatures in excess of 1,000 C. These characteristics make holographic GLSDs attractive for use in diverse lighting applications that involve high temperatures and/or requirements for high transmission efficiency for ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light. Examples include projectors, automobile headlights, aircraft landing lights, high-power laser illuminators, and industrial and scientific illuminators.

  16. Holographic Scaling and Dynamical Gauge Effects in Disordered Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelke, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    Quantum systems with strong disorder, and those far from equilibrium or interacting with a thermal reservior, present unique challenges in a range of physical contexts, from non-relativistic condensed-matter settings, such as in study of localization phenomena, to relativistic cosmology and the study of fundamental interactions. Recently, two related concepts, that of the entropy of entanglement, and the controversial suggestion of entropic emergent gravity, have shed insight on several long-standing questions along these lines, suggesting that strongly disordered systems with causal barriers (either relativistic or those with Lieb-Robinson-like bounds) can be understood using holographic principles in combination with the equivalence between quantum vacuua thermal baths via the Unruh effect. I will discuss a range of experiments performed within a strong, topologically disordered medium for neutral atoms which simultaneously introduces quenched disorder for spin and mass transport, and provides simple mechanisms for open coupling to various types of dissipative baths. Under conditions in which a subset of quantum states are continuously decoupled from the thermal bath, dark state effects lead to slow light phenomena mimicking gravitational lensing in general relativity in a characterizable table-top disordered medium. Non-equilibrium steady-states are observed in direct analogy with the evaporation of gravitational singularities, and we observe scaling behaviors that can be directly connected to holographic measures of the information contained in disorder. Finally, I will show how a dynamic-gauge-field picture of this and similar systems can lead to a natural description of non-equilibrium and disordered phenomena, and how it provides some advantages over the Harris and Luck criteria for describing critical phenomena. Connections between out-of-equilibrium dynamics and some long-unresolved issues concerning the existence of a gauge-boson mass gap in certain Yang

  17. Complex Nanoscale-Ordered Liquid Crystal Polymer Film for High Transmittance Holographic Polarizer.

    PubMed

    Du, Tao; Fan, Fan; Tam, Alwin Ming Wai; Sun, Jiatong; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Sing Kwok, Hoi

    2015-11-25

    A special design of a complex-ordered liquid crystal polymer film is developed into a holographic polarizer. The holographic polarizer shows over 90% transmittance, which provides a simple solution to make LEDs polarized. Furthermore, the holographic polarizer exhibits intensity and polarization maintenance properties, which could be further developed for photonics applications.

  18. Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Cammack, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    proposed joint-transform optical correlator (JTOC) would be capable of operating as a real-time pattern-recognition processor. The key correlation-filter reading/writing medium of this JTOC would be an updateable holographic photopolymer. The high-resolution, high-speed characteristics of this photopolymer would enable pattern-recognition processing to occur at a speed three orders of magnitude greater than that of state-of-the-art digital pattern-recognition processors. There are many potential applications in biometric personal identification (e.g., using images of fingerprints and faces) and nondestructive industrial inspection. In order to appreciate the advantages of the proposed JTOC, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of a conventional JTOC. In a conventional JTOC (shown in the upper part of the figure), a collimated laser beam passes through two side-by-side spatial light modulators (SLMs). One SLM displays a real-time input image to be recognized. The other SLM displays a reference image from a digital memory. A Fourier-transform lens is placed at its focal distance from the SLM plane, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector is placed at the back focal plane of the lens for use as a square-law recorder. Processing takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the CCD records the interference pattern between the Fourier transforms of the input and reference images, and the pattern is then digitized and saved in a buffer memory. In the second stage, the reference SLM is turned off and the interference pattern is fed back to the input SLM. The interference pattern thus becomes Fourier-transformed, yielding at the CCD an image representing the joint-transform correlation between the input and reference images. This image contains a sharp correlation peak when the input and reference images are matched. The drawbacks of a conventional JTOC are the following: The CCD has low spatial resolution and is not an ideal square

  19. Holographic Schwinger effect and chiral condensate in SYM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoroku, Kazuo; Ishihara, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    We study the instability, for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, caused by the external electric field through the imaginary part of the action of the D7 probe brane, which is embedded in the background of type IIB theory. This instability is related to the Schwinger effect, namely to the quark pair production due to the external electric field, for the SU( N c ) SYM theories. In this holographic approach, it is possible to calculate the Schwinger effect for various phases of the theories. Here we give the calculation for {N}=2 SYM theory and the analysis is extended to the finite temperature deconfinement and the zero temperature confinement phases of the Yang-Mills (YM) theory. By comparing the obtained production rates with the one of the supersymmetric case, the dynamical quark mass is estimated and we find how it varies with the chiral condensate. Based on this analysis, we give a speculation on the extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to the finite temperature YM theory, and four fermi coupling is evaluated in the confinement theory.

  20. Single particle atmospheric aerosol analysis using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Cojocaru, Ruxandra Elena; Kusko, C.; Toanca, Flori; Dinescu, A.; Schiopu, P.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research is to calculate the refractive index of transparent atmospheric aerosols, which have biological origin, using a digital holographic microscopy technique (DHM). The samples are collected on filters, using miniature impactors for particles with dimensions smaller than 10μm (on even one axis), from a height of over 20 meters, in Magurele, a rural location near the urban and industrial agglomeration of the capital city, Bucharest. Due to their organic or inorganic origin, each atmospheric aerosol particle has different size, shape and optical properties which have a determinant role in LIDAR measurements. We record on a CCD camera hundreds of holograms which contain the diffraction pattern from every aerosol particle superposed with the reference wave. Digitally, we scan the entire volume of one particle with nanometric resolution (using an algorithm based on the Fresnel approximation). The calibration was done using an object with known dimensions fabricated by e-beam lithography and some complementary measurements were done in confocal microscopy. Our analysis separates four main classes of atmospheric aerosols particles (wires, columns, spherical fragments, and irregular). The predominant class in the investigated period is the first one, which has biological origin and the refractive index was calculated starting from the phase shift introduced by them in the optical path and models for their cylindrical shape. The influence of spatial filtering in the reconstructed object images was investigated.

  1. Massively Parallel Atomic Force Microscope with Digital Holographic Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sache, L.; Kawakatsu, H.; Emery, Y.; Bleuler, H.

    2007-03-01

    Massively Parallel Scanning Probe Microscopy is an obvious path for data storage (E Grochowski, R F Hoyt, Future Trends in Hard disc Drives, IEEE Trans. Magn. 1996, 32, 1850- 1854; J L Griffin, S W Schlosser, G R Ganger and D F Nagle, Modeling and Performance of MEMS-Based Storage Devices, Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000). Current experimental systems still lay far behind Hard Disc Drive (HDD) or Digital Video Disk (DVD), be it in access speed, data throughput, storage density or cost per bit. This paper presents an entirely new approach with the promise to break several of these barriers. The key idea is readout of a Scanning Probes Microscope (SPM) array by Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). This technology directly gives phase information at each pixel of a CCD array. This means that no contact line to each individual SPM probes is needed. The data is directly available in parallel form. Moreover, the optical setup needs in principle no expensive components, optical (or, to a large extent, mechanical) imperfections being compensated in the signal processing, i.e. in electronics. This gives the system the potential for a low cost device with fast Terabit readout capability.

  2. Holographic Schwinger effect and chiral condensate in SYM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoroku, Kazuo; Ishihara, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    We study the instability, for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, caused by the external electric field through the imaginary part of the action of the D7 probe brane, which is embedded in the background of type IIB theory. This instability is related to the Schwinger effect, namely to the quark pair production due to the external electric field, for the SU( N c ) SYM theories. In this holographic approach, it is possible to calculate the Schwinger effect for various phases of the theories. Here we give the calculation for N=2 SYM theory and the analysis is extended to the finite temperature deconfinement and the zero temperature confinement phases of the Yang-Mills (YM) theory. By comparing the obtained production rates with the one of the supersymmetric case, the dynamical quark mass is estimated and we find how it varies with the chiral condensate. Based on this analysis, we give a speculation on the extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to the finite temperature YM theory, and four fermi coupling is evaluated in the confinement theory.

  3. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of microvascular blood flow.

    PubMed

    Magnain, C; Castel, A; Boucneau, T; Simonutti, M; Ferezou, I; Rancillac, A; Vitalis, T; Sahel, J A; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2014-12-01

    We report on local superficial blood flow monitoring in biological tissue from laser Doppler holographic imaging. In time-averaging recording conditions, holography acts as a narrowband bandpass filter, which, combined with a frequency-shifted reference beam, permits frequency-selective imaging in the radio frequency range. These Doppler images are acquired with an off-axis Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Microvascular hemodynamic components mapping is performed in the cerebral cortex of the mouse and the eye fundus of the rat with near-infrared laser light without any exogenous marker. These measures are made from a basic inverse-method analysis of local first-order optical fluctuation spectra at low radio frequencies, from 0 Hz to 100 kHz. Local quadratic velocity is derived from Doppler broadenings induced by fluid flows, with elementary diffusing wave spectroscopy formalism in backscattering configuration. We demonstrate quadratic mean velocity assessment in the 0.1-10 mm/s range in vitro and imaging of superficial blood perfusion with a spatial resolution of about 10 micrometers in rodent models of cortical and retinal blood flow.

  4. Holographic data storage: science fiction or science fact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Askham, Fred; Sissom, Brad

    2014-09-01

    To compete in the archive and backup industries, holographic data storage must be highly competitive in four critical areas: total cost of ownership (TCO), cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. New holographic technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2-4Tbit/in2, up to 200MB/s transfer rates, and media costs less than $10/TB in the next few years. Additional advantages include more than a 3x lower TCO than LTO, a 3.5x decrease in volumetric footprint, 30ms random access times, and 50 year archive life. At these bit densities, 4.5 Petabytes of uncompressed user data could be stored in a 19" rack system. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year. Keywords: holographic

  5. Holographic display system for restoration of sight to the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, G. A.; Mandel, Y.; Manivanh, R.; Palanker, D. V.; Čižmár, T.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We present a holographic near-the-eye display system enabling optical approaches for sight restoration to the blind, such as photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, optogenetic and other photoactivation techniques. We compare it with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) or digital light processing (DLP)-based displays in terms of image quality, field of view, optical efficiency and safety. Approach. We detail the optical configuration of the holographic display system and its characterization using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Main results. We describe approaches to controlling the zero diffraction order and speckle related issues in holographic display systems and assess the image quality of such systems. We show that holographic techniques offer significant advantages in terms of peak irradiance and power efficiency, and enable designs that are inherently safer than LCD or DLP-based systems. We demonstrate the performance of our holographic display system in the assessment of cortical response to alternating gratings projected onto the retinas of rats. Significance. We address the issues associated with the design of high brightness, near-the-eye display systems and propose solutions to the efficiency and safety challenges with an optical design which could be miniaturized and mounted onto goggles.

  6. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  7. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  8. Increased Capabilities for Conventional Lidars using Holographic Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Hammond, Marc; Wickwar, Vincent B.

    1998-01-01

    While the field of holographic optics is relatively new, and numerous applications are still being devised and tested, there are good prospects that the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) may revolutionize the design and applications of optical systems in various fields. This paper is not a review of HOE developments, but rather an account of a particular application, namely the extension of the scanning capabilities of conventional telescopes-in particular, lidar receivers-by means of special holographic accessories. As originally described and in a patent, and in several subsequent publications the HOE lidar was based on the concept of building into the holographic element (either a transmitting one or a reflecting one) all the optical power needed to focus a lidar return to a detector at the HOE's focal point, as well as subjecting the lidar return to both angular deflection and wavelength selection. Results will be reported on the use of Holographic Transmission Gratings (HTGs) at 532 nm and 770 nm at 45 deg. cone angle, both in the laboratory and in the atmosphere at Utah State University.

  9. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  10. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-29

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  11. Performances of new green sensitive liquid photopolymers for volume phase holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Zerbi, Filippo M.

    2012-03-01

    Liquid photopolymers produced by Polygrama-Lynx (SM-532TR and SM-532TRF) have been studied to determine their performances in terms of refractive index modulation, transparency and overall optical quality. Volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) based on these materials have been obtained using a 532 DPSS laser and the grating efficiency has been measured at different angles and wavelengths. Using the Kogelnik model and/or the RCWA approach, the thickness and the refractive index modulation has been determined for gratings as function of light exposure, line density, etc. Index modulations up to 0.03 together with good optical quality were obtained.

  12. Demonstration of a multiwave coherent holographic beam combiner in a polymeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, H. N.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Heifetz, A.; Shen, J. T.; Lee, J.-K.; Tripathi, R.; Shahriar, M. S.

    2005-11-01

    We demonstrate an efficient coherent holographic beam combiner (CHBC) that uses angle multiplexing of gratings in a thick polymeric substrate. Our experimental results compare well with the theoretical model based on the coupled-wave theory of multiwave mixing in a passive medium. A CHBC of this type may prove useful in producing a high-power laser by combining amplified beams produced by splitting a master oscillator. Furthermore, the ability to angle multiplex a large number of beams enables a CHBC to be used in multiple-beam interferometry applications as a high-precision surface sensor.

  13. Holographic Interferometry Applied To External Osteosynthesis : Comparative Analysis Of The Performances Of External Fixation Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Pierre; Rastogi, Pramod K.; Pflug, Leopold

    1983-10-01

    The use of external osteosynthesis in the healing and the management of fractured bones is in rapid progression. The method employs an external rigid frame which is mounted to keep the fractured bones in state of immobilisation by means of percutaneous transfixing pins traversing the bones. In this paper, holographic interferometry is used to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the ball-joint - a central element in the fixation frame - sub-jected to realistic loads. Besides, the work has permitted to compare several models of this piece (of comparable handiness) as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping.

  14. Holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Jiliang; Wang Liancheng; Pan Qiyuan; Chen Songbai

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We find that the Gauss-Bonnet constant, the model parameters, and the Born-Infeld coupling parameter will affect the formation of the scalar hair, the transition point of the phase transition from the second order to the first order, and the relation connecting the gap frequency in conductivity with the critical temperature. The combination of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and the Born-Infeld electrodynamics provides richer physics in the phase transition and the condensation of the scalar hair.

  15. Temperature dependence properties of holographic gratings in phenanthrenquinone doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymers.

    PubMed

    Russo, Juan Manuel; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2007-10-20

    We examine the temperature dependence of edge-illuminated holographic filters formed in phenanthrenquinone doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ/PMMA) operating at 1550 nm. It was found that the thermally induced change to the refractive index and volume can be used to select the wavelength filtered by the grating. The temperature can be varied over a range of 15 degrees C without introducing noticeable hysteresis effects. The wavelength can be tuned at a rate of 0.03 nm/degrees C over this temperature range. A model for the temperature tuning effect is presented and compared to experimental results.

  16. Progress in holographic applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, December 5, 6, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbeni, Jean (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on a holographic recording material containing poly-n-vinylcarbozole, photoelectrochemical etching of holographic gratings in semiconductors, the analysis and construction of powered reflection holographic optical elements, achromatic display holograms in dichromated gelatin, and image blurring in display holograms and in holographic optical elements. Topics discussed include two-dimensional optical beam switching techniques using dynamnic holography, a new holographic interferometer with monomode fibers for integrated optics applications, computer controlled holography, and the copying of holograms using incoherent light. Consideration is given to holography of very far objects, rainbow holography with a multimode laser source, and the use of an endoscope for optical fiber holography.

  17. Research of properties of the holographic screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, Dmitry Sergeevich; Odinokov, Sergey Borisovich; Markin, Vladimir Vasilievich

    2011-06-01

    Holographic screen (HS) is designed for using in 3D displays. HS is produced as a hologram of converging light wave and it presents an interference pattern of the reference and the object beams as a diffraction grating with variable pitch registered in the recording medium. While a color image is projected on such screen the problem of perception of the undistorted color image by the observer is appeared (due to the inherent angular dispersion of a grating with different values for different wavelengths) because the observation zones are displaced in space for each spectrum section. The problem is solved due to recording the HS by the object beam from the set of point sources, i.e. recording lengthy in the appropriate direction diffuser. With this type of HS, the observation zones, providing an undistorted perception of full-color images, are located in the imposition of lengthy images of projectors' pupils corresponding to different spectral components of projectors' radiation beams. To form an image, different projectors can be used in the display: slide projectors, video projectors based on LCD- or DMD-panels, etc. Three-dimensional images of both static and dynamic scenes can be viewed as video films at the appropriate information flows synchronization which are received by the projector from external sources.

  18. Holographic entanglement renormalization of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Lopes, Pedro L. S.; Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-08-01

    We study the real-space entanglement renormalization group flows of topological band insulators in (2+1) dimensions by using the continuum multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (cMERA). Given the ground state of a Chern insulator, we construct and study its cMERA by paying attention, in particular, to how the bulk holographic geometry and the Berry curvature depend on the topological properties of the ground state. It is found that each state defined at different energy scale of cMERA carries a nonzero Berry flux, which is emanated from the UV layer of cMERA, and flows towards the IR. Hence, a topologically nontrivial UV state flows under the renormalization group to an IR state, which is also topologically nontrivial. On the other hand, we found that there is an obstruction to construct the exact ground state of a topological insulator with a topologically trivial IR state. That is, if we try to construct a cMERA for the ground state of a Chern insulator by taking a topologically trivial IR state, the resulting cMERA does not faithfully reproduce the exact ground state at all length scales.

  19. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  20. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  1. Unitarity and the holographic S-Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared

    2012-10-01

    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators {{{O}}_1} and {{{O}}_2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary {{{O}}_{{\\varDelta, ell }}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  2. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    High density optical data storage, driven by the information revolution, remains at the forefront of current research areas. Much of the current research has focused on photorefractive materials (SBN and LiNbO3) and polymers, despite various problems with expense, durability, response time and retention periods. Photon echo techniques, though promising, are questionable due to the need for cryogenic conditions. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are an attractive alternative recording medium. Great strides have been made in refining BR, and materials with storage lifetimes as long as 100 days have recently become available. The ability to deposit this robust polycrystalline material as high quality optical films suggests the use of BR as a recording medium for commercial optical disks. Our own recent research has demonstrated the suitability of BR films for real time spatial filtering and holography. We propose to fully investigate the feasibility of performing holographic mass data storage in BR. Important aspects of the problem to be investigated include various data multiplexing techniques (e.g. angle- amplitude- and phase-encoded multiplexing, and in particular shift-multiplexing), multilayer recording techniques, SLM selection and data readout using crossed polarizers for noise rejection. Systems evaluations of storage parameters, including access times, memory refresh constraints, erasure, signal-to-noise ratios and bit error rates, will be included in our investigations.

  3. Extremely simple holographic projection of color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Michal; Ducin, Izabela; Kakarenko, Karol; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Sypek, Maciej

    2012-03-01

    A very simple scheme of holographic projection is presented with some experimental results showing good quality image projection without any imaging lens. This technique can be regarded as an alternative to classic projection methods. It is based on the reconstruction real images from three phase iterated Fourier holograms. The illumination is performed with three laser beams of primary colors. A divergent wavefront geometry is used to achieve an increased throw angle of the projection, compared to plane wave illumination. Light fibers are used as light guidance in order to keep the setup as simple as possible and to provide point-like sources of high quality divergent wave-fronts at optimized position against the light modulator. Absorbing spectral filters are implemented to multiplex three holograms on a single phase-only spatial light modulator. Hence color mixing occurs without any time-division methods, which cause rainbow effects and color flicker. The zero diffractive order with divergent illumination is practically invisible and speckle field is effectively suppressed with phase optimization and time averaging techniques. The main advantages of the proposed concept are: a very simple and highly miniaturizable configuration; lack of lens; a single LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) modulator; a strong resistance to imperfections and obstructions of the spatial light modulator like dead pixels, dust, mud, fingerprints etc.; simple calculations based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) easily processed in real time mode with GPU (Graphic Programming).

  4. Potentiality of holographic technique in fragile watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; De Santis, Michele

    2006-02-01

    Fragile watermark is designed to detect slight changes to the watermarked image with high probability. In the security community, an integrity service is unambiguously defined as one, which insures that the sent and received data are identical. This binary definition can also be applicable to images; however it is too strict and not well adapted to this type of digital document. Indeed, in real life situations, images will be transformed. Their pixel values will therefore be modified but not the actual semantic meaning of the image. In order to provide an authentication service for still images, it is important to distinguish between malicious manipulations, which consist of changing the content of the original image such as captions or faces, and manipulations related to the use of an image, such as format conversion, compression, filtering, and so on. Unfortunately this distinction is not always clear; it partly depends on the type of image and its use. Scope of this paper is to present potentiality of Holographic technique in fragile watermarking for digital image authentication of medical or military images.

  5. Holographic optical elements by dry photopolymer embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Felix P.

    1991-07-01

    New dry photopolymer embossing (DPE) technology was developed recently at Du Pont to replicate highly efficient, deep groove surface relief holographic optical elements (HOEs). DPE technology utilizes Du Pont proprietary materials and processes to replicate with very high degree of precision almost any kind of surface relief or embossed holograms. Very sophisticated embossed HOEs with the width/depth aspect ratio of 1:20 were faithfully replicated by this technology. Dimensions of the replicated grooves or other structures vary from 0.1 micrometers to 3.5 micrometers . Such HOEs can be produced in different geometrical configurations and sizes, which are actually dictated by the master hologram. Embossed HOEs can be fabricated on a plastic film or sheet substrate of different types, thicknesses and shapes. Also glass and other inorganic materials can be used as substrates for these deep groove HOEs. To replicate high quality HOEs the master hologram must be recorded in metal, glass, or other hard surface material. DPE technology may provide substantial technological and economical advantage over existing conventional replication processes, such as injection molding, thermo-embossing, reaction molding or 2P (photo-polymerization) process, in replication of different types of embossed holograms and surface relief HOEs.

  6. Notes on properties of holographic strange metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Pang, Da-Wei

    2010-11-01

    We investigate properties of holographic strange metals in p+2 dimensions, generalizing the analysis performed in [S. A. Hartnoll J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 04 (2010) 120]. The bulk spacetime is a p+2-dimensional Lifshitz black hole, while the role of charge carriers is played by probe D-branes. We mainly focus on massless charge carriers, where most of the results can be obtained analytically. We obtain exact results for the free energy and calculate the entropy density and the heat capacity, as well as the speed of sound at low temperature. We obtain the DC conductivity and DC Hall conductivity and find that the DC conductivity takes a universal form in the large density limit, while the Hall conductivity is also universal in all dimensions. We also study the resistivity in different limits and clarify the condition for the linear dependence on the temperature, which is a key feature of strange metals. We show that our results for the DC conductivity are consistent with those obtained via the Kubo formula and we obtain the charge diffusion constant analytically. The corresponding properties of massive charge carriers are also discussed in brief.

  7. Holographic zero sound at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Richard A.; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2012-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study the temperature dependence of the zero sound mode and the fundamental matter diffusion mode in the strongly coupled N=4 SU(Nc) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with Nf N=2 hypermultiplets in the Nc≫1, Nc≫Nf limit, which is holographically realized via the D3/D7 brane system. In the high density limit μ≫T, three regimes can be identified in the behavior of these modes, analogous to the collisionless quantum, collisionless thermal, and hydrodynamic regimes of a Landau Fermi liquid. The transitions between the three regimes are characterized by the parameters T/μ and (T/μ)2, respectively, and in each of these regimes the modes have a distinctively different temperature and momentum dependence. The collisionless-hydrodynamic transition occurs when the zero sound poles of the density-density correlator in the complex frequency plane collide on the imaginary axis to produce a hydrodynamic diffusion pole. We observe that the properties characteristic of a Landau Fermi-liquid zero sound mode are present in the D3/D7 system despite the atypical T6/μ3 temperature scaling of the specific heat and an apparent lack of a directly identifiable Fermi surface.

  8. Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  9. Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

  10. A holographic description of negative energy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Da-Shin; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2016-09-01

    Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the expectation value of stress tensor in 2 + 1-dimensional quantum critical theories with a general dynamical scaling z, and explore various constrains on negative energy density for strongly coupled field theories. The holographic dual theory is the theory of gravity in 3+1-dimensional Lifshitz backgrounds. We adopt a consistent approach to obtain the boundary stress tensor from bulk construction, which satisfies the trace Ward identity associated with Lifshitz scaling symmetry. In particular, the boundary stress tensor, constructed from the gravitational wave deformed Lifshitz geometry, is found up to second order in gravitational wave perturbations. The result is compared to its counterpart in free scalar field theory at the same order in an expansion of small squeezing parameters. This allows us to relate the boundary values of gravitational waves to the squeezing parameters of squeezed vacuum states. We find that, in both cases with z = 1, the stress tensor satisfies the averaged null energy condition, and is consistent with the quantum interest conjecture. Moreover, the negative lower bound on null-contracted stress tensor, which is averaged over time-like trajectories along nearly null directions, is obtained. We find a weaker constraint on the magnitude and duration of negative null energy density in strongly coupled field theory as compared with the constraint in free relativistic field theory. The implications are discussed.

  11. Development of optical systems. [holographic technique for monitoring crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1995-01-01

    Several key aspects of multi-color holography and laser speckle technique to study holographic reconstructions are considered in the report. Holographic fringe contrast in two-color holography in the presence of a fluid cell in the object beam is discussed in detail. A specific example of triglycine sulfate crystal growth is also considered. A breadboard design using fiber optics and diode lasers for three-color holography for fluid experiments is presented. A possible role of multi-color holography in various new applications is summarized. Finally, the use of a a laser speckle technique is demonstrated for the study of holographic reconstructions. The demonstration is performed using a Spacelab 3 hologram.

  12. Holographic Labeling And Reading Machine For Authentication And Security Appications

    DOEpatents

    Weber, David C.; Trolinger, James D.

    1999-07-06

    A holographic security label and automated reading machine for marking and subsequently authenticating any object such as an identification badge, a pass, a ticket, a manufactured part, or a package is described. The security label is extremely difficult to copy or even to read by unauthorized persons. The system comprises a holographic security label that has been created with a coded reference wave, whose specification can be kept secret. The label contains information that can be extracted only with the coded reference wave, which is derived from a holographic key, which restricts access of the information to only the possessor of the key. A reading machine accesses the information contained in the label and compares it with data stored in the machine through the application of a joint transform correlator, which is also equipped with a reference hologram that adds additional security to the procedure.

  13. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  14. High-resolution adaptive holographic interferometer for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovgalenko, George; Dagdanova, Ayuna

    2007-07-01

    We realized new adaptive holographic sensor and interferometer, which allows to visualize high-resolution 3D images of diffuse reflected objects in Continue Hologram Registration Regime- CHRR. The coupled laser wave nonlinear theory was applied for optimization of hologram recording in crystals symmetry 23 and optimized experimental set up. Experimentally demonstrated dynamical holographic image sensors on doped 23 symmetry photosensitive crystals, with resolution 7900-lines/mm at 632 nm and 11641 lines/mm at 440 nm for 15 mW CW HeNe and He-Cd lasers. The results are presented for holographic visualization of Cryogenic and Ultrasonic near field images of Surgical Medical Instrument. Application of CHRR interferometer for hologram registration of moving biological object in "vivo" is illustrated.

  15. Application of holographic optical techniques to bulk memory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Current efforts to exploit the spatial redundancy and built-in imaging of holographic optical techniques to provide high information densities without critical alignment and tight mechanical tolerances are reviewed. Read-write-erase in situ operation is possible but is presently impractical because of limitations in available recording media. As these are overcome, it should prove feasible to build holographic bulk memories with mechanically replaceable hologram plates featuring very fast (less than 2 microsec) random access to large (greater than 100 million bit) data blocks and very high throughput (greater than 500 Mbit/sec). Using volume holographic storage it may eventually be possible to realize random-access mass memories which require no mechanical motion and yet provide very high capacity.

  16. Digital holographic video for studies of plankton dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, V. V.; Olshukov, A. S.; Dzyuba, E. V.

    2011-01-01

    The procedure, capabilities, and applicability limits of digital holographic video for the determination of the velocity and reconstruction of the trajectory of motion of plankton species in the habitat are considered. Results of experimental investigations of zooplankton in laboratory conditions are presented. Two species that differ by the morphology and sizes are examined, including Epischura baicalensis for the trajectory construction and Daphnia magna for an experiment on dual-view hologram recording. The position of a plankton species in the examined volume is suggested to be determined based on the coordinates of the center of gravity of its holographic image. Preliminary results of recording of a dual-view digital holographic video of plankton species are discussed.

  17. Application of the holographic interferometry in transport phenomena studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Lucic, A.

    This article provides an overview of all the experimental research studies in the field of heat and mass transfer by means of the holographic interferometry which were performed under the supervision of Professor Franz Mayinger during his professorship. The principle objective of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge base of the heat and mass transfer processes in various fields as well as to illustrate the capabilities of the holographic interferometry. Investigations of the heat transfer pattern in grooved channels and in various geometries of compact heat exchangers, drying processes of a dispersed, water-based varnish on paper, mixed convection in bent ducts, the growth and condensation of vapor bubbles in subcooled boiling and the simultaneous heat and mass transfer are presented. The results of all these studies demonstrate the successful application of the holographic interferometry and Professor Mayinger's highly valuable contribution in this area.

  18. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  19. Proposed smart integrated-optical preprocessor using holographic subtraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a proposed integrated-optical preprocessor with a holographic subtraction. It is based on an optical analog of a set of N analog voltages formed by passing an optical plane wave, confined in an electrooptic waveguide, under a set of N electrodes to which the voltages are applied; in the limit in which diffraction is ignored, the wavefront of the emerging guided wave will have superimposed upon it N discrete phase shifts. Processors which operate upon voltages encoded in this manner are being fabricated; they include a comparator in which incoming data are compared to a holographic record of the optical analog of a reference set, and a 'smart' system based upon holographic self-subtraction, in which the processor can independently adapt to changes in background information. The preprocessor operation is described in the screening, identification, and the self-subtraction modes, and implementation of devices in an integrated optical configuration is discussed.

  20. Application Of Holographic Interferometry To Shock Wave Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, K.

    1983-10-01

    Paper reports a successful application of holographic interferometry to the shock wave research. Four topics are discussed; i) transonic flow over an aerofoil, ii) shock wave propagation and diffraction past a circular cross-sectional 90° bend and two-dimensional straight or curved wedges, iii) stability of converging cylindrical shock waves and iv) propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. Experiments were conducted on shock tubes equipped with a double exposure holographic interferometer. In each case isopycnics around shock waves were determined and three-dimensional shock wave interactions were also observed. Results are not only bringing forth new interesting findings to the shock wave research but also showing a further potentiality of holographic interferometry to the high speed gasdynamic study.

  1. A new entropic force scenario and holographic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei; Li, Miao; Miao, RongXin

    2011-11-01

    We propose a new holographic program of gravity in which we introduce a surface stress tensor. Our proposal differs from Verlinde's in several aspects. First, we use an open or a closed screen. Second, the temperature is not necessary, but a surface energy density and pressure are introduced. The surface stress tensor is proportional to the extrinsic curvature. Third, the energy we use is Brown-York energy and the equipartition theorem is violated by a non-vanishing surface pressure. We discuss holographic thermodynamics of a gas of weak gravity and find a chemical potential, and then show that Verlinde's program does not lead to reasonable thermodynamics. The holographic entropy is similar to the Bekenstein entropy bound.

  2. [Holographic analysis of displacement of the bovine cornea after disruption of intact structures].

    PubMed

    Förster, W; Kasprzak, H; von Bally, G; Busse, H

    1992-12-01

    Displacement of the surface of the cornea of bovine eyes after disruption of intact structures was investigated by means of holographic interferometry. Double-T-incisions of different depths were made with a diamond knife. Starting at about 80% of the incision depth there is a change in the central holographic interference fringe pattern. These effects can be clearly demonstrated by means of double-exposure holographic interferometry and real-time holographic interferometry. The stability of an existing corneal scar was analyzed by double-exposure holographic interferometry. The region of the scar showed a higher density of holographic interference fringes compared with the non-affected corneal areas, indicating a higher degree of elasticity. All eyes were investigated at an intraocular pressure of 1340 Pa (about 10 mmHg) and an intraocular pressure change of 10 Pa and 20 Pa. Further potential ophthalmic applications of holographic interferometry are discussed.

  3. Simplest holographic technique: unsurpassed features very friendly to practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-12-01

    Holography and holographic interferometry in spite of their attractive features are rather rarely used for industrial inspections of products and components or in medical practice due to relative complexity, costs, lengthy multi- stage procedures, need of dark rooms and vibration insulation. But the most of these drawbacks might be avoided if momental holography on silver halide (SH) media is involved. Momental technique simplifies drastically the holographic process and ensures quasi real time or real time (in situ) bright reconstructions from holograms, real time or double exposure holographic interferograms. This technique permits the user to avoid dark rooms and to work with standard office or industrial illumination of 0.5 klx or even much more. Moreover, very bright holograms and holographic interferograms might be obtained also in the street in a diffused daylight or even under strong direct sunlight illumination. High quality off-axis and reflection holograms, interferograms, HOE were obtained utilizing ruby, semiconductor, He-Ne and Ar laser sources. Agfa-Gevaert 8 E 75 HD films and plates, Russian PFG-03 and PFG-03 C (color) plates were used as recording media. Different levels of external polychromatic illumination were applied to holograms and holographic interferograms during production. Extremely high levels (more than 50 klx) were also tested. Bright holographic reconstructions were obtained even in such unpromising environment. Photographic images from such holograms are presented. One of the holograms was momentally photoprocessed in the light of projector (a few klx) during presentation of this paper at the conference 'Holographic and Diffractive Techniques' in Berlin. Another unique feature of the technique: extremely long-term storage of holographic data on SH media in latent form is shown. It relates both to holograms recorded with cw lasers and to those recorded with pulsed laser sources. The latter case is the most interesting because it was

  4. Determination of Young's modulus of silica aerogels using holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikode, Prashant P.; Sabale, Sandip R.; Vhatkar, Rajiv S.

    2016-05-01

    Digital holographic interferometry technique is used to determine elastic modulus of silica aerogels. Tetramethoxysilane precursor based Silica aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel process followed by supercritical methanol drying. The alcogels were prepared by keeping the molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane: methyltrimethoxysilane: H2O constant at 1:0.6:4 while the methanol / tetramethoxysilane molar ratio (M) was varied systematically from 12 to 18. Holograms of translucent aerogel samples have been successfully recorded using the digital holographic interferometry technique. Stimulated digital interferograms gives localization of interference fringes on the aerogel surface and these fringes are used to determine the surface deformation and Young's modulus (Y) of the aerogels.

  5. Holographic recording materials development. [using stilbene, indigo, and thioindigo derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The area of organic cis-trans photoisomerization systems for holographic memory applications was examined. Photochemical studies were made of stilbene, indigo, and thioindigo derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials, to optimize the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. Lithium niobate was used to study the writing and reading efficiencies of thick phase holograms. Both phase-wave holograms and Fourier-transform holograms were employed, and a number of reconstruction techniques are discussed. The possibility of using cis-trans photoisomerization of appropriate organic chemicals as the basis for a holographic recording system is confirmed.

  6. Holographic gratings for spectrographic applications: Study of abberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Manjit S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program was developed that determines the optimum holographic grating recording parameters as a function of optical instrumental parameters and desired wavelength range for Seya-Namioka monochromator mountings. The theory and basic equations for designing holographic concave gratings such that minimization of aberrations of astigmatism or coma over a desired wavelength range may be achieved are presented. The computer program is described, including all of the subroutines. The input data, definitions of terms, and data card description are presented. An example is summarized for using the program and the output data is described in detail.

  7. Airborne digital holographic system for cloud particle measurements.

    PubMed

    Fugal, Jacob P; Shaw, Raymond A; Saw, Ewe Wei; Sergeyev, Aleksandr V

    2004-11-10

    An in-line holographic system for in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles [Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC)] has been developed and flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 research aircraft. Clear holograms are obtained in daylight conditions at typical aircraft speeds of 100 m s(-1). The instrument is fully digital and is interfaced to a control and data-acquisition system in the aircraft via optical fiber. It is operable at temperatures of less than -30 degrees C and at typical cloud humidities. Preliminary data from the experiment show its utility for studies of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of cloud particles and ice crystal shapes.

  8. Stimulus-responsive colloidal sensors with fast holographic readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Moyses, Henrique W.; Grier, David G.

    2015-08-01

    Colloidal spheres synthesized from polymer gels swell by absorbing molecules from solution. The resulting change in size can be monitored with nanometer precision using holographic video microscopy. When the absorbate is chemically similar to the polymer matrix, swelling is driven primarily by the entropy of mixing, and is limited by the surface tension of the swelling sphere and by the elastic energy of the polymer matrix. We demonstrate through a combination of optical micromanipulation and holographic particle characterization that the degree of swelling of a single polymer bead can be used to measure the monomer concentration in situ with spatial resolution comparable to the size of the sphere.

  9. Performance of multi level error correction in binary holographic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George F.

    2004-01-01

    At the Optical Computing Lab in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) a binary holographic data storage system was designed and tested with methods of recording and retrieving the binary information. Levels of error correction were introduced to the system including pixel averaging, thresholding, and parity checks. Errors were artificially introduced into the binary holographic data storage system and were monitored as a function of the defect area fraction, which showed a strong influence on data integrity. Average area fractions exceeding one quarter of the bit area caused unrecoverable errors. Efficient use of the available data density was discussed. .

  10. Clocks, Computers, Black Holes, Spacetime Foam, and Holographic Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Y. Jack

    2002-08-01

    What do simple clocks, simple computers, black holes, space-time foam, and holographic principle have in common? I will show that the physics behind them is inter-related, linking together our concepts of information, gravity, and quantum uncertainty. Thus, the physics that sets the limits to computation and clock precision also yields Hawking radiation of black holes and the holographic principle. Moreover, the latter two strongly imply that space-time undergoes much larger quantum fluctuations than what the folklore suggests -- large enough to be detected with modern gravitational-wave interferometers through future refinements.

  11. Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we review recent developments in the field of surface electromagnetic wave holography. The holography principle is used as a tool to solve an inverse engineering problem consisting of designing novel plasmonic interfaces to excite either surface waves or free-space beams with any desirable field distributions. Leveraging on the new nanotechnologies to carve subwavelength features within the large diffracting apertures of conventional holograms, it is now possible to create binary holographic interfaces to shape both amplitude phase and polarization of light. The ability of the new generation of ultrathin and compact holographic optical devices to fully address light properties could find widespread applications in photonics.

  12. Holographic proof of the strong subadditivity of entanglement entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, Matthew; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2007-11-15

    When a quantum system is divided into subsystems, their entanglement entropies are subject to an inequality known as strong subadditivity. For a field theory this inequality can be stated as follows: given any two regions of space A and B, S(A)+S(B){>=}S(A cup B)+S(A intersection B). Recently, a method has been found for computing entanglement entropies in any field theory for which there is a holographically dual gravity theory. We give a simple geometrical proof of strong subadditivity employing this holographic prescription.

  13. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  14. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  15. Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed. PMID:24972355

  16. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.

  17. The use of holographic interferometry for measurements of temperature in a rectangular heat pipe. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marn, Jure

    1989-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a nonintrusive method and as such possesses considerable advantages such as not disturbing the velocity and temperature field by creating obstacles which would alter the flow field. These optical methods have disadvantages as well. Holography, as one of the interferometry methods, retains the accuracy of older methods, and at the same time eliminates the system error of participating components. The holographic interferometry consists of comparing the objective beam with the reference beam and observing the difference in lengths of optical paths, which can be observed during the propagation of the light through a medium with locally varying refractive index. Thus, change in refractive index can be observed as a family of nonintersecting surfaces in space (wave fronts). The object of the investigation was a rectangular heat pipe. The goal was to measure temperatures in the heat pipe, which yields data for computer code or model assessment. The results were obtained by calculating the temperatures by means of finite fringes.

  18. Temporal characteristics of polarization holographic gratings formed in a photosensitive polymeric film containing N-benzylideneaniline derivative side groups

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki Shoho, Takashi; Noda, Kohei; Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-21

    A polarization holographic grating was recorded in a transparent thin film formed from polymethacrylate with N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) derivative side groups. We measured the real time diffraction properties. The data were analyzed based on a theoretical model that accounted for the distribution of optical anisotropy caused by molecular reorientation as well as for surface relief (SR) deformation caused by molecular motion. Optical anisotropy rapidly increased and then slowly decreased, with increasing recording time. This phenomenon was described based on photoisomerization and photocleavage reactions of the NBA side groups. SR deformation was also induced in the film by polarization holographic recording, without any subsequent processes. The photoinduced optical anisotropy and SR deformation were retained after the recording was turned off.

  19. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-09-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.

  20. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated. PMID:27605489