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Sample records for holographic polymer dispersed

  1. Physical studies of holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowley, Christopher Chadwick

    2000-12-01

    Switchable gratings formed holographically in polymer dispersed liquid crystals are new soft-matter composite materials that show potential for numerous electro-optic device applications. Still in their infancy, the fundamental understanding of the factors dictating the electro-optic performance of these materials remains limited, and the challenges facing this technology are significant. Here, a detailed description of the formation, characterization, and evaluation of holographically- formed polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) is given. Characterization methods used include visible reflection spectroscopy, electro-optic measurements, polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. All-optical methods are used to study the in situ holographic formation of gratings. Significant materials-based advances are reported. Drive- voltage improvements, through surfactant doping, are discussed. Also, increases in grating diffraction efficiency through the use of oligomer blends are observed. A phenomenological diffusion model and morphological studies suggest this is the result of a spatial composition modulation in the resulting polymer matrix. This discovery has important implications for future ``tailored'' H-PDLC materials sets. New techniques enhancing the optical properties of H- PDLCs are presented. Multiplexing methods allow the formation of multiple gratings in a single film. Emulsion prepolymers yielding `dual-domain' H-PDLCs are also discussed. An overview of potential H-PDLC applications, particularly as reflective flat panel displays, is presented. The performance issues and challenges associated with each application are discussed. Finally, new passive and opto-mechanical H-PDLC applications are mentioned, and directions for future work suggested.

  2. Broadband Wavelength Spanning Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Kashma; Shriyan, Sameet; Fontecchio, Adam

    2008-03-01

    Broadened interaction wavelength of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) have extensive applications in beam steering for instrument clusters, hyperspectral imaging, wavelength filtering and construction of lightweight optics. A novel simultaneous time and spatial multiplexing formation configuration is proposed here, to increase narrow wavelength reflecting notch to broad range wavelength spanning device. HPDLC films have electro-optic controllability by applying field. No moving parts, light weight, small footprint compared to prisms and lenses, high color purity make the broadband wavelength HPDLCs desirable for the above applications. Varying the incident laser beam exposure angles using motorized rotating stage, during formation is the key step here for their formation in a single medium. The fabricated broadband wavelength sensitive HPDLCs are characterized for the uniformity of the reflected peak and electro optic response. Their output wavefront is analyzed using wavefront analysis technique.

  3. Polarization holographic recording in Disperse Red1 doped polyurethane polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksejeva, J.; Gerbreders, A.; Gertners, U.; Reinfelde, M.; Teteris, J.

    2011-06-01

    In this report holographic recording of polarisation and surface relief gratings in Disperse Red 1 (DR1) doped polyurethane polymer films was studied. In this material DR1 is chemically bounded to polyurethane polymer main chain. Polarization holographic recording was performed by two orthogonal circularly polarized 532 nm laser beams. Photoinduced birefringence is a precondition for polarization holograms recording, therefore a detailed study of a photoinduced birefringence and changes of optical properties was performed. The lasers with wavelengths of 375nm, 448nm, 532 nm and 632.8 nm were used as pumping beam for sample excitation. The photoinduced birefringence Δn was measured at 532 nm and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The photoinduced birefringence dependence on the pumping beam wavelength and intensity was investigated. Surface relief grating (SRG) formation was observed during polarization holographic recording process. A profile of SRG was studied by AFM. A relationship between SRG formation and photoinduced birefringence has been discussed.

  4. Optical reconfiguration by anisotropic diffraction in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal memory.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru

    2012-07-20

    Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) memory is fabricated by a photoinduced phase separation comprised of polymer and liquid crystal (LC) phases using laser light interference exposures. The anisotropic diffraction induced by the alignment of LC in the periodic structure of the HPDLC memory is applied to reconstruct the configuration contexts for the optically reconfigurable gate arrays. Optical reconfiguration for various circuits under parallel programmability is implemented by switching the polarization state of incident light on the HPDLC memory using a spatial light modulator.

  5. Theory and characteristics of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission grating with scaffolding morphology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Yonggang; Diao, Zhihui; Yang, Chengliang; Yao, Lishuang; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2012-06-20

    We have performed a detailed characterization of the optical properties of a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (LC) transmission grating with polymer scaffolding morphology, which was fabricated with conventional high-functionality acrylate monomer under low curing intensity. Temporal evolution of the grating formation was investigated, and the amount of phase-separated LC was determined by birefringence investigation. A grating model combined with anisotropic coupled-wave theory yielded good agreement with experimental data without any fitting parameter. The results in this study demonstrate the non droplet scaffolding morphology grating is characterized by a high degree of phase separation (70%), high anisotropy, low scattering loss (<6%), and high diffraction efficiency (95%).

  6. Electrically Tunable Distributed Feedback Laser Emission from Scaffolding Morphologic Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Diao, Zhihui; Yao, Lishuang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Liu, Yonggang; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2013-02-01

    Electrically tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser emission from a dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission grating is demonstrated. The homogenously aligned liquid crystal (LC) in this polymer scaffolding morphologic grating enables a large refractive index (RI) change for the TM wave under applied electric field, which in turn leads to a red-shift of 8 nm in the output laser emission. The tuning behavior of the DFB laser is well explained on the basis of DFB waveguide theory and amount of phase-separated LCs.

  7. Holographic storage of three-dimensional image and data using photopolymer and polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Liu, Pan; Zeng, Chao; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jicheng; Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Ying-Jie; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    We present holographic storage of three-dimensional (3D) images and data in a photopolymer film without any applied electric field. Its absorption and diffraction efficiency are measured, and reflective analog hologram of real object and image of digital information are recorded in the films. The photopolymer is compared with polymer dispersed liquid crystals as holographic materials. Besides holographic diffraction efficiency of the former is little lower than that of the latter, this work demonstrates that the photopolymer is more suitable for analog hologram and big data permanent storage because of its high definition and no need of high voltage electric field. Therefore, our study proposes a potential holographic storage material to apply in large size static 3D holographic displays, including analog hologram displays, digital hologram prints, and holographic disks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474194, 11004037, and 61101176) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1415500).

  8. Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Quan; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate single-mode laser operation in dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings. The gratings are fabricated in cells made from specifically chosen glass substrates to decrease the refractive index difference between the waveguide core layer and cladding layer. The phase separation degree of liquid crystal after holographic recording is further optimized to confine only the lowest propagation mode in the device. The mode selection mechanism is explained under the framework of the waveguide distributed feedback (DFB) theory. The wavelength of single-mode lasing can be tuned between 620 and 660 nm by varying the grating period. Our results show the HPDLC technique could provide single-mode organic DFB lasers in a tunable, simple, and large-area manner.

  9. Organic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal distributed feedback laser from different diffraction orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Zhang, Guiyang; Peng, Zenghui; Li, Dayu; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2016-11-01

    Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) based distributed feedback (DFB) lasers were prepared with poly (-methoxy-5-(2‧-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) film as the active medium layer. The HPDLC grating film was fabricated via holographic induced photopolymerization. The pure film spectra of MEH-PPV and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum were investigated. The laser device was single-longitudinal mode operation. The tunability of the HPDLC DFB laser was achieved by selecting different grating periods. The lasing performances were also characterized and compared from different diffraction orders. The lasing threshold increased with the diffraction order and the third order laser possessed the largest conversion efficiency in this device. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  10. Holographically formed, acoustically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Jun; Lu, Mengqian; Ding, Xiaoyun; Leong, Eunice S P; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Shi, Jinjie; Teng, Jing Hua; Wang, Lin; Bunning, Timothy J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-08-01

    We report holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Our experiments show that upon applying SAWs, the H-PDLC grating exhibited switchable properties: The diffraction of the H-PDLC grating decreased, whereas the transmission increased. This acoustically switchable behavior is due to the acoustic streaming-induced realignment of liquid crystals as well as absorption-resulted thermal diffusion. Such SAW-driven H-PDLC gratings are potentially useful in many photonic applications, such as optical switches, spatial light modulators, and switchable add/drop filters.

  11. Electro-optical properties of low viscosity driven holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K. R.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Relative diffraction efficiency (RDE), operating voltage, and response times are most important performance characteristics of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC). Two types of triallyl isocyanurate (TI) having different structures were incorporated into the conventional transmission grating of HPDLC. Premix viscosity decreased by 13-18% with up to 3% TI, beyond which it increased. TI eliminated induction period and augmented initial grating formation rate at all contents. Saturation RDE increased over 200% while threshold voltage and rise time decreased to about half and 2/3, respectively up to 3% TI, beyond which the tendencies were reversed. Among the two TIs, low viscosity monomer (TA) showed high RDE, while high miscibility monomer (TE) low characteristic voltages and short response times. It is concluded that grating formation is largely favored by low viscosity, while interface tensions and electro-optical performances by miscibility at similar viscosities.

  12. Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings.

    PubMed

    Drevensek-Olenik, I; Fally, M; Ellabban, M A

    2006-08-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the 0th, +/-1 st, and +/-2 nd optical diffraction orders from a 50 microm thick transmission grating recorded in a UV-curable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) made from commercially available constituents. The analysis was performed for two orthogonal polarizations of the probe beams. The emphasis was laid on the temperature dependence of the grating anisotropy. Above the nematic-isotropic phase transition, the grating is optically isotropic. At lower temperatures the grating strength for the optical polarization perpendicular to the grating vector decreases with decreasing temperature, while for orthogonal polarization it increases with decreasing temperature. As a consequence, a regime of diffraction with strongly overmodulated gratings is observed. Our investigations indicate that the anisotropy of the refractive-index modulation scales with the optical anisotropy of the liquid crystal medium forming the phase-separated domains. We further demonstrate that light scattering effects, which are profound only in the nematic phase, must not be neglected and can be taken into account via a Lorentzian line-shape broadening of the probing wave vector directions in the framework of the diffraction theory for anisotropic optical phase gratings.

  13. All-optical switchable holographic Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Nataj, Nahid Hosain; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir

    2011-08-01

    Fabrication of an all-optical switchable holographic liquid crystal (LC) Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed LCs is reported using a Michelson interferometer. It is found that, upon circularly polarized photoirradiation, the diffraction efficiency of the fabricated Fresnel lens was increased significantly in a reversible manner. We believe this is due to the anisotropy induced by reorientation of the LC molecules coupled with azo-dye molecule orientation due to trans-cis-trans photoisomerization, which modulates the refractive index of the LC-rich regions. We also studied the effect of azo dye on the polarization dependency of the fabricated lens.

  14. Electro-optical investigations of holographic-polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Woltman, Scott J; Eakin, James N; Crawford, Gregory P; Zumer, Slobodan

    2007-12-01

    Uniform alignment of ferroelectric liquid-crystal domains encapsulated by a polymer binder was established through a holographic exposure process. The refractive index modulation in these thin films is modeled as a phase grating that can be electrically addressed to erase the optical diffractive properties. A phenomenological model is developed to take into account a distribution of domain sizes and an effective field that stabilizes the ferroelectric liquid-crystal domains. A diffraction model successfully predicts changes in normalized intensities for first-order diffraction with applied field. These gratings demonstrate microsecond-scale response and relaxation times for various grating pitch sizes between approximately 3 and approximately 12 microm.

  15. Thermo-driven light controller by using thermal modulation of diffraction wavelength in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Kakiuchida, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    A microperiodic structure composed of polymer and liquid crystal (LC) phases, called holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC), was fabricated based on a photo-induced phase separation technique by laser interferometric exposure. The diffraction wavelength of HPDLC gratings formed by different LC composites and grating structures was experimentally investigated by spectroscopic measurements as a function of temperature at around 30 °C. The HPDLC gratings composed of nematic LC having low nematic to isotropic temperature (TNI) and film thickness of 25 μm showed the switch of diffraction wavelength between visible and infrared lights by the change of temperature. The optical characteristics achieved in HPDLC gratings are expected to be applicable for the basis of diffractive type of thermodriven light controller which can supply visibility constantly for solar-ray control windows.

  16. Polarization-independent holographic gratings based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Chen, Che-Chang; Cheng, Ko-Ting; Liu, Cheng-Kai; Chen, Wei-Ko

    2010-01-10

    We demonstrate polarization-independent holographic gratings (PIHGs) based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films. The PIHGs are recorded by irradiation under an intensity-modulated interference field, generated by two linearly polarized green optical beams, and by simultaneously applying a suitable AC voltage to the sample. The photoexcited azo dyes are adsorbed onto the UV-cured polymer film with their long axes parallel to the normal of the substrate. When the applied voltage is switched off, the PIHGs are generated with periodic modulation of liquid-crystal structures with transparently homeotropic and randomly scattered alignments. Additionally, the generated PIHGs can be completely switched off by an applied voltage.

  17. Sensor for monitoring the vibration of a laser beam based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey

    2010-12-06

    A continuous multiple exposure diffraction grating (CMEDG) is fabricated holographically on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films using two-beam interference with multiple exposures. The grating is fabricated by exposing a PDLC film to 18 repeated exposure/non-exposure cycles with an angular step of ~10°/10° while it revolves a circle on a rotation stage. The structure of the sample thus formed is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and shows arc-ripples around the center. From the diffraction patterns of the formed grating obtained using a normally incident laser beam, some or all of the 18 recorded arc beams can be reconstructed, as determined by the probing location. Thus, it can be applied for use as a beam-vibration sensor for a laser.

  18. Multi-imaging characteristics of electrically controlled on-axis holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal Fresnel lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Zheng; Sun, Lijia; Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the electrically controlled multifocus, multi-imaging characteristics of an on-axis holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (H-PDLC) Fresnel lens. The Fresnel lens is examined within a PDLC cell through the analysis of interference fringes generated by on-axis plane and spherical waves. Experiments are conducted to investigate the multifocus and multi-imaging phenomena of the H-PDLC Fresnel lens, and a corresponding geometrical optical analysis is also provided. It is then demonstrated that the H-PDLC Fresnel lens is a plane-surface diffractive optical device which modulates the phase of incident light through a periodic change of refractive index and forms multiple symmetrical images. Its diffraction properties, which can be controlled electrically, have further potential applications in this field.

  19. Effects of multi-context information recorded at different regions in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal on optical reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    A holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) memory to record multi-context information for an optically reconfigurable gate array is formed by constructing a laser illumination system to implement successive laser exposures at different small regions in a glass cell filled with LC composites. The context pattern arrangements for circuit information are designed in a 3 × 3 in.2 photomask by electron beam lithography, and they are recorded as laser interference patterns at nine regions separated in an HPDLC sample by a laser interferometer composed of movable pinhole and photomask plates placed on motorized stages. The multi-context information reconstructed from the different regions in the HPDLC is written to a photodiode array in a gate-array VLSI by switching only the position of laser irradiation using the displacement of the pinhole plate under the control of a personal computer (PC). The effects of multi-context information recorded at different regions in the HPDLC on optical reconfiguration are discussed in terms of the optical system composed of ORGA VLSI and HPDLC memory. The internal structures in the HPDLC memory formed by multi-context recording are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, and the configurations composed of LC and polymer phases are revealed at various regions in the HPDLC memory.

  20. Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings.

    PubMed

    Vita, Francesco; Marino, Antigone; Tkachenko, Volodymyr; Abbate, Giancarlo; Lucchetta, Daniele E; Criante, Luigi; Simoni, Francesco

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the electro-optical and angular behavior of holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings at different wavelengths, in the visible and in the near-infrared range. As usual in these kinds of materials, a strong polarization dependent behavior was observed. Our samples showed very high diffraction efficiency for p-polarized radiation at 1.55 microm, which is very interesting for many possible applications in the telecom field. However, we also observed a very unusual behavior for visible p-polarized light and we try to suggest some explanation for that. By analyzing the angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency, we could measure the components of the permittivity modulation tensor and infer important information about the main parameters involved in the grating structure: the degree of phase separation and the anisotropy in the liquid crystal droplet distribution. In our opinion, this simple and nondestructive methodology can be very useful for studying these kinds of materials and getting information on their morphology, in view of optimizing their properties. Finally, we discuss the role of the refractive index optical dispersion in order to describe the behavior of these materials at different wavelengths. These remarks are especially important when properties in the infrared range are extrapolated from measurements in the visible.

  1. Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating applied within image splitter for autostereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application within image splitter for autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. Two initiator systems consisting of photoinitiator, Methylene Blue and coinitiator, p-toluenesulfonic acid as well as photoinitiator, Rose Bengal and coinitiator, Nphenylglycine are employed. We demonstrate that Bragg gratings can be formed in this syrup polymerized under three lasers simultaneously including 632.8nm from He-Ne laser, 532nm from Verdi solid state laser, and 441.6nm from He- Cd laser. The diffraction efficiency of three kinds of gratings with different exposure wavelength are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. The threshold driving voltages of those gratings are 2.8, 3.05, and 2.85 V/μm, respectively. We also present the results for the feasibility of this proposed H-PDLC grating applied into image splitter without color dispersion for autostereoscopic display according to experimental splitting effect.

  2. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further.

  3. All-optically controllable distributed feedback laser in a dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with a photoisomerizable dye.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huai-Pei; Li, Yu-Ren; Lin, Jia-De; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2010-02-01

    This work demonstrates, for the first time, an all-optically controllable distributed feedback (DFB) laser based on a dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (DDHPDLC) grating with a photoisomerizable dye. Intensity of the lasing emission can be reduced and increased by raising the irradiation intensity of one CW circularly-polarized green beam and the irradiation time of one CW circularly-polarized red beam, respectively. The all-optical controllability of the lasing emission is owing to the green-beam-induced isothermal nematic-->isotropic and red-beam-induced isothermal isotropic-->nematic phase transitions of the LCs via trans-->cis and cis-->trans back isomerizations of the azo-dye, respectively, in the LC-droplet-rich regions of the grating. The former (latter) mechanism can reduce (increase) the index modulation and thereby the coupling strength in the DFB grating, resulting in the decay (rise) of the lasing emission. Thermal effect is excluded from possible mechanisms causing such an optical controllability of the lasing emission.

  4. Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, Jeremy M.; Natarajan, Lalgudi V.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Sutherland, Richard L.; Lloyd, Pamela F.; Siwecki, Stephen A.; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the initial development of a visible initiator for thiol-ene photopolymerization using the 647 nm radiation from a Krypton ion laser. The photoinitiator system consists of the dye oxazine 170 perchlorate and the co-initiator benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer occurs between the singlet excited state of the oxazine dye and benzoyl peroxide with subsequent decomposition of the peroxide yielding benzoyl oxy radicals capable of free radical initiation. We demonstrate that this photoinitiation system enables holographic patterning of HPDLC gratings as initial Bragg transmission gratings with a periodicity less than one micron using 647 nm radiation. These gratings were electrically switchable between a diffractive and transmissive state. Morphology studies using bright field transmission electron microscopy (BFTEM) indicate the phase separation of nearly spherical shaped nematic liquid crystal droplets of several hundred nanometers in diameter. This demonstration suggests that reflection gratings can be written using this photoinitiator system and 647 nm radiation which have switchable notch wavelengths approaching 2 microns.

  5. Holographic data storage using azobenzene polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael R.; Yang, Jianwen; Yan, Xingzhong; DeMasi, Ralph

    2001-10-01

    It is well known that holographic data storage can significantly increase data storage capacity. However, the technological maturity of holographic data storage is believed to be impeded by the lack of good holographic material that can be erased and recorded optically with almost unlimited rewriting cycles, large index modulation for large capacity multiplexed data recording, long lifetime, and immunity to destructive readout for archival applications. The performance of an azobenzene polymer is presented for holographic data storage applications. Initial experiments demonstrated that it is capable of satisfying many of above requirements. Recording of holograms without follow-up processing and being stable in application environment are its most attractive features. Applications of such material to other adaptive structures are possible.

  6. Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Chao-Ping; Zhu, Ji-Liang; Yuan, Ya-Chao; Li, Yan; Hu, Wei; Li, Xiao; Li, Hong-Jing; Lu, Jian-Gang; Su, Yi-Kai

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach to fabricating an electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating. This grating is obtained by preforming a polymer template comprised of periodic fringes, and then refilling it with a blue phase liquid crystal. Compared with conventional holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings, our grating can remarkably reduce its switching voltage from 200 V to 43 V while maintaining a sub-millisecond response time. The holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal (HPTBPLC) grating is free from electrode patterning, thus leading to a lower cost and more flexible applications. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328804), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61307028), the Funds from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant Nos. 11JC1405300, 13ZR1420000, and 14ZR1422300), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. XDJK 2011C047).

  7. Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani

    2000-01-01

    The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.

  8. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  9. Holographic molecularly imprinted polymers for label-free chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Yannick; Soppera, Olivier; Mayes, Andrew G; Haupt, Karsten

    2013-01-25

    Holographic molecularly imprinted polymer films for the use in chemical sensors are obtained in one step through photopolymerization with interfering laser beams. This results in hierarchical structuring at four length scales: micrometer-scale patterning of millimeter- to centimeter- size polymer objects with holographic optical properties, exhibiting nanometer-scale porosity and specific molecular recognition properties at the molecular scale through self-assembly. Specific binding of the target analyte testosterone is measured by diffraction analysis.

  10. Holographic Recordings in Dye/Polymer Systems For Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Roger A.; Couture, Jean J.

    1990-04-01

    Since Gabor's first demonstration of reconstructed wavefronts, many holographic techniques provided interesting tools and applications. Presently the future of holography is strongly dependent upon new holographic recording thin films. Because of their excellent responses to high spatial frequency grating recordings (up to 6800 cycles/mm), photopolymers and photocrosslinking materials seem to be good candidates to overcome some limitations. Dichromated gelatin films demons-trated excellent properties for permanent recording grating applications like HOE construction but they are humidity sensitive and they need a chemical development. Today's holographic works need real-time like recording material and law cost organic materials as DYE/POLYMER systems offer some possibilities. We present a review of research works done in our holography laboratories of COPL at Universite Laval. Using an automated spatial frequency analyzer designed at COPL, DYE/POLYMER systems are characterized for transmission holography and also for applications involving real-time holography and four-wave mixing techniques. Also, most of our characterization studies consider volume polarization holograms. The second subject is devoted to polarization hologram recordings in thin colored polyvinyl alcohol films. Those AZO/WA solid films are erasable and can be used for many thousands duty cycles for polarization volume holograms. Holographic characterization studies are conducted in order to know best experimental conditions and applications that allow to use those films. Finally, sensitized PVA films will be discussed.

  11. Complex Nanoscale-Ordered Liquid Crystal Polymer Film for High Transmittance Holographic Polarizer.

    PubMed

    Du, Tao; Fan, Fan; Tam, Alwin Ming Wai; Sun, Jiatong; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Sing Kwok, Hoi

    2015-11-25

    A special design of a complex-ordered liquid crystal polymer film is developed into a holographic polarizer. The holographic polarizer shows over 90% transmittance, which provides a simple solution to make LEDs polarized. Furthermore, the holographic polarizer exhibits intensity and polarization maintenance properties, which could be further developed for photonics applications.

  12. θ-2θ diffractometry of anisotropic holographic gratings composed of liquid crystal and polymer phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Ogiwara, Akifumi

    2013-03-01

    We studied highly anisotropic periodic structure formed by liquid crystal and polymer phase separation, or holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC), by θ-2θ optical diffractometry particularly employing the high order Bragg diffractions. Then, we revealed the relationship between microscopic structure and diffraction properties of the HPDLCs prepared at several different conditions with regard to the compositional ratio of the raw materials and the exposure temperature. The high order Bragg diffractions are closely connected to periodic boundaries between LC droplets and polymer, and is potentially able to be designed by HPDLC fabrication processes. The analysis with the information from the higher order Bragg diffraction is expected to allow you to observe more detailed and quantitative HPDLC internal structure.

  13. Optical diffractometry of highly anisotropic holographic gratings formed by liquid crystal and polymer phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Ogiwara, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    Optical diffractometry is proposed as a practical method of quantitatively analyzing the microscopic structural origins of a wide range of highly efficient and linearly polarized optical diffraction grating produced from holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. The structure is organized by a spatially periodical distribution of submicrometer-scale liquid crystal (LC) droplets in a polymer matrix. Six independent Bragg diffraction spectra were obtained at two orthogonal polarization states at temperatures below, at, and above the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition point. These spectra were simultaneously analyzed by employing anisotropic diffraction theory under the restraint of a simple and widely useful structural model constructed on the basis of the previously reported microscopic observations. The refractive indices of spatially periodic LC- and polymer-rich phases were analyzed using Cauchy's equation as a function of optical wavelength. The present diffractometry was demonstrated for a variety of holographic structures, and the structural parameters were discussed such as the filling ratio of LC droplets to polymer matrix, the orientational order in the droplets, and the thermo-optic properties in the LC droplets. Furthermore, the higher order Bragg diffractions were measured and discussed. The proposed method was examined in consistency by comparisons with polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Optical diffractometry of highly anisotropic holographic gratings formed by liquid crystal and polymer phase separation.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Ogiwara, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    Optical diffractometry is proposed as a practical method of quantitatively analyzing the microscopic structural origins of a wide range of highly efficient and linearly polarized optical diffraction grating produced from holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. The structure is organized by a spatially periodical distribution of submicrometer-scale liquid crystal (LC) droplets in a polymer matrix. Six independent Bragg diffraction spectra were obtained at two orthogonal polarization states at temperatures below, at, and above the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition point. These spectra were simultaneously analyzed by employing anisotropic diffraction theory under the restraint of a simple and widely useful structural model constructed on the basis of the previously reported microscopic observations. The refractive indices of spatially periodic LC- and polymer-rich phases were analyzed using Cauchy's equation as a function of optical wavelength. The present diffractometry was demonstrated for a variety of holographic structures, and the structural parameters were discussed such as the filling ratio of LC droplets to polymer matrix, the orientational order in the droplets, and the thermo-optic properties in the LC droplets. Furthermore, the higher order Bragg diffractions were measured and discussed. The proposed method was examined in consistency by comparisons with polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Holographic imaging of 3D objects on dichromated polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Guylain; Jourdain, Anne; Manivannan, Gurusamy; Lessard, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional volume transmission holograms of a 3D scene were recorded on dichromated poly(acrylic acid) (DCPAA) films under 488 nm light. The holographic characterization and quality of reconstruction have been studied by varying the influencing parameters such as concentration of dichromate and electron donor, and the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Ammonium and potassium dichromate have been employed to sensitize the poly(acrylic) matrix. the recorded hologram can be efficiently reconstructed either with red light or with low energy in the blue region without any post thermal or chemical processing.

  16. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  17. Electro-Optic Properties of Holographically Patterned, Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Electro - optic properties of cholesteric liquid crystals with holographically patterned polymer stabilization were examined. It is hypothesized that...enhanced electro - optic properties of the final device. Prior to holographic patterning, polymer stabilization with large elastic memory was generated by way... electro - optic properties appear to stem from a single dimension domain size increase, which allows for a reduction in the LC/polymer interaction.

  18. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  19. Superimposed surface-relief diffraction grating holographic lenses on azo-polymer films.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Ribal Georges

    2013-04-08

    Various superimposed chirped relief gratings, acting as diffracting holographic lenses, were photo-inscribed on azo-polymer films upon exposure to the interference pattern of a plane and a curved laser light wavefronts. Depending on the configuration used, this resulted in incident light being focused independently of polarization along the 0th or 1st diffracted order of the grating. The focal point and focalization angle of the resulting holographic lenses were easily tuned during the fabrication process. Furthermore, a dual-focus chirped holographic lens grating was fabricated and shown to exhibit a far-field interference pattern.

  20. Characterizing SWCNT Dispersion in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke; Park, Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The new wave of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) infused composites will yield structurally sound multifunctional nanomaterials. The SWCNT network requires thorough dispersion within the polymer matrix in order to maximize the benefits of the nanomaterial. However, before any nanomaterials can be used in aerospace applications a means of quality assurance and quality control must be certified. Quality control certification requires a means of quantification, however, the measurement protocol mandates a method of seeing the dispersion first. We describe here the new tools that we have developed and implemented to first be able to see carbon nanotubes in polymers and second to measure or quantify the dispersion of the nanotubes.

  1. Hyperbranched-polymer dispersed nanocomposite volume gratings for holography and diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Oyaizu, Satoko; Urano, Hiroshi; Fukamizu, Taka-aki; Nishimura, Naoya; Odoi, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    We review our experimental investigations of photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composites (NPCs) for holography and diffractive optics. Various types of hyperbranched polymer (HBP) were systhesized and used as transporting organic nanoparticles. These HBPs include hyperbranched poly(ethyl methacrylate) (HPEMA), hyperbranched polystyrene (HPS) and hyperbranched triazine/aromatic polymer units (HTA) whose refractive indices are 1.51, 1.61 and 1.82, respectively. Each HBP was dispersed in (meth)acrylate monomer whose refractive index was so chosen that a refractive index difference between HBP and the formed polymer was large. Such monomer-HBP syrup was mixed with a titanocene photoinitiator for volume holographic recording in the green. We used a two-beam interference setup to write an unslanted transmission volume grating at grating spacing of 1 μm and at a wavelength of 532 nm. It is shown that NPC volume gratings with the saturated refractive index modulation amplitudes as large as 0.008, 0.004 and 0.02 can be recorded in NPCs incorporated with HPEMA, HPS and HTA at their optimum concentrations of 34, 34 and 25 vol.%, respectively. We show the usefulness of HBP-dispersed NPC volume gratings for holographic applications such as holographic data storage and diffractive optical devices.

  2. Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, M.; Prauzner, J.; Köber, S.; Meerholz, K.; Jeong, K.; Nolte, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    We present coherence-gated holographic imaging using a highly sensitive photorefractive (PR) polymer composite as the recording medium. Due to the high sensitivity of the composite holographic recording at intensities as low as 5 mW/cm2 allowed for a frame exposure time of only 500ms. Motivated by regenerative medical applications, we demonstrate optical depth sectioning of a polymer foam for use as a cell culture matrix. An axial resolution of 18 μm and a transverse resolution of 30 μm up to a depth of 600 μm was obtained using an off-axis recording geometry.

  3. IR sensitive photorefractive polymers, the first updateable holographic three-dimensional display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Savas

    This work presents recent advances in the development of infra-red sensitive photorefractive polymers, and updateable near real-time holographic 3D displays based on photorefractive polymers. Theoretical and experimental techniques used for design, fabrication and characterization of photorefractive polymers are outlined. Materials development and technical advances that made possible the use of photorefractive polymers for infra-red free-space optical communications, and 3D holographic displays are presented. Photorefractive polymers are dynamic holographic materials that allow recording of highly efficient reversible holograms. The longest operation wavelength for a photorefractive polymer before this study has been 950nm, far shorter than 1550nm, the wavelength of choice for optical communications and medical imaging. The polymers shown here were sensitized using two-photon absorption, a third order nonlinear effect, beyond the linear absorption spectrum of organic dyes, and reach 40% diffraction efficiency with a 35ms response time at this wavelength. As a consequence of two-photon absorption sensitization they exhibit non-destructive readout, which is an important advantage for applications that require high signal-to-noise ratios. Holographic 3D displays provide highly realistic images without the need for special eyewear, making them valuable tools for applications that require "situational awareness" such as medical, industrial and military imaging. Current commercially available holographic 3D displays employ photopolymers that lack image updating capability, resulting in their restricted use and high cost per 3D image. The holographic 3D display shown here employs photorefractive polymers with nearly 100% diffraction efficiency and fast writing time, hours of image persistence, rapid erasure and large area, a combination of properties that has not been shown before. The 3D display is based on stereography and utilizes world's largest photorefractive

  4. Readout fidelity of coaxial holographic digital data page recording in nanoparticle-(thiol-ene) polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaya, Kohta; Hata, Eiji; Tomita, Yasuo

    2016-09-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of nanoparticle-concentration and thiol-to-ene stoichiometric ratio dependences of symbol error rates (SERs) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of digital data pages recorded at a wavelength of 532 nm in thiol-ene based nanoparticle-polymer composite (NPC) films by using a coaxial holographic digital data storage method. We show that SERs and SNRs at the optimized material condition can be lower than 1 × 10-4 and higher than 10, respectively, without error correction coding. These results show the usefulness of thiol-ene based NPCs as coaxial holographic data storage media.

  5. Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-polymer composite gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Klepp, J.; Fally, M.; Pruner, C.; Tomita, Y.; Plonka-Spehr, C.; Geltenbort, P.; Ivanov, S.; Manzin, G.; Andersen, K. H.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Ellabban, M. A.

    2011-07-15

    Diffraction experiments with holographic gratings recorded in SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-polymer composites have been carried out with slow neutrons. The influence of parameters such as nanoparticle concentration, grating thickness, and grating spacing on the neutron-optical properties of such materials has been tested. Decay of the grating structure along the sample depth due to disturbance of the recording process becomes an issue at grating thicknesses of about 100 microns and larger. This limits the achievable diffraction efficiency for neutrons. As a solution to this problem, the Pendelloesung interference effect in holographic gratings has been exploited to reach a diffraction efficiency of 83% for very cold neutrons.

  6. Fabrication of holographic materials by photo-induced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Juang, Sheng-Kai; Tsai, Hao-Yu; Su, Wei-Hung

    2016-09-01

    A fabrication approach using PMMA [poly(methyl methacrylate)] and EGPEA (ethylene glycol phenyl ether acrylate) for holographic materials is presented. Diffraction efficiencies with various interference angles are studied. A 3D image reconstructed by this hologram is presented as well.

  7. Stable dispersions of polymer-coated graphitic nanoplatelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Nguyen, Sonbinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of making a dispersion of reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets involves providing a dispersion of graphite oxide nanoplatelets and reducing the graphite oxide nanoplatelets in the dispersion in the presence of a reducing agent and a polymer. The reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets are reduced to an extent to provide a higher C/O ratio than graphite oxide. A stable dispersion having polymer-treated reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets dispersed in a dispersing medium, such as water or organic liquid is provided. The polymer-treated, reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets can be distributed in a polymer matrix to provide a composite material.

  8. Surface relief gratings on polymer dispersed liquid crystals by polarization holography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzulla, A.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Russo, G.; Carbone, G.; Cipparrone, G.

    2004-09-27

    We report the observation of surface relief gratings (SRGs) on polymer dispersed liquid crystal films after polarization holographic recording, demonstrating the formation of SRGs in systems without azo compounds, where photoisomerization and chromophore reorientation processes do not occur. Permanent SRGs, several hundred nanometers deep, are recorded on the surface of a polymeric material containing oriented liquid crystal droplets. The results suggest that SRG growth under uniform intensity irradiation is not exclusively related to the photoisomerization, but is a more general phenomenon which can involve different photoinduced chemical and physical mechanisms sensitive to the light polarization state. These effects contribute to the formation of anisotropic structures during the recording process.

  9. Improved Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymers at High Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    The polymer nanocomposite used in this work comprises elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a polymer matrix and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a conductive nanofiller. To achieve uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes within the polymer, an optimized dispersion process was developed, featuring a strong organic solvent—chloroform, which dissolved PDMS base polymer easily and allowed high quality dispersion of MWCNTs. At concentrations as high as 9 wt.%, MWCNTs were dispersed uniformly through the polymer matrix, which presented a major improvement over prior techniques. The dispersion procedure was optimized via extended experimentation, which is discussed in detail.

  10. Electrically switchable holographic liquid crystal/polymer Fresnel lens using a Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Nemati, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Alidokht, Isa Ahmad

    2011-06-10

    A holographic technique for fabricating an electrically switchable liquid crystal/polymer composite Fresnel lens is reported. A Michelson interferometer is used to produce the required Fresnel pattern, by placing a convex lens into one path of the interferometer. Simplicity of the method and the possibility of fabricating different focal length lenses in a single arrangement are advantages of the method. The performance of the fabricated lens was demonstrated and its electro-optical properties were investigated for its primary focal length.

  11. Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

    1992-01-01

    A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

  12. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rešetič, Andraž; Milavec, Jerneja; Zupančič, Blaž; Domenici, Valentina; Zalar, Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    The need for mechanical manipulation during the curing of conventional liquid crystal elastomers diminishes their applicability in the field of shape-programmable soft materials and future applications in additive manufacturing. Here we report on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers, novel composite materials that eliminate this difficulty. Their thermal shape memory anisotropy is imprinted by curing in external magnetic field, providing for conventional moulding of macroscopically sized soft, thermomechanically active elastic objects of general shapes. The binary soft-soft composition of isotropic elastomer matrix, filled with freeze-fracture-fabricated, oriented liquid crystal elastomer microparticles as colloidal inclusions, allows for fine-tuning of thermal morphing behaviour. This is accomplished by adjusting the concentration, spatial distribution and orientation of microparticles or using blends of microparticles with different thermomechanical characteristics. We demonstrate that any Gaussian thermomechanical deformation mode (bend, cup, saddle, left and right twist) of a planar sample, as well as beat-like actuation, is attainable with bilayer microparticle configurations.

  13. Holographic Grating Relaxation Studies of Probe Diffusion in Amorphous Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-15

    Relaxation, Chromophore Diffusion in PS, PMMA, PVAc, Polybutadiene, Polyethylmethacryla ;% PRICE cooE Effects of Glass Transition, chain branching. 17...properties such as molecular weight, glass transition temperature (Tg) and chain conformation on the probe diffusion coefficient, and effects of polymer...crosslinking and plasticising on the same process are also studied. Page 4 Experimental Matels • Camphorquinone (CQ), thymorquinone (TM) and diacetyl (DA

  14. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  15. Enhanced Dispersion in Polymer Nanocomposites by Optimized Hydrogen Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmun, Mark; Rasheed, Asif; Britt, Phillip; Geohegan, David; Ivanov, Ilia; Chae, Han Gi; Kumar, Satish

    2006-03-01

    The dispersion of the minor phase in a multi-component polymer system can readily lead to nonlinear enhancement of material properties. In any multi-component polymer system, including polymer nanocomposites, understanding and control of the dispersion of the nanofiller in the polymer matrix is critical to rationally design and create a useful new material. This presentation will discuss the work in our group to optimize the specific interactions between components of polymer nanocomposites. We will discuss results that indicate that the optimization of intermolecular interaction between components provides a controllable mechanism to improve the dispersion of nanoscale fillers in a polymer matrix and that the improved dispersion correlates directly to improved thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties.

  16. Holographic recording in films of azo-containing LC polymers in the presence of orienting electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, A N; Larichev, A V; Shibaev, Valerii P

    2000-07-31

    The dynamics of holographic recording in a film of azo-containing liquid-crystal polymer is studied both experimentally and theoretically in the presence of the orienting electric field. The possibility is demonstrated to efficiently control the optical recording regime by varying the applied field. The specificity of hologram formation in the case of different polarisation of the interacting light beams is considered. A theoretical model describing the holographic recording dynamics in a film of azo-containing nematic polymer is presented; numerical simulation of the processes of recording and read-out in anisotropic holograms is carried out as well. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Novel Organic Polymer Films for Real-time Holographic Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Because of the modelo In behavior of the arctangent function, the range is wrapped (ambiguous) beyond the so-called synthetic wavelength TB01JMF.DOC...photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%", Nature ’ill, pp . 497-500 (1994). 2 S. Ducharme, J.C. Scott, R.J. Tweig...W.E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, pp . 1846-1849 (1991). 3 W.E. Moerner and S.M. Silence, "Polymeric Photorefractive Materials", Chem. Rev. 94, pp

  18. The effect of polymer matrix on laser microfabrication of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Hiromasa; Tabata, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    The effect of polymer matrix on laser processing of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resist was reported. Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer is a resist in which Au nanoparticles with average diameter of around 3 nm was dispersed. Since the resist has a strong absorption at the wavelength of around 530 nm, it can be micromachined using focused low power Nd:YVO 4-SHG laser (CW, wavelength of 532 nm). From the evaluation of a dispersibility of Au nanoparticle in the different polymer using X-ray diffraction and visible ray absorbance, it was confirmed that the dispersibility of Au nanoparticle induced by the kind of polymer matrix influenced laser-processed shape. Moreover, from thermal properties and the calculation of temperature rise distribution by laser beam in polymer resist, it was predicted that the processing mechanism for thermoplastic polymer resist was related with melt and grain growth of Au nanoparticle.

  19. Electroacoustics of Particles Dispersed in Polymer Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

    2011-06-27

    This study examines the acoustic electrophoresis of particles dispersed in polymer hydrogels, with the particle size either less than or greater than the gel mesh size. When the particles are smaller than the gel mesh size, their acoustic vibration is resisted by only the background water medium, and the measured dynamic electrophoretic mobility, μd (obtained in terms of colloid vibration current, CVI), is the same as in water. For the case of particles larger than the gel mesh size, μd is decreased due to trapping, and the net decrease depends on the viscoelastic properties of the gel. The gel mesh size was varied by varying its crosslink density, the latter being characterized as the storage modulus, G’. The dependence of mobility on G’, for systems of a given particle size, and on particle size, for gels of a given G’, are investigated. The measured mobility remains constant as G’ is increased (i.e., mesh size is decreased) up to a value of approximately 300 Pa, beyond which it decreases. In the second set of measurements, the trapped particle size was increased in a gel medium of constant mesh size, with G’ approximately 100 Pa. In this case, the measured μd is found to be effectively constant over the particle size range studied (14-120 nm), i.e., it is independent of the degree of trapping as expressed by the ratio of the particle size to the mesh size.

  20. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Rešetič, Andraž; Milavec, Jerneja; Zupančič, Blaž; Domenici, Valentina; Zalar, Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    The need for mechanical manipulation during the curing of conventional liquid crystal elastomers diminishes their applicability in the field of shape-programmable soft materials and future applications in additive manufacturing. Here we report on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers, novel composite materials that eliminate this difficulty. Their thermal shape memory anisotropy is imprinted by curing in external magnetic field, providing for conventional moulding of macroscopically sized soft, thermomechanically active elastic objects of general shapes. The binary soft-soft composition of isotropic elastomer matrix, filled with freeze-fracture-fabricated, oriented liquid crystal elastomer microparticles as colloidal inclusions, allows for fine-tuning of thermal morphing behaviour. This is accomplished by adjusting the concentration, spatial distribution and orientation of microparticles or using blends of microparticles with different thermomechanical characteristics. We demonstrate that any Gaussian thermomechanical deformation mode (bend, cup, saddle, left and right twist) of a planar sample, as well as beat-like actuation, is attainable with bilayer microparticle configurations. PMID:27713478

  1. Dispersing nanoparticles in a polymer film via solvent evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-05-19

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer film during solvent evaporation. As the solvent evaporates, a dense polymer-rich skin layer forms at the liquid/vapor interface, which is either NP rich or poor depending on the strength of the NP/polymer interaction. When the NPs are strongly wet by the polymer, the NPs accumulate at the interface and form layers. However, when the NPs are only partially wet by the polymer, most NPs are uniformly distributed in the bulk of the polymer film, with the dense skin layer serving as a barrier to prevent the NPs from moving to the interface. Furthermore, our results point to a possible route to employ less favorable NP/polymer interactions and fast solvent evaporation to uniformly disperse NPs in a polymer film, contrary to the common belief that strong NP/polymer attractions are needed to make NPs well dispersed in polymer nanocomposites.

  2. Dispersing nanoparticles in a polymer film via solvent evaporation

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-05-19

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer film during solvent evaporation. As the solvent evaporates, a dense polymer-rich skin layer forms at the liquid/vapor interface, which is either NP rich or poor depending on the strength of the NP/polymer interaction. When the NPs are strongly wet by the polymer, the NPs accumulate at the interface and form layers. However, when the NPs are only partially wet by the polymer, most NPs are uniformly distributed in the bulk of the polymer film, with the dense skin layer serving as a barrier tomore » prevent the NPs from moving to the interface. Furthermore, our results point to a possible route to employ less favorable NP/polymer interactions and fast solvent evaporation to uniformly disperse NPs in a polymer film, contrary to the common belief that strong NP/polymer attractions are needed to make NPs well dispersed in polymer nanocomposites.« less

  3. Interphase and particle dispersion correlations in polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senses, Erkan

    Particle dispersion in polymer matrices is a major parameter governing the mechanical performance of polymer nanocomposites. Controlling particle dispersion and understanding aging of composites under large shear and temperature variations determine the processing conditions and lifetime of composites which are very important for diverse applications in biomedicine, highly reinforced materials and more importantly for the polymer composites with adaptive mechanical responses. This thesis investigates the role of interphase layers between particles and polymer matrices in two bulk systems where particle dispersion is altered upon deformation in repulsive composites, and good-dispersion of particles is retained after multiple oscillatory shearing and aging cycles in attractive composites. We demonstrate that chain desorption and re-adsorption processes in attractive composites under shear can effectively enhance the bulk microscopic mechanical properties, and long chains of adsorbed layers lead to a denser entangled interphase layer. We further designed experiments where particles are physically adsorbed with bimodal lengths of homopolymer chains to underpin the entanglement effect in interphases. Bimodal adsorbed chains are shown to improve the interfacial strength and used to modulate the elastic properties of composites without changing the particle loading, dispersion state or polymer conformation. Finally, the role of dynamic asymmetry (different mobilities in polymer blends) and chemical heterogeneity in the interphase layer are explored in systems of poly(methyl methacrylate) adsorbed silica nanoparticles dispersed in poly(ethylene oxide) matrix. Such nanocomposites are shown to exhibit unique thermal-stiffening behavior at temperatures above glass transitions of both polymers. These interesting findings suggest that the mobility of the surface-bound polymer is essential for reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites, contrary to existing glassy layer theories

  4. Pattern Polymerization-Induced Phase Separation in a Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu, Thein

    2002-03-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite films have gained attention increasingly due to their applications in flat panel displays and shutters. Photopolymerization is a preferred method to produce LC/polymer composite films from mixtures of reactive monomers and LCs. On the basis of the combined Flory-Huggins free energy for isotropic mixing and Maier-Saupe free energy for nematic ordering along with the elastic free energy of the network, phase diagrams have been established by solving self-consistently. A theoretical simulation has been modeled by incorporating the kinetics of crosslinking reaction into the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL-model C) equations to elucidate the emergence of nematic domains during photopolymerization induced phase separation in electrically switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLC). The simulated morphological patterns in the concentration and orientation order parameter fields show discrete layers of liquid crystal droplets alternating periodically with polymer network-rich layers. Furthermore, we recognized the potential for producing electrically tunable microlens from PDLC systems through pattern-photopolymerization-induced phase separation by means of the interference of two horizontal waves and two vertical waves. Our simulation revealed that the emerged LC microlens are of the order of a few hundred nanometers. These LC microlens are not only uniformed in size, but also form in regular arrays, reminiscence of the compound eyes found in flies, ants, and wasps. Supported by ALCOM, NSF DMR 99-03519, and OBR.

  5. Magnetic particle dispersion in polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kwang Seoung

    Magnetic particle dispersions were prepared in order to observe the effect of particle surface properties, concentration and functional group of binder, milling time, and solvent on dispersion properties. Rheology and transverse susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the dispersion quality of the magnetic paints macroscopically and microscopically, respectively. In this study, by applying the acid-base concept, methods to optimize magnetic dispersions were established. Initially, interaction between acid-base sites on particles and binder was investigated by poisoning the sites with chemicals, then quantifying each type of adsorption (hydrogen and chemical adsorption) using thermogravimetric analysis. With this fundamental information, effects of typical dispersion parameters were investigated. The acid base interaction between binder solution and particles was related to the magnetic and rheological properties of magnetic inks. The results have significant implications for high density particulate media where dispersion will become increasingly important.

  6. Highly Effective Light Beam Diffraction on Holographic PDLC Photonic Structure, Controllable by the Spatially Inhomogeneous Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkin, A. O.; Sharangovich, S. N.

    In this work the highly effiective light beam diffraction on holographic photonic structure formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLCs) is theoretically described. The ability to manage its diffraction characteristics by the spatially inhomogeneous electric field is also shown.

  7. Study of Mass Diffusion and Relaxation Processes in Polymer Systems by Laser Induced Holographic Grating Relaxation and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiulin

    The diffusion of dye molecules in various polymer systems is studied using the Laser Induced Holographic Grating Relaxation technique. The diffusion coefficients of camphorquinone (CQ), thymoquinone (TQ), diacetyl (DA) and azo compounds in these polymers are studied as a function of temperature, properties of both the polymers and the dye molecules. The effects of additives are also investigated. Due to the chemical reversibility of the azo compounds, the kinetics of their chemical processes are also analyzed. The mutual diffusion coefficients in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) compatible polymer blends are measured by dynamic light scattering as a function of the molecular weight of PEO while keeping the molecular weight of PMMA fixed. The polymer chain relaxation processes of poly(isobornyl methacrylate) (PIMA) are also studied by using dynamic light scattering.

  8. Silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions with hybrid particle structure.

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Ofat, Izabela; Trzaskowska, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and application of silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions (APD) with hybrid particle structure are reviewed based on available literature data. Advantages of synthesis of dispersions with hybrid particle structure over blending of individual dispersions are pointed out. Three main processes leading to silicone-containing hybrid APD are identified and described in detail: (1) emulsion polymerization of organic unsaturated monomers in aqueous dispersions of silicone polymers or copolymers, (2) emulsion copolymerization of unsaturated organic monomers with alkoxysilanes or polysiloxanes with unsaturated functionality and (3) emulsion polymerization of alkoxysilanes (in particular with unsaturated functionality) and/or cyclic siloxanes in organic polymer dispersions. The effect of various factors on the properties of such hybrid APD and films as well as on hybrid particles composition and morphology is presented. It is shown that core-shell morphology where silicones constitute either the core or the shell is predominant in hybrid particles. Main applications of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are reviewed including (1) coatings which show specific surface properties such as enhanced water repellency or antisoiling or antigraffiti properties due to migration of silicone to the surface, and (2) impact modifiers for thermoplastics and thermosets. Other processes in which silicone-containing particles with hybrid structure can be obtained (miniemulsion polymerization, polymerization in non-aqueous media, hybridization of organic polymer and polysiloxane, emulsion polymerization of silicone monomers in silicone polymer dispersions and physical methods) are also discussed. Prospects for further developments in the area of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are presented.

  9. Carbon spheres surface modification and dispersion in polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingmei; Yang, Yongzhen; Zhao, Xuexia; Liu, Xuguang

    2012-11-01

    Polymer/carbon spheres (CSs) composite materials, in which polymer was used as continuous phase and CSs as dispersed phase, were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. In order to improve CSs dispersibility in polymer matrix and compatibility with polymer matrix, the functional double bonds were introduced onto the surface of CSs by covalent and non-covalent method. Covalent functionalization was accompolished through mixed acid oxidation and subsequent reaction with acryloyl chloride. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the morphology, structure and effect of functionalization of CSs. Vinyl-functionalized CSs by acryloyl chloride were well dispersed in organic solvents, such as DMF, acetone and chloroform. Non-covalent functionalization by surfactant was accompolished by electrostatic interaction. Covalent and non-covalent functionalization enabled CSs to be homogeneously dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix with good compatibility. These studies lay the foundation of preparing the non-close packed three-dimensional carbon-based photonic crystals.

  10. Nanoparticle dispersions: A colloid and polymer solution perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schoot, Paul

    For most solid nanoparticles there are no true solvents in the sense that a powder or crystal of these nanoparticles would spontaneously dissolve when immersed in them. There are exceptions but these typically involve unusual solvents such as super acids or chemical modification of the particles to make particles and solvent compatible. Conventional fluids, including water, are generally poor solvents or dispersants and in them the nanoparticles need to be stabilised against aggregation. Indeed, nanoparticles dispersed or dissolved in a liquid behave very much like polymers and colloidal particles do. The properties of such dispersions can thus be understood in terms of what is known about the behaviour of colloids and polymer solutions. Important aspects are Van der Waals and Coulomb interactions, steric interactions, the impact of depletion agents, phase separation and the tendency of elongated colloidal particles and stiff polymers to form nematic and other types of liquid-crystalline phase. For this book a question of particular interest is how the nanoparticles behave if they are present in a liquid crystalline host fluid, and what kind of medium-induced interaction operates between these particles. However, most types of interaction are also present in isotropic host uids, so the attention of this chapter will primarily be directed towards conventional dispersions. I shall give an overview of the physico-chemical principles most relevant to understanding the behaviour of fluid dispersions and solutions of nanoparticles, using spherical, cylindrical and at, plate-like nanoparticles as illustrative examples.

  11. Light Diffraction of Aligned Polymer Fibers Periodically Dispersed by Phase Separation of Liquid Crystal and Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    We have confirmed light diffraction of aligned polymer fibers obtained by a phase separation of an anisotropic-phase solution of liquid crystal and polymer. He—Ne laser light passing through the polymer fibers was scattered in the axis vertical to the fibers, and had two peaks of light intensity symmetrical to the center of the transmitting laser spot. The two peaks were found to be caused by light diffraction due to the periodic polymer-fiber dispersion because the peaks corresponded to values calculated by intervals between the fibers. The periodical fiber networks are considered to be formed by anisotropic spinodal decomposition. This effect can be used to measure the dispersion order of the polymer fibers.

  12. Holographic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  13. Interference forming of transmission by polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimyak, P. P.; Nehrych, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The methods of correlation optics are for the first time applied to study structure of liquid crystal (LC) - polymer (P) composites at various concentrations of LC and P. Their phase correlation function (PCF) was obtained considering LC-P composite as a random phase screen. The amplitude of PCF contains information about number of LC domains and structure of LC director inside of them, while a half-width of this function is connected with a size of these domains. We studied unpowered and powered composite layers with a thickness of 5 μm. As liquid crystal and polymer were used nematic LC E7 from Merck and photopolymer composition NOA65 from Norland. Concentration of polymer ϕP was varied in a range 10-55 vol. %. In good agreement with previous studies by SEM technique we detected monotone decrease of LC domains with concentration of polymer. With application of electric field, amplitude of PCF behaves differently for the samples with different polymer content. For the samples with ϕP<35 vol. % (samples having morphology of polymer dispersed LC), this dependence is monotonic. In turn, if ϕP<35 vol. % (samples with polymer network LC morphology), the amplitude of PCF non-monotonically depends on the applied voltage going through a maximum. The latter fact is explained by transformation of orientational defects of LC phase with the applied voltage.

  14. Correlation measurements of light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimyak, P. P.; Nehrych, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    The methods of correlation optics are for the first time applied to study structure of liquid crystal (LC) - polymer (P) composites at various concentrations of LC and P. Their phase correlation function (PCF) was obtained considering LC-P composite as a random phase screen. The amplitude of PCF contains information about number of LC domains and structure of LC director inside of them, while a half-width of this function is connected with a size of these domains. We studied unpowered and powered composite layers with a thickness of 5 μm. As liquid crystal and polymer were used nematic LC E7 from Merck and photopolymer composition NOA65 from Norland. Concentration of polymer φP was varied in a range 10-55 vol. %. In good agreement with previous studies by SEM technique we detected monotone decrease of LC domains with concentration of polymer. With application of electric field, amplitude of PCF behaves differently for the samples with different polymer content. For the samples with φP>35 vol. % (samples having morphology of polymer dispersed LC), this dependence is monotonic. In turn, if φP<35 vol. % (samples with polymer network LC morphology), the amplitude of PCF non-monotonically depends on the applied voltage going through a maximum. The latter fact is explained by transformation of orientational defects of LC phase with the applied voltage.

  15. Dispersion of Mixed Brush Gold Nanorods in Polymer Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Robert; Koski, Jason; Riggleman, Robert; Composto, Russell

    In this work we investigate, both experimentally and through hybrid particle/self-consistent field theoretic (hSCFT) calculations, the dispersion state of gold nanorods (AuNRs) grafted with homopolymer, bidispersed, or mixed polymer brushes. AuNRs are grafted with 11.5 kg/mol PS (HNRs), 11.5 kg/mol PS and 5.3 kg/mol PS (BNRs), or 11.5 kg/mol PS and 5 kg/mol poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (MBNRs) and cast in PS or PMMA films consisting of short to very long chains compared to the grafted brush. We further investigated the MBNR systems by varying the length of the PS brush. Overall, we find that the MBNRs dispersed markedly better than the other brush types (HNRs or BNRs) in PS matrices. We utilize hSCFT calculations, in particular potential of mean force (PMF) and brush profile calculations, to elucidate the thermodynamics of these systems. The PMFs and brush profiles exhibit similar trends for the BNRs and MBNRs where the short grafted chain forces the longer grafted chain away from the AuNR surface and promotes wetting by the matrix chains. The hSCFT calculations demonstrated qualitative trends consistent with the aggregation observed for AuNRs in PMMA matrices. Therefore, we have demonstrated that MBNR dispersion in polymer matrices is enhanced compared to the HNR and BNR cases, which extends the dispersion window for new combinations of nanorods and polymers.

  16. Polymer-Particle Nanocomposites: Size and Dispersion Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Joseph

    Polymer-particle nanocomposites are used in industrial processes to enhance a broad range of material properties (e.g. mechanical, optical, electrical and gas permeability properties). This dissertation will focus on explanation and quantification of mechanical property improvements upon the addition of nanoparticles to polymeric materials. Nanoparticles, as enhancers of mechanical properties, are ubiquitous in synthetic and natural materials (e.g. automobile tires, packaging, bone), however, to date, there is no thorough understanding of the mechanism of their action. In this dissertation, silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, both bare and grafted with polystyrene (PS), are studied in polymeric matrices. Several variables of interest are considered, including particle dispersion state, particle size, length and density of grafted polymer chains, and volume fraction of SiO2. Polymer grafted nanoparticles behave akin to block copolymers, and this is critically leveraged to systematically vary nanoparticle dispersion and examine its role on the mechanical reinforcement in polymer based nanocomposites in the melt state. Rheology unequivocally shows that reinforcement is maximized by the formation of a transient, but long-lived, percolating polymer-particle network with the particles serving as the network junctions. The effects of dispersion and weight fraction of filler on nanocomposite mechanical properties are also studied in a bare particle system. Due to the interest in directional properties for many different materials, different means of inducing directional ordering of particle structures are also studied. Using a combination of electron microscopy and x-ray scattering, it is shown that shearing anisotropic NP assemblies (sheets or strings) causes them to orient, one in front of the other, into macroscopic two-dimensional structures along the flow direction. In contrast, no such flow-induced ordering occurs for well dispersed NPs or spherical NP aggregates! This work

  17. Quantifying oil degradation processes by flow, microbes and dispersant using digital holographic interferometry and micro-bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian; Jalali, Maryam; Brock, Larry

    2016-11-01

    The unceasing demand of hydrocarbons has led and will lead to the future events of releasing crude into marine environment like Deep Horizon oil spill. The burning question to scientific community after the spill was the fate of oil spill especially with high concentration of dispersant. It is found that various physical processes such as wind, wave, turbulence, compounded with dispersants, break oil into suspension of micro-droplets. It is widely accepted that dispersant reduces interfacial tension and results in increased surface to volume ratio and subsequently improve biodegradation. Due to complexity of oil composition, key mechanisms differ substantially from well-studied laboratory system, especially in the presence of other environmental factors such as flow shear and microbes. To investigate these mechanisms at oil water interface qualitatively, we have developed a micro-bioassay consisting of microfluidics with a substrate printed with oil droplet array and a digital holographic interferometer (DHI). The degradation of micro-droplets is evaluated with the change of shape and volume measured in real time by DHI at a 2-minute interval over 100 hours. Time resolved experiments are performed to study effects of droplet size, dispersant concentrations, flow shear, and different bacteria species on the rate of degradation. The details on the rate and mechanisms will be provided in the talk.

  18. Photoinduced holographic surface relief gratings in thin self-developing dichromated polymer films: parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Rene M.; Lessard, Roger A.; Bolte, Michel

    1998-09-01

    Photoinduced holographic surface relief gratings have been fabricate din dichromated poly(acrylic acid) films. These gratings are formed in darkness subsequent to the illumination at 442 nm and they are obtained without any chemical treatment or wet processing. The influence of chemical parameters, such as ammonium dichromate and dimethylformamide concentrations, on the holographic characteristics of these gratings have been investigated. Holographic characteristics of the recording medium such as diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure, ammonium dichromate and dimethylformamide concentrations, and spatial frequency are presented in this paper.

  19. Controlling Au Nanorod Dispersion in Thin Film Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hore, Michael J. A.; Composto, Russell J.

    2012-02-01

    Dispersion of Au nanorods (Au NRs) in polymer thin films is studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. Here, we incorporate small volume fractions of polystyrene-functionalized Au NRs (φrod 0.05) into polystyrene (PS) thin films. By controlling the ratio of the brush length (N) to that of the matrix polymers (P), we can selectively obtain dispersed or aggregated Au NR structures in the PS-Au(N):PS(P) films. A dispersion map of these structures allows one to choose N and P to obtain either uniformly dispersed Au NRs or aggregates of closely packed, side-by-side aligned Au NRs. Furthermore, by blending poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) into the PS films, we demonstrate that the Au nanorod morphology can be further tuned by reducing depletion-attraction forces and promoting miscibility of the Au NRs. These predictable structures ultimately give rise to tunable optical absorption in the films resulting from surface plasmon resonance coupling between the Au NRs. Finally, self-consistent field theoretic (SCFT) calculations for both the PS-Au(N):PS(P) and PS-Au(N):PS(P):PPO systems provide insight into the PS brush structure, and allow us to interpret morphology and optical property results in terms of wet and dry PS brush states.

  20. Optimizing Glassy Polymer Network Morphology for Nano-particle Dispersion, Stabilization and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-03

    dispersity and polymerization pathway, Moskowitz, Jeremy and Wiggins, Jeffrey, Polymer Degradation and Stability 2016, 125, 76 iv. High Molecular... polymerization pathway, Moskowitz, Jeremy and Wiggins, Jeffrey, Polymer Degradation and Stability 2016, 125, 76 iv. High Molecular Weight and Low Dispersity... Applications Jessica Piness, Katrina Knauer, Jeffrey Wiggins, SAMPE Tech 2015, Baltimore, MD, May 2015 xxvi. Cure behavior and polymer chain dynamics of

  1. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N.

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09±0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1Δg —> X3∑g-) infrared phosphorescence.

  2. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09+/-0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1delta(g) --> X3sigma(g)-) infrared phosphorescence.

  3. Conjugated polymer-assisted dispersion of single-wall carbon nanotubes: the power of polymer wrapping.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Suman Kalyan; Fritsch, Martin; Scherf, Ullrich; Gomulya, Widianta; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-08-19

    The future application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in electronic (nano)devices is closely coupled to the availability of pure, semiconducting SWNTs and preferably, their defined positioning on suited substrates. Commercial carbon nanotube raw mixtures contain metallic as well as semiconducting tubes of different diameter and chirality. Although many techniques such as density gradient ultracentrifugation, dielectrophoresis, and dispersion by surfactants or polar biopolymers have been developed, so-called conjugated polymer wrapping is one of the most promising and powerful purification and discrimination strategies. The procedure involves debundling and dispersion of SWNTs by wrapping semiflexible conjugated polymers, such as poly(9,9-dialkylfluorene)s (PFx) or regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (P3AT), around the SWNTs, and is accompanied by SWNT discrimination by diameter and chirality. Thereby, the π-conjugated backbone of the conjugated polymers interacts with the two-dimensional, graphene-like π-electron surface of the nanotubes and the solubilizing alkyl side chains of optimal length support debundling and dispersion in organic solvents. Careful structural design of the conjugated polymers allows for a selective and preferential dispersion of both small and large diameter SWNTs or SWNTs of specific chirality. As an example, with polyfluorenes as dispersing agents, it was shown that alkyl chain length of eight carbons are favored for the dispersion of SWNTs with diameters of 0.8-1.2 nm and longer alkyls with 12-15 carbons can efficiently interact with nanotubes of increased diameter up to 1.5 nm. Polar side chains at the PF backbone produce dispersions with increased SWNT concentration but, unfortunately, cause reduction in selectivity. The selectivity of the dispersion process can be monitored by a combination of absorption, photoluminescence, and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, allowing identification of nanotubes with specific

  4. Dispersion/Aggregation of polymer grafted nanorods in a polymer matrix studied by Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Joao; Khani, Shaghayegh

    2015-03-01

    Nanorods are incorporated into polymer matrices for fabricating composite materials with enhanced physical and mechanical properties.The final macroscopic properties of the composites are directly related to the dispersion and organization of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For instance, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanorod-polymer composites is observed upon formation of a percolating network. One way of controlling the assembly of nanorods in the polymer medium is adjusting the chemical interactions which is done through grafting polymer chains on the surface of the rods. The recent developments in the computational techniques have paved the road for further understanding of the controlled dispersion and aggregation of nanorods in polymer matrices. In this study, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is employed in order to investigate the effect of enthalpic and entopic variables on the phase behavior of the abovementioned nanocomposites. In DPD, the interaction parameter between the components of the systems can be mapped onto the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter via well-known Groot-Warren expression. This works studies the effect of the enthalpic and entropic variables on phase transitions. The main goal is to provide a phase diagram than can be used to guide the experiments in designing new materials.

  5. Polymer-grafted gold nanorods in polymer thin films: Dispersion and plasmonic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hore, Michael-Jon Ainsley

    This dissertation describes complementary experimental and theoretical studies to deter- mine the thermodynamic factors that affect the dispersion of polymer-grafted Au nanorods within polymer thin films. Au nanorods exhibit a uniform dispersion with a regular spacing for favorable brush / matrix interactions, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-Au / poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS)-Au / poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO). For PEG-Au / PMMA, the nanorods are locally oriented and their dispersion is independent of the ratio of the degree of polymerization of the matrix (P) to that of the brush (N), α = P/N, whereas for chemically similar brush / matrix combinations, such as PS-Au / PS and PEG-Au / poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), nanorods are randomly dispersed for α 2. For aggregated systems (α > 2), nanorods are found primarily within aggregates containing side-by-side aligned nanorods with a spacing that scales with N. UV-visible spectroscopy and discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations demonstrate that coupling between surface plasmons within the aggregates leads to a blue shift in the optical absorption as α increases, indicating the sensitivity of spectroscopy for determining nanorod dispersion in polymer nanocomposite films. Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations show that the aggregation of nanorods for α > 2 can be attributed to depletion-attraction forces caused by autophobic dewetting of the brush and matrix. Finally, miscible blends of PS and PPO are investigated as a route to control depletion-attraction interactions between PS-Au nanorods. Initially, nanorods aggregate in matrices having 50 vol. % PPO and then gradually disperse as PPO becomes the majority component. The brush and matrix density profiles, determined by SCFT, show that PPO segregates into the PS brush, and acts as a compatibilizer, which improves dispersion. As dispersion improves, coupling between surface

  6. Polymer Nanocomposite Films: Dispersion of Polymer Grafted Nanorods and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Composto, Russell

    2013-03-01

    The thermodynamic factors that affect the dispersion of polymer-brush grafted gold nanorods (NR) in polymer matrix films have been studied by experiment and theory. When brush and matrix have a favorable interaction, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-NR/ poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS)-NR / poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO), nanorods are uniformly dispersed. For PEO-NRs in PMMA, the NRs are regularly spaced and well dispersed, independent of the ratio of the degree of polymerization of the matrix (P) to that of the brush (N), namely P/N. As the NR volume fraction increases, the local orientation of the nanorods increases, whereas the macroscopic orientation remains isotropic. When the brush and matrix are similar (i.e., PS-NR / PS and PEO-NR / PEO), the nanorods randomly disperse for P/N < 2 (i.e., wet brush), but align side-by-side in aggregates for P/N > 2. UV-visible spectroscopy and discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations demonstrate that surface plasmon coupling leads to a blue shift in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as P/N increases. For P/N > 2, self-consistent field theory (SCFT) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations indicate that nanorod aggregation is caused by depletion-attraction forces. Starting with a dry brush system, namely, a PS matrix where P/N = 30, these attractive forces can be mediated by adding a compatibilizing agent (e.g., PPO) that drives the NRs to disperse. Finally, dry and wet brush behavior is observed for NR aspect ratios varying from 2.5 to 7. However, compared at the same volume fraction, long rods for the dry case exhibit much better local order than lower aspect ratio nanorods, suggesting that long rods may exhibit nematic-like ordering at higher loadings. NSF Polymer and CEMRI Programs.

  7. Quantifiable Assessment of SWNT Dispersion in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Wise, Kristopher E.; Working, Dennis; Siochi, Mia; Harrison, Joycelyn; Gibbons, Luke; Siochi, Emilie J.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Cantrell, Sean; Cantrell, John

    2007-01-01

    NASA LaRC has established a new protocol for visualizing the nanomaterials in structural polymer matrix resins. Using this new technique and reconstructing the 3D distribution of the nanomaterials allows us to compare this distribution against a theoretically perfect distribution. Additional tertiary structural information can now be obtained and quantified with the electron tomography studies. These tools will be necessary to establish the structural-functional relationships between the nano and the bulk. This will also help define the critical length scales needed for functional properties. Field ready tool development and calibration can begin by using these same samples and comparing the response. i.e. gold standards of good and bad dispersion.

  8. Skin friction measurement with partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film (10-25 microns) deposited on a flat glass substrate has been used for the first time to measure skin friction. Utilizing the shear-stress-induced director reorientation in the partially exposed liquid-crystal droplets, optical transmission under crossed polarization has been measured as a function of the air flow differential pressure. Direct measurement of the skin friction with a skin friction drag balance, under the same aerodynamic conditions, lets us correlate the skin friction with optical transmission. This provides a unique technique for the direct measurement of skin friction from the transmitted light intensity. The results are in excellent agreement with the model suggested in this paper.

  9. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal devices with graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok-Hwan; Noh, Hee Yeon

    2015-12-14

    Although polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) devices have considerable potential application in smart windows, the high material cost of the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes conventionally used in these devices hinders their wide usage. In this work, we explore the use of graphene electrodes as a potential substitute for ITO electrodes in PDLC devices. The fabricated PDLC devices with graphene electrodes exhibit higher contrast and faster response than PDLC devices with ITO electrodes fabricated using the same chemical formulation and polymerization process. However, they also exhibit higher operation voltage and haze, which is primarily attributed to the inherently large resistance and inhomogeneity of the large-area graphene sheets initially transferred onto the transparent substrates. PDLC devices with graphene electrodes are robust under standard operating conditions and also have the advantage of flexibility and stretchability, unlike PDLCs with ITO electrodes.

  10. Polymer Clad Silica Fibers for Tailoring Modal Area and Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Rishøj, Lars; Jones, Maxwell; Demas, Jeffrey; Gregg, Patrick; Prabhakar, Gautam; Yan, Lu; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Ramachandran, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate higher-order-mode (Aeff up to ~2000 μm2) propagation in a 100 μm outer diameter pure-silica fiber with a low-index polymer jacket commonly used for fiber-laser pump-guidance. This simple structure obviates the need for complex designs deemed necessary for realizing large-mode-area fibers. Modes ranging from HE1,12 to HE1,22 were found to propagate stably over 15 m in this fiber. The index step is approximately 4 times larger than that obtained with fluorine down doping, thus the fiber supports even higher order modes, which may have implications for building rare earth doped fiber lasers or achieving enhanced dispersion tunability for high-energy fiber nonlinear phenomena. PMID:27472625

  11. Formation and performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Philip Kwok-Kiou

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC's) are novel composite materials consisting of micron-size liquid crystalline droplets dispersed uniformly in a solid polymer matrix. PDLC's are formed by spinodal decomposition induced by thermal quenching or polymerization. These materials have excellent magneto-optical properties, and have great potential in applications that require efficient light scattering. Present commercial applications include switchable windows for privacy control and large-scale billboards. The optical properties depend on the droplet size, shape and positional order, which are determined during the formation stage, and reorientation dynamics of the liquid crystalline molecules confined within the droplets which occurs during product use. In this thesis, new complex mathematical models that describe the formation and performance of PDLC's are successfully developed, implemented, solved and validated. The nonequilibrium thermodynamic formation model takes into account initial thermal fluctuations computed using Monte Carlo simulations and realistic arbitrary boundary conditions. The performance model is based on classical nematic liquid crystalline magneto-viscoelastic theories, and incorporates transient viscoelastic boundary conditions. The simulations are able to reproduce successfully all the experimentally observed significant dynamical and morphological features of film formation as well as all the dynamical stages observed during the use of these thin optical films. In addition, the sensitivity of the phase separating morphology to processing conditions and material parameters is elucidated. Furthermore, a new scaling method is introduced to describe the phase separation phenomena during the early and intermediate stages of spinodal decomposition induced by thermal quenching. The droplet size selection mechanism for the polymerization-induced phase separation method of forming PDLC films is identified and explained for the first time. Lastly

  12. Dynamics of polymer-dispersed cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzerow, H.-S.; Rand, J.; Crooker, P. P.

    1992-02-01

    We have studied the electrooptic properties of droplets of cholesteric liquid crystal dispersed in a polymer. Application of AC electric fields to the droplets leads to a conversion of the droplet from a nonreflecting to a selectively reflecting appearance. When the field is suddenly switched on, the switching times are found to decrease strongly with increasing field strength, with increasing temperature and with decreasing drop size. For the switching off process, both switching times and microscopic textures indicate that two different relaxation processes can occur, depending on the applied voltage and on the drop size. Nous avons étudié les propriétés électro-optiques des cristaux liquides cholestériques dispersés dans un matériau polymère. L'application d'un champ électrique fait apparaître une forte réflection de Bragg. La vitesse d'apparition de cette réflection augmente avec l'amplitude du champ électrique, avec la température et avec la diminution du diamètre des gouttelettes. L'interruption du champ électrique cause deux réactions très différentes, dépendant du voltage et du diamètre des gouttes.

  13. Measuring the Thickness and Elastic Properties of Electroactive Thin-Film Polymers Using Platewave Dispersion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; El-Azab, A.; Mal, Ajit K.

    1996-01-01

    Electroactive thin-film polymers are candidate sensors and actuators materials. They are also finding significant potential in muscle mechanisms and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In these applications, polymer thin films of thickness varying between 20 and 300 micrometers are utilized. The authors are currently studying the potential use of platewave dispersion curve measurements as an effective gauging tool for electroactive thin-film polymers.

  14. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in organic solvent by commercial polymers with ethylene chains: Experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeta, Masahiro; Kamiya, Katsumasa; Uejima, Mitsugu; Okada, Susumu

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the possible candidate dispersion agents that can uniformly disperse carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into organic solvent, from among commercially available polymers. We find that CNTs were well dispersed into dimethylacetamide with the use of polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as dispersion agents. Theoretical calculations revealed that the dispersibility of these polymers arises from the moderate strength and preferential directionality of the interactions between the CNTs and the polymers.

  15. Analysis of Anionic Polymer Dispersant Behavior in Dense Silicon Nitride and Carbide Suspensions Using an AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, M.; Matsui, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Ono, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Tsukada, M.; Kamiya, H.

    2001-06-01

    The paper focuses on the interaction mechanism caused by anionic polymer dispersants in dense silicon nitride and silicon carbide suspensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to determine the relationship between the macroscopic suspension viscosity and the microscopic structure adsorbing of a polymer dispersant at the solid/liquid interface. The surface interactions within the suspensions were analyzed under various dispersant pH values and additive conditions. The addition of an anionic polymer dispersant decreased the viscosity of silicon nitride and silicon carbide suspension and increased the electrosteric repulsive force on the non-oxide surface in solution at pH > 6, which was the isoelectric point of the materials. Based on the above results, we estimated the adsorption mechanism of anionic polymer dispersants on each solid surface in solution under relatively high pH conditions.

  16. Digital holographic measurement of the Lagrangian evaporation rate of droplets dispersing in a homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marié, J. L.; Tronchin, T.; Grosjean, N.; Méès, L.; Öztürk, O. Can; Fournier, C.; Barbier, B.; Lance, M.

    2017-02-01

    The evaporation rate of diethyl ether droplets dispersing in a homogeneous, nearly isotropic turbulence is measured by following droplets along their trajectory. Measurements are performed at ambient temperature and pressure by using in-line digital holography. The holograms of droplets are recorded with a single high-speed camera (3 kHz), and droplets trajectories are reconstructed with an "inverse problem approach" (IPA) algorithm previously used in Chareyron et al. (New J Phys 14:043039, 2012) and Marié et al. (Exp Fluid 55(4):1708, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s00348-014-1708-6). The thermal/vapor concentration wakes developing around the droplets are visible behind each hologram. A standard reconstruction process is applied, showing that these wakes are aligned with the relative Lagrangian velocity seen by droplets at each instant. This relative velocity is that obtained from the dynamic equation of droplets motion and the positions and diameter of the droplets measured by holography and the IPA reconstruction. Sequences of time evolution of droplets 3D positions, diameter and 3D relative velocity are presented. In a number of cases, the evaporation rate of droplets changes along the trajectory and deviates from the value estimated with a standard film model of evaporation. This shows that turbulence may significantly influence the phase change process.

  17. Ultrasound visualization using polymer dispersed liquid crystal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. S.; Trushkevych, O.; Eriksson, T. J. R.; Ramadas, S. N.; Dixon, S.

    2017-02-01

    The acousto-optic effect in liquid crystals (LCs) has previously been exploited to build large area acoustic sensors for visualising ultrasound fields, opening up the field of acoustography. There is an opportunity to simplify this technique and open new application areas by employing polymer dispersed LC (PDLC) thin films instead of aligned LC layers. In PDLCs, the normally opaque film becomes transparent under the influence of an acoustic field (e.g. when surface acoustic waves are propagating in the material under the film). This is called acoustic clearing and is visible by eye. There is potential for producing ultrasonic sensors which can be `painted on' to a component, giving direct visualisation of the ultrasonic field without requiring scanning. We demonstrate the effect by using PDLC films to characterise a resonant mode of a flexural air-coupled transducer. Visualisation was quick, with a switching time of a few seconds. The effect shows promise for ultrasound sensing applications for transducer characterisation and NDE.

  18. Switchable Solar Window Devices Based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Ma, Dakang; Munday, Jeremy

    Windows are an interesting target for photovoltaics due to the potential for large area of deployment and because glass is already a ubiquitous component of solar cell devices. Many demonstrations of solar windows in recent years have used photovoltaic devices which are semitransparent in the visible region. Much research has focused on enhancing device absorption in the UV and IR ranges as a means to circumvent the basic tradeoff between efficiency and transparency to visible light. Use of switchable solar window is a less investigated alternative approach; these windows utilize the visible spectrum but can toggle between high transparency and high efficiency as needed. We present a novel switchable solar window device based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC). By applying an electric field to the PDLC layer, the device can be switched from an opaque, light diffusing, efficient photovoltaic cell to a clear, transparent window. In the off state (i.e. scattering state), these devices have the added benefits of increased reflectivity for reduced lighting and cooling costs and haze for privacy. Further, we demonstrate that these windows have the potential for self-powering due to the very low power required to maintain the on, or high transparency, state. Support From: University of Maryland and Maryland Nano-center and its Fablab.

  19. Non-covalent polymer wrapping of carbon nanotubes and the role of wrapped polymers as functional dispersants

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as a promising material in a wide range of applications from biotechnology to energy-related devices. However, the poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents hindered the applications of CNTs. As studies have progressed, the methodology for CNT dispersion was established. In this methodology, the key issue is to covalently or non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of the CNTs with a dispersant. Among the various types of dispersions, polymer wrapping through non-covalent interactions is attractive in terms of the stability and homogeneity of the functionalization. Recently, by taking advantage of their stability, the wrapped-polymers have been utilized to support and/or reinforce the unique functionality of the CNTs, leading to the development of high-performance devices. In this review, various polymer wrapping approaches, together with the applications of the polymer-wrapped CNTs, are summarized. PMID:27877763

  20. Non-covalent polymer wrapping of carbon nanotubes and the role of wrapped polymers as functional dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as a promising material in a wide range of applications from biotechnology to energy-related devices. However, the poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents hindered the applications of CNTs. As studies have progressed, the methodology for CNT dispersion was established. In this methodology, the key issue is to covalently or non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of the CNTs with a dispersant. Among the various types of dispersions, polymer wrapping through non-covalent interactions is attractive in terms of the stability and homogeneity of the functionalization. Recently, by taking advantage of their stability, the wrapped-polymers have been utilized to support and/or reinforce the unique functionality of the CNTs, leading to the development of high-performance devices. In this review, various polymer wrapping approaches, together with the applications of the polymer-wrapped CNTs, are summarized.

  1. In situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer-slice sequence structure.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Luciano; Caputo, Roberto; De Luca, Antonio; Veltri, Alessandro; Umeton, Cesare; Sukhov, Andrey V

    2006-06-01

    We report on the realization of what we believe to be a new holographic setup for the fabrication of polymer liquid-crystal polymer-slice diffraction gratings, which utilizes an optical-feedback-driven nanopositioning technique. We have increased the stability of the interference pattern by means of a simple piezomirror used in a feedback configuration to keep constant the phase of the interferometer. The feedback system is driven by a proportional, integral, derivative control software, and the stability degree is controlled by the reference signal coming from a standard test grating. A preliminary experimental characterization indicates that good control and stabilization of parasitic fluctuations of the interference pattern are obtained.

  2. Molecular implications of drug-polymer solubility in understanding the destabilization of solid dispersions by milling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyi; Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica; Qi, Sheng

    2014-07-07

    The solubility of drugs in polymer matrixes has been recognized as one of the key factors governing the physical stability of solid dispersions. This study has explored the implications of drug solubility on the destabilization that occurs on milling, which is often used as an additional process for hot melt extruded (HME) solid dispersions. The theoretical drug solubility in the polymer was first predicted using various theoretical and experimental approaches. The destabilization effects of high-energy mechanical milling on the solid dispersions with drug loadings below and above the predicted solubility were then investigated using a range of thermal, microscopic, and spectroscopic techniques. Four model drug-polymer combinations were studied. The HME formulations with drug loading below the predicted solid solubility (undersaturated and true molecular dispersion) showed good stability against milling. In contrast, milling destabilized supersaturated HME dispersions via increasing molecular mobility and creating phase-separated, amorphous, drug-rich domains. However, these additional amorphous drug-rich domains created by milling show good stability under ambient conditions, though crystallization can be accelerated by additional heating. These results highlighted that the processing method used to prepare the solid dispersions may play a role in facilitating the stabilization of amorphous drug in supersaturated solid dispersions. The degree of supersaturation of the drug in the polymer showed significant impact on the destabilization behavior of milling on solid dispersions. An improved understanding of the destabilization behavior of solid dispersions upon milling can provide new insights into the processing related apparent solubility of drugs in polymers.

  3. Electro-optical behavior of polymer dispersed blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiklioglu, E.; Chien, L.-C.

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated a new form of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) electro-optical films comprised of blue phase liquid crystal and polymer prepared by the solvent evaporation method. In this method, polymer dispersed blue phase (PDBP) films, which were laminated between two indium-tin-oxidecoated conductive substrates, demonstrated two switching modes between light scattering and transparent states in response to an applied electric field across the film. The electro-optical properties of PDBP liquid crystals can be altered by changing the concentrations of liquid crystal and polymer. The compositions, film preparations, physical and morphological behaviors, and electro-optical properties of PDBP films are described.

  4. A direct-staining method to evaluate the mucoadhesion of polymers from aqueous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kockisch, S; Rees, G D; Young, S A; Tsibouklis, J; Smart, J D

    2001-11-09

    A novel technique to evaluate polymer adhesion to human buccal cells following exposure to aqueous polymer dispersion, both in vitro and in vivo, is described. Adhering polymer has been visualised by staining with 0.1% (w/v) of either Alcian blue (60 min) or Eosin (10 min) solution, uncomplexed dye being removed by 0.25 M sucrose washings. The extent of polymer adhesion was quantified by measuring the relative staining intensity of control and polymer-treated cells by image analysis. In vitro, Carbopol 974P, polycarbophil (Noveon AA-1) and chitosan (CL 113) were found to adhere to human buccal cells from 0.10% (w/w) aqueous dispersions of these polymers. Following in vivo administration as a mouthwash, these polymers persisted upon the human buccal mucosa for at least 1 h.

  5. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  6. Determination of small anisotropy of holographic phase gratings.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, D E; Criante, L; Simoni, F

    2003-05-01

    We show the possibility of detecting small anisotropies in holographic polymer dispersed liquid-crystal samples, using a simple experimental setup that allows us to determine the behavior of the diffraction efficiency versus incident angle for two reading polarizations. This analysis is extremely sensitive to small changes in the parameters that define the grating anisotropy, giving us a way to determine with great accuracy the components of the modulated part of the dielectric tensor.

  7. Non-covalent nanodiamond-polymer dispersions and electrostatic immobilization of bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaltsas, T.; Pispas, S.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-11-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) lack efficient dispersion, not only in solvents but also in aqueous media. The latter is of great importance, considering the inherent biocompatibility of NDs and the plethora of suitable strategies for immobilizing functional biomolecules. In this work, a series of polymers was non-covalently interacted with NDs, forming ND-polymer ensembles, and their dispersibility and stability was examined. Dynamic light scattering gave valuable information regarding the size of the ensembles in liquid phase, while their morphology was further examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. In addition, thermal analysis measurements were applied to collect information on the thermal behavior of NDs and their ensembles and to calculate the amount of polymer interacting with the NDs, as well as the dispersibility values of the ND-polymer ensembles. Finally, the bovine serum albumin protein was electrostatically bound to a ND-polymer ensemble in which the polymeric moiety was carrying quaternized pyridine units.

  8. Temperature-induced spectrum response of a volume grating as an effective strategy for holographic sensing in an acrylamide polymer part II: physical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Zhou, Ke; Mao, Dongyao; Liu, Langbo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Song, Qinggong

    2016-12-10

    The temperature response mechanism of a diffraction spectrum in a holographic grating is characterized. Two possible major factors, changes in the refractive index and thermal expansion, are measured and analyzed to identify the sensing physical mechanism. Average refractive indices at various temperatures and relative humidity values are independently measured. Thermal optical coefficients of polymers are estimated quantitatively to evaluate the temperature response capability of the refractive index. Angle selectivity of multiplexing gratings is scanned at various temperatures to obtain magnitudes of Bragg angle detuning. The linear thermal expansion coefficients are extracted by the nonlinear fitting reading angle dependence of angle detuning. The significance of the thermal optical coefficient and the thermal expansion coefficient for holographic sensing is discussed. Finally, the primary factor for temperature-induced wavelength blueshift is analyzed theoretically.

  9. Holographic method for investigating the diffusion of dye molecules in the polymer host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Xia, J. L.

    1990-02-01

    Laser induced holographic grating relaxation studies of thymoquinone dissolved in amorphous poly(α-methyl styrene) have been carried out. The Onsager theory of mutual diffusion for binary and tertiary systems are utilized to analyze the shape of the diffraction intensity curve. Different line shapes that are associated with the relaxation of the diffraction intensity are interpreted in terms of the diffusion processes. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of thymoquinone concentration from 0.3 to 20 wt. % at various temperatures. It is shown that at very low concentrations (less than 0.5%), the self-diffusion coefficients of the dye molecule and its photoproduct are obtained. Above 0.5% concentrations the diffusion coefficient rapidly increases with increasing dye concentration. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient follows the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, whereas the mutual diffusion coefficient at higher dye concentrations follows the Arrhenius equation. The self-diffusion coefficient rapidly decreases as the sample temperature is traversed across the glass transition temperature (Tg). However at finite dye concentrations there is no detectable effect owing to the onset of Tg on the mutual diffusion coefficient. The difference is attributed to the plasticizing effect of the dye molecules.

  10. Effects of monomer functionality on performances of scaffolding morphologic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Shen, Su; Wei, Guojun; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of monomer functionality on performances of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings are systematically investigated. Acrylate monomers with an average functionality ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 are used to prepare these samples. We find scaffolding morphologic transmission gratings (characterized by a high phase separation degree, a well alignment of LCs and low scattering loss) can be obtained irrespective of the monomer functionality, although the exact optimal curing intensity varies. The temporal evolution of the grating formation is studied and the onset time of the LC phase separation decreases significantly with the increase in average monomer functionality. It is also shown that the gratings prepared from low average functionality monomers require a comparatively low switch-off electric field (~8 V μm-1) whilst suffering from mechanical fragility and long-term instability. Our results not only provide a complete understanding of scaffolding morphologic gratings in terms of the material composition effect, but also provide insight into the formation mechanisms of non-droplet morphologic HPDLC gratings.

  11. Mechanical properties of dispersed ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huinan; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic/polymer composites have been considered as third-generation orthopedic biomaterials due to their ability to closely match properties (such as surface, chemistry, biological, and mechanical) of natural bone. It has already been shown that the addition of nanophase compared with conventional (or micron-scale) ceramics to polymers enhances bone cell functions. However, in order to fully take advantage of the promising nanometer size effects that nanoceramics can provide when added to polymers, it is critical to uniformly disperse them in a polymer matrix. This is critical since ceramic nanoparticles inherently have a strong tendency to form larger agglomerates in a polymer matrix which may compromise their properties. Therefore, in this study, model ceramic nanoparticles, specifically titania and hydroxyapatite (HA), were dispersed in a model polymer (PLGA, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid) using high-power ultrasonic energy. The mechanical properties of the resulting PLGA composites with well-dispersed ceramic (either titania or HA) nanoparticles were investigated and compared with composites with agglomerated ceramic nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that well-dispersed ceramic nanoparticles (titania or HA) in PLGA improved mechanical properties compared with agglomerated ceramic nanoparticles even though the weight percentage of the ceramics was the same. Specifically, well-dispersed nanoceramics in PLGA enhanced the tensile modulus, tensile strength at yield, ultimate tensile strength, and compressive modulus compared with the more agglomerated nanoceramics in PLGA. In summary, supplemented by previous studies that demonstrated greater osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions on well-dispersed nanophase ceramics in polymers, the present study demonstrated that the combination of PLGA with well-dispersed nanoceramics enhanced mechanical properties necessary for load-bearing orthopedic/dental applications. PMID:20463945

  12. Three-port beam splitter for slow neutrons using holographic nanoparticle-polymer composite diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Klepp, J.; Fally, M.; Tomita, Y.; Pruner, C.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2012-10-08

    Diffraction of slow neutrons by nanoparticle-polymer composite gratings has been observed. By carefully choosing grating parameters such as grating thickness and spacing, a three-port beam splitter operation for slow neutrons - splitting the incident neutron intensity equally into the {+-}1st and the 0th diffraction orders - has been realized. As a possible application, a Zernike three-path interferometer is briefly discussed.

  13. Orthogonal Double View Digital Holographic Diagnostics for Random Motion of Micro Polymer Jet by Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiho; Sallam, Khaled

    2008-11-01

    An experimental investigation of three-dimensional random behavior of polymer micro jet generated by electrospinning is described. Two frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers were used as the light source and a commercial grade CCD sensor (Nikon D-70) was used for holograms recording. The two lasers could be fired with a pulse separation as small as 100 ns, and the two laser beams were aligned with three polarized beam splitter cubes. Orthogonal double-view and double-pulses were recorded on the same camera frame. The camera frame was split into two, and both of the halves of the frame were used for each view. Two objective lenses (M 5x) and two spatial filters (Pinhole ˜ 5μm) were used to generate expanding laser beams in the digital microscopic holography (DMH) optical setup. As the electric field (˜20 kV) was intensified, the polymer solution formed a charged filament (or multiple filaments) from the tip of the Taylor cone. As the filament was accelerated toward the collector, its diameter was shrunk and axisymmetric disturbances grew further away from the exit. The polymer was randomly deposited on the collector as non woven microfiber.

  14. Novel strategy involving surfactant-polymer combinations for enhanced stability of aqueous teflon dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Bharatiya, Bhavesh; Mehta, Krupali; Shukla, Atindra; Shah, Dinesh O

    2014-06-24

    Among various polymers, the Teflon surface possesses extreme hydrophobicity (low surface energy), which is of great interest to both industry and academia. In this report, we discuss the stability of aqueous Teflon dispersions (particle size range of 100-3000 nm) formulated by a novel strategy that involves distinct combinations of surfactant and polymer mixtures for dispersion stabilization. As a first step, the hydrophobic Teflon particles were wetted using a range of surfactants (ionic, Triton, Brij, Tween, and Pluronic series) bearing different hydrophobic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and further characterized by contact angle and liquid penetration in packed powder measurements. The interaction between hydrophobic chains of surfactants and the Teflon particle surface is the driving force resulting in wetting of the Teflon particle surface. Further, these wetted particles in aqueous solutions were mixed with various polymers, for example, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The rate of sedimentation for the final dispersions was measured using a pan suspended into the dispersion from a transducer recording the increase in weight with time. A significant stability was noticed for Teflon particles suspended in surfactant + polymer mixtures, which was linearly proportional to the concentration of added polymer. The observed phenomenon can be possibly explained by molecular interactions between the hydrophobic chains of surfactant molecules and polar groups in the polymer architecture. Brij-O10 + HEC mixture was found to be the best surfactant-polymer combination for decreasing the sedimentation of the Teflon particles in the final dispersion. As measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the hydrodynamic volume of the Teflon particles increases up to ∼55% in the final formulation. These dispersions could be further explored for various technological applications such as

  15. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  16. Cr(VI) and Fe(III) doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, Gurusamy; Changkakoti, Rupak; Lessard, Roger A.

    1992-12-01

    IL EXPERIMENTAL Cr(VI) [as (4)2271 and Fe(ffl) [as FeC1] doped Polyvinyl alcohol and Polyacrylic acid systems have been employed'' as real-time holographic recording materials. Holograms have been recorded in Dicbmmated Polyvinyl alcohol (DCPVA) Dichromated Polyacrylic acid (DCPAA) and Ferric chloride Polyvinyl alcohol (FePVA) films. Various chemical and physical parameters influencing the holographic performance have been optimized. L

  17. Holographic photopolymer linear variable filter with enhanced blue reflection.

    PubMed

    Moein, Tania; Ji, Dengxin; Zeng, Xie; Liu, Ke; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Cartwright, Alexander N

    2014-03-12

    A single beam one-step holographic interferometry method was developed to fabricate porous polymer structures with controllable pore size and location to produce compact graded photonic bandgap structures for linear variable optical filters. This technology is based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials. By introducing a forced internal reflection, the optical reflection throughout the visible spectral region, from blue to red, is high and uniform. In addition, the control of the bandwidth of the reflection resonance, related to the light intensity and spatial porosity distributions, was investigated to optimize the optical performance. The development of portable and inexpensive personal health-care and environmental multispectral sensing/imaging devices will be possible using these filters.

  18. Theory of polymer-dispersed cholesteric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2013-11-07

    A mean field theory is presented to describe cholesteric phases in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal. Taking into account an anisotropic coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal, we examine the helical pitch, twist elastic constant, and phase separations. Analytical expressions of the helical pitch of a cholesteric phase and the twist elastic constant are derived as a function of the orientational order parameters of a polymer and a liquid crystal and two intermolecular interaction parameters. We also find isotropic-cholesteric, cholesteric-cholesteric phase separations, and polymer-induced cholesteric phase on the temperature-concentration plane. We demonstrate that an anisotropic coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal can stabilize a cholesteric phase in the mixtures. Our theory can also apply to mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant. We discuss the helical twisting power, which depends on temperature, concentration, and orientational order parameters. It is shown that our theory can qualitatively explain experimental observations.

  19. Dielectric and electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized liquid crystal. II. Polymer PiBMA dispersed in MBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Pankaj Kumar; Pande, Mukti; Singh, Shri

    2016-09-01

    In continuation of our earlier work (Pande et al. in Appl Phys A 122:217-226, 2016), we report the results of dielectric and electro-optical properties of pure MBBA and PSLC (polymer PiBMA dispersed in MBBA) systems. The polymer networks domains formed are found to be anisotropic and are oriented in the direction of electric field for both the planar and homeotropic alignment cells. The dielectric anisotropy, optical anisotropy, response time, threshold voltage, splay elastic constant and rotational viscosity were observed for both the LC and PSLC systems with electric field. The liquid crystal properties are affected significantly with increasing concentration of polymer in pure LC material. It has been observed that the polymer networks interaction plays a major role in changing the properties of PSLC system. The effect of dielectric loss and dielectric permittivity on both pure LC and PSLC systems is also discussed.

  20. Influence of dispersion states on the performance of polymer-based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Payam; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2014-10-01

    Although nanoparticle-modified polymers have tremendous promise in many applications, particularly dielectric energy storage, true nanoscale dispersion is extremely difficult to achieve. In this paper, we carefully engineer various dispersion states of titania nanoparticles in polyvinylidene fluoride and analyze their impact on dielectric behavior and energy storage ability. In particular, we compare nanocomposites prepared using commercially available nanoparticles to those we prepared using in situ and ex situ synthesis of nanoparticles. SEM and TEM studies showed that the in situ case leads to the best dispersion. Interestingly, dielectric permittivity was most influenced by dispersion state where the in situ case showed a higher increase, however, dielectric breakdown and energy storage density were less affected by dispersion and more affected by procedure that minimized residues and impurities. The in situ technique, in particular, showed nanoscale dispersion, low dielectric loss and higher energy storage density. In terms of mechanical behavior, all three cases showed a similar performance in the rubbery region, whereas the impact of dispersion was more pronounced in the glassy region. In fact, the trend was opposite to the dielectric permittivity where nanoscale dispersion resulted in a lower storage modulus likely due to the lower effective mechanical load transfer going to the nanoscale. The results of our study shed some light on the role of dispersion quality and processing techniques in affecting the final dielectric, mechanical and breakdown behavior of TiO2-based polymer nanocomposites.

  1. Drug-polymer solubility and miscibility: Stability consideration and practical challenges in amorphous solid dispersion development.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Huang, Jun; Hussain, Munir A

    2010-07-01

    Drug-polymer solid dispersion has been demonstrated as a feasible approach to formulate poorly water-soluble drugs in the amorphous form, for the enhancement of dissolution rate and bioperformance. The solubility (for crystalline drug) and miscibility (for amorphous drug) in the polymer are directly related to the stabilization of amorphous drug against crystallization. Therefore, it is important for pharmaceutical scientists to rationally assess solubility and miscibility in order to select the optimal formulation (e.g., polymer type, drug loading, etc.) and recommend storage conditions, with respect to maximizing the physical stability. This commentary attempts to discuss the concepts and implications of the drug-polymer solubility and miscibility on the stabilization of solid dispersions, review recent literatures, and propose some practical strategies for the evaluation and development of such systems utilizing a working diagram.

  2. Mean-Field Models of Structure and Dispersion of Polymer-nanoparticle Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-29

    bare polymer matrix by as much as an order of magnitude.2,3,12–14 Gas barrier properties of butyl rubber latexes was shown to be reduced by almost 2...research developments in coarse-grained modeling based on mean-field approaches of the equilibrium dispersion and structure of polymer nanoparticle...polymernanoparticle mixtures Report Title ABSTRACT We review some recent research developments in coarse-grained modeling based on mean-field approaches of the

  3. Anionic surfactant with hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains for nanoparticle dispersion and shape memory polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Motoyuki; Kobayakawa, Murino; Yamazaki, Miwa; Ohta, Yasuhiro; Kamiya, Hidehiro

    2009-11-18

    An anionic surfactant comprising a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, hydrophobic alkyl chain, and polymerizable vinyl group was synthesized as a capping agent of nanoparticles. TiO(2) nanoparticles modified by this surfactant were completely dispersible in various organic solvents with a wide range of polarities, such as nitriles, alcohols, ketones, and acetates. Furthermore, these particles were found to be dispersible in various polymers with different properties, such as thermosetting epoxy resins and radical polymerized poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). A polymer composite of surface-modified TiO(2) nanoparticles in epoxy resins prepared by using the developed surfactant also possessed temperature-induced shape memory properties.

  4. The role of polymer concentration on the molecular mobility and physical stability of nifedipine solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Khushboo; Ragoonanan, Vishard; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2015-05-04

    We investigated the influence of polymer concentration (2.5-20% w/w) on the molecular mobility and the physical stability in solid dispersions of nifedipine (NIF) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). With an increase in polymer concentration, the α-relaxation times measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy were longer, which reflects a decrease in molecular mobility. In the supercooled state, at a given temperature (between 55 and 75 °C), the relaxation time increased linearly as a function of polymer concentration (2.5-20% w/w). The temperature dependence of the relaxation time indicated that the fragility of the dispersion, and by extension the mechanism by which the polymer influences the relaxation time, was independent of polymer concentration. The time for NIF crystallization also increased as a function of polymer concentration. Therefore, by using molecular mobility as a predictor, a model was built to predict NIF crystallization from the dispersions in the supercooled state. The predicted crystallization times were in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Predicting Distributive and Dispersive Mixing in Polymer Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Natália; Gaspar-Cunha, António; Covas, José António

    2007-05-01

    The present work presents numerical simulations of the occurrence of dispersive and distributive mixing of liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems being processed in single screw extruders. Routines dealing with mixing of the types of systems were coupled to mathematical descriptions of flow, temperature, pressure and stresses along the screw, to yield a global description of the process.

  6. Trypsin coatings on electrospun and alcohol-dispersed polymer nanofibers for trypsin digestion column

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Kim, Byoung Chan; An, Hyo Jin; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-09-15

    The construction of a trypsin reactor in a chromatography column for rapid and efficient protein digestion in proteomics is described. Electrospun and alcohol-dispersed polymer nanofibers were used for the fabrication of highly stable trypsin coating, which was prepared by a two-step process of covalent attachment and enzyme crosslinking. In a comparative study with the trypsin coatings on asspun and non-dispersed nanofibers, it has been observed that a simple step of alcohol dispersion improved not only the enzyme loading but also the performance of protein digestion. In-column digestion of enolase was successfully performed in less than twenty minutes. By applying the alcohol dispersion of polymer nanofibers, the bypass of samples was reduced by filling up the column with well-dispersed nanofibers, and subsequently, interactions between the protein and the enzymes were improved yielding more complete and reproducible digestions. Regardless of alcohol-dispersion or not, trypsin coating showed better digestion performance and improved performance stability under recycled uses than covalently-attached trypsin. The combination of highly stable trypsin coating and alcoholdispersion of polymer nanofibers has opened up a new potential to develop a trypsin column for on-line and automated protein digestion.

  7. Synthesis of Water-Based Dispersions of Polymer/TiO2 Hybrid Nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We develop a strategy for preparing water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres that can be used to form composite materials applicable in various fields. The formed hybrid nanospheres are monodisperse and possess a hierarchical structure. It starts with the primary TiO2 nanoparticles of about 5 nm, which first assemble to nanoclusters of about 30 nm and then are integrated into monomer droplets. After emulsion polymerization, one obtains the water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres. To achieve universal size, it is necessary to have treatments with intense turbulent shear generated in a microchannel device at different stages. In addition, a procedure combining synergistic actions of steric and anionic surfactants has been designed to warrant the colloidal stability of the process. Since the formed polymer/TiO2 nanospheres are stable aqueous dispersions, they can be easily mixed with TiO2-free polymeric nanoparticle dispersions to form new dispersions, where TiO2-containing nanospheres are homogeneously distributed in the dispersions at the nanoscale, thus leading to various applications. As an example, the proposed strategy has been applied to generate polystyrene/TiO2 nanospheres of about 100 nm in diameter.

  8. Crystallization of amorphous solid dispersions of resveratrol during preparation and storage-Impact of different polymers.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Lindsay A; Mauer, Lisa J; Edgar, Kevin J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate intermolecular interactions between resveratrol and polymers in amorphous blends and to study the potential correlations between compound-polymer interactions, manufacturability, and stability of the amorphous system to crystallization during storage. Polymers included two grades of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), Eudragit E100 (E100), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate, and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA). Amorphous blends ("solid dispersions") were prepared by dissolving both resveratrol and polymer in a solvent followed by rotary evaporation. Crystallinity was evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction and was studied as a function of time. Mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate resveratrol-polymer interactions. Polymer influence on the crystallization behavior of resveratrol varied and could be correlated to the polymer structure, whereby polymers with good hydrogen bond acceptor groups performed better as crystallization inhibitors. Resveratrol-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions could be inferred from the IR spectra. Somewhat surprisingly, E100 and resveratrol showed evidence of an acid-base reaction, in addition to intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. PVP K29/32 appeared to form stronger hydrogen bond interactions with resveratrol relative to HPMC, HPMCAS, and PAA, consistent with acceptor group chemistry. Long-term stability of the systems against crystallization suggested that stability is linked to the type and strength of intermolecular interactions present. whereby resveratrol blended with E100 and PVP K29/32 showed the greatest stability to crystallization. In conclusion, amorphous resveratrol is unstable and difficult to form, requiring the assistance of a polymeric crystallization inhibitor to facilitate the formation of an amorphous solid dispersion. Polymers effective at inhibiting

  9. Ultra-high dispersion of graphene in polymer composite via solvent free fabrication and functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Ye Ji; Joh, Han-Ik; Yu, Jaesang; Hwang, Soon Hyoun; Lee, Sungho; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Seong Yun; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2015-03-01

    The drying process of graphene-polymer composites fabricated by solution-processing for excellent dispersion is time consuming and suffers from a restacking problem. Here, we have developed an innovative method to fabricate polymer composites with well dispersed graphene particles in the matrix resin by using solvent free powder mixing and in-situ polymerization of a low viscosity oligomer resin. We also prepared composites filled with up to 20 wt% of graphene particles by the solvent free process while maintaining a high degree of dispersion. The electrical conductivity of the composite, one of the most significant properties affected by the dispersion, was consistent with the theoretically obtained effective electrical conductivity based on the mean field micromechanical analysis with the Mori-Tanaka model assuming ideal dispersion. It can be confirmed by looking at the statistical results of the filler-to-filler distance obtained from the digital processing of the fracture surface images that the various oxygenated functional groups of graphene oxide can help improve the dispersion of the filler and that the introduction of large phenyl groups to the graphene basal plane has a positive effect on the dispersion.

  10. Ultra-high dispersion of graphene in polymer composite via solvent free fabrication and functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ye Ji; Joh, Han-Ik; Yu, Jaesang; Hwang, Soon Hyoun; Lee, Sungho; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Seong Yun; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2015-01-01

    The drying process of graphene-polymer composites fabricated by solution-processing for excellent dispersion is time consuming and suffers from a restacking problem. Here, we have developed an innovative method to fabricate polymer composites with well dispersed graphene particles in the matrix resin by using solvent free powder mixing and in-situ polymerization of a low viscosity oligomer resin. We also prepared composites filled with up to 20 wt% of graphene particles by the solvent free process while maintaining a high degree of dispersion. The electrical conductivity of the composite, one of the most significant properties affected by the dispersion, was consistent with the theoretically obtained effective electrical conductivity based on the mean field micromechanical analysis with the Mori-Tanaka model assuming ideal dispersion. It can be confirmed by looking at the statistical results of the filler-to-filler distance obtained from the digital processing of the fracture surface images that the various oxygenated functional groups of graphene oxide can help improve the dispersion of the filler and that the introduction of large phenyl groups to the graphene basal plane has a positive effect on the dispersion. PMID:25771823

  11. Dispersion states and surface characteristics of physically blended polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polymer hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Rahul

    Control of dispersion and segregation states of nanostructured additives is one of the biggest challenges in realizing the optimum potential of high performance hybrid polymer nanocomposites. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals, with their hybrid organic-inorganic nature and flexible functionalization with a variety of organic substituents, yield possibilities to control dispersion and tune compatibility in a wide range of polymer systems. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the fundamental parameters that influence the dispersion and segregation states of POSS nanostructured chemicals, and to understand chain dynamics and conformations in physically blended POSS hybrid polymer nanocomposites (HPNC's). Multiple structural and mechanical factors influencing macro to nano scale surface and bulk properties were successfully investigated and correlated. A strategy based on thermodynamic principles for selective control of POSS dispersion states in a given polymer matrix is developed and discussed. This dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides a detailed introduction about the development and current research interest in POSS/polymer nanocomposites. This chapter also discusses limitations of current advanced nanoprobe techniques. Chapter 2 establishes the overall goal of this research and specific research ii objectives. Chapter 3 establishes the preferential surface migration behavior of physically dispersed, non-reactive, closed cage octaisobutyl POSS (Oib-POSS) in a non-polar polypropylene matrix. Furthermore, influence of POSS surface segregation on the surface properties, especially nano-tribomechanical behavior is also discussed. Chapter 4 expands the studies by melt blending two different types of POSS molecules, a non-reactive, closed cage Oib-POSS and an open cage trisilanolphenyl POSS (Tsp-POSS), in a nylon 6 matrix. This chapter discusses the morphology, nano-dispersion and macro- to

  12. Improving Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Polymer Matrix Using Specific Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasheed, Asif; Dadmun, Mark D; Ivanov, Ilia N; Britt, Phillip F; Geohegan, David B

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to improve the dispersion of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a copolymer matrix by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions to enhance dispersion. Nanocomposites of single-walled carbon nanotubes and copolymers of styrene and vinyl phenol (PSVPh) with varying vinyl phenol content were produced and examined. The dispersion of the SWNT in the polymer matrix is quantified by optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is also used to investigate preferred interactions between the SWNTs and the copolymers via the shift in the D* Raman band of the SWNTs in the composites. All composites show regions of SWNT aggregates; however, the aggregate size varies with composition of the PSVPh copolymer and the amount of SWNT oxidation. Optimal dispersion of the SWNT is observed in PSVPh with 20% vinyl phenol and oxidized nanotubes, which correlates with spectroscopic evidence that indicates that this system also incorporates the most interactions between SWNT and polymer matrix. These results are in agreement with previous studies that indicate that optimizing the extent of specific interactions between a polymer matrix and nanoscale filler enables the efficient dispersion of the nanofillers.

  13. Hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymer blend for modulation of crystalline changes and molecular interactions in solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Van Ngo, Hai; Nguyen, Phuc Kien; Van Vo, Toi; Duan, Wei; Tran, Van-Thanh; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh

    2016-11-20

    This research study aimed to develop a new strategy for using a polymer blend in solid dispersion (SD) for dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs. SDs with different blends of hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymers (zein/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - zein/HPMC) were prepared using spray drying to modulate the drug crystal and polymer-drug interactions in SDs. Physicochemical characterizations, including power X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed to elucidate the roles of the blends in SDs. Although hydrophobic polymers played a key role in changing the model drug from a crystal to an amorphous state, the dissolution rate was limited due to the wetting property. Fortunately, the hydrophilic-hydrophobic blend not only reduced the drug crystallinity but also resulted in a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drugs and the polymer for a dissolution rate improvement. This work may contribute to a new generation of solid dispersion using a blend of hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymers for an effective dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  14. CNT dispersion and precursor synthesis for electrospinning of polymer-CNT composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, S. M.; Crespo, J. P.; Meléndez, A.; Santiago-Avilés, J. J.; Ramos, I.; Campo, E. M.

    2011-10-01

    Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites fabricated in the form of fibers with large surface areas were used in the development of important technological applications such as photoactuators. MWCNT-polymer fibers can be prepared with the simple and fast technique of electrospinning. The precursor for electrospinning was prepared by adding dispersed MWCNTs to a polymeric solution of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(methylmethacrylate) dissolved in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and Dimethylformamide (DMF). The dispersion of the carbon nanotubes in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)/water is expected to enhance the photoactuation properties of the Polymer CNT Composites. The dispersion of the MWCNTS in SDS and the properties of the precursor solution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques.

  15. Amorphous stabilization and dissolution enhancement of amorphous ternary solid dispersions: combination of polymers showing drug-polymer interaction for synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh; Atef, Eman

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the combined effect of two polymers showing drug-polymer interactions on amorphous stabilization and dissolution enhancement of indomethacin (IND) in amorphous ternary solid dispersions. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced stability and dissolution of IND in amorphous ternary systems was studied by exploring the miscibility and intermolecular interactions between IND and polymers through thermal and spectroscopic analysis. Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 at low concentrations (2.5%-40%, w/w) were used to prepare amorphous binary and ternary solid dispersions by solvent evaporation. Stability results showed that amorphous ternary solid dispersions have better stability compared with amorphous binary solid dispersions. The dissolution of IND from the ternary dispersion was substantially higher than the binary dispersions as well as amorphous drug. Melting point depression of physical mixtures reveals that the drug was miscible in both the polymers; however, greater miscibility was observed in ternary physical mixtures. The IR analysis confirmed intermolecular interactions between IND and individual polymers. These interactions were found to be intact in ternary systems. These results suggest that the combination of two polymers showing drug-polymer interaction offers synergistic enhancement in amorphous stability and dissolution in ternary solid dispersions.

  16. Problem of hydroxyapatite dispersion in polymer matrices: a review.

    PubMed

    Supová, Monika

    2009-06-01

    This review summarizes recent work on manufacturing biocomposites suitable for bone tissue engineering. There is a great need to engineer multi-phase (i.e. composite) materials that combine the advantages exhibited by each component of the material, with a structure and composition similar to that of natural bone. The discussion concentrates on the preparation of nanocomposites containing hydroxyapatite particles (one of the most widely used bioceramics materials) with polymer matrices. Special attention is paid to the preparation of nanocomposites with individual (non-aggregated) nanoparticles because this is a key problem in nanotechnology industrialization. Controlling the mixing between so two dissimilar phases is a critical challenge in the design of these inorganic-organic systems. Several approaches that may be applied to overcome this problem will be described in this review.

  17. In-line polarization holographic memory system using PQ doped PMMA photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Lin, Lun Kuang; Marinova, Vera; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-09-01

    Polarization hologram provides some unique features over classical phase or amplitude hologram. One of the most important features is that the photo-induced anisotropy in those materials leads to the polarization-dependent diffraction from the hologram. This property is useful for many applications, such as optical interconnection, holographic data storage and bio-imaging …etc. Recently, the 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer with cm thickness has attracted intense research interesting for the volume holographic applications because the experiments demonstrated that PQ/PMMA photopolymers possess not only high optical quality but also negligible shrinkage effect under light exposure [3-5]. Additionally, in terms of chemical formula, the PQ/PMMA consists of planar structures PQ molecules dispersed in amorphous PMMA polymer so that it is possible to be oriented if irradiated with polarized light, resulting in a photoinduced birefringence. This phenomenon makes it capable for permanent polarization holographic recording via photochemical reaction. Thus, combining these two properties may make PQ/PMMA photopolymer attractive for volume polarization holographic applications. In this paper, we particularly characterize polarization holographic recording in our materials for high-density data storage. Then, we will demonstrate a in-line polarization holographic memory system using PQ/PMMA photopolymer.

  18. Phase behavior, rheological and mechanical properties of hydrophilic polymer dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Bunt, Craig; Rathbone, Michael; Alany, Raid G

    2011-06-01

    Liquid polymeric systems that can undergo phase change (sol to gel) upon administration into the teat canal of cow's mammary gland can serve as a physical barrier to invading pathogens and can also serve as a reservoir for controlled release of therapeutic agents. The aim of the study was to investigate the phase behavior, rheological and mechanical properties of selected in situ gelling systems. Six in situ gelling polymer formulations were identified using phase behavior studies. Rheological studies revealed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy. All six formulations showed significantly different viscosity, pseudoplasticity and thixotropy values except for CMC1 and HPMC2 which where statistically similar. The gel strength was dependent on the solvent system used and amount of water in the system. These in situ gelling systems have the potential to serve as a platform for development of intramammary formulations intended for administration into the teat canal of the cow's mammary gland. They can serve as a physical barrier or a matrix for controlled drug release.

  19. Water Vapor Sorption and Diffusion in Secondary Dispersion Barrier Coatings: A Critical Comparison with Emulsion Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Soer, Willem-Jan; Scheerder, Jürgen; Satgurunathan, Guru; Keddie, Joseph L

    2015-06-10

    The conventional method for synthesizing waterborne polymer colloids is emulsion polymerization using surfactants. An emerging method is the use of secondary dispersions (SD) of polymers in water, which avoids the addition of any surfactant. Although there are numerous studies of the water barrier properties (sorption, diffusion, and permeability) of waterborne emulsion (Em) polymer coatings, the properties of SD coatings, in comparison, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, dynamic water vapor sorption analysis is used to compare the equilibrium sorption isotherms of the two forms of styrene-acrylate copolymers (Em and SD) with the same monomer composition. From an analysis of the kinetics of vapor sorption, the diffusion coefficient of water in the polymer coatings is determined. The combined effects of particle boundaries and surfactant addition were investigated through a comparison of the properties of SD and Em coatings to those of (1) solvent-cast polymer coatings (of the same monomer composition), (2) Em polymers that underwent dialysis to partially remove the water-soluble species, and (3) SD polymers with added surfactants. The results reveal that both the particle boundaries and the surfactants increase vapor sorption. The diffusion coefficients of water are comparable in magnitude in all of the polymer systems but are inversely related to water activity because of molecular clustering. Compared to all of the other waterborne polymer systems, the SD barrier coatings show the lowest equilibrium vapor sorption and permeability coefficients at high relative humidities as well as the lowest water diffusion coefficient at low humidities. These barrier properties make SD coatings an attractive alternative to conventional emulsion polymer coatings.

  20. Gate-voltage-dependent charge transport in multi-dispersed polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Bu, Laju; Li, Dongfan; Lu, Guanghao

    2017-02-01

    In semiconductor polymers, charge transport usually occurs via hopping between localized states, which are generally multi-dispersed due to multi-dispersed chemical structures, crystallinities, and phase segregations. We report a combined modeling and experimental study to investigate gate-voltage-dependent charge transport in field-effect transistors based on multi-dispersed polymers including semiconductor:semiconductor and semiconductor:insulator blends. Film-depth-dependent charge accumulation and transport are correlated with vertical composition profiles and film-depth-dependent energetic distribution of localized states. Even low gate-voltage could accumulate charges in any depth of the films, greatly increasing charge density in some (sub-) components for effective charge transport. Therefore, neither overall high crystallinity nor molecular ordering near the semiconductor-dielectric interface is necessarily required for high field-effect mobility (μFET). This study not only proposes a model for high effective μFET recently reported in some nearly amorphous polymer films and the "bislope feature" in their transfer characteristics but also helps improve transistor performances and exploit transistor operations via manipulating charge distribution in multi-dispersed films.

  1. Yielding and flow of cellulose microfibril dispersions in the presence of a charged polymer.

    PubMed

    de Kort, Daan W; Veen, Sandra J; Van As, Henk; Bonn, Daniel; Velikov, Krassimir P; van Duynhoven, John P M

    2016-05-25

    The shear flow of microfibrillated cellulose dispersions is still not wholly understood as a consequence of their multi-length-scale heterogeneity. We added carboxymethyl cellulose, a charged polymer, that makes cellulose microfibril dispersions more homogeneous at the submicron and macro scales. We then compared the yielding and flow behavior of these dispersions to that of typical thixotropic yield-stress fluids. Despite the apparent homogeneity of the dispersions, their flow velocity profiles in cone-plate geometry, as measured by rheo-MRI velocimetry, differ strongly from those observed for typical thixotropic model systems: the viscosity across the gap is not uniform, despite a flat stress field across the gap. We describe these velocity profiles with a nonlocal model, and attribute the non-locality to persistent micron-scale structural heterogeneity.

  2. Dispersibility and stability improvement of unfunctionalized nanotubes in amide solvents by polymer wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, T.; Scardaci, V.; Tan, P. H.; Rozhin, A. G.; Milne, W. I.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2008-05-01

    Improvement on the stability and loading of unfunctionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in amide solvents is necessary to enhance the performances of SWNT-polymer composites used for optical applications (e.g., as non-linear saturable absorbers). We show that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) can not only increase the stability of ultrasonically dispersed HiPco SWNTs in pure N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), but also improve the photoluminescence emission signals from SWNTs even after 1 month of incubation. Compared to two non-ionic surfactants (Igepal DM-970 and Pluronic F-98), we find that PVP-aided SWNT dispersions in NMP can improve the SWNT loading by at least four times. Unlike surfactant-aided dispersions, the PVP-aided dispersions remain completely stable by close visual inspection even after 6 months of incubation.

  3. Enhanced electrical transport in ionic liquid dispersed TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Neha; Rathore, Munesh Dalvi, Anshuman; Kumar, Anil

    2014-04-24

    A polymer composite is prepared by dispersing ionic liquid [Bmim][BF{sub 4}] in Polyethylene oxide-tetra methyl ammonium iodide composite and subsequent microwave treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the composite nature. To explore possibility of proton conductivity in these films, electrical transport is studied by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization. It is revealed that addition of ionic liquid in host TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte enhances the conductivity by ∼ 2 orders of magnitude. Polarization measurements suggest that composites are essentially ion conducting in nature. The maximum ionic conductivity is found to be ∼2 × 10{sup −5} for 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  4. The role of the polymer host on reversible photodegradation in Disperse Orange 11 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Sheng-Ting; Ramini, Shiva K.; Wyrick, David G.; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2012-10-01

    The photodegradation and recovery process in anthraquinone chromophores have been characterized using am­ plified spontaneous emission (ASE) in several Anthraquinone derivatives doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). To understand the mechanisms of self healing in disperse orange 11 (DOll) doped in PMMA and the role of the host polymer, we investigated reversible photodegradation in DOll doped in copolymer composed of different percentages of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Styrene. The results suggest that the host polymer is an important factor in determining the distribution of domain sizes of dye molecules.

  5. Effects of Polymer Wrapping and Covalent Functionalization on the Stability of MWCNT in Aqueous Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Witzmann, Frank A.; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous dispersions of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (F-CNTS) formed via carboxylation and polymer wrapping with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is presented. The presence of polymer on the nanotube surface provided steric stabilization, and the aggregation behavior of the colloidal system was quite different from its covalently functionalized analog. Based on hydrophobicity index, particle size distribution, zeta potential as well as the aggregation kinetics studied using time-resolved dynamic light scattering, the PVP wrapped CNT was somewhat less prone to agglomeration. However, its long term stability was lower, and this was attributed to the partial unwrapping of the polyvinyl pyrrolidone layer on the CNT surface. PMID:21236442

  6. Characterization of PVA doped with different metallic salts as conductor polymer and as holographic film sensitized with ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Baltasar-Arroyo, R.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Ponce-Lee, L.

    2007-02-01

    Multitudes of materials were and are investigated for holographic recording. materials and processes are advantageous because its has high exposure sensitivity, high diffraction efficiency, stability, etc. We report a photosensitive emulsion its electro-optical and chemical properties by mixing PVA with metallic salts and ammonium dichromate. We describe a hypothesis with respect to some mechanisms of photo and thermo sensitivity to different characteristics in emulsions.

  7. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-09-24

    The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, εpc, in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of εpc.

  8. Different dispersion regions during the phase inversion of an ionomeric polymer-water system.

    PubMed

    Saw, L K; Brooks, B W; Carpenter, K J; Keight, D V

    2003-01-01

    Catastrophic phase inversion is induced by changing the phase ratio in a liquid-liquid dispersion and is widely used during the dispersion stage in the production of aqueous polyurethane ionomer (PUI) colloids. In the work reported here, water was added to polyurethane ionomer prepolymer (PUIp) until the water became the continuous phase. Three different dispersion regions have been discovered by changing the ionic group content. Stable emulsions containing small polymer drops were produced in Region I. Stable coarse emulsions containing a mixture of drop structures were produced in Region II, but only temporary dispersions could be produced in Region III. Conductivity measurements could not always be used to detect the phase inversion points effectively because the PUIp was swollen by water. Therefore, torque change measurements have been used in conjunction with the conductivity measurements to detect the phase inversion points for all three dispersion regions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy were used to obtain images of these dispersions in the different regions. A catastrophic phase inversion map is used to represent the changes that occur in the PUIp-W dispersions. This map is plotted using the ionic group content as the ordinate and water content (at the phase inversion points) as the abscissa.

  9. Application of spherical silicate to prepare solid dispersion dosage forms with aqueous polymers.

    PubMed

    Nagane, Kentaro; Kimura, Susumu; Ukai, Koji; Takahashi, Chisato; Ogawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this study is to prepare and characterize solid dispersions of nifedipine (NP) using porous spherical silicate micro beads (MB) that were approximately 100 μm in diameter with vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/VA) and a Wurster-type fluidized bed granulator. Compared with previously reported solid dispersion using only MB, the supersaturation of NP dissolved from the proposed system of MB and PVP/VA was maintained during dissolution tests. The proposed system produced a solid dispersion product coated on MB, and morphology was maintained after the coating process to prepare solid dispersion; therefore, the powder characteristics, such as flowability of the proposed solid dispersion product, was tremendously preferable to that of the conventional spray-dried solid dispersions of NP with PVP/VA, expecting to make the consequent manufacturing processes easy for development. Another advantage in the terms of manufacturing is its simple process to prepare solid dispersion by spraying the drug and polymer that were dissolved in an organic solvent onto a MB in a Wurster-type fluidized bed granulator, thus, simplifying the optimization and scale-up with ease.

  10. Dispersion of titania nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane fluids using grafted low molecular weight polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Piech, Martin; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile

    2008-06-01

    Nanoparticle interactions and their impact on particle dispersion and rheology are well known to be functions of the interfacial structure between the particle and the fluid phase. The dispersion and flow properties of a titania nanopowder were evaluated in polydimethylsiloxane fluid using ''grafted to'' surface modification of the titania with short molecular weight PDMS polymers. The interaction energy between particles was modeled using analytical expressions as well as dynamic functional theory for polymer surface chains. Particle dynamics as a function of volume fraction were characterized using light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and shear and oscillatory measurements. Autophobic dewetting is a novel short range interaction in this system that may be impacting the maximum packing fraction of particles in a suspension.

  11. Preparation of a Thermally Light-Transmittance-Controllable Film from a Coexistent System of Polymer-Dispersed and Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-Meng; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Cui-Hong; Chen, Mei; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Lan-Ying; Yuan, Xiao; He, Bao-Feng; Yang, Huai

    2017-01-25

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) systems are the two primary distinct systems in the field of liquid crystal (LC) technology, and they are differentiated by their unique microstructures. Here, we present a novel coexistent system of polymer-dispersed and polymer-stabilized liquid crystals (PD&SLCs), which forms a homeotropically aligned polymer network (HAPN) within the LC droplets after a microphase separation between the LC and polymer matrix and combines the advantages of both the PDLC and PSLC systems. Then, we prepare a novel thermally light-transmittance-controllable (TLTC) film from the PD&SLC system, where the transmittance can be reversibly changed through thermal control from a transparent to a light-scattering state. The film also combines the advantageous features of flexibility and a potential for large-scale manufacturing, and it shows significant promise in future applications from smart windows to temperature sensors.

  12. On Theory of Dispersive Transport in a Two-Layer Polymer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in a two-layer polymer structure is modeled on the basis of the integrodifferential equation of hereditary diffusion. The model of multiple trapping in a bilayer is generalized to the case of an arbitrary density of localized states. With the help of an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm, curves of the transient current are calculated and their features are explained within the framework of a stochastic interpretation of the process.

  13. Impedance of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Carbon Nanofibers in Weak Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, K. R.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zharkova, G. M.; Podyacheva, O. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    Impedance of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals modified by carbon nanofibers is studied in fields lower than the threshold field of the director reorientation of a liquid crystal. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the impedance obey to the relationship (Zre - X0)2 + (Zim - Y0)2 = R 0 2 , where X0, Y0, and R0 are the fitting parameters depending on the frequency of the exciting electric field.

  14. Concurrent solution-like decoloration rate and high mechanical strength from polymer-dispersed photochromic organogel.

    PubMed

    Long, Shijun; Bi, Shuguang; Liao, Yonggui; Xue, Zhigang; Xie, Xiaolin

    2014-04-01

    To achieve a fast photochromic response in solid matrix, photochromic molecules/segments have been either dispersed into elastomers via physical doping or linked to glassy polymers by soft units through covalent bonding. However, the former is lack of high mechanical strength and the latter owes the drawback of time-consumption of synthesis. Here, we propose a facile strategy of co-solvent evaporation to prepare polymer-dispersed photochromic organogel where both high mechanical strength of the glassy polymer matrix and solution-like fast photochromism of the photochromic molecule within organogel can be retained concurrently. Glassy PVA matrix and dispersed organogel of 1,3:2,4-di-O-benzylidene-d-sorbitol/poly(propylene glycol) (DBS/PPG) provide high mechanical strength and sufficient free volume for intramolecular rotation of photochromic spiropyran (SP), respectively. Interestingly, these thin films behave a solution-like decoloration the decay rate of which is 65-70 fold faster than that in the SP-directly doped PVA film and only slightly slower than those in their corresponding PPG solutions.

  15. Strength of Drug–Polymer Interactions: Implications for Crystallization in Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, Pinal; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-09-07

    We investigated the influence of the strength of drug–polymer interactions on the crystallization behavior of a model drug in amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Ketoconazole ASDs were prepared with each poly(acrylic acid), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Over a wide temperature range in the supercooled region, the α-relaxation time was obtained, which provided a measure of molecular mobility. Isothermal crystallization studies were performed in the same temperature interval using either a synchrotron (for low levels of crystallinity) or a laboratory X-ray (for crystallization kinetics) source. The stronger the drug–polymer interaction, the longer was the delay in crystallization onset time, indicating an increase in physical stability. Stronger drug–polymer interactions also translated to a decrease in the magnitude of the crystallization rate constant. In amorphous ketoconazole as well as in the dispersions, the coupling coefficient, a measure of the extent of coupling between relaxation and crystallization times was ~0.5. This value was unaffected by the strength of drug–polymer interactions. On the basis of these results, the crystallization times in ASDs were predicted at temperatures very close to Tg, using the coupling coefficient experimentally determined for amorphous ketoconazole. The predicted and experimental crystallization times were in good agreement, indicating the usefulness of the model.

  16. Modelling drug degradation in a spray dried polymer dispersion using a modified Arrhenius equation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Adele; Ferreira, Ana P; Banks, Elizabeth; Skeene, Kirsty; Clarke, Graham; Nicholson, Sarah; Rawlinson-Malone, Clare

    2015-01-15

    The Pharmaceutical industry is increasingly utilizing amorphous technologies to overcome solubility challenges. A common approach is the use of drug in polymer dispersions to prevent recrystallization of the amorphous drug. Understanding the factors affecting chemical and physical degradation of the drug within these complex systems, e.g., temperature and relative humidity, is an important step in the selection of a lead formulation, and development of appropriate packaging/storage control strategies. The Arrhenius equation has been used as the basis of a number of models to predict the chemical stability of formulated product. In this work, we investigate the increase in chemical degradation seen for one particular spray dried dispersion formulation using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS). Samples, prepared using polymers with different substitution levels, were placed on storage for 6 months under a range of different temperature and relative humidity conditions and the degradant level monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While the data clearly illustrates the impact of temperature and relative humidity on the degradant levels detected, it also highlighted that these terms do not account for all the variability in the data. An extension of the Arrhenius equation to include a term for the polymer chemistry, specifically the degree of succinoyl substitution on the polymer backbone, was shown to improve the fit of the model to the data.

  17. Carbon nanotubes filled polymer composites: A comprehensive study on improving dispersion, network formation and electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthi, Divya Kannan

    In this dissertation, we determine how the dispersion, network formation and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer nanocomposites affect the electrical properties of two different polymer composite systems: high temperature bismaleimide (BMI) and polyethylene. The knowledge gained from this study will facilitate optimization of the above mentioned parameters, which would further enhance the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites. BMI carbon fiber composites filled with nickel-coated single walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-SWNTs) were processed using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) to study the effect of lightning strike mitigation. Coating the SWNTs with nickel resulted in enhanced dispersions confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). An improved interface between the carbon fiber and Ni-SWNTs resulted in better surface coverage on the carbon plies. These hybrid composites were tested for Zone 2A lightning strike mitigation. The electrical resistivity of the composite system was reduced by ten orders of magnitude with the addition of 4 weight percent Ni-SWNTs (calculated with respect to the weight of a single carbon ply). The Ni-SWNTs - filled composites showed a reduced amount of damage to simulated lightning strike compared to their unfilled counterparts indicated by the minimal carbon fiber pull out. Methods to reduce the electrical resistivity of 10 weight percent SWNTs --- medium density polyethylene (MDPE) composites were studied. The composites processed by hot coagulation method were subjected to low DC electric fields (10 V) at polymer melt temperatures to study the effect of viscosity, nanotube welding, dispersion and, resultant changes in electrical resistivity. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to 10 wt% CNT-MDPE baseline. For effective alignment of SWNTs, a new process called Electric field Vacuum Spray was devised to

  18. Comparative study on dispersion and interfacial properties of single walled carbon nanotube/polymer composites using Hansen solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Larsen, Raino Mikael

    2013-02-01

    Dispersion and interfacial strain transfer of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are two major challenges for the utilization of SWNTs as reinforcements in polymer composites. Surface modifications could help change the dispersion and interfacial properties. In this study, nanocomposites were fabricated by solution blending 1 wt % SWNTs with various modification (nonmodified, nitric acid functionalized, and amine functionalized SWNTs) and three kinds of polymeric materials (polycarbonate, polyvinylidene fluoride, and epoxy). Chemical compatibilities between SWNTs and solvents or polymers are calculated by the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) method. The dispersion of the SWNTs in solvents is evaluated by dynamic light scattering. The dispersion of SWNTs in polymers evaluated by a light optical microscope (LOM) generally agrees with the HSP prediction. The strain transfer from the matrix to SWNTs is mainly related to the dispersion, the bundle size, the residual thermal stresses on the sample, and, to lesser degree, the HSP.

  19. Holographic Recording Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.

  20. Holographic Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul M.

    Skyrmions are topological solitons that describe baryons within a nonlinear theory of pions. In holographic QCD, baryons correspond to topological solitons in a bulk theory with an extra spatial dimension: thus the three-dimensional Skyrmion lifts to a four-dimensional holographic Skyrmion in the bulk. We begin this review with a description of the simplest example of this correspondence, where the holographic Skyrmion is exactly the self-dual Yang-Mills instanton in flat space. This places an old result of Atiyah and Manton within a holographic framework and reveals that the associated Skyrme model extends the nonlinear pion theory to include an infinite tower of vector mesons, with specific couplings for a BPS theory. We then describe the more complicated curved space version that arises from the string theory construction of Sakai and Sugimoto. The basic concepts remain the same but the technical difficulty increases as the holographic Skyrmion is a curved space version of the Yang-Mills instanton, so self-duality and integrability are lost. Finally, we turn to a low-dimensional analogue of holographic Skyrmions, where aspects such as multi-baryons and finite baryon density are amenable to both numerical computation and an approximate analytic treatment.

  1. Drug-polymer-water interaction and its implication for the dissolution performance of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuejie; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Zhen; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2015-02-02

    The in vitro dissolution mechanism of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) remains elusive and highly individualized, yet rational design of ASDs with optimal performance and prediction of their in vitro/in vivo performance are very much desirable in the pharmaceutical industry. To this end, we carried out comprehensive investigation of various ASD systems of griseofulvin, felodipine, and ketoconazole, in PVP-VA or HPMC-AS at different drug loading. Physiochemical properties and processes related to drug-polymer-water interaction, including the drug crystallization tendency in aqueous medium, drug-polymer interaction before and after moisture exposure, supersaturation of drug in the presence of polymer, polymer dissolution kinetics, etc., were characterized and correlated with the dissolution performance of ASDs at different dose and different drug/polymer ratio. It was observed that ketoconazole/HPMC-AS ASD outperformed all other ASDs in various dissolution conditions, which was attributed to the drug's low crystallization tendency, the strong ketoconazole/HPMC-AS interaction and the robustness of this interaction against water disruption, the dissolution rate and the availability of HPMC-AS in solution, and the ability of HPMC-AS in maintaining ketoconazole supersaturation. It was demonstrated that all these properties have implications for the dissolution performance of various ASD systems, and further quantification of them could be used as potential predictors for in vitro dissolution of ASDs. For all ASDs investigated, HPMC-AS systems performed better than, or at least comparably with, their PVP-VA counterparts, regardless of the drug loading or dose. This observation cannot be solely attributed to the ability of HPMC-AS in maintaining drug supersaturation. We also conclude that, for fast crystallizers without strong drug-polymer interaction, the only feasible option to improve dissolution might be to lower the dose and the drug loading in the ASD. In this

  2. Effect of solvent quality on the dispersibility of polymer-grafted spherical nanoparticles in polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.; Binder, K.

    2012-09-01

    In this work, lattice-based self consistent field theory is used to study the structural properties of individual polymer-grafted spherical nanopartices and particle-particle interactions in polymer melts and solutions under variable solvent conditions. Our study has focused on the depth of the minimum in the potential of mean force between the two brush-coated nanoparticles, if such a minimum occurs, and we have also addressed the corresponding radial density profiles of free and grafted chains around a single nanoparticle, in an attempt to clarify the extent of correlation between the depth of the minimum, Wmin, and the parameter δ characterizing the interpenetration between the profiles of free and grafted chains. Although one cannot establish a simple one-to-one correspondence between Wmin and δ, we do find common trends, in particular, if the solvent conditions for free and grafted chains differ: varying the volume fraction of the free chains, δ typically exhibits a broad minimum, corresponding to a region where the magnitude of Wmin exceeds thermal energy kBT, leading to particle aggregation.

  3. In situ growth of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals in semiconducting polymers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A straight synthetic route to fabricate hybrid nanocomposite films of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals (NCs) in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) is reported. A soluble cadmium complex [Cd(SBz)2]2·MI, obtained by incorporating a Lewis base (1-methylimidazole, MI) on the cadmium bis(benzyl)thiol, is used as starting reagent in an in situ thermolytic process. CdS NCs with spherical shape nucleate and grow well below 200°C in a relatively short time (30 min). Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements performed on CdS/MEH-PPV nanocomposites show that CdS photoluminescence peaks are totally quenched inside MEH-PPV, if compared to CdS/PMMA nanocomposites, as expected due to overlapping of the polymer absorption and CdS emission spectra. The CdS NCs are well-dispersed in size and homogeneously distributed within MEH-PPV matrix as proved by transmission electron microscopy. Nanocomposites with different precursor/polymer weight ratios were prepared in the range from 1:4 to 4:1. Highly dense materials, without NCs clustering, were obtained for a weight/weight ratio of 2:3 between precursor and polymer, making these nanocomposites particularly suitable for optoelectronic and solar energy conversion applications. PMID:24015753

  4. Scaling exponent and dispersity of polymers in solution by diffusion NMR.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Nathan H; Röding, Magnus; Miklavcic, Stanley J; Nydén, Magnus

    2017-05-01

    Molecular mass distribution measurements by pulsed gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE NMR) spectroscopy currently require prior knowledge of scaling parameters to convert from polymer self-diffusion coefficient to molecular mass. Reversing the problem, we utilize the scaling relation as prior knowledge to uncover the scaling exponent from within the PGSE data. Thus, the scaling exponent-a measure of polymer conformation and solvent quality-and the dispersity (Mw/Mn) are obtainable from one simple PGSE experiment. The method utilizes constraints and parametric distribution models in a two-step fitting routine involving first the mass-weighted signal and second the number-weighted signal. The method is developed using lognormal and gamma distribution models and tested on experimental PGSE attenuation of the terminal methylene signal and on the sum of all methylene signals of polyethylene glycol in D2O. Scaling exponent and dispersity estimates agree with known values in the majority of instances, leading to the potential application of the method to polymers for which characterization is not possible with alternative techniques.

  5. Nanocomposites of polymers with layered inorganic nanofillers: Antimicrobial activity, thermo-mechanical properties, morphology, and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songtipya, Ponusa

    In the first part of the thesis, polyethylene/layered silicate nanocomposites that exhibit an antimicrobial activity were synthesized and studied. Their antimicrobial activity was designed to originate from non-leaching, novel cationic modifiers---amine-based surfactants---used as the organic-modification of the fillers. Specifically, PE/organically-modified montmorillonite ( mmt) nanocomposites were prepared via melt-processing, and simultaneous dispersion and antimicrobial activity was designed by proper choice of the fillers' organic modification. The antimicrobial activity was measured against three micotoxinogen fungal strains (Penicillium roqueforti and claviforme, and Fusarium graminearum ). Various mmt-based organofillers, which only differ in the type or amount of their organic modification, were used to exemplify how these surfactants can be designed to render antifungal activity to the fillers themselves and the respective nanocomposites. A comparative discussion of the growth of fungi on unfilled PE and nanocomposite PE films is used to demonstrate how the antimicrobial efficacy is dictated by the surfactant chemistry and, further, how the nanocomposites' inhibitory activity compares to that of the organo-fillers and the surfactants. An attempt to improve the thermomechanical reinforcement of PE/mmt nanocomposites while maintaining their antimicrobial activity, was also carried out by combining two different organically modified montmorillonites. However, a uniform microscopic dispersion could not be achieved through this approach. In the second part of this thesis, a number of fundamental studies relating to structure-property relations in nanocomposites were carried out, towards unveiling strategies that can concurrently optimize selected properties of polymers by the addition of nanofillers. Specifically, the dispersion-crystallinity-reinforcement relations in HDPE/mmt nanocomposites was investigated. The influence of a functional HDPE compatibilizer

  6. Light transmission of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layer composed of droplets with inhomogeneous surface anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, V. A.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Konkolovich, A. V.; Miskevich, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a model and realized an algorithm for the calculation of the coefficient of coherent (direct) transmission of light through a layer of liquid crystal (LC) droplets in a polymer matrix. The model is based on the Hulst anomalous diffraction approximation for describing the scattering by an individual particle and the Foldy-Twersky approximation for a coherent field. It allows one to investigate polymer dispersed LC (PDLC) materials with homogeneous and inhomogeneous interphase surface anchoring on the droplet surface. In order to calculate the configuration of the field of the local director in the droplet, the relaxation method of solving the problem of minimization of the free energy volume density has been used. We have verified the model by comparison with experiment under the inverse regime of the ionic modification of the LC-polymer interphase boundary. The model makes it possible to solve problems of optimization of the optical response of PDLC films in relation to their thickness and optical characteristics of the polymer matrix, sizes, polydispersity, concentration, and anisometry parameters of droplets. Based on this model, we have proposed a technique for estimating the size of LC droplets from the data on the dependence of the transmission coefficient on the applied voltage.

  7. Effect of dopant nanoparticles on reorientation process in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, K. V.; Zharkova, G. M.; Syzrantsev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data of the nanoscale powders application for doping polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) was represented in this work. A model based on the separation of the liquid crystals reorientation process on the surface mode and the volume mode was proposed and tested. In the research the wide-spread model mixture PDLC were used. But alumina nanoparticles were the distinctive ones obtained by electron beam evaporation. The proposed model allowed to conclude that the nanoparticles localization at the surface of the droplets (as in the Pickering emulsion) lead to the variation of the connection force between the liquid crystals and the polymer. The effect of nanoparticles resulted in an acceleration of the reorientation process near the surface when the control field is turned on and in a deceleration when it is turned off. The effect for the different size particles was confirmed.

  8. Random lasing in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rina; Shi, Rui-xin; Wu, Xiaojiao; Wu, Jie; Dai, Qin

    2016-09-01

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was designed and fabricated, and random lasing action was studied. A mixture of laser dye, nematic liquid crystal, chiral dopant, and PVA was used to prepare the dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film by means of microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix ranged from 30 μm to 40 μm, the size of the liquid crystal droplets was small. Under frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical excitation, a plurality of discrete and sharp random laser radiation peaks could be measured in the range of 575-590 nm. The line-width of the lasing peak was 0.2 nm and the threshold of the random lasing was 9 mJ. Under heating, the emission peaks of random lasing disappeared. By detecting the emission light spot energy distribution, the mechanism of radiation was found to be random lasing. The random lasing radiation mechanism was then analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that the size of the liquid crystal droplets is the decisive factor that influences the lasing mechanism. The surface anchor role can be ignored when the size of the liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix is small, which is beneficial to form multiple scattering. The transmission path of photons is similar to that in a ring cavity, providing feedback to obtain random lasing output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans, China (Grant No. LJQ2015093), and Shenyang Ligong University Laser and Optical Information of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory Open Funds, China.

  9. Shear-induced surface alignment of polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets on the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate, utilizing the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. Liquid crystal microdroplets trapped on the upper surface of the thin film respond to the shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface layer. Response to an applied step shear stress input on the surface layer has been measured by measuring the time response of the transmitted light intensity. Initial results on the measurements of the light transmission as a function of the air flow differential pressure indicate that these systems offer features suitable for boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  10. Selective scattering polymer dispersed liquid crystal film for light enhancement of organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinghua; McGraw, Greg; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2017-02-20

    We developed a novel light enhancing film for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC). In the film, the liquid crystal droplets are unidirectionally aligned along the film normal direction and exhibit selective scattering. The film scatters light emitted only in directions with large incident angles but not light emitted in directions with small incident angles. When the light is scattered, it changes propagation direction and exits the OLED. The PDLC film reduces the total internal reflection and thus can significantly increase the light efficiency of the OLED.

  11. A novel approach for normalizing the photoreflectance spectrum by using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y F; Chang, C C; Wang, D P; Tseng, B H; Liao, Y D; Lin, C H

    2012-10-01

    This study developed a novel type of normalization procedure for modulation reflectance spectroscopy experiments to obtain the relative change in the reflectance spectrum, ΔR/R. This technique uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal to ensure that the dc component of the signal from the detector remained constant by varying the intensity of the light striking the sample. This method is particularly useful for photoreflectance measurement, which may encounter background problems because of scattered pump light and/or photoluminescence. It does not require a change in the gain of the detector or the use of a variable neutral density filter mounted on a servo-motor.

  12. A novel approach for normalizing the photoreflectance spectrum by using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y. F.; Chang, C. C.; Wang, D. P.; Tseng, B. H.; Liao, Y. D.; Lin, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    This study developed a novel type of normalization procedure for modulation reflectance spectroscopy experiments to obtain the relative change in the reflectance spectrum, ΔR/R. This technique uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal to ensure that the dc component of the signal from the detector remained constant by varying the intensity of the light striking the sample. This method is particularly useful for photoreflectance measurement, which may encounter background problems because of scattered pump light and/or photoluminescence. It does not require a change in the gain of the detector or the use of a variable neutral density filter mounted on a servo-motor.

  13. Effect of the aggregate morphology on the dispersability of MWCNTs in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luna, M. Salzano; Tito, A.; Citterio, A.; Mazzocchia, C.; Acierno, D.; Filippone, G.

    2012-07-01

    Polystyrene nanocomposites filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared through a masterbatch melt mixing method and subjected to morphological, rheological and dielectrical analyses. The role of the structure of the initial aggregates has been investigated by comparing commercially available and synthesized MWCNTs prepared through fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method and purified through a scalable one-pot route. Electron microscopy analyses reveal a less compact structure of the synthesized particles, in which the nanotubes are arranged in less entangled bundles. This reduces the strength of the initial agglomerates, thus enhancing their dispersability inside the host polymer by means of melt compounding as confirmed by both rheological and dielectrical measurements.

  14. Small-angle light scattering from polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, V. A. Maschke, U.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Konkolovich, A. V.; Misckevich, A. A.

    2008-10-15

    A method is developed for modeling and computing the angular distribution of light scattered forward from a single-layer polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) film. The method is based on effective-medium approximation, anomalous diffraction approximation, and far-field single-scattering approximation. The angular distribution of forward-scattered light is analyzed for PDLC films with droplet size larger than the optical wavelength. The method can be used to study field-and temperature-induced phase transitions in LC droplets with cylindrical symmetry by measuring polarized scattered light intensity.

  15. Frequency doubling in poled polymers using anomalous dispersion phase-matching

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.; Cahill, P.A.

    1995-10-01

    The authors report on a second harmonic generation in a poled polymer waveguide using anomalous dispersion phase-matching. Blue light ({lambda} = 407 nm) was produced by phase-matching the lowest order fundamental and harmonic modes over a distance of 32 {micro}m. The experimental conversion efficiency was {eta} = 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, in agreement with theory. Additionally, they discuss a method of enhancing the conversion efficiency for second harmonic generation using anomalous dispersion phase-matching to optimize Cerenkov second harmonic generation. The modeling shows that a combination of phase-matching techniques creates larger conversion efficiencies and reduces critical fabrication requirements of the individual phase-matching techniques.

  16. Fabrication of near-infrared polymer light-emitting-diodes using dispersed laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to fabricate polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) operating in the near-infrared (NIR) region. IR-140 is a laser-dye, whose emission wavelength is 870 nm. This NIR dye was dispersed as an emissive dopant within poly(2-methoxy-5-(3'-7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO -PPV) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). In addition, 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) was dispersed in the active layer. We fabricated the following two types of samples: (A) indium tin oxide (ITO)/MDMO-PPV:IR-140/aluminum (Al) and (B) ITO/IR-140:PBD:PVK/Al. Sample A successfully showed NIR emissions. However, sample A also revealed EL signals in the visible light region. In sample B, however, the undesired visible light was successfully eliminated due to the improved carrier-balance in the active region.

  17. Effect of Nanoparticle Dispersion on Polymer Matrix and their Fiber Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed F.; Sun, Chin-Teh

    Dispersion of nanoparticles and its effect on mechanical properties were investigated by fabricating nanocomposites via conventional sonication, sol-gel, and modified sonication method. Silica nanoparticles dispersed in epoxy and MEK produced via sol-gel method were procured as Nanopox F 400 and MEK-ST-MS, respectively, to produce silica/epoxy nanocomposite whereas the conventional son-ication method was followed to produce alumina/epoxy and carbon nanofibers (CNF)/epoxy nanocomposites. The conventional sonication method was modified by combining it with sol-gel method to improve the dispersion quality as well as to increase the particle loading. The as-prepared nanocomposites were morphologically and mechanically characterized to investigate the effect of dispersion of nanoparticles on polymer matrix nanocomposites. The nanocomposites fabricated via sol-gel method revealed the most improved and consistent properties among all nanocomposites which showed almost proportional properties improvement with particle loading in contrast to conventional nanocomposites. Subsequently, the modified matrix (silica/epoxy) was used to make fiber reinforced nanocomposites via the VARTM process. The effect of improved matrix properties was reflected in the properties of fiber composites which showed significant improvements in compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus, fracture toughness and impact resistance.

  18. Aqueous dispersion of conjugated polymers by colloidal clays and their film photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yi-Fen; Lee, Rong-Ho; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2010-02-11

    The plate-shaped clays enabled us to disperse water-insoluble conjugated polymers (CPs) into a colloidal form and an aqueous process for making CP films. Simple pulverization of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) with silicate clays rendered the powder mixture an unusual dispersing behavior in water. The most effective clay was selected from screening several natural and synthetic clays including synthetic fluorinated mica (Mica), sodium montmorillonite (MMT), synthetic smectite (SWN), and cationic layered double hydroxide (LDH). A high aspect ratio and intensive charge density (2.1 e nm(-1)) of Mica were highly effective for promoting the CP dispersion. The enhancement for dispersing MEH-PPV is rated in the following trend: Mica > MMT > SWN > LDH. The result is rationalized by the influences of their geometric shape and ionic charge of clay on MEH-PPV in water. Two other representative CPs, sulfonated polyaniline (SPA) and triphenyl phosphine oxide cored polyaniline (TPOPA), were used to generalize the CP/clay colloidal behavior. All of the three CPs as in an aqueous form can be coated into hybrid films. Under an ultraviolet lamp, these films showed color emissions, orange for MEH-PPV/Mica, olive for SPA/Mica, and green for TPOPA/Mica, which are consistent with the photoluminescence measurements.

  19. Dispersion strategies and role of interfacial phenomena in dielectric polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Payam

    Owing to unique characteristics of nanoparticles such as high surface to volume ratio, it is postulated that nanoparticle-modified polymers exhibit properties beyond those predicted by effective media theories. In the case of dielectric nanoparticles in a polymer, it is expected that dielectric properties of the nanocomposite are dominated by the expansive interface rather than anticipated by the inherent properties of individual components. An in-depth review of dielectric polymer nanocomposites shows conflicting trends where addition of nano-sized particles resulted in increase or decrease in dielectric properties. This contradictory behavior could mainly stem from 1- the state of dispersion of nanoparticles and 2-The unique nature of interface based on the particle-polymer system. The hypothesis of the proposed research is that the role of the interfacial region is not only influenced by its expansive nature but is also governed by their interaction at nanoscale regime. In order to achieve a high internal surface area, the first important challenge to address is controlling the state of dispersion and disaggregation of nanoparticles. Therefore the first goal of this research is studying the effectiveness of different processing methods in achieving uniform nanoscale dispersion in dielectric polymer nanocomposites. Silane functionalization of titania nanoparticles is investigated as one possible solution of better dispersion of titania in PVDF polymer where two coupling agents namely, aminopropyltriethoxy silane called as APS, and Nonafluorohexyltriethoxysilane called as FHES, are studied. FHES is shown to be more effective in reducing the average aggregate size of titania nanoparticles in PVDF matrix to below 100nm, whereas the average aggregate size in untreated and APS-functionalized TiO2/PVDF nanocomposite was approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than that. Dielectric permittivity of FHES-functionalized TiO2/PVDF nanocomposite, showed

  20. Formation of holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate array by angle-multiplexing recording of multi-circuit information in liquid crystal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Maekawa, Hikaru; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu

    2014-02-01

    A holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) memory to record multi-context information for an optically reconfigurable gate array is formed by the angle-multiplexing recording using a successive laser exposure in liquid crystal (LC) composites. The laser illumination system is constructed using the half mirror and photomask written by the different configuration contexts placed on the motorized stages under the control of a personal computer. The fabricated holographic memory implements a precise reconstruction of configuration contexts corresponding to the various logical circuits such as OR circuit and NOR circuit by the laser illumination at different incident angle in the HPDLC memory.

  1. Small-angle x-ray scattering analysis of polymer-protected platinum, rhodium, and platinum/rhodium colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takeji; Saijo, Kenji; Harada, Masafumi; Toshima, Naoki

    1998-10-01

    Formations of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)(PVP)-metal ion (Pt, Rh or Pt/Rh(1/1)) complexes in H2O/C2H5OH ("polymer-metal ion complexes") before alcohol-reduction and PVP-Pt, Rh, or Pt/Rh(1/1) metal cluster ("polymer-metal cluster") after alcohol-reduction were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS intensity of the solution containing polymer-metal ion complexes is higher than that of the reference polymer solution without metal ions, suggesting that concentration fluctuations of polymer segments are enhanced due to the formation of polymer-metal ion complexes. Spatial distributions of metal clusters in colloidal dispersions are different from each other among the cases of Pt, Rh, and Pt/Rh(1/1) colloidal dispersions. The superstructure (greater than 10.0 nm in diameter), whose average sizes highly depend on the metal element employed, are formed. These superstructures are composed of several fundamental clusters with a diameter of ˜2.0-4.0 nm. Colloidal dispersions of Rh form a percolation network of clusters with an average period of ˜6.0 nm inside the higher-order organization of its superstructure. Experimental results concerning the physical aging show the high stability of colloidal dispersions of metal clusters protected by water-soluble PVP.

  2. A noncovalent functionalization approach to improve the dispersibility and properties of polymer/MoS2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Keqing; Liu, Jiajia; Wen, Panyue; Hu, Yuan; Gui, Zhou

    2014-10-01

    In the evolution of high performance layered inorganic compounds/polymer nanocomposites, homogeneous dispersion of inorganic nanoplatelets in the polymer matrix and exact interface control are difficult to achieve due to the potent interlayer cohesive energy and surface inactiveness of the nanocomposites. Pristine MoS2 exhibits poor solubility in both water and organic solvents. Herein, it is necessary to modify the surface of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with functional groups, in order to enhance its dispersity and compatibility in various solvents and polymer matrices. In this paper, we have reported a convenient method to modify MoS2 nanosheets with common cationic surfactant and polymer, these organic modified MoS2 nanosheets dispersed well in organic solvents and aqueous solution simultaneously. This well dispersion can be used to prepare polymer/MoS2 nanocomposites by a simple solvent mixing method which was found to display an exfoliation structure of MoS2 nanosheets and improve the performances of the polymer nanocomposites. With the addition of 3 wt% CTAB-MoS2, T10% and T50% of the samples are increased by 60 °C, respectively. Moreover, the storage modulus of sample PS/3% CTAB-MoS2 had 84% increment compared with that of pure PS at 30 °C.

  3. Investigation and correlation of drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Trivino, Anne; Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-04-25

    Curcumin (CUR) was used as a poorly soluble drug whereas polyvinyl pyrrolidone K90 (PVP), Eudragit EPO (EPO), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) were used as hydrophilic polymers. CUR polymer miscibility was evaluated by solubility parameter, melting point depression and glass transition temperature (Tg) measurements. Molecular interactions between CUR and polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Amorphous solid dispersions were prepared with CUR-polymer ratio of 70:30 (w/w) by solvent evaporation technique and were evaluated for dissolution enhancement using USP II method. Physical states of solid dispersions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) whereas thermal behaviors were investigated using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). CUR-EPO system showed good miscibility through all the approaches, whereas immiscibility was found in other CUR-polymer systems. CUR-EPO and CUR-HPMC systems showed significant molecular interactions whereas CUR-PVP and CUR-PEG showed no molecular interactions. All solid dispersions showed significant dissolution enhancement with CUR-EPO showing highest dissolution rate during first 1h whereas CUR-HPMC was effective in maintaining high CUR concentrations for 6h. The study highlights the importance of investigating and correlating drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for successful formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

  4. High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-Optical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-Optical Applications...High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-Optical Applications...January 2007–November 2008 4. title and subtitle High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for

  5. The hydration of reactive cement-in-polymer dispersions studied by nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Olaru, A.M.; Weichold, O.; Adams, A.

    2011-11-15

    The behaviour of two novel cement-in-polymer (c/p) dispersions, namely cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) and cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol) upon exposure to water at room temperature was investigated by a combination of various NMR methods. The swelling, cracking, and the water ingress were monitored non-destructively using {sup 1}H single point imaging. The hydration of the cement matrix was investigated using {sup 29}Si NMR whilst {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectra allowed the quantification of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of poly(vinyl acetate) into poly(vinyl alcohol). The polymer controls the rate of water ingress and swelling which in turn determines the behaviour of the c/p dispersions upon exposure to water. For the cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol), the rates of water ingress and swelling are much faster than the hydration of the clinker whilst for the cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) the slow rates of the two processes allow the formation of a cementious matrix which assures the stability of the sample.

  6. Effect of nonadsorbing polymers on the rheology of a concentrated nonaqueous dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.A.; Reid, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The rheology of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex stabilized with poly(12-hydroxystearic acid) and dispersed in dodecane at a volume fraction of 0.42 was observed to deviate from near Newtonian behavior upon the addition of polyisobutylene (PIB) at high and low molecular weights, 380,000 and 2,000, respectively. The high molecular weight PIB gave the dispersion a predicted depletion-flocculated behavior, with observable phase separation and non-Newtonian shear thinning rheology, as a consequence of the additional attractive particle interaction component. Added low molecular weight PIB, however, gave comparatively much stronger non-Newtonian behavior with no observable phase separation. This behavior was observed in a region of polymer molecular weights and size comparable to that of the steric layer. The results are consistent with a steric-elastic repulsion arising from the compression of the nonadsorbing polymer chains at high particle volume fraction and not with an attractive term due to depletion flocculation.

  7. Investigation of intermolecular interactions between fluorene-based conjugated polymers using the dispersion-corrected DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Sarah; Lagowski, Jolanta B.

    2015-03-01

    Alternating triphenylamine-fluorene, TPAFn (n=1-3), and fluorene-oxadiazole OxFn (n=1-3) conjugated copolymers are important components of novel high-efficiency multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we investigate the intermolecular interactions between the various combinations of monomers of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) copolymers using the dispersion-corrected density functional theory (B97D) method. The monomer combinations are taken with and without the presence of long alkyl chains in order to study the effect of side-chains on the polymer backbone intermolecular interactions. The dispersion effect is studied by comparing the structures of the interacting monomers with those in vacuum. In addition, we calculate intermolecular distances, energy gaps and binding energies of monomer dimers corresponding to different pairings of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) monomers. Our results show that the combination of OxF3-TPAF2 monomers exhibites the highest binding energy, closest intermolecular distance, and the best matching of chain lengths amongst all of the combinations of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) monomers. Experiments have shown that OxF3-TPAF2 combination gives the best performance for OLEDS made of OxF-TPAF polymer layers.

  8. Topological Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Bulk Nematic Defect Lines Pinned to Handlebody Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michael G.; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystals are a useful model system for studying the relationship between surface topology and defect structures. They are comprised of a polymer matrix with suspended spherical nematic drops and are topologically constrained to host defects of an elementary hedgehog charge per droplet, such as bulk or surface point defects or closed disclination loops. We control the genus of the closed surfaces confining such micrometer-sized nematic drops with tangential boundary conditions for molecular alignment imposed by the polymer matrix, allowing us to avoid defects or, on the contrary, to generate them in a controlled way. We show, both experimentally and through numerical modeling, that topological constraints in nematic microdrops can be satisfied by hosting topologically stable half-integer bulk defect lines anchored to opposite sides of handlebody surfaces. This enriches the interplay of topologies of closed surfaces and fields with nonpolar symmetry, yielding new unexpected configurations that cannot be realized in vector fields, having potential implications for topologically similar defects in cosmology and other fields.

  9. Neat C₇₀-based bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with excellent acceptor dispersion.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Nicola; Righi, Sara; Tinti, Francesca; Savoini, Alberto; Cominetti, Alessandra; Po, Riccardo; Camaioni, Nadia

    2014-12-10

    The replacement of common fullerene derivatives with neat-C70 could be an effective approach to restrain the costs of organic photovoltaics and increase their sustainability. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of neat-C70 and low energy-gap conjugated polymers, PTB7 and PCDTBT, are thoroughly investigated and compared. Upon replacing PC70BM with C70, the mobility of positive carriers in the donor phase is roughly reduced by 1 order of magnitude, while that of electrons is only slightly modified. It is shown that the main loss mechanism of the investigated neat-C70 solar cells is a low mobility-lifetime product. Nevertheless, PCDTBT:C70 devices undergo a limited loss of 7.5%, compared to the reference PCDTBT:PC70BM cells, reaching a record efficiency (4.44%) for polymer solar cells with unfunctionalized fullerenes. The moderate efficiency loss of PCDTBT:C70 devices, due to an unexpected excellent miscibility of PCDTBT:C70 blends, demonstrates that efficient solar cells made of neat-fullerene are possible. The efficient dispersion of C70 in the PCDTBT matrix is attributed to an interaction between fullerene and the carbazole unit of the polymer.

  10. Cefdinir Solid Dispersion Composed of Hydrophilic Polymers with Enhanced Solubility, Dissolution, and Bioavailability in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Jee, Jun-Pil; Kang, Ji-Ye; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Choi, Han-Gon; Maeng, Han-Joo; Cho, Kwan Hyung

    2017-02-13

    The aim of this work was to develop cefdinir solid dispersions (CSDs) prepared using hydrophilic polymers with enhanced dissolution/solubility and in vivo oral bioavailability. CSDs were prepared with hydrophilic polymers such as hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC; CSD1), carboxymethylcellulose-Na (CMC-Na; CSD2), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30; CSD3) at the weight ratio of 1:1 (drug:polymer) using a spray-drying method. The prepared CSDs were characterized by aqueous solubility, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), aqueous viscosity, and dissolution test in various media. The oral bioavailability of CSDs was also evaluated in rats and compared with cefdinir powder suspension. The cefdinir in CSDs was amorphous form, as confirmed in the DSC and p-XRD measurements. The developed CSDs commonly resulted in about 9.0-fold higher solubility of cefdinir and a significantly improved dissolution profile in water and at pH 1.2, compared with cefdinir crystalline powder. Importantly, the in vivo oral absorption (represented as AUCinf) was markedly increased by 4.30-, 6.77- and 3.01-fold for CSD1, CSD2, and CSD3, respectively, compared with cefdinir suspension in rats. The CSD2 prepared with CMC-Na would provide a promising vehicle to enhance dissolution and bioavailability of cefdinir in vivo.

  11. Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites have exhibited superior strength and thermo- oxidative properties as compared to pure polymers for use in air and space craft; however, there has often been difficulty completely dispersing the clay within the matrices of the polymer. In order to improve this process, the cation exchange capacity of lithium clay is first lowered using twenty-four hour heat treatments of no heat, 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C to fixate the lithium ions within the clay layers so that they are unexchangeable. Generally, higher temperatures have generated lower cation exchange capacities. An ion exchange involving dodecylamine, octadecylamine, or dimethyl benzidine (DMBZ) is then employed to actually expand the clay galleries. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy can be used to determine whether the clay has been successfully exfoliated. Finally, resins of DMBZ with clay are then pressed into disks for characterization using dynamic mechanical analyzer and oven- aging techniques in order to evaluate their glass transition, modulus strength, and thermal-oxidative stability in comparison to neat DMBZ. In the future, they may also be tested as composites for flexural and laminar shear strength.

  12. A novel structure and photochromism of heteropolyoxometalates dispersed in polymer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Xinjian; Feng Wei; Chen Jie; Liu Xiaoyang

    2012-07-15

    Nanocomposites based on Keggin structure tungstophosphate acid (PWA) with 'branch-like' nanometer well dispersed in poly(acrylamide-co-vinylamine) (PAM-co-PVAm) were fabricated. The microstructure and photochromic properties were studied via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and electron resonance spectra (ESR). FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of polyoxometalates was still preserved inside the composites and hydrogen bonding and salt formation were built between PWA and polymer matrix. SEM and TEM images showed that PWA nanoparticles were finely dispersed in polymer matrix with 'branch-like' shape. Under UV irradiation, the film was reduced photochemically to yield a glaucous species. After UV light turned off, the color of film became green. Two photo-reduction processes (one was between acylamino and heteropoly acid, another was between amidocyanogen and heteropoly acid) occurred at the same time in PWA/PAM-co-PVAm system, which resulted in the formation of heteropolygreen. - Graphical abstract: Two absorption bands appeared after UV irradiated. In bleaching process, the peaks at 620-820 nm disappeared and those at 420 nm still presented. Due to synergies happened between heteropolyacid and PAM-co-PVAm, heteropolygreen was formed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 'Branch-like' composites were fabricated by dispersed PWA into PAM-co-PVAm system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two photo-reduction processes occurred simultaneously in PWA/PAM-co-PVAm system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteropolygreen was formed by synergies of hydrogen bonding and salt formation.

  13. Large birefringence and polarization holographic gratings formed in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals comprising bistolane mesogenic side groups

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, Akira; Matsumoto, Taro; Shioda, Tatsutoshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Ayumi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2009-10-01

    Polarization gratings with large birefringence are formed in photoreactive polymer liquid crystals with bistolane moiety and terminal cinnamic acid moiety by the use of polarized ultraviolet interference light and subsequent annealing. The polarized ultraviolet light causes the axis-selective photoreaction between the cinnamic acid groups and subsequent annealing induce the reorientation of peripheral molecules without cross-linking along the cross-linked groups. Long bistolane mesogenic moiety exhibits large birefringence in comparison with a biphenyl mesogenic moiety, the value of the induced birefringence in the bistolane mesogenic liquid crystalline (LC) polymer is strongly dependent on both the grating constant and the wavelength of the reconstruction light.

  14. Holographic LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, D.K. ); de Andres, P.L. )

    1990-03-12

    We propose a new electron holographic scheme for the three-dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms on a crystal surface, in which the object acts as its own beam splitter. The technique may be regarded as a direct method in low-energy electron diffraction, or even, in a sense, as a form of lensless electron microscopy.''

  15. Non-invasive analysis of swelling in polymer dispersions by means of time-domain(TD)-NMR.

    PubMed

    Nestle, Nikolaus; Häberle, Karl

    2009-11-03

    In this contribution, we discuss the potential of low-field time-domain(TD)-NMR to study the swelling of (aqueous) polymer dispersions by a volatile solvent. Due to the sensitivity of transverse relaxation times (T2) to swelling-induced changes in the molecular dynamics of the polymer component, the effects of swelling can be measured without spectral resolution. The measurement is performed on polymer dispersions in native state with solids contents around 50% in a non-invasive way without separating the polymeric phase and the water phase from each other. Using acetone in two polyurethane (PU) dispersions with different hard phase contents, we explore the sensitivity of the method and present a data evaluation strategy based on multicomponent fitting and proton balancing. Furthermore, we report exchange continualization as a further effect that needs to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the data.

  16. Mechanism of amorphous itraconazole stabilization in polymer solid dispersions: role of molecular mobility.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Arora, Kapildev K; Kwong, Elizabeth; Templeton, Allen; Clas, Sophie-Dorothee; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-11-03

    Physical instability of amorphous solid dispersions can be a major impediment to their widespread use. We characterized the molecular mobility in amorphous solid dispersions of itraconazole (ITZ) with each polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) with the goal of investigating the correlation between molecular mobility and physical stability. Dielectric spectra showed two mobility modes: α-relaxation at temperatures above the glass transition temperature (Tg) and β-relaxation in the sub-Tg range. HPMCAS substantially increased the α-relaxation time, with an attendant increase in crystallization onset time and a decrease in crystallization rate constant, demonstrating the correlation between α-relaxation and stability. The inhibitory effect on α-relaxation as well as stability was temperature dependent and diminished as the temperature was increased above Tg. PVP, on the other hand, affected neither the α-relaxation time nor the crystallization onset time, further establishing the link between α-relaxation and crystallization onset in solid dispersions. However, it inhibited the crystallization rate, an effect attributed to factors other than mobility. Interestingly, both of the polymers acted as plasticizers of β-relaxation, ruling out the latter's involvement in physical stability.

  17. Preparation of osthole-polymer solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yun, Fei; Kang, An; Shan, Jinjun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Bi, Xiaolin; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of solid dispersion to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of osthole (Ost), a coumarin derivative with various pharmacological activities but with poor aqueous solubility. In present studies, the Ost solid dispersions were prepared with various polymers including Plasdone S-630, HPMC-E5, Eudragit EPO, and Soluplus by hot-melt extrusion method. In vitro characterizations were performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and in vitro dissolution studies. In addition, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of Ost solid dispersions were also conducted in rats after a single oral dose. In comparison to the untreated Ost coarse powder and the physical mixture with polymers, the solid dispersions prepared with Plasdone S-630 or HPMC-E5 (drug/polymer: 1:6) showed a significant enhancement of dissolution rate (∼3-fold higher D30). In addition, such preparations exhibited a significantly decreased Tmax, ∼5-fold higher Cmax and ∼1.4-fold higher AUC when comparing with Ost coarse powder. In conclusion, solid dispersion prepared with appropriate polymer could serve as a promising formulation approach to enhance the dissolution rate and hence oral bioavailability of Ost.

  18. Formulation and Characterization of Solid Dispersion Prepared by Hot Melt Mixing: A Fast Screening Approach for Polymer Selection

    PubMed Central

    Enose, Arno A.; Dasan, Priya K.; Sivaramakrishnan, H.; Shah, Sanket M.

    2014-01-01

    Solid dispersion is molecular dispersion of drug in a polymer matrix which leads to improved solubility and hence better bioavailability. Solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare films of different combinations of polymers, plasticizer, and a modal drug sulindac to narrow down on a few polymer-plasticizer-sulindac combinations. The sulindac-polymer-plasticizer combination that was stable with good film forming properties was processed by hot melt mixing, a technique close to hot melt extrusion, to predict its behavior in a hot melt extrusion process. Hot melt mixing is not a substitute to hot melt extrusion but is an aid in predicting the formation of molecularly dispersed form of a given set of drug-polymer-plasticizer combination in a hot melt extrusion process. The formulations were characterized by advanced techniques like optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, dynamic vapor sorption, and X-ray diffraction. Subsequently, the best drug-polymer-plasticizer combination obtained by hot melt mixing was subjected to hot melt extrusion process to validate the usefulness of hot melt mixing as a predictive tool in hot melt extrusion process. PMID:26556187

  19. Physicochemical properties of tadalafil solid dispersions - Impact of polymer on the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of tadalafil.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, K; Sawicki, W; Haber, K; Knapik, J; Wojnarowska, Z; Paluch, M; Lepek, P; Hawelek, L; Tajber, L

    2015-08-01

    To improve solubility of tadalafil (Td), a poorly soluble drug substance (3μg/ml) belonging to the II class of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System, its six different solid dispersions (1:1, w/w) in the following polymers: HPMC, MC, PVP, PVP-VA, Kollicoat IR and Soluplus were successfully produced by freeze-drying. Scanning electron microscopy showed a morphological structure of solid dispersions typical of lyophilisates. Apparent solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate studies revealed the greatest, a 16-fold, increase in drug solubility (50μg/ml) and a significant, 20-fold, dissolution rate enhancement for the Td/PVP-VA solid dispersion in comparison with crystalline Td. However, the longest duration of the supersaturation state in water (27μg/ml) over 24h was observed for the Td solid dispersion in HPMC. The improved dissolution of Td from Td/PVP-VA was confirmed in the standard dissolution test of capsules filled with solid dispersions. Powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis showed the amorphous nature of these binary systems and indicated the existence of dispersion at the molecular level and its supersaturated character, respectively. Nevertheless, as evidenced by film casting, the greatest ability to dissolve Td in polymer was determined for PVP-VA. The crystallization tendency of Td dispersed in Kollicoat IR could be explained by the low Tg (113°C) of the solid dispersion and the highest difference in Hansen solubility parameters (6.8MPa(0.5)) between Td and the polymer, although this relationship was not satisfied for the partially crystalline dispersion in PVP. Similarly, no correlation was found between the strength of hydrogen bonds investigated using infrared spectroscopy and the physical stability of solid dispersions or the level of supersaturation in aqueous solution.

  20. Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (HPDLC) Transmission Gratings Formed by Visible Light Initiated Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    ion laser. The photoinitiator system consists of the dye oxazine 170 perchlorate and the co-initiator benzoyl peroxide . Electron transfer occurs...between the singlet excited state of the oxazine dye and benxoyl peroxide with subsequent decomposition of the peroxide yielding benzoyl oxy radicals...initiator benzoyl peroxide . Electron transfer occurs between the singlet excited state of the oxazine dye and benzoyl peroxide with subsequent

  1. Multiple dynamic regimes in colloid-polymer dispersions: New insight using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Sunita; Kishore, Suhasini; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Bhatia, Surita R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an X-ray photon correlation spectros- copy (XPCS) study of dynamic transitions in an anisotropic colloid-polymer dispersion with multiple arrested states. The results provide insight into the mechanism for formation of repulsive glasses, attractive glasses, and networked gels of col- loids with weakly adsorbing polymer chains. In the presence of adsorbing polymer chains, we observe three distinct regimes: a state with slow dynamics consisting of finite particles and clusters, for which interparticle interactions are predominantly repulsive; a second dynamic regime occurring above the satu- ration concentration of added polymer, in which small clusters of nanoparticles form via a short-range depletion attraction; and a third regime above the overlap concentration in which dynamics of clusters are independent of polymer chain length. The observed complex dynamic state diagram is primarily gov- erned by the structural reorganization of a nanoparticle cluster and polymer chains at the nanoparticle-polymer surface and in the concentrated medium, which in turn controls the dynamics of the dispersion

  2. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  3. Ultrasound sensing using the acousto-optic effect in polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkevych, O.; Eriksson, T. J. R.; Ramadas, S. N.; Dixon, S.; Edwards, R. S.

    2015-08-01

    Acousto-optic effects are demonstrated in polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films, showing promise for applications in ultrasound sensing. The PDLC films are used to image two displacement profiles of air-coupled flexural transducers' resonant modes at 295 kHz and 730 kHz. Results are confirmed using laser vibrometry. The regions on the transducers with the largest displacements are clearly imaged by the PDLC films, with the resolution agreeing well with laser vibrometry scanning. Imaging takes significantly less time than a scanning system (switching time of a few seconds, as compared to 8 h for laser vibrometry). Heating effects are carefully monitored using thermal imaging and are found not to be the main cause of PDLC clearing.

  4. Refractive indices of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film materials: Epoxy-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Nuno A.; Montgomery, G. Paul, Jr.

    1987-10-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films are potentially useful in applications requiring electrically controllable light transmission. In these applications, both a high on-state transmittance and a strong off-state attenuation are often needed over a wide operating temperature range. These transmittance characteristics depend strongly on the refractive indices of the materials in the PDLC films. We have measured the temperature dependent refractive indices of typical PDLC film materials and the temperature dependent electro-optic transmittance of a PDLC film composed of liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in an epoxy matrix. We show that our refractive index measurements can account for all the features in the measured transmittance characteristics and discuss several methods for controlling refractive indices to optimize electro-optic transmittance over an extended temperature range. We have also measured the room temperature refractive indices of mixtures of epoxy resins and hardeners as a function of composition. We discuss the problems associated with predicting the refractive indices of such mixtures in terms of either the volume fractions or mole fractions of the mixture components. These considerations are important in matching refractive indices of droplets and matrix materials to maximize on-state transmittance. The refractive indices of epoxy matrix materials increase monotonically with time during their chemical cure. The measured time dependence can be described by a simple model in which the concentrations of the reacting resin and hardener each decay exponentially in time with their own characteristic time constants while the concentration of the cured polymer increases. Finally, we relate the measured rates of index change with temperature to the coefficients of volume expansion of PDLC film materials; the results are used to discuss the mechanical stability of PDLC films.

  5. Holographic vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  6. Polyurethaneurea/vinyl polymer hybrid aqueous dispersions based on renewable material.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y S; Tao, Y; Hu, C P

    2001-01-01

    A series of polyurethaneurea-vinyl polymer (PUA) hybrid aqueous dispersions were synthesized from castor oil and/or difunctional poly(oxypropylene) polyol (GE-210, M(n) = 1000), butyl acrylate, and styrene. The effect of hybrid between the polyurethaneurea (PUU) and vinyl polymer (PA) on the morphologies and the mechanical properties for these PUA films was examined and studied. The experimental results showed that there was appreciable miscibility between the PUU and PA phases for the PUA prepared with GE-210, giving rise to less ordered hard segments in PUU and resulting in lowering of some mechanical properties compared with those of pure PUU synthesized with GE-210. For PUA based on castor oil, the compatibility between the PUU and PA phases was also observed, although there was a network structure in the system. Moreover, the particle-accumulation morphology during the film formation process for this PUA system disappeared, but this behavior was found for a similar PUU. In this case, a great improvement of mechanical properties for such a PUA specimen was observed. The other PUA specimens with high content of castor oil exhibit excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, resulting from the reinforcement of cross-linked PUU phase existing in the systems.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  8. Optimising Drug Solubilisation in Amorphous Polymer Dispersions: Rational Selection of Hot-melt Extrusion Processing Parameters.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article was to construct a T-ϕ phase diagram for a model drug (FD) and amorphous polymer (Eudragit® EPO) and to use this information to understand the impact of how temperature-composition coordinates influenced the final properties of the extrudate. Defining process boundaries and understanding drug solubility in polymeric carriers is of utmost importance and will help in the successful manufacture of new delivery platforms for BCS class II drugs. Physically mixed felodipine (FD)-Eudragit(®) EPO (EPO) binary mixtures with pre-determined weight fractions were analysed using DSC to measure the endset of melting and glass transition temperature. Extrudates of 10 wt% FD-EPO were processed using temperatures (110°C, 126°C, 140°C and 150°C) selected from the temperature-composition (T-ϕ) phase diagrams and processing screw speed of 20, 100 and 200rpm. Extrudates were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), optical, polarised light and Raman microscopy. To ensure formation of a binary amorphous drug dispersion (ADD) at a specific composition, HME processing temperatures should at least be equal to, or exceed, the corresponding temperature value on the liquid-solid curve in a F-H T-ϕ phase diagram. If extruded between the spinodal and liquid-solid curve, the lack of thermodynamic forces to attain complete drug amorphisation may be compensated for through the use of an increased screw speed. Constructing F-H T-ϕ phase diagrams are valuable not only in the understanding drug-polymer miscibility behaviour but also in rationalising the selection of important processing parameters for HME to ensure miscibility of drug and polymer.

  9. X-ray Scattering Measurements of Particle Orientation in a Sheared Polymer/Clay Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, Saswati; Dougherty, Leah; Mobuchon, Christoph; Carreau, Pierre J.; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Burghardt, Wesley R.

    2012-01-20

    We report steady and transient measurements of particle orientation in a clay dispersion subjected to shear flow. An organically modified clay is dispersed in a Newtonian polymer matrix at a volume fraction of 0.02, using methods previously reported by Mobuchon et al. (Rheol Acta 46: 1045, 2007). In accord with prior studies, mechanical rheometry shows yield stress-like behavior in steady shear, while time dependent growth of modulus is observed following flow cessation. Measurements of flow-induced orientation in the flow-gradient plane of simple shear flow using small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) are reported. Both SAXS and WAXS reveal increasing particle orientation as shear rate is increased. Partial relaxation of nanoparticle orientation upon flow cessation is well correlated with time-dependent changes in complex modulus. SAXS and WAXS data provide qualitatively similar results; however, some quantitative differences are attributed to differences in the length scales probed by these techniques.

  10. Dispersive Non-Geminate Recombination in an Amorphous Polymer:Fullerene Blend

    PubMed Central

    Kurpiers, Jona; Neher, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Recombination of free charge is a key process limiting the performance of solar cells. For low mobility materials, such as organic semiconductors, the kinetics of non-geminate recombination (NGR) is strongly linked to the motion of charges. As these materials possess significant disorder, thermalization of photogenerated carriers in the inhomogeneously broadened density of state distribution is an unavoidable process. Despite its general importance, knowledge about the kinetics of NGR in complete organic solar cells is rather limited. We employ time delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments to study the recombination of photogenerated charge in the high-performance polymer:fullerene blend PCDTBT:PCBM. NGR in the bulk of this amorphous blend is shown to be highly dispersive, with a continuous reduction of the recombination coefficient throughout the entire time scale, until all charge carriers have either been extracted or recombined. Rapid, contact-mediated recombination is identified as an additional loss channel, which, if not properly taken into account, would erroneously suggest a pronounced field dependence of charge generation. These findings are in stark contrast to the results of TDCF experiments on photovoltaic devices made from ordered blends, such as P3HT:PCBM, where non-dispersive recombination was proven to dominate the charge carrier dynamics under application relevant conditions. PMID:27225584

  11. Dispersive Non-Geminate Recombination in an Amorphous Polymer:Fullerene Blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpiers, Jona; Neher, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Recombination of free charge is a key process limiting the performance of solar cells. For low mobility materials, such as organic semiconductors, the kinetics of non-geminate recombination (NGR) is strongly linked to the motion of charges. As these materials possess significant disorder, thermalization of photogenerated carriers in the inhomogeneously broadened density of state distribution is an unavoidable process. Despite its general importance, knowledge about the kinetics of NGR in complete organic solar cells is rather limited. We employ time delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments to study the recombination of photogenerated charge in the high-performance polymer:fullerene blend PCDTBT:PCBM. NGR in the bulk of this amorphous blend is shown to be highly dispersive, with a continuous reduction of the recombination coefficient throughout the entire time scale, until all charge carriers have either been extracted or recombined. Rapid, contact-mediated recombination is identified as an additional loss channel, which, if not properly taken into account, would erroneously suggest a pronounced field dependence of charge generation. These findings are in stark contrast to the results of TDCF experiments on photovoltaic devices made from ordered blends, such as P3HT:PCBM, where non-dispersive recombination was proven to dominate the charge carrier dynamics under application relevant conditions.

  12. Dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  13. Evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of steroids in goat milk by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Garcinuño, Rosa María; Fernández-Hernando, Pilar; Sierra, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix solid-phase dispersion methodology for simultaneous determination of five steroids in goat milk samples was proposed. Factors affecting the extraction recovery such as sample/dispersant ratio and washing and elution solvents were investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer used as dispersant in the matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure showed high affinity to steroids, and the obtained extracts were sufficiently cleaned to be directly analyzed. Analytical separation was performed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using a capillary electrophoresis system equipped with a diode array detector. A background electrolyte composed of borate buffer (25mM, pH 9.3), sodium dodecyl sulfate (10mM) and acetonitrile (20%) was used. The developed MIP-MSPD methodology was applied for direct determination of testosterone (T), estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and progesterone (P) in different goat milk samples. Mean recoveries obtained ranged from 81% to 110%, with relative standard deviations (RSD)≤12%. The molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix solid-phase dispersion method is fast, selective, cost-effective and environment-friendly compared with other pretreatment methods used for extraction of steroids in milk.

  14. High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-optical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Poling Of A Bulk Sample Of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer For U.S. Army Electrooptical Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...explanations / continuatLons / OPSEC review comments Block A-2 ... Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-Optical Applications Block...VOLTAGE POLING OF A BULK SAMPLE OF DISPERSE RED 1 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE GUEST-HOST POLYMER FOR U.S. ARMY ELECTRO- OPTICAL APPLICATIONS Robert H

  15. Use of dynamic rheological behavior to estimate the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in carbon nanotube/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yingzhi; Zhu, Meifang; Chen, Dajun

    2008-10-09

    Well-dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/polystyrene composites have been prepared. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were employed to observe the distribution of the MWNTs in the composites in a microscopic scale, indicating a nanotube network formed in the matrix. The dispersion of the nanotubes in the polymer was monitored by oscillatory rheology. It was found that the addition of MWNTs in the polymer had a drastic influence on the rheological behavior of the composites. As the MWNT loading increased, Newtonian behavior disappeared at low frequency, suggesting a transition from liquid-like to solid-like viscoelastic behavior. A more homogeneous dispersion or a greater loading of the nanotubes in the matrix produced stronger solid-like and nonterminal behavior, and the composites exhibited less temperature dependence at elevated temperature, compared to the matrix melt.

  16. Effects of dispersion and interfacial modification on the macroscale properties of TiO2 polymer matrix nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Hamming, Lesley M.; Qiao, Rui; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper quantifies how the quality of dispersion and the quality of the interfacial interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles and host polymer independently affect benchmark properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg), elastic modulus and loss modulus. By examining these composites with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to demonstrate changes in properties depending on the adhesive/wetting or repulsive/dewetting interactions the nanoparticles have with the bulk polymer. We further quantified the dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrices by a digital-optical method and correlated those values to the degree of Tg depression compared to neat PMMA. Samples with the same weight percent of nanoparticles but better dispersion showed larger shifts in Tg. PMID:20161273

  17. Holographic microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clube, Francis S.; Gray, Simon; Struchen, Denis; Tisserand, Jean-Claude; Malfoy, Stephane; Darbellay, Yves

    1995-09-01

    Holographic mask aligners represent the latest addition to commercially available lithographic technologies. Their combination of very high resolution (< 0.5 micrometers ) and very large exposure field brings a new capability to the microelectronics industry, especially for the manufacture of flat panel displays. The machine is fully automated and includes a scanning laser illumination system, a dynamic focus system permitting patterns to be printed over poor-flatness substrates, and an alignment system providing 0.3-micrometers overlay accuracy. A higher-accuracy alignment system under development demonstrates 50-nm measurement accuracy. A step-and-repeat hologram recording method enables tighter control of feature linewidth.

  18. Dispersion and shear-induced orientation of anisotropic nanoparticle filled polymer nanocomposites: insights from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zijian; Wang, Zixuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jun; Wu, Youping; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-07-01

    Although a large number of studies have been performed to study the dispersion behavior of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) in the polymer matrix, little effort has been directed to anisotropic NPs via simulation, which is convenient for controlling the physical parameters compared to experiment. In this work we adopt molecular dynamics simulation to study polymer nanocomposites filled with anisotropic NPs such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We investigate the effects of the grafting position, grafting density, the length and flexibility of the grafted chains on the dispersion of graphene and CNTs. In particular, we find that when the grafting position is located on the surface center of the graphene or the middle of the CNT, the dispersion state is the best, leading to the greatest stress-strain behavior. Meanwhile, the mechanical property can be further strengthened by introducing chemical couplings in the interfacial region, by chemically tethering the grafted chains to the matrix chains. To monitor the processing effect, we exert a dynamic periodic shear deformation in the x direction with its gradient in the y direction. Polymer chains are found to align in the x direction, graphene sheets align in the xoz plane and CNTs orientate in the z direction. We study the effects of the shear amplitude, the shear frequency, polymer-NP interaction strength and volume fraction of NPs on the stress-strain behavior. We also observe that the relaxation process following the shear deformation deteriorates the mechanical performance, resulting from the disorientation of polymer chains and NPs. In general, this work could provide valuable guidance in manipulating the distribution and alignment of graphene and CNTs in the polymer matrix.

  19. Holographic Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  20. Holographic Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Piljin

    We review baryons in the D4-D8 holographic model of low energy QCD, with the large Nc and the large't Hooft coupling limit. The baryon is identified with a bulk soliton of a unit Pontryagin number, which from the four-dimensional viewpoint translates to a modified Skyrmion dressed by condensates of spin one mesons. We explore classical properties and find that the baryon in the holographic limit is amenable to an effective field theory description. We also present a simple method to capture all leading and subleading interactions in the 1/Nc and the derivative expansions. An infinitely predictive model of baryon-meson interactions is thus derived, although one may trust results only for low energy processes, given various approximations in the bulk. We showcase a few comparisons to experiments, such as the leading axial couplings to pions, the leading vector-like coupling, and a qualitative prediction of the electromagnetic vector dominance that involves the entire tower of vector mesons.

  1. Holographic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1996-09-01

    A unique method for the construction and display of a 3D holographic movie is developed. An animated film is produced by rotating a 3D object in steps between successive holographic exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70-mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11-mm high and 55-mm high and 55-mm wide. The object was rotated 2 deg between successive exposures. A complete cycle of the object motion was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is not shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier transform hologram construction, as predicted by the theoretical analysis. The movie can be viewed for an unlimited time because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D effect. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can simultaneously view the movie.

  2. Drug-polymer miscibility across a spray dryer: a case study of naproxen and miconazole solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Aarts, Jolie; Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-04-07

    The structural and physical stability of solid dispersions have not been adequately explored during spray drying manufacturing processes. In this study a wide range of compositions of naproxen/PVP-VA 64 (poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)) and miconazole/PVP-VA 64 solid dispersions prepared by different laboratory spray dryers were collected from various selected locations and used to investigate the drug-polymer mixing across spray dryers. Spray-dried dispersions with 30% (w/w) naproxen collected from the transport tube of the Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer showed the narrowest glass transition width, which apparently indicates the highest degree of drug-polymer mixing compared to the other locations. The intensity of the naproxen-PVP-VA 64 interaction peak at 1654 cm(-1) of IR spectra differs for solid dispersions (SDs) from the collector and transport tube of Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer with a higher intensity for the latter. Samples with 50% (w/w) naproxen loading collected from the cyclone and the cyclone steel part of the Buchi mini spray dryer showed a melting endotherm (Tm at 112.2 ± 0.8 °C and ΔHf between 0.7 and 1.8 J/g), whereas samples from the cyclone tube to the drying chamber were devoid of crystalline material. The variations in drug-polymer mixing extend to miconazole/PVP-VA solid dispersions where 20% drug loading showed location-dependent drug-polymer mixing. This study clearly showed that the variation in drug-polymer miscibility and solid form of the drug in solid dispersions can occur across spray dryer in small-scale manufacturing processes. The optimization of formulation parameters and spray drying process parameters is imperative to diminish these variations to enhance homogeneity of solid dispersions in laboratory scale spray dryers. The same problem can occur in geometrically large spray drying manufacturing equipment, and the robustness of the processes should be carefully assessed.

  3. Non-dispersive carrier transport in molecularly doped polymers and the convection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutnev, A. P.; Parris, P. E.; Saenko, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    We reinvestigate the applicability of the concept of trap-free carrier transport in molecularly doped polymers and the possibility of realistically describing time-of-flight (TOF) current transients in these materials using the classical convection-diffusion equation (CDE). The problem is treated as rigorously as possible using boundary conditions appropriate to conventional time of flight experiments. Two types of pulsed carrier generation are considered. In addition to the traditional case of surface excitation, we also consider the case where carrier generation is spatially uniform. In our analysis, the front electrode is treated as a reflecting boundary, while the counter electrode is assumed to act either as a neutral contact (not disturbing the current flow) or as an absorbing boundary at which the carrier concentration vanishes. As expected, at low fields transient currents exhibit unusual behavior, as diffusion currents overwhelm drift currents to such an extent that it becomes impossible to determine transit times (and hence, carrier mobilities). At high fields, computed transients are more like those typically observed, with well-defined plateaus and sharp transit times. Careful analysis, however, reveals that the non-dispersive picture, and predictions of the CDE contradict both experiment and existing disorder-based theories in important ways, and that the CDE should be applied rather cautiously, and even then only for engineering purposes.

  4. Development of an x-ray detector based on polymer- dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, K.; Hong, J.; Kim, G.; Park, S.; Min, B.; Yang, J.; Nam, S.

    2015-02-01

    The applications of active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in large-area x-ray imaging systems have increased over time but are still severely limited owing to its pixel resolution, complex fabrication processes, and high cost. As a solution, x-ray light valve (XLV) technology was introduced and expected to have a better resolution and contrast ratio than those of AMFPI, owing to its micrometer level of the LC cells and signal amplification by an external light source. The twisting angle of the LC cells was changed by charge carrier signals created in a photoconductor layer against x-rays, and the diagnostic images from XLV were acquired from the transmittance of the external light source. However, there was a possibility that the photoconductor layer may be crystallized or degenerated due to the application of high temperatures for sealing the LC layer during the fabrication process. To solve such problems, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), which do not need high temperature for the sealing process of the LC layer, are used in this study instead of typical LC cells. A photoconductor and PDLC are combined to develop an x-ray detector. An external light source and optical sensor are used to investigate the light transmission of the PDLC . The PDLCs used in this paper do not need polarizers and are self-adhesive. Hence, the transmittance is very high in the transparent state, which allows for a linear x-ray response and sufficient dynamic range in digital radiography.

  5. Design and fabrication of a variable optical attenuator based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Xu, Su; Tao, Tao; Wang, Qian

    2005-02-01

    In order to obtain a low polarization dependent loss (PDL) and a large attenuation range simultaneously, an optimal design and fabrication of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) based variable optical attenuator (VOA) is presented. First, an optimal diameter of the liquid crystal droplets is determined by the anomalous diffraction approach (ADA). This optimal diameter gives maximal scattering and thus a large attenuation range is achieved with a relatively thin liquid crystal cell. Secondly, the fabrication of PDLC cell is carried out. The influence of the ultraviolet (UV) curing condition on the morphology of the LC droplets is investigated. For a given liquid crystal concentration, the optimal UV curing power is obtained after a series of statistically designed experiments. Finally, an optical configuration of the PDLC based VOA is presented. Measurements of the attenuation and the PDL are carried out with this configuration. The measured results show that the device has a typical attenuation range of 25dB. The corresponding PDL is nearly 1dB and the insertion loss is 1.8dB. The threshold voltage is 8Vrms and the saturation voltage is 40Vrms. From these measured results, one can see that the fabricated VOA based on PDLC is much more practical for optical communications as compared to the existing ones.

  6. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  7. Embedded Ag mesh electrodes for polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices on flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Hu, Jin; Chen, Linsen

    2016-10-31

    An embedded Ag mesh transparent conductive electrode (TCE) on flexible substrate, which is suitable for polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device, is demonstrated. With the combination of soft ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography and scrape technique, it offers parallel processing with high resolution (10000dpi), as well as remarkable simplicity and fully controllable flexibility to tailor the transmittance and sheet resistance. While being able to achieve maximum transmittance 60% in the on state and the minimum 0.1% in the off state, the PDLC smart window displays low sheet resistance (5.58 Ω/sq.) under low driven voltage (30V) safe for human. The main advantage of adoption of PDLC as an optically scattering element lies in the fact that there needs no mechanical part for in situ tunability. An enhancement factor of 50 of the diffraction intensity is observed experimentally. The embedded Ag mesh TCE for PDLC device has an environmentally-friendly additive manufacturing process inherently. Compared to existing solutions, the fabricated sample shows superior performance in both optoelectronic and mechanic characteristics. We envision that the embedded Ag mesh TCE will enable economically widen application of PDLC devices on flexible substrate.

  8. Downstream processing of polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions to generate tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Démuth, B; Nagy, Z K; Balogh, A; Vigh, T; Marosi, G; Verreck, G; Van Assche, I; Brewster, M E

    2015-01-01

    Application of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is considered one of the most promising approaches to increase the dissolution rate and extent of bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Such intervention is often required for new drug candidates in that enablement, bioavailability is not sufficient to generate a useful product. Importantly, tableting of ASDs is often complicated by a number of pharmaceutical and technological challenges including poor flowability and compressibility of the powders, compression-induced phase changes or phase separation and slow disintegration due to the formation of a gelling polymer network (GPN). The design principles of an ASD-based system include its ability to generate supersaturated systems of the drug of interest during dissolution. These metastable solutions can be prone to precipitation and crystallization reducing the biopharmaceutical performance of the dosage form. The main aim of the research in this area is to maintain the supersaturated state and optimally enhance bioavailability, meaning that crystallization should be delayed or inhibited during dissolution, as well as in solid phase (e.g., during manufacturing and storage). Based on the expanding use of ASD technology as well as their downstream processing, there is an acute need to summarize the results achieved to this point to better understand progress and future risks. The aim of this review is to focus on the conversion of ASDs into tablets highlighting results from various viewpoints.

  9. Silicon-based reflective polymer-dispersed LC display for portable low-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorselaer, Geert P. S.; Carchon, Nadine; Van den Steen, Jean; Cuypers, Dieter; Vanfleteren, Jan M.; De Smet, Herbert; Van Calster, Andre

    1999-03-01

    Recently LCOS microdisplays are becoming available for personal IT applications, despite some problems which are less critical in poly silicon or amorphous silicon based displays. The most common problems which must be encountered are the polarization of the pixels and the light shielding of the silicon substrate. In this paper a methods proposed which solves the light shielding and pixel flatness problem. A non-critical back-end processing which can be applied outside the silicon foundry has been developed. The effectiveness of the light shielding on a working demonstrator display is shown. To avoid light losses caused by a polarization filter, a polymer dispersed LC has been chosen. By decreasing the cell gap we made the PDLC voltage compatible with a standard 3 micrometers CMOS process and its response fast enough to be used for video applications. It is shown that this choice is very suited in direct view and portable applications. The realized prototype has 3 bit grey levels and is video compatible and can be used in a number of applications, such as personal viewers, PDAs and data displays.

  10. Polymer binding to carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions: residence time on the nanotube surface as obtained by NMR diffusometry.

    PubMed

    Frise, Anton E; Pagès, Guilhem; Shtein, Michael; Pri Bar, Ilan; Regev, Oren; Furó, István

    2012-03-08

    The binding of block copolymer Pluronic F-127 in aqueous dispersions of single- (SWCNT) and multiwalled (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes has been studied by pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We show that a major fraction of polymers exist as a free species while a minor fraction is bound to the carbon nanotubes (CNT). The polymers exchange between these two states with residence times on the nanotube surface of 24 ± 5 ms for SWCNT and of 54 ± 11 ms for MWCNT. The CNT concentration in the solution was determined by improved thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicating that the concentration of SWCNT dispersed by F-127 was significantly higher than that for MWCNT. For SWCNT, the area per adsorbed Pluronic F-127 molecule is estimated to be about 40 nm(2).

  11. Effect of UV intensity on the electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyong; Han, Jeong In

    2014-05-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) lenses were made from a mixture of prepolymer (NOA 65) and E7 liquid crystal (LC). The mixture of polymer dispersed in LC was polymerized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the polymerization induced phase separation process. With varying UV curing intensity in this process, the electrooptical properties of PDLC lens device such as transmittance, driving voltage, response times, contrast ratio (C/R) and slope of the linear region of the transmittance-voltage were measured and optimized for application to smart electronic glasses with auto-shading and auto-focusing functions. The optimum UV intensity for the PDLC lenses was more than 580 µW/cm2. These results were improved compared to our previously reported data[1] for the application of these PDLC lenses to smart electronic glasses with auto-shading and/or auto-focusing functions.

  12. Effect of polymer type and drug dose on the in vitro and in vivo behavior of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Chourak, Nabil; Khan, Fauzan; Wendelboe, Johan; Langguth, Peter; Rades, Thomas; Holm, René

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the non-sink in vitro dissolution behavior and in vivo performance in rats of celecoxib (CCX) amorphous solid dispersions with polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) at different drug doses. Both in vitro and in vivo, the amorphous solid dispersions with the hydrophilic polymers PVP and HPMC led to higher areas under both, the in vitro dissolution and the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) compared to crystalline and amorphous CCX for all doses. In contrast, the amorphous solid dispersion with the hydrophobic polymer PVA showed a lower AUC both in vitro and in vivo than crystalline CCX. For crystalline CCX and CCX:PVA, the in vitro AUC was limited by the low solubility of the drug and the slow release of the drug from the hydrophobic polymer, respectively. For the supersaturating formulations, amorphous CCX, CCX:PVP and CCX:HPMC, the in vitro performance was mainly dependent on the dissolution rate and precipitation/crystallization inhibition of the polymer. As expected, the crystallization tendency increased with increasing dose, and therefore the in vitro AUCs did not increase proportionally with dose. Even though the in vivo AUC for all formulations increased with increasing dose, the relative bioavailability decreased significantly, indicating that the supersaturating formulations also crystallized in vivo and that the absorption of CCX was solubility-limited. These findings underline the importance of evaluating relevant in vitro doses, in order to rationally assess the performance of amorphous solid dispersions and avoid confusion in early in vivo studies.

  13. Dissolution of Danazol Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Supersaturation and Phase Behavior as a Function of Drug Loading and Polymer Type.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew J; Kestur, Umesh S; Hussain, Munir A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2016-01-04

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are of great interest as enabling formulations because of their ability to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. However, the dissolution of these formulations under nonsink dissolution conditions results in highly supersaturated drug solutions that can undergo different types of phase transitions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phase behavior of solutions resulting from the dissolution of model ASDs as well as the degree of supersaturation attained. Danazol was chosen as a poorly water-soluble model drug, and three polymers were used to form the dispersions: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). Dissolution studies were carried out under nonsink conditions, and solution phase behavior was characterized using several orthogonal techniques. It was found that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurred following dissolution and prior to crystallization for most of the dispersions. Using flux measurements, it was further observed that the maximum attainable supersaturation following dissolution was equivalent to the amorphous solubility. The dissolution of the ASDs led to sustained supersaturation, the duration of which varied depending on the drug loading and the type of polymer used in the formulation. The overall supersaturation profile observed thus depended on a complex interplay between dissolution rate, polymer type, drug loading, and the kinetics of crystallization.

  14. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effects on the thermal-transport properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, M; Longuemart, S; Depriester, M; Delenclos, S; Sahraoui, A Hadj

    2014-02-01

    We present the depolarization field effects (Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effect) for the thermal transport properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal composites under a frequency-dependent electric field. The experiments were conducted on polystyrene/4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (PS/5CB) PDLCs of 73 vol.% and 85 vol.% liquid crystal (LC) concentrations. A self-consistent field approximation model is used to deduce the electrical properties of polymer and LC materials as well as the threshold electric field. Electric field-varying (at constant frequency) experiments were also conducted to calculate the interfacial thermal resistance between the LC droplets and polymer matrix as well as to find the elastic constant of LCs in droplet form.

  15. Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2005-09-01

    Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.

  16. Polymer stabilisers for temperature-induced dispersion gelation: versatility and control.

    PubMed

    Alava, Cristina; Saunders, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    In this study the temperature-induced gelation of butadiene-acrylonitrile latex containing the added temperature-responsive polymer surfactant, poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) is investigated for the first time. (NIPAM and PEGMa are N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate, respectively.) The results are compared with temperature-induced gelation of oil-in-water emulsions containing 1-bromohexadecane. The effect of added anionic surfactant, NaDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) on the temperature-induced gelation process and mechanism is considered. It was found that the gelation temperature (T(gel)) for the latex occurs at the cloud point temperature (T(cpt)) of the polymer and that T(gel) is much less affected by added NaDBS than is the case for emulsion gelation. The mathematical predictive theory recently derived for temperature-induced emulsion gelation was applied to the latex data and gave a good fit (i.e., T(gel) approximately 1/C(p), where C(p) is the concentration of added poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa)). However, the causes for the variation of T(gel) with C(p) for temperature-induced latex and emulsion gelation are different. The variation of T(gel) for latex gelation in the presence of added NaDBS originates from surfactant association with poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) which increased T(cpt). In the case of emulsion gelation there are electrostatic interactions above T(cpt) which control T(gel). The subtle difference in the temperature-induced latex gelation mechanism is a consequence of the very high latex surface area (cf. emulsion), small inter-particle separation and the presence of electrolyte. The reason that T(gel) follows 1/C(p) for the latex is due to a fortuitous T(cpt) approximately 1/C(p) relationship that applies for poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) solution in the presence of NaDBS. The work presented here shows that addition of poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) to dispersions gives a versatile method for temperature-triggered gelation. Furthermore, the theory presented

  17. Holographic Vortex Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, David

    2010-01-01

    A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.

  18. Ionic liquids as lubricants of metal-polymer contacts. Preparation and properties of the first dispersions of ionic liquids and nanoparticles in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanes Molina, Jose

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are high performance fluids that stand out because of a wide range of functional properties and exhibit a great potential for engineering applications. Although they have been employed as lubricants in metal-metal, metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic contacts, in this thesis we present the first study about the use of ILs as pure lubricants in polymer/steel contacts. The tests have established the efficacy of the ILs to reduce friction coefficient and wear rates in a variety of kinds of contacts, and criogenic to high temperature performance. Novel dispersions of ILs in polymers have been obtained with epoxy resin and thermoplastics as matrix. Therefore, the thermal, mechanical and tribological properties of the materials have studied and are discussed in the present thesis. Furthermore, the contents of ILs in the polymer matrix have been studied in relation to the tribological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS), the wear mechanisms that operated in the contacts were established. The novel dispersions showed a reduction in the friction coefficient and wear in comparison with neat polymers, reaching in some cases a decrease of 79%. In the case of thermoplastics such as polystyrene and polyamide 6, the new dispersions showed a reduction in friction coefficient and wear in the same range as that of the ILs when used as external lubricants in the steel/polymer contact. In addition nanoparticles of zinc oxide were used to obtain polycarbonate based nanohybrids with the purpose of improving the tribological properties. Novel nanohybrids of zinc oxide and modified zinc oxide were obtained. The mechanical, thermal and tribological properties were studied. The results of experiments clearly demonstrated that the use of ILs modifies the shape and size of the ZnO nanoparticles, increasing the tribological properties of the novel nanohybrids. Different techniques such as EDS

  19. Holographic technidilaton

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Kazumoto; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    Technidilaton, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of scale symmetry, was predicted long ago in the scale-invariant/walking/conformal technicolor (SWC-TC) as a remnant of the (approximate) scale symmetry associated with the conformal fixed point, based on the conformal gauge dynamics of ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation with nonrunning coupling. We study the technidilaton as a flavor-singlet bound state of technifermions by including the technigluon condensate (tGC) effect into the previous (bottom-up) holographic approach to the SWC-TC, a deformation of the holographic QCD with {gamma}{sub m{approx_equal}}0 by large anomalous dimension {gamma}{sub m{approx_equal}}1. With including a bulk scalar field corresponding to the gluon condensate, we first improve the operator product expansion of the current correlators so as to reproduce gluonic 1/Q{sup 4} term both in QCD and SWC-TC. We find in QCD about 10% (negative) contribution of gluon condensate to the {rho} meson mass. We also calculate the oblique electroweak S-parameter in the presence of the effect of the tGC and find that for the fixed value of S the tGC effects dramatically reduce the flavor-singlet scalar (technidilaton) mass M{sub TD} (in the unit of F{sub {pi}}), while the vector and axial-vector masses M{sub {rho}}and M{sub a{sub 1}} are rather insensitive to the tGC, where F{sub {pi}}is the decay constant of the technipion. If we use the range of values of tGC implied by the ladder SD analysis of the nonperturbative scale anomaly in the large N{sub f} QCD near the conformal window, the phenomenological constraint S{approx_equal}0.1 predicts the technidilaton mass M{sub TD{approx}}600 GeV which is within reach of LHC discovery.

  20. Holographic MQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kutasov, David; Lunin, Oleg; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2010-11-15

    We study a brane configuration of D4-branes and NS5-branes in weakly coupled type IIA string theory, which describes in a particular limit d=4 N=1 SU(N+p) supersymmetric QCD with 2N flavors and a quartic superpotential. We describe the geometric realization of the supersymmetric vacuum structure of this gauge theory. We focus on the confining vacua of the gauge theory, whose holographic description is given by the MQCD brane configuration in the near-horizon geometry of N D4-branes. This description, which gives an embedding of MQCD into a field theory decoupled from gravity, is valid for 1<

  1. Fabrication of Dye-Dispersed Optical-Quality Polymer Films by Coprecipitation of Cyanine Dye with Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, Takashi; Takarada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Norio; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Moriya, Tetsuo

    1994-09-01

    3,3'-Diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI)-dissolved polymer powders were formed by coprecipitation of DODCI with polymers [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA), etc.]. An acetone solution of DODCI in which a purified polymer was also dissolved was injected into a large amount of n-hexane. The precipitated powder in n-hexane was filtered and then dried under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), and formed into a thin film by a hot-press method [Hiraga et al.: Chem. Lett. (1990) 2255]. Another method for preparing a powder by coprecipitation has successfully been developed using a vacuum process. The acetone solution of DODCI and polymer was directly injected into UHV from the liquid phase through a modified needle valve. Deposits were formed on a heat-controlled substrate through quick evaporation of a carrier solvent and they were hot-pressed to produce a thin transparent film. Condensed states of DODCI associates in these films have been analyzed by optical absorption and emission, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and NMR spectroscopy. A new technique to control the arrangement of dye associates in three-dimensional space has been proposed.

  2. Waterborne Colloidal Polymer/Silica Hybrid Dispersions and Their Assembly into Mesoporous Poly(melamine-formaldehyde) Xerogels.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dana; Weber, Jens

    2015-08-04

    The acid-catalyzed polycondensation of oligo(melamine-formaldehyde) in aqueous phase and in the presence of silica nanoparticles leads to a stable dispersion of coexisting silica and polymer nanoparticles. The dispersion can be processed into mesoporous xerogels (SBET ≈ 200 m(2) g(-1)), whose porosity can be enhanced by etching of silica up to specific surface areas of >400 m(2) g(-1). The formation mechanism and the characteristics of the hybrid dispersion are crucial to the materials derived from it and analyzed in detail using a variety of experimental techniques (electron and force microscopy, light and X-ray scattering, ultracentrifugation, and spectroscopy). The transformation of the dispersion into xerogels by electrostatic destabilization is described. Furthermore, the obtained materials are characterized with regard to their porosity and morphology using microscopy and porosimetry. The impact of selected synthesis parameters on the obtained properties is discussed, and it was found (most interestingly) that stable porosity was only observed if silica nanoparticles were present within the dispersion.

  3. A 'Plug and Play' Method to Create Water-dispersible Nanoassemblies Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer, Organic Dyes and Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arafeh, Khaled M; Asadirad, Amir M; Li, Jason Woodson; Wilson, Danielle; Wu, Tuoqi; Branda, Neil R

    2015-11-14

    In this protocol, we first describe a procedure to synthesize lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). We then demonstrate how to generate amphiphilic polymers in situ, and describe a protocol to encapsulate the prepared UCNPs and different organic dye molecules (porphyrins and diarylethenes) using polymer shells to form stable water-dispersible nanoassemblies. The nanoassembly samples containing both the UCNPs and the diarylethene organic dyes have interesting photochemical and photophysical properties. Upon 365 nm UV irradiation, the diarylethene group undergoes a visual color change. When the samples are irradiated with visible light of another specific wavelength, the color fades and the samples return to the initial colorless state. The samples also emit visible light from the UCNPs upon irradiation with 980 nm near-infrared light. The emission intensity of the samples can be tuned through alternate irradiation with UV and visible light. Modulation of fluorescence can be performed for many cycles without observable degradation of the samples. This versatile encapsulation procedure allows for the transfer of hydrophobic molecules and nanoparticles from an organic solvent to an aqueous medium. The polymer helps to maintain a lipid-like microenvironment for the organic molecules to aid in preservation of their photochemical behavior in water. Thus this method is ideal to prepare water-dispersible photoresponsive systems. The use of near-infrared light to activate upconverting nanoparticles allows for lower energy light to be used to activate photoreactions instead of more harmful ultraviolet light.

  4. Impact of particle size on interaction forces between ettringite and dispersing comb-polymers in various electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Lucia; Kaufmann, Josef; Winnefeld, Frank; Plank, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The inter-particle forces play a fundamental role for the flow properties of a particle suspension in response to shear stresses. In concrete applications, cement admixtures based on comb-polymers like polycarboxylate-ether-based superplasticizer (PCE) are used to control the rheological behavior of the fresh mixtures, as it is negatively impacted by certain early hydration products, like the mineral ettringite. In this work, dispersion forces due to PCE were measured directly at the surface of ettringite crystals in different electrolyte solutions by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying spherical and sharp silicon dioxide tips. Results show an effective repulsion between ettringite surface and AFM tips for solutions above the IEP of ettringite (pH∼12) and significant attraction in solution at lower pH. The addition of polyelectrolytes in solution provides dispersion forces exclusively between the sharp tips (radius ≈ 10 nm) and the ettringite surface, whereas the polymer layer at the ettringite surface results to be unable to disperse large colloidal probes (radius ≈ 10 μm). A simple modeling of the inter-particle forces explains that, for large particles, the steric hindrance of the studied PCE molecules is not high enough to compensate for the Van der Waals and the attractive electrostatic contributions. Therefore, in cement suspensions the impact of ettringite on rheology is probably not only related to the particle charge, but also related to the involved particle sizes.

  5. Comparative study of the electrochemical behavior and analytical applications of (bio)sensing platforms based on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in different polymers.

    PubMed

    Primo, E N; Gutierrez, F A; Luque, G L; Dalmasso, P R; Gasnier, A; Jalit, Y; Moreno, M; Bracamonte, M V; Rubio, M Eguílaz; Pedano, M L; Rodríguez, M C; Ferreyra, N F; Rubianes, M D; Bollo, S; Rivas, G A

    2013-12-17

    This review present a critical comparison of the electrochemical behavior and analytical performance of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in different polymers: polyethylenimine (PEI), PEI functionalized with dopamine (PEI-Do), polyhistidine (Polyhis), polylysine (Polylys), glucose oxidase (GOx) and double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA). The comparison is focused on the analysis of the influence of the sonication time, solvent, polymer/CNT ratio, and nature of the polymer on the efficiency of the dispersions and on the electrochemical behavior of the resulting modified electrodes. The results allow to conclude that an adequate selection of the polymers makes possible not only an efficient dispersion of CNTs but also, and even more important, the building of successful analytical platforms for the detection of different bioanalytes like NADH, glucose, DNA and dopamine.

  6. Effects of Secondary Polymer Covalently Attached to Monodisperse, Poly(maleic anhydride-styrene)-Modified Colloidal Silica on Dispersibility in Organic Solvent.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga; Shimada; Nishida; Komatsu

    1999-06-15

    Effects of surface-grafted polymer on the dispersibility of polymer-silica composite particles in ethyl acetate-methanol cosolvent were investigated. The composite particles were prepared by a two-step modification of monodisperse colloidal silica (120 nm in diameter). Modifications were carried out by first reacting the surface silanol of the colloidal silica with maleic anhydride-styrene copolymer silane coupling agent to prevent aggregation and then grafting, in acetone or tetrahydrofuran, amino group-terminated poly(methyl acrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate), or polystyrene to the maleic anhydride moiety on the surface. For poly(methyl acrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate) graftings, composite particles with long polymer chains aggregated in methanol-rich cosolvent due to insoluble secondary polymer chain interaction among the particles. Particles with a small amount of relatively low-molecular-weight secondary polymer were dispersible in the methanol content range from 0 to 90 vol%. Polystyrene-modified particles never aggregated, even in 90 vol% methanol solution. An ESR study of the suspension in ethyl acetate-hexane cosolvent suggested that the dispersibility of these composite particles in ethyl acetate-rich solution is attributable to steric repulsion between solvated and expanded secondary polymer chains among the particles. The dispersibility of the composite particles in methanol-rich solution was controlled by a delicate balance between the electrostatic repulsion and the interparticle attraction due to the desolvated and insoluble polymer chain interaction among the particles. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Enthalpy-Driven Stabilization of Dispersions of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles in High-Molecular-Weight Polymer Melts.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Rahul; Nath, Pooja; Tikekar, Mukul; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-10-04

    Phase stability of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) composed of polymer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) blended with high-molar-mass host polymer chains is investigated. We focus on blends in which the particle-grafted polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and the host-atactic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or PMMA/oligo-PEG blends-exhibit favorable enthalpic interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are used to evaluate the phase stability of the blends and to report on the structure of the materials at intermediate and long length scales. By exploring SiO2-PEG/PMMA and SiO2-PEG/PMMA-PEG systems covering a wide range of molecular weights (Mw) of PMMA (1.1 kDa ≤ Mw,PMMA ≤ 1.1 × 10(3) kDa) and tethered PEG (0.5 kDa ≤ Mw, PEG ≤ 2 kDa), we are able to develop a comprehensive stability map for PNCs based on hairy NPs. At low Mw,PEG, the phase behavior is dominated by entropic effects and the negative Flory-Huggins χ parameter between PEG and PMMA plays no role in phase stability. For higher Mw,PEO and intermediate Mw,PMMA, a crossover from entropy- to enthalpy-dominated behavior is observed, which leads to the phase stability in PNCs well beyond the conventional limits reported for SiO2-PEG/PEG mixtures. This enhanced mixing ceases above a critical Mw,PMMA, where it is found that PMMA chains wet a sufficiently large number of SiO2-PEG particles to bridge and thereby destabilize the composites.

  8. Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye

    PubMed

    Fuh; Tsai; Lee; Fan

    2000-09-01

    This study investigated the dynamic behavior of the first-order diffraction efficiency of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films doped with a guest-host dye. PDLC films were fabricated using various LC-polymer mixing ratios, and written with various powers. Experimental results indicated that several peaks appeared in the curve of the first-order diffraction efficiency versus time. According to the light scattering study, we believe that the first peak was due to the superposition of density and absorption gratings. The density grating was associated with the spatially varied molecular weight of polymer molecules across the sample, and the absorption grating resulted from the spatially varied density of free electrons. The other peaks were caused by the superposition of the absorption and phase gratings. The phase grating was generated by the formation of a periodic structure of polymer-rich and LC-rich regions in the sample. This study also proposes a model to explain these experimental results. Moreover, the theory derived from this model correlates well with the experimental results, allowing us to determine the amplitude of the final grating.

  9. Role of the Strength of Drug-Polymer Interactions on the Molecular Mobility and Crystallization Inhibition in Ketoconazole Solid Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Pinal; Mohapatra, Sarat; Gopinath, Tata; Vogt, Frederick G; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2015-09-08

    The effects of specific drug-polymer interactions (ionic or hydrogen-bonding) on the molecular mobility of model amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) were investigated. ASDs of ketoconazole (KTZ), a weakly basic drug, with each of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared. Drug-polymer interactions in the ASDs were evaluated by infrared and solid-state NMR, the molecular mobility quantified by dielectric spectroscopy, and crystallization onset monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and variable temperature X-ray diffractometry (VTXRD). KTZ likely exhibited ionic interactions with PAA, hydrogen-bonding with PHEMA, and weaker dipole-dipole interactions with PVP. On the basis of dielectric spectroscopy, the α-relaxation times of the ASDs followed the order: PAA > PHEMA > PVP. In addition, the presence of ionic interactions also translated to a dramatic and disproportionate decrease in mobility as a function of polymer concentration. On the basis of both DSC and VTXRD, an increase in strength of interaction translated to higher crystallization onset temperature and a decrease in extent of crystallization. Stronger drug-polymer interactions, by reducing the molecular mobility, can potentially delay the crystallization onset temperature as well as crystallization extent.

  10. Nanoscale Infrared, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Telaprevir-Polymer Miscibility in Amorphous Solid Dispersions Prepared by Solvent Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Taylor, Lynne S

    2016-03-07

    Miscibility is of great interest for pharmaceutical systems, in particular, for amorphous solid dispersions, as phase separation can lead to a higher tendency to crystallize, resulting in a loss in solubility, decreased dissolution rate, and compromised bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the miscibility behavior of a model poorly water-soluble drug, telaprevir (TPV), with three different polymers using atomic force microscopy-based infrared, thermal, and mechanical analysis. Standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging together with nanoscale infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), nanoscale thermal analysis (nanoTA), and Lorentz contact resonance (LCR) measurements were used to evaluate the miscibility behavior of TPV with three polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), HPMC acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA), at different drug to polymer ratios. Phase separation was observed with HPMC and PVPVA at drug loadings above 10%. For HPMCAS, a smaller miscibility gap was observed, with phase separation being observed at drug loadings higher than ∼30-40%. The domain size of phase-separated regions varied from below 50 nm to a few hundred nanometers. Localized infrared spectra, nano-TA measurements, images from AFM-based IR, and LCR measurements showed clear contrast between the continuous and discrete domains for these phase-separated systems, whereby the discrete domains were drug-rich. Fluorescence microscopy provided additional evidence for phase separation. These methods appear to be promising to evaluate miscibility in drug-polymer systems with similar Tgs and submicron domain sizes. Furthermore, such findings are of obvious importance in the context of contributing to a mechanistic understanding of amorphous solid dispersion phase behavior.

  11. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution the ability of (19)F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T(1)((1)H) and T(1ρ)((1)H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in (19)F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around (19)F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded (19)F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way (19)F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  12. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  13. Polymer Nanocomposites Made with Unmodified Graphite or Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Dispersion in Optimizing Mechanical and Thermal Properties and Electrical Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Junichi; Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Brunner, Philip; Pierre, Cynthia; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    Polymer nanocomposites made with carbon-based nanofiller have the potential to achieve unprecedented, multifunctional property enhancements in comparison with other nanocomposite systems. Here, we describe research in which we prepare nanocomposites with polymers that are not amenable to solution-based processing, such as polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate). Solid-state shear pulverization is used singly or in conjunction with melt processing to obtain well-dispersed polymer/graphite and polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. We report record improvements in properties of unoriented films of polypropylene nanocomposites, including Young's modulus, crystallization rate, and thermal degradation temperature. We also characterize electrical conductivity of such nanocomposites and note that the dispersion characteristics necessary to achieve maximum mechanical and thermal properties differ from those needed to maximize electrical conductivity. The potential of and challenges with using unmodified graphite as a filler in polymer nanocomposites will be discussed.

  14. Imaging internal flows in a drying sessile polymer dispersion drop using Spectral Radar Optical Coherence Tomography (SR-OCT).

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Selin; Sauer, Hans M; Roisman, Ilia V; Baldwin, Kyle A; Fairhurst, David J; Liang, Haida; Venzmer, Joachim; Tropea, Cameron

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we present the visualization of the internal flows in a drying sessile polymer dispersion drop on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces with Spectral Radar Optical Coherence Tomography (SR-OCT). We have found that surface features such as the initial contact angle and pinning of the contact line, play a crucial role on the flow direction and final shape of the dried drop. Moreover, imaging through selection of vertical slices using optical coherence tomography offers a feasible alternative compared to imaging through selection of narrow horizontal slices using confocal microscopy for turbid, barely transparent fluids.

  15. Pressure dependence of the electro-optic response function in partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals in a new configuration, termed partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (PEPDFLC), respond to external pressures and demonstrate pressure-induced electro-optic switching response. When the PEPDFLC thin film is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a glass plate and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvenylidene fluoride, the switching characteristics of the thin film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and the bias voltage across the electrodes. Response time measurements reveal a linear dependence of the change in electric field with external pressure.

  16. Analysis and design of holographic solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn

    2008-08-01

    The diffraction and the dispersion properties of holographic optical elements are examined for use as solar concentrators for photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal energy conversion systems. The diffraction angle and efficiency are computed for folded optical geometries that are potentially useful for low concentration ratio systems that can reduce the cost of residential solar energy systems. An investigation of the collection efficiency of a holographic planar concentrator and a spectrum splitting concentrator are analyzed with different construction parameters. It is found that collection angles of 40o and spectral bandwidth of 70 nm result with folded optical geometries for single volume holograms.

  17. Measuring the Thickness and Elastic Properties of Electroactive Thin-film Polymers Using Platewave Dispersion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Azab, A.; Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S.

    1996-01-01

    Electroactive thin-film polymers are candidate sensors and actuators materials [1,2]. They are also finding a significant potential for applications in muscle mechanisms and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).

  18. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-03

    SWNT [35,36], polypropylene/nano-carbon fiber , polystyrene (PS)/MWNT [34,43] and in-situ polymerization of PI/SWNT [38]) in polymer matrices to...strength and thermal/electric conductivity based on soft macromolecules of controlled glass transition temperature. 1.4.1 The Polybenzoxazoles (PBO...around 270 GPa, greater than that of steel fibers . PBO had been developed by US Air Force researchers as a super heat resistant polymer that surpasses

  19. Theoretical predictions of structures in dispersions containing charged colloidal particles and non-adsorbing polymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Turesson, Martin; Woodward, Clifford E; van Gruijthuijsen, Kitty; Stradner, Anna; Forsman, Jan

    2016-04-28

    We develop a theoretical model to describe structural effects on a specific system of charged colloidal polystyrene particles, upon the addition of non-adsorbing PEG polymers. This system has previously been investigated experimentally, by scattering methods, so we are able to quantitatively compare predicted structure factors with corresponding experimental data. Our aim is to construct a model that is coarse-grained enough to be computationally manageable, yet detailed enough to capture the important physics. To this end, we utilize classical polymer density functional theory, wherein all possible polymer configurations are accounted for, subject to a mean-field Boltzmann weight. We make efforts to counteract drawbacks with this mean-field approach, resulting in structural predictions that agree very well with computationally more demanding simulations. Electrostatic interactions are handled at the fully non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann level, and we demonstrate that a linearization leads to less accurate predictions. The particle charge is an experimentally unknown parameter. We define the surface charge such that the experimental and theoretical gel point at equal polymer concentration coincide. Assuming a fixed surface charge for a certain salt concentration, we find very good agreements between measured and predicted structure factors across a wide range of polymer concentrations. We also present predictions for other structural quantities, such as radial distribution functions, and cluster size distributions. Finally, we demonstrate that our model predicts the occurrence of equilibrium clusters at high polymer concentrations, but low particle volume fractions and salt levels.

  20. Hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion of posaconazole with improved bioavailability: investigating drug-polymer miscibility with advanced characterisation.

    PubMed

    Fule, Ritesh; Amin, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD) with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol) as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal) fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0-72) and C(max) of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0-72) and C(max) higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  1. Well-Dispersed Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals Synthesized from Alcohols and Their Applications for Polymer Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiang; Dai, Zhongjun; Chen, Bing; Ji, Ran; Yang, Xin; Hu, Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a simple non-injection synthesis routine for the preparation of well-dispersed monocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanocrystal morphology was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and its phase composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles prepared using ethanolamine and diethanolamine as chemical stabilizers showed a high purity and a suitable size for polymer solar cell applications. The fabricated CZTS NPs are shown to be easily dispersed in a polymer/fullerene aromatic solution as well as the hybrid photovoltaic active layer. Thanks to the increment in the light absorption and electrical conductivity of the active layer, solar cells with a small amount of CZTS nanoparticles resulted in a clear enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. The short-circuit current density is increased from 9.90 up to 10.67 mA/cm(2), corresponding to an improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.30 to 3.65%.

  2. Well-Dispersed Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals Synthesized from Alcohols and Their Applications for Polymer Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiang; Dai, Zhongjun; Chen, Bing; Ji, Ran; Yang, Xin; Hu, Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a simple non-injection synthesis routine for the preparation of well-dispersed monocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanocrystal morphology was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and its phase composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles prepared using ethanolamine and diethanolamine as chemical stabilizers showed a high purity and a suitable size for polymer solar cell applications. The fabricated CZTS NPs are shown to be easily dispersed in a polymer/fullerene aromatic solution as well as the hybrid photovoltaic active layer. Thanks to the increment in the light absorption and electrical conductivity of the active layer, solar cells with a small amount of CZTS nanoparticles resulted in a clear enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. The short-circuit current density is increased from 9.90 up to 10.67 mA/cm2, corresponding to an improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.30 to 3.65%.

  3. Hot Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Posaconazole with Improved Bioavailability: Investigating Drug-Polymer Miscibility with Advanced Characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD) with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol) as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal) fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72) and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72) and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension. PMID:25143935

  4. Light scattering from random coils dispersed in solutions of rodlike polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, T.; Russo, P.S.; Negulescu, I.; Daly, W.H. ); Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G. )

    1994-01-01

    The thermodynamics and mobility of a random-coil polymer were studied by light scattering in toluene solutions containing a rodlike polymer. The random-coil polymer was polystyrene (PS). The rodlike polymer was helical poly([gamma]-stearyl [alpha],L-glutamate), or PSLG, which aggregates end-to-end in toluene to produce long filaments. As PSLG is almost isorefractive with toluene, the scattering of PS can be measured in PSLG/toluene mixtures with almost no interference from PSLG. The apparent second virial coefficient of the PS component decreases rapidly with addition of the invisible rodlike polymer component, while the PS radius of gyration does not. The reduction of the virial coefficient, but not the size, of the random-coil polymer in the presence of PSLG is due to the occupation of connected (and linearly correlated) space. Parallel effects were observed in the mutual diffusion coefficient of the coil component, which increased with PS concentration at low rod content but did the opposite when enough PSLG was added. Extrapolated to zero PS content, the mutual diffusion coefficient is expected to approach closely the self-diffusion of trace quantities of PS in the PSLG/toluene solution. So obtained, the self-diffusion coefficient decreased with added rodlike PSLG, but not as fast as the viscosity increased; thus, the Stokes-Einstein relationship was not obeyed by PS probes in PSLG/toluene solutions. Scaling arguments are presented for the dependence of the size of a random coil in the presence of rods and for the crossover from Stokes-Einstein diffusion of the coil to a reptative type of motion. The available data are not well suited to test these relationships, due to limitations in the matrix concentration imposed by polymer incompatibility.

  5. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  6. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Avtar S; Jeeva, Shehzad; Ramanujam, P S

    2007-12-01

    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity, is discussed. Polymeric liquid crystals play an important role in the development of materials for holographic storage and photoresponsive materials based on azobenzene are targeted for discussion due to their ease of photo-reversion between trans- and cis-states. Although the final polymer may not be liquid crystalline, irradiation can induce ordered domains. The mesogens act in a co-operative manner, enhancing refractive indices and birefringences. Surface relief gratings are discussed as a consequence of holographic storage. Cholesteric polymers comprising azobenzene are briefly highlighted. Irradiation causing cis-trans-isomerisation can be used to control helix pitch. A brief mention of liquid crystals is also made since these materials may be of future interest since they are optically transparent and amenable to photo-induced anisotropy.

  7. Investigation of Preparation and Mechanisms of a Dispersed Particle Gel Formed from a Polymer Gel at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang; Dai, Caili; Zhao, Mingwei; You, Qing; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    A dispersed particle gel (DPG) was successfully prepared from a polymer gel at room temperature. The polymer gel system, morphology, viscosity changes, size distribution, and zeta potential of DPG particles were investigated. The results showed that zirconium gel systems with different strengths can be cross-linked within 2.5 h at low temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed that the particles were polygonal particles with nano-size distribution. According to the viscosity changes, the whole preparation process can be divided into two major stages: the bulk gel cross-linking reaction period and the DPG particle preparation period. A polymer gel with a 3-dimensional network was formed in the bulk gel cross-linking reaction period whereas shearing force and frictional force were the main driving forces for the preparation of DPG particles, and thus affected the morphology of DPG particles. High shearing force and frictional force reduced the particle size distribution, and then decreased the zeta potential (absolute value). The whole preparation process could be completed within 3 h at room temperature. It could be an efficient and energy-saving technology for preparation of DPG particles. PMID:24324817

  8. Effect of Dielectric Titanium, Yttrium, and Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles on Electro-Optical Characteristics of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, K. R.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zharkova, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optical characteristics of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystals doped (implanted) with inorganic SiO2, TiO2, and Y2O3 nanoparticles in strong electric fields are studied. The composites were obtained by the method of phase separation of liquid crystals (5CB) and polymer (polyvinyl acetate). It is revealed that implantation of up to 1 wt.% of nanoparticles does not noticeably affect the morphology of the composites. The implanted particles change the mismatch between the refractive indices of the polymer and the liquid crystal, and the strong particle aggregation increases the light scattering that can improve the electrooptical contrast of the composites. Changes of the dielectric permittivity with the field are correlated with the light transmittance. It is found that the yttrium and silicon oxides decrease and the titanium oxides increase the Fredericks threshold field. The titanium oxides and to a greater extent the silicon oxides decrease the dependence of the light transmittance on the changes in the dielectric permittivity.

  9. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  10. Polymeric photoresist nanoparticles: light-induced degradation of hydrophobic polymers in aqueous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Daniel; Landfester, Katharina

    2011-12-15

    Nanoparticles consisting of a photoreactive polymer able to radically switch its hydrophobicity are successfully prepared by miniemulsion polymerization. Irradiation with UV light causes degradation of the particles where at complete dissolution is achieved by changing the initial hydrophobic photoresist polymer into hydrophilic poly(methacrylic acid). Incorporation of the fluorescence-sensitive Nile red serves as a solvatochromic probe to study the particle degradation. Diffusion of either Nile red out from or water into the former hard spherical nanoparticles is studied and not only renders the described material an ideal system for applications, where in situ dissolution of nanoparticles may be needed, but also bears the additional advantage of performing controlled burst release.

  11. Direct Evidence for Percolation of Immobilized Polymer Layer around Nanoparticles Accounting for Sol-Gel Transition in Fumed Silica Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Song, Yihu; Yang, Ruiquan; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-12-22

    Immobilized polymer fractions have been claimed to be of vital importance for sol-gel transitions generally observed in nanoparticle dispersions but remain a matter of debate regarding mechanism and difficulty for prediction. Here we investigate the immobilized layer structures of trifunctionality polyether polyol (PPG) near the surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fumed silica (FS) nanoparticles to reveal the role of surface chemistry on the molecular dynamics and sol-gel transitions of the dispersions. Using modulated differential scanning calorimetry, we measure the specific heat capacity during glass transition and the enthalpy during cold-crystallization. Comparing with hydrophobic FS that forms a fully immobilized (glassy) layer, we find that hydrophilic FS immobilizes more PPG, forming a partially immobilized outer layer being unable to crystallize next to the inner glassy layer. By correlating the thickness of the glassy layer with half of the minimum spacing between nanoparticles, we directly evidence the percolation of this layer along the nearest neighbor nanoparticles responsible for the sol-gel transition. Using effective volume fraction including the glassy layer, we successfully construct master curves of relative viscosity of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic FS dispersions, pointing to a common sol-gel transition mechanism mediated by the surface chemistry.

  12. Tailoring dispersion and aggregation of Au nanoparticles in the BHJ layer of polymer solar cells: plasmon effects versus electrical effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wanjung; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Jung Kyu; Kang, Woonggi; Kim, Eunchul; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Wang, Dong Hwan; Du, Qing Guo; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jaeyun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-12-01

    Plasmonic effects that arise from embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been extensively studied. Many researchers have utilized metallic NPs in PSCs by either incorporating them into the PSC interlayers (e.g., the hole extraction and electron extraction layers) or blending them into the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer. In such studies, the dispersity of the metallic NPs in each layer may vary due to both the different nature of the ligands and the amount of ligands on the metallic NPs. This in turn can produce different PSC performance parameters. Here, we systematically control the amount of attached organic ligands on Au NPs to control their dispersion behavior in the BHJ active layer of PSCs. By controlling the number of capping organic ligands on the Au NPs, the dispersity of the NPs in the BHJ layer is also controlled and the positive effects (particularly the plasmonic and electrical effects) of the Au NPs in the PSCs are investigated. From the obtained results, we find that the electrical contribution of the Au NPs is a more dominant factor for enhancing cell efficiency when compared to the plasmonic effect.

  13. Molecularly designed lipid microdomains for solid dispersions using a polymer/inorganic carrier matrix produced by hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Adler, Camille; Schönenberger, Monica; Teleki, Alexandra; Kuentz, Martin

    2016-02-29

    Amorphous solid dispersions have for many years been a focus in oral formulations, especially in combination with a hot-melt extrusion process. The present work targets a novel approach with a system based on a fatty acid, a polymer and an inorganic carrier. It was intended to adsorb the acidic lipid by specific molecular interactions onto the solid carrier to design disorder in the alkyl chains of the lipid. Such designed lipid microdomains (DLM) were created as a new microstructure to accommodate a compound in a solid dispersion. Vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic force microscopy as well as electron microscopic imaging were employed to study a system of stearic acid, hydroxypropylcellulose and aluminum magnesium silicate. β-carotene was used as a poorly water-soluble model substance that is difficult to formulate with conventional solid dispersion formulations. The results indicated that the targeted molecular excipient interactions indeed led to DLMs for specific compositions. The different methods provided complementary aspects and important insights into the created microstructure. The novel delivery system appeared to be especially promising for the formulation of oral compounds that exhibit both high crystal energy and lipophilicity.

  14. Solvent-shift strategy to identify suitable polymers to inhibit humidity-induced solid-state crystallization of lacidipine amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengchi; Wu, Chunnuan; Fu, Qiang; Di, Donghua; Kuang, Xiao; Wang, Chao; He, Zhonggui; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jin

    2016-04-30

    The solvent-shift strategy was used to identify appropriate polymers that inhibit humidity-induced solid-state crystallization of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Lacidipine with the polymers, PVP-K30, HPMC-E5 or Soluplus, were combined to form amorphous solid dispersions prepared by solvent evaporation. The formulations were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and were subjected to in vitro dissolution testing. The moisture had a significant impact on the amount dissolved for the solid dispersions. Molecular docking studies established that hydrogen bonding was critical for the stabilization of the solid dispersions. The rank order of the binding energy of the drug-polymer association was Soluplus (-6.21 kcal/mol)>HPMC-E5 (-3.21 kcal/mol)>PVP-K30 (-2.31 kcal/mol). PVP-K30 had the highest water uptake among the polymers, as did ASD system of lacidipine-PVP-K30 ASDs. In the Soluplus ASDs, with its strong drug-polymer interactions and low water uptake, moisture-induced solid-state crystallization was not observed.

  15. Three-Dimensional Large Screen Display Using Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal Light Valves and a Schlieren Optical System: Proposal and Basic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kuniharu

    A novel three-dimensional (3-D) projection display used with polarized eyeglasses is proposed. It consists of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-light valves that modulate the illuminated light based on light scattering, a polarization beam splitter, and a Schlieren projection system. The features of the proposed display include a 3-D image display with a single projector, half size and half power consumption compared with a conventional 3-D projector with polarized glasses. Measured electro-optic characteristics of a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cell inserted between crossed polarizers suggests that the proposed display achieves small cross talk and high-extinction ratio.

  16. Investigation of phase diagrams and physical stability of drug-polymer solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiannan; Shah, Sejal; Jo, Seongbong; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Gryczke, Andreas; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; Repka, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Solid dispersion technology has been widely explored to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds. One of the critical drawbacks associated with this technology is the lack of physical stability, i.e. the solid dispersion would undergo recrystallization or phase separation thus limiting a product's shelf life. In the current study, the melting point depression method was utilized to construct a complete phase diagram for felodipine (FEL)-Soluplus® (SOL) and ketoconazole (KTZ)-Soluplus® (SOL) binary systems, respectively, based on the Flory-Huggins theory. The miscibility or solubility of the two compounds in SOL was also determined. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ values of both systems were calculated as positive at room temperature (25 °C), indicating either compound was miscible with SOL. In addition, the glass transition temperatures of both solid dispersion systems were theoretically predicted using three empirical equations and compared with the practical values. Furthermore, the FEL-SOL solid dispersions were subjected to accelerated stability studies for up to 3 months.

  17. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-05

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one.

  18. Effect of hydrophilic additives on the dissolution and pharmacokinetic properties of itraconazole-enteric polymer hot-melt extruded amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; Liu, Sha; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt extrusion technology has been widely reported for producing amorphous solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble compounds. A number of studies revealed that enteric polymers containing ionizable groups are able to improve the physical stability and maintain drug supersaturation, thereby enhancing oral bioavailability. However, our previous studies found that itraconazole (ITZ)-enteric polymer amorphous solid dispersions are hydrophobic and poorly wettable. Moreover, drug release in an acidic environment (i.e. stomach) is very limited, indicating a narrow absorption window. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hydrophilic additives on the in vitro and in vivo performance of ITZ-enteric polymer amorphous solid dispersions. Incorporating Vitamin E TPGS into ITZ-HPMCAS amorphous solid dispersions significantly improved drug release in the acidic media. Surprisingly, a low concentration of Vitamin E TPGS also enhanced the degree of drug supersaturation in neutral pH media, which is unique as compared with other tested hydrophilic additives. This effect is not due to the solubilization of the surfactant. We further formulated the amorphous solid dispersions into tablet dosage forms and evaluated their performance in a bio-relevant dissolution media. Our optimized formulations exhibited drastically enhanced dissolution profiles as compared with the commercial ITZ product and ITZ amorphous solid dispersion without hydrophilic additive. In vivo study showed that Vitamin E TPGS induced rapid drug absorption after oral administration. Moreover, the elimination half-life of ITZ was prolonged due to the enzyme inhibition effect of Vitamin E TPGS.

  19. Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells from Polymer-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Dispersed Heterojunctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    turning over the Scotch-supported ACNT film upside down (middle right of Figure 5a), and pushing up the Scotch tape underneath the metal-patterned...nanotube arrays opened up avenues for multifunctional applications, including polymer-aligned carbon nanotube photovoltaic cells. a) Selective...It was thus found that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) increased ( up to 0.93 V) with the decrease in the content of thiophene unit. Although the

  20. Gas flow-field induced director alignment in polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets deposited on a glass substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. The electron and the optical polarization microscopies of the films reveal that PDLC microdroplets formed during the process of phase separation near the top surface of the film remain exposed and respond to shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface. Optical response of the film to an air flow-induced shear stress input on the free surface has been measured. Director orientation in the droplets changes with the applied shear stress leading to time varying transmitted light intensity. Director dynamics of the droplet for an applied step shear stress has been discussed from free energy considerations. Results on the measurement of light transmission as a function of the gas flow parameter unambiguously demonstrate the potential of these systems for use as boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  1. Energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry as a tool alternative to differential scanning calorimetry for investigating polymer phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi-Albertini, V.; Isopo, A.; Caminiti, R.; Tentolini, U.

    2002-02-01

    Recently, a technique based on energy dispersive x-ray diffraction has been proposed to follow the polymer phase transitions. However, the potentialities of this method were not clear, as well as the experimental conditions in which it is more convenient than differential scanning calorimetry, generally used for the same purpose. In the present letter, the answer to this question is provided. It is shown that the two methods are complementary, rather than equivalent, the heating rate being the relevant parameter to establish which is preferable. The demonstration of this statement is given through the observation of the complex thermal properties of a reference sample studied in both ways at progressively lower heating rates. The connection between such unusual application of x-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry is discussed in terms of the two possible definitions of entropy.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic Behaviors in the Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Optically Compensated Bend Polymer-Dispersed Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Wu, Jin-Jei; Ke, Hung-Lin

    2008-11-01

    We fabricated three optically compensated bend (OCB) polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDLC) cells doped with a minute amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and observed the eletrohydrodynamic (EHD) behaviors of LCs in these three MWCNT-doped OCB PDLC cells at 5 or 12 V AC voltage with a frequency of 1 kHz or 60 Hz, respectively. Using the polarizing microscope, we discovered many kinds of domain patterns, including the fingerprint-like domain pattern, the uniform domain pattern, the bean-like domain pattern, the irregular big spot domain pattern, the hexagonal short period lattice domain pattern, and the rectangular period lattice domain pattern. This suggests that some domain patterns differ from the Kapustin-William's domain pattern while others were somewhat similar to the Kapustin-William's domain pattern.

  3. Dispersed conductive polymer nanoparticles on graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced solar-driven hydrogen evolution from pure water.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yi; Liu, Jinghai; Zhang, Yuewei; Tian, Xike; Chen, Wei

    2013-10-07

    Developing new methods to improve the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) for hydrogen (H₂) evolution has attracted intensive research interests. Here, we report that the g-C₃N₄ exhibits photocatalytic activity for H₂ evolution from pure water. And, the activity is dramatically improved by loading highly dispersed conductive polymer nanoparticles. The H₂ evolution rate increases up to 50 times for g-C₃N₄ with 1.5 wt% polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles on the surface. The reaction proceeding in a pure water system excludes the need for sacrificial agents. The role of the highly conductive PPy in enhancing H₂ evolution is as a surface junction to increase the number of photoinduced electrons, and to facilitate electron transfer to the interface.

  4. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhui; Wu, Ke; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (˜1017 cm-3). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO2 filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO2 compared to ZrO2. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO2 may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO2 composites.

  5. Novel dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of eight fluoroquinolones from fish samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Jin, Jing; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Chen, Jiping

    2014-09-12

    A series of novel dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) were prepared as highly class-selective sorbents for fluoroquinolones. A non-poisonous dummy template, daidzein, was used for the first time to create specific molecular recognition sites for fluoroquinolones in the synthesized polymers. The influence of porogen polarity on dummy molecular imprinting effect was studied. The DMIP prepared using dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (1:1.8, v/v) as porogen achieved the highest imprinting factors (IF) for fluoroquinolones over a range of IF 13.4-84.0. This DMIP was then used for selective extraction of eight fluoroquinolones (fleroxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin and gatifloxacin) from fish samples based on dummy molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (DMI-MSPD). The extracted fluoroquinolones were subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD). The developed method had acceptable recoveries (64.4-102.7%) and precision (RSDs: 1.7-8.5%, n=5) for determination of fluoroquinolones in fish samples fortified at levels of 10 and 100ngg(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) for identification of eight fluoroquinolones ranged between 0.06 and 0.22ngg(-1). The results demonstrated great potential of the optimized method for sample preparation in routine analysis of trace fluoroquinolones in fish samples.

  6. Imaging studies of temperature dependent photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-07-01

    Using confocal transmission imaging microscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS). In both dye-doped polymers, an increase in sample temperature results in a greater photodegradation rate and degree of degradation, while also resulting in a slower recovery rate and larger recovery fraction. These results confirm the temperature dependence predictions of the modified correlated chromophore domain model (mCCDM) [B. R. Anderson and M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032601 (2014)]. Additionally, using quantitative fitting of the imaging data for DO11/PMMA, we determine the domain density parameter to be ρ = 1.19 (±0.25) × 10-2 and the domain free energy advantage to be λ = 0.282 ± 0.015 eV, which are within the uncertainty of the values previously determined using amplified spontaneous emission as the probe method [S. K. Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. Finally, while we find photodegradation and self-healing of DO11/PS to be qualitatively consistent with the mCCDM, we find that it is quantitatively incompatible with the mCCDM as recovery in DO11/PS is found to behave as a stretched (or double) exponential as a function of time.

  7. Assessment of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in the preconcentration of disperse red 73 dye prior to photoelectrocatalytic treatment.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jefferson Honorio; Aissa, Alejandra Ben; Bessegato, Guilherme Garcia; Fajardo, Laura Martinez; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Pividori, María Isabel; Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor, Maria

    2016-12-08

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a research hotspot due to their two important characteristics: target recognition and magnetic separation. This paper presents the preparation, characterization, and optimization of an MMIP for the preconcentration of disperse red 73 dye (DR73) and its subsequent efficient degradation by photoelectrocatalytic treatment. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed homogeneous distribution of the particles. Excellent encapsulation of magnetite was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A study of dye binding showed that the dye was retained more selectively in the MIP, compared to the NIP. The release of DR73 from the imprinted polymers into methanol and acetic acid was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The extracts showed higher absorbance values for MMIP, compared to MNIP, confirming greater adsorption of dye in the MMIP material. The extracts were then subjected to photoelectrocatalytic treatment. LC-MS/MS analysis following this treatment showed that the dye was almost completely degraded. Hence, the combination of MMIP extraction and photoelectrocatalysis offers an alternative way of selectively removing an organic contaminant, prior to proceeding with its complete degradation.

  8. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (106 ~ 109 Ω/◻).

  9. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).

  10. The effect of drug and EUDRAGIT® S 100 miscibility in solid dispersions on the drug and polymer dissolution rate.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kenjirou; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2015-10-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions of phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin: DPH) and glibenclamide (GBM) with Eudragit(®) S 100 (S100) were prepared by a spray-drying. At low drug loading ratios, DPH dissolved simultaneously with S100. However, at high drug loading ratios the DPH dissolution rates were significantly reduced in comparison with those of S100 because of the rapid crystallization of DPH during the dissolution test. All of the DPH molecules in the low drug loading spray-dried sample (SPD) intimately interacted with the S100 matrix. In the SPDs with high drug loadings, only some of the DPH molecules interacted with the S100 matrix, while the excess DPH formed DPH-rich domains. When these domains contacted the water during the dissolution test, the amorphous DPH were more easily transformed into a crystalline form. In contrast to the solid dispersion of DPH/S100, that of GBM/S100 showed the simultaneous dissolution independent of the drug loading ratio. GBM was retained in an amorphous state during the dissolution test even at high drug loadings, although GBM-rich domains were formed. The miscibility at the molecular level as well as the stability of the amorphous state of drug are crucial factors to enhance the drug dissolution rate by the simultaneous dissolution with the polymer.

  11. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (106 ~ 109 Ω/◻). PMID:26839126

  12. Effect of cell gap on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyong; Han, Jeong In

    2014-07-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) lenses with a cell gap of 11 μm and 30 μm were made from a uniformly dispersed mixture of 40% prepolymer (NOA 65, Norland optical adhesive 65) and 60% E7 liquid crystal. PDLC's mixture between two ITO coated glasses was polymerized by UV (ultraviolet) curing in the polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) process. Decline of cell gap is a physical approach to improve the electrooptical properties, while cooling or doping of SiO2 nanoparticles is the microstructural approach to enhance the properties, because the electric field applied to the liquid crystal molecules in LC droplets is inversely proportional to the cell gap. A smaller cell gap significantly and effectively increases the electric field applied to PDLCD devices. The driving voltages and slope for the sample with a cell gap of 11 μm and 30 μm were drastically improved. The driving voltage and the slope of the linear region of PDLC lens with narrow cell gap of 11 μm were drastically enhanced compared to those of the samples with 30 μm cell gap and the cooled and doped samples. These improvements were due to the increase of the applied electric field. However, the response time and contrast ratio were deteriorated. It seems that this deterioration was caused by the sticking or fixing of liquid crystal molecules in LC (liquid crystal) droplets by the intensive electric field applied to the PDLC device.

  13. Drug-polymer interaction and its significance on the physical stability of nifedipine amorphous dispersion in microparticles of an ammonio methacrylate copolymer and ethylcellulose binary blend.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjun; Wigent, Rodney J; Schwartz, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    Using spectroscopic and thermal analysis, this study investigated drug-polymer interaction and its significance on the physical stability of drug amorphous dispersion in microparticles of an ammonio polymethacrylate copolymer (Eudragit RL) (RL) and ethylcellulose (EC) binary blend (RL/EC = 2:1 w/w) prepared for use in controlled release of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid dispersion of the model drug, nifedipine in the microparticles could be described as an ideal amorphous mixture for drug loadings up to 11% w/w. The antiplasticizing effect of the polymer blend was indicated by a significant increase in the glass transition point from approximately 50 degrees C for the amorphous nifedipine to approximately 115 degrees C for its solid solution. Moreover, shifts in infrared vibration wavenumber of nifedipine carbonyl and amine groups suggested that the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) originally formed among nifedipine molecules were broken and replaced by those formed between nifedipine and polymers in the microparticles. Further infrared analysis on nifedipine amorphous dispersions with a single polymer, namely RL or EC, confirmed the proposed hydrogen-bonding interactions; and their stability study results suggested that both antiplasticizing effects and hydrogen bonding of EC and RL with nifedipine might be responsible for the physical stability of the microparticles of nifedipine amorphous dispersion with a RL/EC binary blend.

  14. Efficient synthesis of narrowly dispersed hydrophilic and magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with excellent molecular recognition ability in a real biological sample.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Xianzhi; Yan, Husheng; Zhang, Huiqi

    2014-02-28

    A facile and highly efficient approach to obtain narrowly dispersed hydrophilic and magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with molecular recognition ability in a real biological sample as good as what they show in the organic solvent-based media is described for the first time.

  15. Effect of liquid crystal concentration on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses with auto-shading and auto-focusing function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyong; Han, Jeong In

    2014-05-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal lenses were prepared from a mixture of prepolymer (NOA 65) and E7 liquid crystal. The mixture of polymer dispersed liquid crystal was polymerized by ultraviolet (UV) curing in the polymerization induced phase separation process. With liquid crystal concentration, electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens devices including transmittance, driving voltage, response times, contrast ratio and slope of the linear region of the transmittance-voltage were measured and optimized for smart electronic glasses. The optimum concentration for polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens was NOA 65 of 40% and E7 liquid crystal concentration of 60%. This is the first report of the use of the polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses with auto-shading and/or auto-focusing functions.

  16. Holographic string encoding.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Christophe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we apply a special case of holographic representations to letter position coding. We translate different well-known schemes into this format, which uses distributed representations and supports constituent structure. We show that in addition to these brain-like characteristics, performances on a standard benchmark of behavioral effects are improved in the holographic format relative to the standard localist one. This notably occurs because of emerging properties in holographic codes, like transposition and edge effects, for which we give formal demonstrations. Finally, we outline the limits of the approach as well as its possible future extensions.

  17. Influence of non-reactive solvent on optical performance, photopolymerization kinetics and morphology of nanoporous polymer gratings.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Vincent K S; White, Timothy J; Cartwright, Alexander N; Prasad, Paras N; Guymon, C Allan

    2010-05-01

    A study of nanoporous polymer gratings, with controllable nanostructured porosity, as a function of grating performance, photopolymerization kinetics and morphology is presented. Modifying the standard holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) system, by including a non-reactive solvent, results in a layered, nanoporous morphology and produces reflective optical elements with excellent optical performance of broadband reflection. The addition of the non-reactive solvent in the pre-polymer mixture results in a morphology typified by void/polymer layer-by-layer structures if sufficient optical energy is used during the holographic writing process. The duration and intensity of optical exposure necessary to form well-aligned nanoporous structures can only be obtained in the modified system by (a) illumination under longer time of holographic interference patterning (30 min) or (b) illumination under very short time of holographic interference patterning (30 s) and followed by post-curing using homogeneous optical exposure for 60 min. Comparatively, a typical H-PDLC is formed in less than 1 min. To further understand the differences in the formation of these two analogous materials, the temporal dynamics of the photoinitiation and polymerization (propagation) kinetics were examined. It is shown herein that the writing exposure gives a cross-linked polymer network that is denser in the bright regions. With 60% (or even 45%) acrylate conversion, almost no free monomer would be left after the writing. Continued exposure serves primarily to add cross-links. This has the tendency to collapse the network, especially the less dense portions, which in effect get glued down to the more dense parts. To the extent that the solvent increases the mobility of the polymer network, this process will be aided. Equally important, the size of the periodic nanopores can be varied from 10 to 50 nm by controlling either the LC concentration in the pre-polymer mixture or by

  18. Optical scanning holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1995-03-01

    We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.

  19. Digital Holographic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.

  20. Simplified identification of compounding ratio and dispersion of Carbon nanotube / Polymer composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Yoichi; Endo, Morinobu

    In order to obtain the physical property of polypropylene and vapor growth carbon fiber (VGCF) composite material, a novel contact probe structure, C-probe, for the measurement of static capacitor is proposed. The present method utilizes the difference in dielectric constant of composite depending on the VGCF concentration. The C-probe contacted to the surface of the measuring object measures the resonance frequency between the electrodes arranged in plane (horizontal structure). In comparison with the conventional capacitor method, in which the specimen is clamped between the electrodes (vertical structure), the C-probe is advantageous because it realizes quick and non-destructive measurement. The experimental result shows good relationship between the compound ratio and the resonance frequency. By decreasing the dimension of the C-probe to be less than the composite specimen, the dispersion of mixture of the composite material has been also identified successfully.

  1. Physical Properties and Effect in a Battery of Safety Pharmacology Models for Three Structurally Distinct Enteric Polymers Employed as Spray-Dried Dispersion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Patel, Mita; Zhang, Xiaomei; Baum-Kroker, Katja S.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a wide therapeutic index (TI) for pre-clinical safety is important during lead optimization (LO) in research, prior to clinical development, although is often limited by a molecules physiochemical characteristics. Recent advances in the application of the innovative vibrating mesh spray-drying technology to prepare amorphous solid dispersions may offer an opportunity to achieve high plasma concentrations of poorly soluble NCEs to enable testing and establishment of a wide TI in safety pharmacology studies. While some of the amorphous solid dispersion carriers are generally recognized as safe for clinical use, whether they are sufficiently benign to enable in vivo pharmacology studies has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Thus, the physical properties, and effect in a battery of in vivo safety pharmacology models, were assessed in three classes of polymers employed as spray-dried dispersion carriers. The polymers (HPMC-AS, Eudragit, PVAP) displayed low affinity with acetone/methanol, suitable for solvent-based spray drying. The water sorption of the polymers was moderate, and the degree of hysteresis of HPMC-AS was smaller than Eudragit and PVAP indicating the intermolecular interaction of water-cellulose molecules is weaker than water-acrylate or water-polyvinyl molecules. The polymer particles were well-suspended without aggregation with a mean particle size less than 3 μm in an aqueous vehicle. When tested in conscious Wistar Han rats in safety pharmacology models (n = 6–8/dose/polymer) investigating effects on CNS, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular function, no liabilities were identified at any dose tested (30–300 mg/kg PO, suspension). In brief, the polymers had no effect in a modified Irwin test that included observational and evoked endpoints related to stereotypies, excitation, sedation, pain/anesthesia, autonomic balance, reflexes, and others. No effect of the polymers on gastric emptying or intestinal transit was observed when

  2. Physical Properties and Effect in a Battery of Safety Pharmacology Models for Three Structurally Distinct Enteric Polymers Employed as Spray-Dried Dispersion Carriers.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Ryan M; Patel, Mita; Zhang, Xiaomei; Baum-Kroker, Katja S; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a wide therapeutic index (TI) for pre-clinical safety is important during lead optimization (LO) in research, prior to clinical development, although is often limited by a molecules physiochemical characteristics. Recent advances in the application of the innovative vibrating mesh spray-drying technology to prepare amorphous solid dispersions may offer an opportunity to achieve high plasma concentrations of poorly soluble NCEs to enable testing and establishment of a wide TI in safety pharmacology studies. While some of the amorphous solid dispersion carriers are generally recognized as safe for clinical use, whether they are sufficiently benign to enable in vivo pharmacology studies has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Thus, the physical properties, and effect in a battery of in vivo safety pharmacology models, were assessed in three classes of polymers employed as spray-dried dispersion carriers. The polymers (HPMC-AS, Eudragit, PVAP) displayed low affinity with acetone/methanol, suitable for solvent-based spray drying. The water sorption of the polymers was moderate, and the degree of hysteresis of HPMC-AS was smaller than Eudragit and PVAP indicating the intermolecular interaction of water-cellulose molecules is weaker than water-acrylate or water-polyvinyl molecules. The polymer particles were well-suspended without aggregation with a mean particle size less than 3 μm in an aqueous vehicle. When tested in conscious Wistar Han rats in safety pharmacology models (n = 6-8/dose/polymer) investigating effects on CNS, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular function, no liabilities were identified at any dose tested (30-300 mg/kg PO, suspension). In brief, the polymers had no effect in a modified Irwin test that included observational and evoked endpoints related to stereotypies, excitation, sedation, pain/anesthesia, autonomic balance, reflexes, and others. No effect of the polymers on gastric emptying or intestinal transit was observed when measured

  3. Gas expanded polymer process to anneal nanoparticle dispersion in thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Ambuken, Preejith V.; Stretz, Holly A.; Dadmun, Mark; ...

    2015-04-21

    A spin-coating solution comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles used to create organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers have been shown to adopt a non-uniform concentration profile across the thin film dimension. This inhomogeneous distribution can reduce the efficiency of the device. For our new process, gas expanded polymer (GXP) annealing, is applied to P3HT/PCBM thin film blends, enabling the distribution of the PCBM nanoparticles to be manipulated by varying the GXP processing conditions. Films of 50 nm thickness (nominally) created by spin casting a blend of P3HT mixed with PCBM were annealed by oscillatory GXP andmore » GXP at constant pressure using high pressure CO2. An increase in P3HT crystallinity (detected by X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy) along with a more uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles in the thickness dimension, as interpreted from neutron reflectivity measurements, were observed after oscillatory GXP annealing. In addition, static water contact angles suggest that the film/air interface is enriched in PCBM relative to the as-cast film. Finally, these results demonstrate that GXP annealing, which is commercially scalable, can be successfully used to create a uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles across the thickness dimension in a P3HT thin film.« less

  4. Gas expanded polymer process to anneal nanoparticle dispersion in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ambuken, Preejith V.; Stretz, Holly A.; Dadmun, Mark; Michael Kilbey, S.

    2015-04-21

    A spin-coating solution comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles used to create organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers have been shown to adopt a non-uniform concentration profile across the thin film dimension. This inhomogeneous distribution can reduce the efficiency of the device. For our new process, gas expanded polymer (GXP) annealing, is applied to P3HT/PCBM thin film blends, enabling the distribution of the PCBM nanoparticles to be manipulated by varying the GXP processing conditions. Films of 50 nm thickness (nominally) created by spin casting a blend of P3HT mixed with PCBM were annealed by oscillatory GXP and GXP at constant pressure using high pressure CO2. An increase in P3HT crystallinity (detected by X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy) along with a more uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles in the thickness dimension, as interpreted from neutron reflectivity measurements, were observed after oscillatory GXP annealing. In addition, static water contact angles suggest that the film/air interface is enriched in PCBM relative to the as-cast film. Finally, these results demonstrate that GXP annealing, which is commercially scalable, can be successfully used to create a uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles across the thickness dimension in a P3HT thin film.

  5. Improved human bioavailability of vemurafenib, a practically insoluble drug, using an amorphous polymer-stabilized solid dispersion prepared by a solvent-controlled coprecipitation process.

    PubMed

    Shah, Navnit; Iyer, Raman M; Mair, Hans-Juergen; Choi, Duk Soon; Tian, Hung; Diodone, Ralph; Fähnrich, Karsten; Pabst-Ravot, Anni; Tang, Kin; Scheubel, Emmanuel; Grippo, Joseph F; Moreira, Sebastian A; Go, Zenaida; Mouskountakis, James; Louie, Theresa; Ibrahim, Prabha N; Sandhu, Harpreet; Rubia, Linda; Chokshi, Hitesh; Singhal, Dharmendra; Malick, Waseem

    2013-03-01

    The present work deals with improving the solubility of vemurafenib, a practically insoluble drug, by converting it into an amorphous-solid dispersion using a solvent-controlled precipitation process. The dispersion containing vemurafenib and hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), an enteric polymer, is termed microprecipitated bulk powder (MBP), in which the drug is uniformly dispersed within the polymeric substrate. HPMCAS was found to be the most suitable polymer for vemurafenib MBP, among a series of enteric polymers based on superior physical stability and drug-release characteristics of the MBP. The MBP provided a greater rate and extent of dissolution than crystalline drug, reaching an apparent drug concentration of 28-35 µg/mL, almost 30-fold higher than solubility of crystalline drug at 1 µg/mL. The supersaturation was also maintained for more than 4 h. Upon exposure to high temperature and humidity, the MBP was destabilized, resulting in crystallization and lower dissolution rate. The control of moisture and temperature is essential to maintain the stability of the MBP. In a relative human bioavailability study, vemurafenib MBP provided a four- to fivefold increase in exposure compared with crystalline drug. Improving solubility with an amorphous-solid dispersion is a viable strategy for the development of practically insoluble compounds.

  6. Surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle with azobenzene-containing water dispersible polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theamdee, Pawinee; Traiphol, Rakchart; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Wichai, Uthai; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2011-10-01

    We here report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP) grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA)-azobenzene acrylate (ABA) statistical copolymer via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for drug entrapment and photocontrolled release. MNP was synthesized via thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in benzyl alcohol and surface functionalized to obtain ATRP initiating sites. Molar compositions of the copolymer on MNP surface were systematically varied (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, and 50:50 of PEGMA:ABA, respectively) to obtain water dispersible particles with various amounts of azobenzene. The presence of polymeric shell on MNP core was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Drug loading and entrapment efficiencies as well as drug release behavior of the copolymer-MNP complexes were investigated. It was found that when percent of ABA in the copolymers was increased, entrapment and loading efficiencies of prednisolone model drug were enhanced. Releasing rate and percent of the released prednisolone of the complex exposed in UV light were slightly enhanced as compared to the system without UV irradiation. This copolymer-MNP complex with photocontrollable drug release and magnetic field-directed properties is warranted for further studies for potential uses as a novel drug delivery vehicle.

  7. Physical stability of the amorphous state of loperamide and two fragment molecules in solid dispersions with the polymers PVP-K30 and PVP-VA64.

    PubMed

    Weuts, Ilse; Kempen, Dieter; Decorte, Annelies; Verreck, Geert; Peeters, Jef; Brewster, Marcus; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of intermolecular forces on the stability of the amorphous state of loperamide and two of its fragment molecules (4-dimethylamino-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl-butyramide (F1) and 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-piperidinol (F2)) in solid dispersions with PVP-K30 and PVP-VA64. The stability of originally homogeneous and amorphous dispersions was investigated under different storage conditions. The chemical stability of the compounds was evaluated with HPLC. TGA-analysis was used in order to assess the amount of water in the samples, whereas MT-DSC-measurements were performed to investigate changes in the physical state of the compounds caused by the storage procedure. TGA-analysis reveals a higher uptake of water in humid conditions of the dispersions with PVP-K30 in comparison to those with PVP-VA64, hereby reflecting the more hydrophilic nature of the former polymer. This water acts as a plasticizing agent resulting in an increased mobility and decreased glass transition temperature. Since the degree of supersaturation and the molecular mobility have an influence on the stability of the amourphous state, both parameters were assessed. With respect to the degree of supersaturation of the compounds in the dispersions, the materials seem to be very much alike. Therefore it was postulated that the induction of crystallization in the F1/polymer dispersions stored at high RH (52%) is due to higher molecular mobility of this compound in the dispersions in comparison to F2. The hydrogen bonds that are being formed between F2 and the polymers reduce its mobility and secure this compound from crystallization upon storage, thus indicating the importance of specific interactions with respect to stability issues of solid dispersions. No hydrogen bonds are formed between F1 and the polymers. As a result, the stability of the amorphous state of the compound is being compromised and crystallization takes place. Loperamide, that

  8. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  9. Application of X-ray microtomography for the characterisation of hollow polymer-stabilised spray dried amorphous dispersion particles.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F; Terada, Masako; Holzner, Christian; Lavery, Leah; Nicholson, Sarah J; Timmins, Peter; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of X-ray microtomography to obtain information relating to powder characteristics such as wall thickness and solid volume fraction for hollow, polymer-stabilised spray dried dispersion (SDD) particles. SDDs of varying particle properties, with respect to shell wall thickness and degree of particle collapse, were utilised to assess the capability of the approach. The results demonstrate that the approach can provide insight into the morphological characteristics of these hollow particles, and thereby a means to understand/predict the processability and performance characteristics of the bulk material. Quantitative assessments of particle wall thickness, particle/void volume and thereby solid volume fraction were also demonstrated to be achievable. The analysis was also shown to be able to qualitatively assess the impact of the drying rate on the morphological nature of the particle surfaces, thus providing further insight into the final particle shape. The approach demonstrated a practical means to access potentially important particle characteristics for SDD materials which, in addition to the standard bulk powder measurements such as particle size and bulk density, may enable a better understanding of such materials, and their impact on downstream processability and dosage form performance.

  10. NIR-Vis-UV Light-Responsive Actuator Films of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhangxiang; Wang, Tianjie; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Haifeng

    2015-12-16

    To take full advantage of sunlight for photomechanical materials, NIR-vis-UV light-responsive actuator films of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were fabricated. The strategy is based on phase transition of LCs from nematic to isotropic phase induced by combination of photochemical and photothermal processes in the PDLC/GO nanocomposites. Upon mechanical stretching of the film, both topological shape change and mesogenic alignment occurred in the separated LC domains, enabling the film to respond to NIR-vis-UV light. The homodispersed GO flakes act as photoabsorbent and nanoscale heat source to transfer NIR or VIS light into thermal energy, heating the film and photothermally inducing phase transition of LC microdomains. By utilizing photochemical phase transition of LCs upon UV-light irradiation, one azobenzene dye was incorporated into the LC domains, endowing the nanocomposite films with UV-responsive property. Moreover, the light-responsive behaviors can be well-controlled by adjusting the elongation ratio upon mechanical treatment. The NIR-vis-UV light-responsive PDLC/GO nanocomposite films exhibit excellent properties of easy fabrication, low-cost, and good film-forming and mechanical features, promising their numerous applications in the field of soft actuators and optomechanical systems driven directly by sunlight.

  11. Effect of dielectric permittivity on the performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Muhammad A. A.; Khan, Ammar A.; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2016-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a type of organic solar cell often cited for their high efficiency and easy fabrication. Recent studies have shown that modification of the standard liquid electrolyte DSSC architecture by the changing one of the components or the addition of additives often results in the improvement in one of the photovoltaic parameters and hence the overall efficiency. Here we explore a dielectric liquid crystal material which is a known insulator but possesses a high degree of order and optical anisotropy. In the presence of an applied electric field, the equilibrium of positive and negative charges are displaced in opposite directions. In this work, different mixtures with different dielectric anisotropies ranging from negative, zero and positive are formulated. These mixtures are then used to prepare polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolytes and subsequently DSSC devices based on these PDLC electrolytes are fabricated. The morphology of the PDLC is observed through polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and the electrical/photovoltaic characterizations are performed through current density-voltage (J-V) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  12. Silicon-carbon composite dispersed in a carbon paper substrate for solid polymer lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Q.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Horiba, T.; Yamamoto, O.; Takeda, Y.; Seki, N.; Imanishi, N.

    2014-02-01

    Carbon coated silicon (Si/C) dispersed in a carbon paper (CP) was examined as the anode for solid polymer lithium-ion batteries. The CP was prepared by pyrolysis of poly(acrylonitrile) fiber and Manila hemp non-woven cloth at 2600 °C under an inert atmosphere. The Si/C composite was formed by pyrolysis of a slurry consisting of Si power and a solution of polyvinyl chloride in tetrahydrofuran as the carbon source. Si/C:CP with a weight ratio of 20:100 had a high initial capacity of 980 mAh g-1 of Si/C and a high initial columbic efficiency of 77%, and also exhibited excellent capacity retention with a reversible capacity of 710 mAh g-1 of Si/C even after 250 cycles at a charge and discharge rate of 0.1 A g-1. The carbon fiber framework in the carbon paper could adsorb the volume change of Si during the lithium insertion and stripping processes.

  13. Influence of polymer molecular weight on in vitro dissolution behavior and in vivo performance of celecoxib:PVP amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Nguyen, Julia Hoang; Becker, Christian; Francke, Nadine Monika; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, Per; Holm, René; Mu, Huiling; Rades, Thomas; Langguth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the molecular weight of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the non-sink in vitro dissolution and in vivo performance of celecoxib (CCX):PVP amorphous solid dispersions were investigated. The dissolution rate of CCX from the amorphous solid dispersions increased with decreasing PVP molecular weight and crystallization inhibition was increased with increasing molecular weight of PVP, but reached a maximum for PVP K30. This suggested that the crystallization inhibition was not proportional with molecular weight of the polymer, but rather there was an optimal molecular weight where the crystallization inhibition was strongest. Consistent with the findings from the non-sink in vitro dissolution tests, the amorphous solid dispersions with the highest molecular weight PVPs (K30 and K60) resulted in significantly higher in vivo bioavailability (AUC0-24h) compared with pure amorphous and crystalline CCX. A linear relationship between the in vitro and in vivo parameter AUC0-24h indicated that the simple non-sink in vitro dissolution method used in this study could be used to predict the in vivo performance of amorphous solid dispersion with good precision, which enabled a ranking between the different formulations. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that the in vitro and in vivo performance of CCX:PVP amorphous solid dispersions were significantly controlled by the molecular weight of the polymer.

  14. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  15. Studies on the relation between the size and dispersion of metallic silver nanoparticles and morphologies of initial silver(I) coordination polymer precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Zhaleh; Akhbari, Kamran; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Costantino, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    Micro and nano-structures of [Ag2(μ2-dcpa)2]n (1), [Hdcpa = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid] which is a one-dimensional coordination polymer with corrugated tape chains, were synthesized as the bulk sample (1B), by sonochemical process (1S) and from mechanochemical reaction (1M). These three samples have been used as new precursors for fabricating silver nanoparticles via direct calcination at 300 °C and also thermal decomposition in oleic acid (OA) as a surfactant at 180 °C. In the presence of OA less agglomerated nanostructures were formed. It seems that the size, dispersion, morphology and agglomeration of initial precursor have direct influence on size, dispersion, morphology and agglomeration of metallic silver. This coordination polymer with various micro and nano morphologies were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal stability of these samples were studied and compared with each other, too.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer on a SiO2 -coated graphene oxide surface for the fast and selective dispersive solid-phase extraction of Carbamazepine from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Faezeh; Ahmadian, Setareh

    2016-04-01

    A surface carbamazepine-imprinted polymer was grafted and synthesized on the SiO2 /graphene oxide surface. Firstly SiO2 was coated on synthesized graphene oxide sheet using the sol-gel technique. Prior to polymerization, the vinyl group was incorporated on to the surface of SiO2 /graphene oxide to direct selective polymerization on the surface. Methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and ethanol were used as monomer, cross-linker and porogen, respectively. Nonimprinted polymer was also prepared for comparison. The properties of the molecularly imprinted polymer were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer was utilized as an adsorbent of dispersive solid-phase extraction for separation and preconcentration of carbamazepine. The effects of the different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as sample pH were investigated and optimized. The specificity of the molecular imprinted polymer over the nonimprinted polymer was examined in absence and presence of competitive drugs. The carbamazepine calibration curve showed linearity in the ranges 0.5-500 μg/L. The limits of detection and quantification under the optimized conditions were 0.1 and 0.3 μg/L, respectively. The within-day and between-day relative standard deviations (n = 3) were 3.6 and 4.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the relative recoveries for spiked biological samples were above 85%.

  17. Preparation of carbamazepine-Soluplus solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion, and prediction of drug-polymer miscibility by thermodynamic model fitting.

    PubMed

    Djuris, Jelena; Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Ibric, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos

    2013-05-01

    Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is a dust- and solvent-free continuous process enabling the preparation of a variety of solid dosage forms containing solid dispersions of poorly soluble drugs into thermoplastic polymers. Miscibility of drug and polymer is a prerequisite for stable solid dispersion formation. The present study investigates the feasibility of forming solid dispersions of carbamazepine (CBZ) into polyethyleneglycol-polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate grafted copolymer (Soluplus) by hot-melt extrusion. Physicochemical properties of the raw materials, extrudates, co-melted products, and corresponding physical mixtures were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and hot stage microscopy (HSM), while miscibility of CBZ and Soluplus was estimated on the basis of the Flory-Huggins theory, Hansen solubility parameters, and solid-liquid equilibrium equation. It was found that hot-melt extrusion of carbamazepine and Soluplus is feasible on a single-screw hot-melt extruder without the addition of plasticizers. DSC analysis and FTIR spectroscopy revealed that a molecular dispersion is formed when the content of CBZ does not exceed ∼5% w/w while higher CBZ content results in a microcrystalline dispersion of CBZ form III crystals, with the molecularly dispersed percentage increasing with extrusion temperature, at the risk of inducing transformation to the undesirable form I of CBZ. Thermodynamic modeling elucidated potential limitations and temperature dependence of solubility/dispersibility of carbamazepine in Soluplus hot-melt extrudates. The results obtained by thermodynamic models are in agreement with the findings of the HME processing, encouraging therefore their further application in the HME process development.

  18. Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cholho; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2013-11-25

    A simple and efficient method to fabricate light extraction layers is demonstrated by utilizing the phase separation of two polymer blends to enhance the light out-coupling efficiency of OLEDs with low haze. Polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran are mixed and spin-coated over ITO-coated glass substrates. Nanopores and nanopillar arrays are formed through lateral phase separation of the polymer blend. The shape, size, and distribution of the patterns can be controlled through changes in the composition and thickness of the coated polymer blends. Phosphorescent OLEDs are fabricated using randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays as light extraction layers and they show a 24% enhancement in external quantum efficiency with a Lambertian emission pattern, no spectrum dependence on viewing angles, and only a small increment in the haze. With these advantages, this newly developed method can be adapted to be used for large-area, flexible substrates for lighting and display applications.

  19. Holographic recording materials development. [using stilbene, indigo, and thioindigo derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The area of organic cis-trans photoisomerization systems for holographic memory applications was examined. Photochemical studies were made of stilbene, indigo, and thioindigo derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials, to optimize the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. Lithium niobate was used to study the writing and reading efficiencies of thick phase holograms. Both phase-wave holograms and Fourier-transform holograms were employed, and a number of reconstruction techniques are discussed. The possibility of using cis-trans photoisomerization of appropriate organic chemicals as the basis for a holographic recording system is confirmed.

  20. Integration of holographic optical elements with polymer gelatin waveguides on GaAs, LiNbO(3), glass, and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Chen, R T; Phillips, W; Jannson, T; Pelka, D

    1989-08-15

    We have observed waveguiding in thin films of polymer gelatin on GaAs, LiNbO(3), glass, and aluminum substrates. A graded-index profile can be induced in the gelatin layer and tuned by wet processing. This makes it possible to form waveguides on any smooth surface. Locally sensitizing the gelatin waveguide with ammonium dichromate allows us to integrate single and multiplexed gratings on the same substrate to perform various functions for optical interconnects and signal processing. A waveguide grating coupler that converts free-space TEM(00) laser light to a two-dimensional spherical guided wave with 50 degrees angle of divergence has also been demonstrated. An optical clock distribution network on wafer-scale integrated circuits is feasible with this new technology.

  1. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1998-01-01

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.

  2. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-03-17

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

  3. Holographic Optical Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optical path from HOE to focal point can be made (ie same for both rays. We do this for a thin lens; in reality, the condition is obtained by ray...I2 RADC-TR-90-200 Final Technical Report September 1990 uric FILE COPY HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD Holometrix, Inc. P. Gregory DeBaryshe, Charles S. th...aa w 1. REPOA ATE 3. Reoa"rm AND DAS C September 1990 Final Aug 88 - May 90 4. TME AND hTME s. FUMO NUMBERS HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD C - F30602-88-C

  4. Precision Holographic Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Piljin

    2011-10-21

    We overview a holographic QCD based on the D4-D8 string theory model, with emphasis on baryons and nucleon-meson interactions thereof. Baryons are realized as holographic images of Skyrmions, but with much qualitative changes. This allows us to derive, without adjustable parameters, couplings of baryons to the entire tower of spin one mesons and also to pseudoscalar mesons. We find some surprisingly good match against empirical values for nucleons, in particular. Tensor couplings to all axial-vectors and iso-singlet vectors all vanish, while, for {rho} mesons, tensor couplings are found to be dominant. We close with various cautionary comments and speculations.

  5. Silicon oxide nanoparticles doped PQ-PMMA for volume holographic imaging filters.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Russo, Juan M; Kostuk, Raymond K; Barbastathis, George

    2010-04-15

    Holographic imaging filters are required to have high Bragg selectivity, namely, narrow angular and spectral bandwidth, to obtain spatial-spectral information within a three-dimensional object. In this Letter, we present the design of holographic imaging filters formed using silicon oxide nanoparticles (nano-SiO(2)) in phenanthrenquinone-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) polymer recording material. This combination offers greater Bragg selectivity and increases the diffraction efficiency of holographic filters. The holographic filters with optimized ratio of nano-SiO(2) in PQ-PMMA can significantly improve the performance of Bragg selectivity and diffraction efficiency by 53% and 16%, respectively. We present experimental results and data analysis demonstrating this technique in use for holographic spatial-spectral imaging filters.

  6. Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

    SciTech Connect

    Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T; Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V

    2010-02-28

    The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L{sup -1}). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Holographic renormalization and supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2017-02-01

    Holographic renormalization is a systematic procedure for regulating divergences in observables in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. For dual boundary field theories which are supersymmetric it is natural to ask whether this defines a supersymmetric renormalization scheme. Recent results in localization have brought this question into sharp focus: rigid supersymmetry on a curved boundary requires specific geometric structures, and general arguments imply that BPS observables, such as the partition function, are invariant under certain deformations of these structures. One can then ask if the dual holographic observables are similarly invariant. We study this question in minimal N = 2 gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. In four dimensions we show that holographic renormalization precisely reproduces the expected field theory results. In five dimensions we find that no choice of standard holographic counterterms is compatible with supersymmetry, which leads us to introduce novel finite boundary terms. For a class of solutions satisfying certain topological assumptions we provide some independent tests of these new boundary terms, in particular showing that they reproduce the expected VEVs of conserved charges.

  8. Holographic Dark Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    In this article we consider the cosmological model based on the holographic dark energy. We study dark energy density in Universe with arbitrary spatially curvature described by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We use Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization to specify dark energy density.

  9. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  10. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGES

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; ...

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  11. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  12. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for the measurement of temperature and concentration in various crystal growth experiments destined for space. The method measures refractive index changes in the experiment test cell. A refractive index change can be caused by concentration changes, temperature changes, or a combination of temperature and concentration changes. If the refractive index changes are caused by temperature and concentration changes occurring simultaneously in the experiment test cell, the contributions by the two effects cannot be separated by conventional measurement methods. By using two wavelengths, two independent interferograms can be produced from the reconstruction of the hologram. The two interferograms will be different due to dispersion properties of fluid materials. These differences provide the additional information that allows the separation of simultaneously occurring temperature and concentration gradients. There is no other technique available that can provide this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort are to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. To achieve these objectives, the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique must be determined for geometry's and materials that are relevant to the Materials Processing in the Space program of NASA. This will be achieved through the use of a specially designed two-color holographic interferometry breadboard optical system. In addition to experiments to achieve the primary goals, the breadboard will also provide inputs to the design of an optimum space flight system.

  13. Holographic recording materials development. [development of cis-trans isomerization for holographic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Developments in the area of organic cis-trans isomerization systems for holographic memory applications are reported. The chemical research effort consisted of photochemical studies leading to the selection of a stilbene derivative and a polymer matrix system which have greatly improved refractive index differences between the cis and trans isomers as well as demonstrated efficiency of the photoisomerization process. In work on lithium niobate effects of sample stoichiometry and of read and write beam polarizations on recording efficiency were investigated. LiNbO3 was used for a study of angular sensitivity and of capability for simultaneous recording of extended objects without interference. The current status of LiNbO3 as a holographic recording material is summarized.

  14. Holographic elements and holographic techniques used in photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, Gerald L.; Speer, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    Since the invention of holography in 1948, most of the attention has been focused on holographic 3 dimensional images and displays. This new 3D technology generated a lot of attention in the 70's through the 90's. The work that was being done for manipulating light other than 3D imaging and displays was not as well known. This paper discusses how holographic elements and holographic interference techniques are now being used in the Photonics industry.

  15. Evaluation of drug load and polymer by using a 96-well plate vacuum dry system for amorphous solid dispersion drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Ran, Yingqing; Chou, Kang-Jye; Cui, Yong; Sambrone, Amy; Chan, Connie; Hart, Ryan

    2012-06-01

    It is well recognized that poor dissolution rate and solubility of drug candidates are key limiting factors for oral bioavailability. While numerous technologies have been developed to enhance solubility of the drug candidates, poor water solubility continuously remains a challenge for drug delivery. Among those technologies, amorphous solid dispersions (SD) have been successfully employed to enhance both dissolution rate and solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. This research reports a high-throughput screening technology developed by utilizing a 96-well plate system to identify optimal drug load and polymer using a solvent casting approach. A minimal amount of drug was required to evaluate optimal drug load in three different polymers with respect to solubility improvement and solid-state stability of the amorphous drug-polymer system. Validation of this method was demonstrated with three marketed drugs as well as with one internal compound. Scale up of the internal compound SD by spray drying further confirmed the validity of this method, and its quality was comparable to a larger scale process. Here, we demonstrate that our system is highly efficient, cost-effective, and robust to evaluate the feasibility of spray drying technology to produce amorphous solid dispersions.

  16. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  17. Constraints on holographic cosmologies from strong lensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Bonilla, Alexander; Motta, Verónica; Campo, Sergio del E-mail: alex.bonilla@uv.cl E-mail: sdelcamp@ucv.cl

    2013-11-01

    We use strongly gravitationally lensed (SGL) systems to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. Data available in the literature (redshift and velocity dispersion) is used to obtain the Einstein radius and compare it with model predictions. We found that the ΛCDM is the best fit to the data. Although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that two of the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, a stringent test lead us to the result that neither of the holographic models are competitive with the ΛCDM. These results highlight the importance of Strong Lensing measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to shed some light into the dark universe.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for coenzyme Q10 dispersive micro solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Contin, Mario; Bonelli, Pablo; Lucangioli, Silvia; Cukierman, Ana; Tripodi, Valeria

    2016-07-22

    Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPNPs) with the ability to recognize coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were synthesised in order to be employed as sorbent in a dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for the determination of CoQ10 in a liver extract. CoQ10 is a redox-active, lipophilic substance integrated in the mitochondrial respiratory chain which acts as an electron carrier, shuttling electrons from complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) to complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), for the production of cellular energy. The MIPNPs were synthesised by precipitation polymerization using coenzyme Q0 as the dummy template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, an acetonitrile: water mixture as the porogen, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and potassium persulfate as initiator. The nanoparticles were characterized by microscopy, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and infrared spectroscopy. The MIPNPs demonstrated the presence of selective cavities complementary to the quinone nucleus of CoQ10, leading to a specific recognition of CoQ10 compared with related compounds. In the liver extract the relative CoQ10 peak area (CoQ10 area/total peak area) increased from 4.6% to 25.4% after the DMSPE procedure. The recovery percentage of CoQ10 from the liver matrix was between 70.5% and 83.7% quantified against CoQ10 standard processed under the same conditions. The DMSPE procedure allows the elution of almost all the CoQ10 retained (99.4%) in a small volume (200μL), allowing the sample to be concentrated 2.5 times (LOD: 1.1μgg(-1) and LOQ: 3.7μgg(-1) of tissue). The resulted clean up of the sample, the improvement in peak shape and baseline and the reduction of interferences, evidence that the MIPNPs could potentially be applied as sorbent in a DMSPE with satisfactory results and with a minimum amount of sorbent (1mg).

  19. Electrochemistry in Colloids and Dispersions. Volume 1. Electroanalytical Methods and Applications, Electrosynthesis and Electrocatalysis, Polymers and Latexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-04

    Volume I ELECTROANALY1ICAL METHODS AND APPLICATIONS ELECTROSYNTHESIS AND ELECTROCATALYSIS POLYMERS AND LATEXES This document hias been approved for...distribution, diffusion, and transport, electrosynthesis and electrocatalysis , polymers and latexes, and colloidal metals and semiconductors. 3 This report... ELECTROCATALYSIS 6. Electrochemical catalysis in surfactant mediaI James F. Rusling, Naifei Hu, Heping Zhang, David Howe, Chang-ling Miaw, and Eric Couture

  20. Intelligent holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  1. The use of polymer-based electrospun nanofibers containing amorphous drug dispersions for the delivery of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brewster, M E; Verreck, G; Chun, I; Rosenblatt, J; Mensch, J; Van Dijck, A; Noppe, M; Ariën, A; Bruining, M; Peeters, J

    2004-05-01

    Electrostatic spinning was applied to the preparation of drug-laden nanofiber for potential use in oral and topical drug delivery. While this technique is in its infancy with regard to pharmaceutical applications, a number of recent publications suggest that it may be of high value in the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining nanotechnology and solid solution/dispersion methodologies. The purpose of this article is to describe some of these recently published applications. For immediate release oral application, a water-soluble cellulose polymer was selected (i.e., hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) while for topical application, a nonbiodegradable, water-insoluble polymer was investigated (i.e., a segmented polyurethane, SPU). Solutions of the polymer and the drugs in appropriate solvents could be spun across various potentials (16-24 kV) generating nanofibers with diameters ranging from 300 to 2000 nm. Dissolution studies found that the non-woven fabrics derived from HPMC and containing itraconazole dissolved over a time course of minutes to hours depending on the formulation used as well as the drug/polymer ratios. Drug release from the SPU samples was dependent on the incorporated drug as well as nanostructure obtained.

  2. Supersaturation, nucleation, and crystal growth during single- and biphasic dissolution of amorphous solid dispersions: polymer effects and implications for oral bioavailability enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ashish L; Wang, Peng; Obara, Sakae; Worthen, David R

    2014-04-01

    The influence of polymers on the dissolution, supersaturation, crystallization, and partitioning of poorly water soluble compounds in biphasic media was evaluated. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) containing felodipine (FLD) and itraconazole (ITZ) were prepared by hot melt mixing (HMM) using various polymers. The ASDs were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and HPLC. Amorphous drug conversion was confirmed using DSC and PXRD, and drug stability by HPLC. Single- and biphasic dissolution studies of the ASDs with concurrent dynamic light scattering (DLS) and polarized light microscopic (PLM) analysis of precipitated drugs were performed. HPLC revealed no HMM-induced drug degradation. Maximum partitioning into the organic phase was dependent upon the degree of supersaturation. Although the highest supersaturation of FLD was attained using Eudragit® EPO and AQOAT® AS-LF with better nucleation and crystal growth inhibition using the latter, higher partitioning of the drug into the organic phase was achieved using Pharmacoat® 603 and Kollidon® VA-64 by maintaining supersaturation below critical nucleation. Critical supersaturation for ITZ was surpassed using all of the polymers, and partitioning was dependent upon nucleation and crystal growth inhibition in the order of Pharmacoat® 603>Eudragit® L-100-55>AQOAT® AS-LF. HMM drug-polymer systems that prevent drug nucleation by staying below critical supersaturation are more effective for partitioning than those that achieve the highest supersaturation.

  3. Electro-optical response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal single layers of large nematic droplets oriented by rubbed teflon nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.; Marino, S.; Versace, C.; Scaramuzza, N.

    2013-02-01

    The surface orienting effect of rubbed teflon nanolayers on the morphology and electro-optical (EO) response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) single layers of large nematic droplets was studied experimentally. In PDLC composites of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and NOA65 polymer, single droplets of LC with diameters as larger as 10 μm were confined in layers with a thickness of 10 μm, and the nematic director field was efficiently modified by nanostructuring teflon rubbing of the glass plates of the PDLC cell. For layered PDLCs arranged and oriented in this way, the modulated EO response by the dielectric oscillations of the nematic director exhibits a selective amplitude-frequency modulation controllable by both temperature and voltage applied, and is simply related to the LC droplet size. That may be of practical interest for PDLC-based modulators operating in the infrasound frequency range.

  4. Holographic telescope arrays.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Sauer, F

    1988-07-15

    A typical job in optical computing is to illuminate an array of small nonlinear optical components, separated by wide gaps to avoid crosstalk. We do this by letting a wide uniform beam fall onto a densely packed array of minifying telescopes. Each telescope produces a narrow bundle of parallel rays which illuminates one of the nonlinear optical components. The holographic telescopes can do more than change the width of the bundles of parallel rays. Their image forming capability allows the transmission of many pixels per channel in parallel. The pair of lenslets of a single holographic telescope (Kepler or Galilean) is produced in rigid coupling. The monolithic production avoids adjusting the two lenslets later on.

  5. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-11-01

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  6. Holographic Optical Coherence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, David D.; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John; French, Paul M. W.

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of holographic OCI. It begins with a description of off-axis holography as spatial heterodyne detection and continues with the origin and role of speckle in multichannel illumination of tissue. Image-domain holography (IDH) and Fourier-domain holography (FDH) are described. Holography in the Fourier domain has the capability for phase-contrast imaging that can acquire small sub-wavelength displacements despite long coherence length. The trade-offs between photorefractive and digital holography are discussed. The chief biological target is multicellular spheroids, specifically rat osteogenic sarcomas that are grown in vitro. After describing the physiological and optical properties of these spheroids, results from holographic OCI are presented using both photorefractive and digital holography.

  7. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  8. Baryons in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-01

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8¯ multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8¯ holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and ρ mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large Nc, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and ρ-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the ρ-meson profile G˜(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without ρ mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and ρ mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant ρ-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  9. Baryons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-15

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  10. Holographic phase transition in a noncritical holographic model

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Shengliang; Gao Yihong; Xu Weishui

    2010-01-15

    We consider a holographic model constructed from the intersecting brane configuration D4-D4/D4 in noncritical string theory. We study the chiral phase diagram of this holographic QCD-like model with a finite baryon chemical potential through the supergravity dual approximation.

  11. Understanding the roles of nanoparticle dispersion and polymer crystallinity in controlling the mechanical properties of HA/PHBV nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Noohom, Wadcharawadee; Jack, Kevin S; Martin, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2009-02-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles stabilized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a dispersing agent, and sonic energy to further increase dispersion, were blended with poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) using a precipitation/gelation method to produce HA/PHBV nanocomposites with up to 16% by weight of HA content. The level of HA nanoparticle dispersion was monitored in the precursor dispersions prior to composite production and in the nanocomposites by a range of techniques including visual observation, turbidity measurements and electron microscopy, and the roles of the dispersing agent and the sonic energy in controlling the dispersion of HA particles in both the precursor dispersions and the final composites as well as their effects on the compressive strength and Young's modulus were investigated. It was found that HA suspensions treated with both PAA and sonic energy possessed significantly better colloidal stability compared to untreated suspensions or suspensions treated with either PAA or sonic energy. This, in turn, resulted in better dispersion of HA nanoparticles in the composites and higher compressive moduli as a function of the particle loading. This enhancement in stiffness of the composites was attributed primarily to the increased surface area of the HA filler in the more highly dispersed samples, but also to an observed increase in the crystalline content achievable after annealing of the samples. It is proposed that this increase in crystallinity is due to the more highly dispersed particles acting as nucleation sites for the crystallization of the PHBV at the particle interface, which, in turn, leads to enhancement of the bonding between the matrix and filler.

  12. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  14. Astronomical telescope with holographic primary objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Content, David A.

    2011-09-01

    A dual dispersion telescope with a plane grating primary objective was previously disclosed that can overcome intrinsic chromatic aberration of dispersive optics while allowing for unprecedented features such as million object spectroscopy, extraordinary étendue, flat primary objective with a relaxed figure tolerance, gossamer membrane substrate stowable as an unsegmented roll inside a delivery vehicle, and extensibility past 100 meter aperture at optical wavelengths. The novel design meets many criteria for space deployment. Other embodiments are suitable for airborne platforms as well as terrestrial and lunar sites. One problem with this novel telescope is that the grazing exodus configuration necessary to achieve a large aperture is traded for throughput efficiency. Now we show how the hologram of a point source used in place of the primary objective plane grating can improve efficiency by lowering the diffraction angle below grazing exodus. An intermediate refractive element is used to compensate for wavelength dependent focal lengths of the holographic primary objective.

  15. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.

  16. Holographic Baryons and Instanton Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Melnikov, Dmitry; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    In a wide class of holographic models, like the one proposed by Sakai and Sugimoto, baryons can be approximated by instantons of non-abelian gauge fields that live on the world-volume of flavor D-branes. In the leading order, those are just the Yang-Mills instantons, whose solutions can be constructed from the celebrated ADHM construction. This fact can be used to study various properties of baryons in the holographic limit. In particular, one can attempt to construct a holographic description of the cold dense nuclear matter phase of baryons. It can be argued that holographic baryons in such a regime are necessarily in a solid crystalline phase. In this review we summarize the known results on the construction and phases of crystals of the holographic baryons.

  17. Passive approach for the improved dispersion of polyvinyl alcohol-based functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Abu Sayeed, M D; Talukdar, Krishan; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Younjin; Gopalan, A I; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Choi, Sang-June

    2014-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are regarded as ideal fillers for Nafion polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for fuel cell applications. The highly aggregated properties of MWCNTs can be overcome by the successful cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the MWCNTs/Nafion membrane. In this study, a series of nanocomposite membranes were fabricated with the PVA-influenced functionalized MWCNTs reinforced into the Nafion polymer matrix by a solution casting method. Several different PVA contents were blended to f-MWCNTs/Nafion nanocomposite membranes followed by successful cross-linking by annealing. The surface morphologies and the inner structures of the resulting PVA-MWCNTs/Nafion nanocomposite membranes were then observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the dispersion of MWCNTs into the PVA/Nafion composite membranes. After that, the nanocomposite membranes were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to observe the thermal enhancement caused by effective cross-linking between the f-MWCNTs with the composite polymer matrixes. Improved water uptake with reduced methanol uptake revealed the successful fabrication of PVA-blended f-MWCNTs/Nafion membranes. In addition, the ion exchange capacity (IEC) was evaluated for PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) applications.

  18. Holographic charge oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis; Tong, David

    2015-04-01

    The Reissner-Nordström black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law.

  19. Holographic Model of Hadronization

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.

  20. Holographic model of hadronization.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.

  1. Biopolymer holographic diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić Šević, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan

    2008-03-01

    Surface-relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in dextran sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCD). DCD was exposed with single-frequency 200 mW diode pumped ND-YAG laser, at 532 nm. The diffraction grating profiles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that different surface profiles could be obtained. Gratings with 330 lines/mm spatial frequencies were made. Existence of higher harmonics in Fourier Transform of non-sinusoidal profiles shows that DCD is capable of recording spatial frequencies up to 1320 lines/mm (four times fundamental frequency). The measured maximum relief depth of the DCD grating is 402 nm.

  2. Holographic charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  3. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    SciTech Connect

    Romashko, R V; Kulchin, Yu N; Bezruk, M N; Ermolaev, S A

    2016-03-31

    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa{sup -1} in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz. (laser hydrophones)

  4. Holographic magnetic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2009-09-15

    We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.

  5. An investigation into the use of polymer blends to improve the printability of and regulate drug release from pharmaceutical solid dispersions prepared via fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2016-11-01

    FDM 3D printing has been recently attracted increasing research efforts towards the production of personalized solid oral formulations. However, commercially available FDM printers are extremely limited with regards to the materials that can be processed to few types of thermoplastic polymers, which often may not be pharmaceutically approved materials nor ideal for optimizing dosage form performance of poor soluble compounds. This study explored the use of polymer blends as a formulation strategy to overcome this processability issue and to provide adjustable drug release rates from the printed dispersions. Solid dispersions of felodipine, the model drug, were successfully fabricated using FDM 3D printing with polymer blends of PEG, PEO and Tween 80 with either Eudragit E PO or Soluplus. As PVA is one of most widely used polymers in FDM 3D printing, a PVA based solid dispersion was used as a benchmark to compare the polymer blend systems to in terms of processability. The polymer blends exhibited excellent printability and were suitable for processing using a commercially available FDM 3D printer. With 10% drug loading, all characterization data indicated that the model drug was molecularly dispersed in the matrices. During in vitro dissolution testing, it was clear that the disintegration behavior of the formulations significantly influenced the rates of drug release. Eudragit EPO based blend dispersions showed bulk disintegration; whereas the Soluplus based blends showed the 'peeling' style disintegration of strip-by-strip. The results indicated that interplay of the miscibility between excipients in the blends, the solubility of the materials in the dissolution media and the degree of fusion between the printed strips during FDM process can be used to manipulate the drug release rate of the dispersions. This brings new insight into the design principles of controlled release formulations using FDM 3D printing.

  6. A wideband sensitive holographic photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingju; Wang, Sulian; Wang, Airong; Gong, Qiaoxia; Gan, Fuxi

    2005-05-01

    A novel wideband sensitive dry holographic photopolymer sensitized by rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) is fabricated, the holographic storage characteristics of which are investigated under different exposure wavelengths. The result shows that the sensitive spectral band exceeds 200 nm in visible light range, the maximum diffraction efficiency under different exposure wavelengths is more than 40% and decreases with the decrease of exposure wavelength, the exposure sensitivity is not change with the exposure wavelength. This photopolymer is appropriate for wavelength multiplexing or multi-wavelength recording in digital holographic storage.

  7. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  8. Engineering holographic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2012-09-24

    We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.

  9. Holographic interferometry with the compact arrowhead holographic setup.

    PubMed

    Ladera, Celso L

    2010-05-15

    A symmetric off-axis holographic setup, shaped as an arrowhead, which requires neither a collimator nor a beam splitter, is presented. It is applied to measure small perpendicular-to-surface displacements and deformations and the magnetostriction of a body by holographic interferometry. It offers advantages such as implicit fulfilment of several hologram recording conditions, possible use of short coherence length light sources, low-cost, and significant immunity against mechanical perturbations.

  10. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life.

  11. Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we consider holographic Ricci dark energy model, and by using general relativity equations obtain time-dependent density of the Universe. We show that the resulting density in independent of space curvature.

  12. Adventures in holographic dimer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  13. Archiving Saudi heritage using the holographic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althagafi, A.; Richardson, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of the Yuri Nikolaevich DENISYUK holographic recording process to document, archive and display Saudi heritage. The goal of this research is to develop a technique of archiving heritage by using a high-tech holographic process to capture a three-dimensional presentation of ancient jewelry artifacts of the Saudi Heritage in particular. This study concentrates on five particular items of handmade authentic ancient metal jewelry from different parts of Saudi Arabia. When conducting this research experiments were conducted using both red-green sensitive plates sensitive to 633 nm and 532 nm respectively. Material thickness ranged between 1.5 and 3 millimeters were used, consequently in the dark room, varied chemicals for developing the holograms were employed. Red and green laser devices were also used with exposure times between 8 to 18 seconds of laser light dispersion through diffused surfaces in reflection holography. The outcome in each case was varied. The holograms captured the jewelry pieces with all the engravings and minute details, thus archiving the Saudi Heritage of that time. What makes holograms a revolutionary method for presenting valuable and/or ancient artifacts is the fact that they offer a more practical and convenient solution to travel around the world than displaying the originals items. Thus, museum visitors can enjoy and appreciate the precious artifacts otherwise unseen and lost without holography.

  14. Long Holographic Lifetimes in Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Smithey, Daniel T.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Crew, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The D85N genetic variant of bacteriorhodopsin displays a nearly permanent lifetime of the photochromic P490 state. We present pump-probe measurements that demonstrate this behavior. However, experimental diffraction efficiency measurements made from holograms recorded in a hydrated D85N film show markedly different decay behavior, suggesting a molecular diffusion process occurring in the film. Holograms recorded with different grating frequencies display correspondingly different decay times which support this hypothesis. A thin D85N film was then fabricated which was chemically crosslinked, resulting in the elimination of diffusion of BR molecules within the polymer matrix. This film exhibits a grating lifetime on the order of weeks or more, thus allowing the long term holographic storage of information in a BR film.

  15. Hyperspectral holographic Fourier-microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalenkov, G S; Kalenkov, S G; Shtan'ko, A E

    2015-04-30

    A detailed theory of the method of holographic recording of hyperspectral wave fields is developed. New experimentally obtained hyperspectral holographic images of microscopic objects are presented. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally using the examples of urgent microscopy problems: speckle noise suppression, obtaining hyperspectral image of a microscopic object, as well as synthesis of a colour image and obtaining an optical profile of a phase object. (holography)

  16. Combined Holographic Infrared Inspection Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    wavefronts, an object beam and a refererce beam, cn a suitable recording material, such as a photog"".phic film . V, hen properly illuminated by the...methods for fringe control 14 and improved methods for processing holograms in place using better film methods and/or thermoplastic recording techniques...Inc. Holomatic 8000 phased-locked holographic interferometry system. The Holomatic 8000 records the reference hologram on 35mm holographic film which is

  17. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  18. Ferromagnetic resonance and ac conductivity of a polymer composite of Fe3O4 and Fe3C nanoparticles dispersed in a graphite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, N.; Anagnostakis, E. A.; Likodimos, V.; Bodziony, T.; Typek, J.; Maryniak, M.; Narkiewicz, U.; Kucharewicz, I.; Waplak, S.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and ac conductivity have been applied to study a polymer composite containing as filler a binary mixture of magnetite (Fe3O4) and cementite (Fe3C) nanoparticles (30-50nm) dispersed in a diamagnetic carbon matrix, which was synthesized by the carburization of nanocrystalline iron. Ac conductivity measurements showed thermally activated behavior involving a range of activation energies and power law frequency dependence at high frequencies similar to conducting polymer composites randomly filled with metal particles. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements revealed a relatively narrow FMR line at high temperatures indicating the presence of ferromagnetic nanoparticles, where thermal fluctuations and interparticle interactions determine the FMR temperature variation. An abrupt change of the FMR spectra was observed at T <81K (ΔT⩽1K) coinciding with a sharp anomaly resolved in the temperature derivative of the ac conductivity. This behavior is attributed to the Verwey transition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, where the concurrent skin depth variation unveils the FMR of large magnetite conglomerates and thus allows discriminating their contribution from relatively isolated nanoparticles.

  19. Losing forward momentum holographically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Koushik; Herzog, Christopher P.

    2014-06-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving Einstein’s Equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and an event horizon with planar topology. Our scheme allows for the introduction of a particular metric source at the conformal boundary. Such a spacetime has a dual holographic description in terms of a strongly interacting quantum field theory at nonzero temperature. By introducing a sinusoidal static metric source that breaks translation invariance, we study momentum relaxation in the field theory. In the long wavelength limit, our results are consistent with the fluid-gravity correspondence and relativistic hydrodynamics. In the small amplitude limit, our results are consistent with the memory function prediction for the momentum relaxation rate. Our numerical scheme allows us to study momentum relaxation outside these two limits as well.

  20. Striped holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico; Papanikolaou, Stefanos

    2011-03-15

    We study inhomogeneous solutions of a 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. Our results provide a holographic model of superconductivity in the presence of a charge density wave sourced by a modulated chemical potential. We find that below a critical temperature T{sub c} superconducting stripes develop. We show that they are thermodynamically favored over the normal state by computing the grand canonical potential. We investigate the dependence of T{sub c} on the modulation's wave vector, which characterizes the inhomogeneity. We find that it is qualitatively similar to that expected for a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer theory, but we point out a quantitative difference. Finally, we use our solutions to compute the conductivity along the direction of the stripes.

  1. Holographic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  2. Stability of holographic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2010-10-15

    We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

  3. Stability of holographic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2010-10-01

    We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

  4. Enhanced Efficiency of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Dehydrated Nanotube Titanic Acid in the Hole-buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Xu, Z.; Teng, F.; Duan, X.-X.; Jin, Z.-S.; Du, Z.-L.; Li, F.-S.; Zheng, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-S.

    2007-06-01

    Efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)- p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an emitting layer was improved if a dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) doped hole-buffer layer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) was used. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra indicated a stronger interaction between DNTA and sulfur atom in thiophene of PEDOT, which suppresses the chemical interaction between vinylene of MEH-PPV and thiophene of PEDOT. The interaction decreases the defect states in an interface region to result in enhancement in device efficiency, even though the hole transporting ability of PEDOT was decreased.

  5. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  6. Holographic recording medium employing a photoconductive layer and a low molecular weight microcrystalline polymeric layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  7. Liquid crystal composites doped with inorganic nanoparticles for recording of polarization holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, G. M.; Strel'tsov, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of polarization holographic gratings formed in liquid crystal polymer composites doped with inorganic nanoparticles (SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, and Y2O3) are considered. The effect of these additives on the phase transition temperature of liquid crystals of polarization gratings, diffraction efficiency, and driving voltage is demonstrated.

  8. Digital Holographic Interferometry for Airborne Particle Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-19

    hologram and its extinction cross section, and a computational demonstration that holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size ...holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size evolution. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of...Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols workshop, Smolenice, Slovak Republic (2013). 7. Poster : Digital Holographic Imaging of Aerosol Particles In-Flight

  9. Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.

  10. Experimental observations and dissipative particle dynamic simulations on microstructures of pH-sensitive polymer containing amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengchi; Li, Bingyu; Li, Yanchun; Liu, Yangdan; Liu, Qi; Jiang, Hailun; He, Zhonggui; Zhao, Yongshan; Sun, Jin

    2017-01-30

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) technique is an effective strategy to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. However, it is inherently unstable, and the molecular basis for achieving kinetic stability is not well understood. In this study, lacidipine-Eudragit_E_100 solid dispersions with 20% drug loading were prepared using the solvent evaporation. Dissolution tested showed that ASD had a significantly high rate, which was dependent on the pH of the medium. Based on time-dependent measurement of supersaturation and particle size, inhibition of crystal growth by Eudragit_E_100 differed at pH 1.2 and 6.8 to a great extent. Dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation revealed that at pH 1.2, the swollen microstructures of the particles were associated with rapid drug release. At pH 6.8, a compacted microstructure of small amorphous particle-aggregated large particles was associated with slow dissolution. The DPD simulation provides insight into the structural basis for experimental observations, and thus is a useful tool to investigate the microstructures of ASD.

  11. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  12. Holographic Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.

    For the last two decades adaptive optics has been used as a technique for correcting imaging applications and directed energy/laser targeting and laser communications systems affected by atmospheric turbulence. Typically these systems are bulky and limited to <10 kHz due to large computing overhead and limited photon efficiencies. Moreover most use zonal wavefront sensors which cannot easily handle extreme scintillation or unexpected obscuration of a pre-set aperture. Here we present a compact, lightweight adaptive optics system with the potential to operate at speeds of MHz. The system utilizes a hologram to perform an all-optical wavefront analysis that removes the need for any computer. Finally, the sensing is made on a modal basis so it is largely insensitive to scintillation and obscuration. We have constructed a prototype device and will present experimental results from our research. The holographic adaptive optics system begins with the creation of a multiplexed hologram. This hologram is created by recording the maximum and minimum response functions of every actuator in the deformable mirror against a unique focused reference beam. When a wavefront of some arbitrary phase is incident on the processed hologram, a number of focal spots are created -- one pair for each actuator in the DM. The absolute phase error at each particular actuator location is simply related to the ratio of the intensity of each pair of spots. In this way we can use an array of photodetectors to give a direct readout of phase error without the need for any calculations. The advantages of holographic adaptive optics are many. To begin with, the measurement of phase error is made all optically, so the wavefront sensor directly controls the actuators in the DM without any computers. Using fast, photon counting photodetectors allows for closed loop correction limited only by the speed of the deformable mirror which in the case of MEMS devices can be 100 kHz or more. All this can be

  13. Cross-linking characterization of polymers based on their optical dispersion utilizing a white-light interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taudt, Ch.; Baselt, T.; Oreski, G.; Hirschl, Ch.; Koch, E.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-05-01

    This work analyses samples of the widely used encapsulant of photovoltaics modules, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The samples were cross-linked using a lamination technique for different curing times (0 - 20 minutes). The cross-linking characterization is done by determinating the material dispersion with the aid of a combined temporal- and spectral domain white-light interferometer. With the proposed technique it was possible to discriminate the differences in crosslinking for the given curing times. One important feature of this approach is the possibility to perform space resolved measurements of the crosslinking state with μm-resolution. Furthermore the paper discusses the mathematical analysis and processing of measurement data and shows a prototype solution for the fast and automated data acquisition for industrial application.

  14. Particle morphology as a control of permeation in polymer films obtained from MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    PubMed

    Lestage, David J; Urban, Marek W

    2004-07-20

    The combination of precision-controlled weight loss measurements and spectroscopic surface FT-IR analysis allowed us to identify unique behaviors of poly(methyl methacrylate) (p-MMA). When MMA and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) are polymerized into p-MMA and p-nBA homopolymer blends, MMA/nBA random copolymers, and p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell morphologies, a controlled mobility and stratification of low molecular weight components occurs in films formed from coalesced colloidal dispersions. Due to different affinities toward water, p-MMA and p-nBA are capable of releasing water at different rates, depending upon particle morphological features of initial dispersions. As coalescence progresses, water molecules are released from the high free volume p-nBA particles, whereas p-MMA retains water molecules for the longest time due to its hydrophilic nature. As a result, water losses at extended coalescence times are relatively small for p-MMA. MMA/nBA copolymer and p-MMA/p-nBA blends follow the same trends, although the magnitudes of changes are not as pronounced. The p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell behavior resembles that of p-nBA homopolymer, which is attributed to significantly lower content of the p-MMA component in particles. Annealing of coalesced colloidal films at elevated temperatures causes migration of SDOSS to the F-A interface, but for films containing primarily p-nBA, reverse diffusion back into the bulk is observed. These studies illustrate that the combination of different particle morphologies and temperatures leads to controllable permeation processes through polymeric films.

  15. Recent advances in photorefractive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jayan; Christenson, C. W.; Lynn, B.; Blanche, P.-A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2011-10-01

    Photorefractive composites derived from conducting polymers offer the advantage of dynamically recording holograms without the need for processing of any kind. Thus, they are the material of choice for many cutting edge applications, such as updatable three-dimensional (3D) displays and 3D telepresence. Using photorefractive polymers, 3D images or holograms can be seen with the unassisted eye and are very similar to how humans see the actual environment surrounding them. Absence of a large-area and dynamically updatable holographic recording medium has prevented realization of the concept. The development of a novel nonlinear optical chromophore doped photoconductive polymer composite as the recording medium for a refreshable holographic display is discussed. Further improvements in the polymer composites could bring applications in telemedicine, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment.

  16. Cylindrical holographic radar camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1998-12-01

    A novel personnel surveillance system has been developed to rapidly obtain 360 degree, full-body images of humans for the detection and identification of concealed threats. Detectable threats include weapons fabricated with metal, plastic, and ceramic, as well as explosive solids and liquids. This new system uses a cylindrical mechanical scanner to move a seven-foot, 384 element, Ka band (26 - 30 GHz) array circumferentially around a person in four to seven seconds. Low power millimeter-waves, which are nonionizing and not harmful to humans, are employed because they readily penetrate clothing barriers and reflect from concealed threats. The reflected waves provide information that is reconstructed into 3-D cylindrical holographic images with high-speed, digital signal processing (DSP) boards. This system is capable of displaying in an animation format eight, sixteen, thirty-two or sixty-four image frames at various aspect angles around the person under surveillance. This new prototype surveillance system is operational and is presently under laboratory testing and evaluation.

  17. Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-09-01

    In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ΛCDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ΛCDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ΛCDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

  18. Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Christoph; Otis, Thomas S.; DeSars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge; DiGregorio, David A.; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of light-sensitive chemical probes has become a powerful tool for the study of dynamic signaling processes in living tissue. Classically, this approach has been constrained by limitations of lens–based and point-scanning illumination systems. Here we describe a novel microscope configuration that incorporates a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to generate holographic patterns of illumination. This microscope can produce illumination spots of variable size and number and patterns shaped to precisely match user-defined elements in a specimen. Using holographic illumination to photolyse caged glutamate in brain slices, we demonstrate that shaped excitation on segments of neuronal dendrites and simultaneous, multi-spot excitation of different dendrites enables precise spatial and rapid temporal control of glutamate receptor activation. By allowing the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible method for activation of various photosensitive proteins and small molecules. PMID:19160517

  19. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  20. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  1. Hot melt extrusion for amorphous solid dispersions: temperature and moisture activated drug-polymer interactions for enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ashish L; Sandhu, Harpreet; Shah, Navnit; Malick, Waseem; Zia, Hossein

    2013-10-07

    Hot melt extrudates (HMEs) of indomethacin (IND) with Eudragit EPO and Kollidon VA 64 and those of itraconazole (ITZ) with HPMCAS-LF and Kollidon VA 64 were manufactured using a Leistritz twin screw extruder. The milled HMEs were stored at controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were collected after specified time periods for 3 months. The stability of amorphous HMEs was assessed using moisture analysis, thermal evaluation, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, HPLC, and dissolution study. In general, the moisture content increased with time, temperature, and humidity levels. Amorphous ITZ was physically unstable at very high temperature and humidity levels, and its recrystallization was detected in the HMEs manufactured using Kollidon VA 64. Although physical stability of IND was better sustained by both Eudragit EPO and Kollidon VA 64, chemical degradation of the drug was identified in the stability samples of HMEs with Eudragit EPO stored at 50 °C. The dissolution rates and the supersaturation levels were significantly decreased for the stability samples in which crystallization was detected. Interestingly, the supersaturation was improved for the stability samples of IND:Eudragit EPO and ITZ:HPMCAS-LF, in which no physical or chemical instability was observed. This enhancement in supersaturation was attributed to the temperature and moisture activated electrostatic interactions between the drugs and their counterionic polymers.

  2. Acid yellow 9 as a dispersing agent for carbon nanotubes: preparation of redox polymer-carbon nanotube composite film and its sensing application towards ascorbic acid and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Ashok; Wang, Sea-Fue; Yang, Thomas C-K; Yeh, Chun-Ting

    2010-08-15

    In this study, we show that acid yellow 9 (4-amino-1-1'-azobenzene-3,4'-disulfonicacid, AY) is a good stabilizing agent for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs dispersed in AY solution was remained stable about three months and even remained stable after centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 30 min. Using MWCNTs/AY dispersion, thin-films were prepared on indium tin oxide coated glass electrode and glassy carbon electrodes. Further, dried films of MWCNTs/AY were subjected to electropolymerization in 0.1M H(2)SO(4) solution. Adsorbed AY molecules on MWCNTs get polymerized and they yield a polymer-MWCNTs nanocomposite film on electrode surface which is found to be electrochemically active in wide pH range (1-11). Characterization studies were performed using cyclic voltammetry and SEM. These studies are supported that hybrid material PAY/MWCNTs was obtained. Moreover, newly synthesized PAY-MWCNTs composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) with high sensitivity in physiological pH. Linear sweep voltammetry was employed to the determination of DA in the presence of AA in the range of 2x10(-7) to 1.4x10(-6) M. Amperometry was employed to determination of AA at 0.0 V in the range from 1x10(-6) to 5.6x10(-5) M, and DA, uric acid are not interfered on the steady-state current of AA. In addition, real samples such as dopamine injection and AA spiked into human urine were analyzed using PAY/MWCNTs composite modified electrode and satisfactory results were obtained.

  3. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  4. Glueball decay in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji

    2008-04-15

    Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.

  5. White/blue-emitting, water-dispersible CdSe quantum dots prepared by counter ion-induced polymer collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Goh, Jane Betty; Goh, M. Cynthia; Giri, Neeraj Kumar; Paige, Matthew F.

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible, luminescent CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots that exhibit nominal "white" fluorescence emission and have potential applications in solid-state lighting is described. The nanomaterials, prepared through counter ion-induced collapse and UV cross-linking of high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid in the presence of appropriate aqueous inorganic ions, were of ∼2-3 nm diameter and could be prepared in gram quantities. The quantum dots exhibited strong luminescence emission in two bands, the first in the blue-region (band edge) of the optical spectrum and the second, a broad emission in the red-region (attributed to deep trap states) of the optical spectrum. Because of the relative strength of emission of the band edge and deep trap state luminescence, it was possible to achieve visible white luminescence from the quantum dots in aqueous solution and in dried, solid films. The optical spectroscopic properties of the nanomaterials, including ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy, was performed, with results compared to other white-emitting quantum dot systems described previously in the literature.

  6. Fluorescent porous film modified polymer optical fiber via "click" chemistry: stable dye dispersion and trace explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajun; Lv, Ling; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

    2015-01-14

    In this paper, we report a facile strategy to fabricate fluorescent porous thin film on the surface of U-bent poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber (U-bent POF) in situ via "click" polymerization for vapor phase sensing of explosives. Upon irradiation of evanescent UV light transmitting within the fiber under ambient condition, a porous film (POSS-thiol cross-linking film, PTCF) is synthesized on the side surface of the fiber by a thiol-ene "click" reaction of vinyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS-V8) and alkane dithiols. When vinyl-functionalized porphyrin, containing four allyl substituents at the periphery, is added into precursors for the polymerization, fluorescence porphyrin can be covalently bonded into the cross-linked network of PTCF. This "fastened" way reduces the aggregation-induced fluorescence self-quenching of porphyrin and enhances the physicochemical stability of the porous film on the surface of U-bent POF. Fluorescent signals of the PTCF/U-bent POF probe made by this method exhibit high fluorescence quenching toward trace TNT and DNT vapor and the highest fluorescence quenching efficiency is observed for 1, 6-hexanedimercaptan-based film. In addition, because of the presence of POSS-V8 with multi cross-linkable groups, PTCF exhibits well-organized pore network and stable dye dispersion, which not only causes fast and sensitive fluorescence quenching against vapors of nitroaromatic compounds, but also provides a repeatability of the probing performance.

  7. Loop quantum gravity, exact holographic mapping, and holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Muxin; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The relation between loop quantum gravity (LQG) and tensor networks is explored from the perspectives of the bulk-boundary duality and holographic entanglement entropy. We find that the LQG spin-network states in a space Σ with boundary ∂Σ is an exact holographic mapping similar to the proposal in [X.-L. Qi, Exact holographic mapping and emergent space-time geometry, arXiv:1309.6282]. The tensor network, understood as the boundary quantum state, is the output of the exact holographic mapping emerging from a coarse-graining procedure of spin networks. Furthermore, when a region A and its complement A ¯ are specified on the boundary ∂Σ , we show that the boundary entanglement entropy S (A ) of the emergent tensor network satisfies the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in the semiclassical regime, i.e., S (A ) is proportional to the minimal area of the bulk surface attached to the boundary of A in ∂Σ .

  8. LCTV Holographic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts are required to interface with complex systems that require sophisticated displays to communicate effectively. Lightweight, head-mounted real-time displays that present holographic images for comfortable viewing may be the ideal solution. We describe an implementation of a liquid crystal television (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the display of holograms. The implementation required the solution of a complex set of problems. These include field calculations, determination of the LCTV-SLM complex transmittance characteristics and a precise knowledge of the signal mapping between the LCTV and frame grabbing board that controls it. Realizing the hologram is further complicated by the coupling that occurs between the phase and amplitude in the LCTV transmittance. A single drive signal (a gray level signal from a framegrabber) determines both amplitude and phase. Since they are not independently controllable (as is true in the ideal SLM) one must deal with the problem of optimizing (in some sense) the hologram based on this constraint. Solutions for the above problems have been found. An algorithm has been for field calculations that uses an efficient outer product formulation. Juday's MEDOF 7 (Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter) algorithm used for originally for filter calculations has been successfully adapted to handle metrics appropriate for holography. This has solved the problem of optimizing the hologram to the constraints imposed by coupling. Two laboratory methods have been developed for determining an accurate mapping of framegrabber pixels to LCTV pixels. A friendly software system has been developed that integrates the hologram calculation and realization process using a simple set of instructions. The computer code and all the laboratory measurement techniques determining SLM parameters have been proven with the production of a high quality test image.

  9. Holographic microscopy for in situ studies of microorganism motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, J.; Hu, S.; Jericho, S.; Lindensmith, C.

    2011-12-01

    computationally intensive to reconstruct images from, so the technology to store and process large amounts of data are required. We have successfully deployed a digital in-line holographic microscope in lakes of the Canadian High Arctic and the open ocean. We present characteristic data sets from these experiments, as well as discussing how data acquisition and instrumentation can be improved. A design for a new type of autonomous, submersible holographic microscope incorporating an off-axis reference beam is presented, and future plans for controlled microbe-polymer studies are detailed.

  10. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  11. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. W.; Wyant, J. C.; Breckinridge, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Off-axis Fresnel zone plate used to obtain fringe visibility close to unity. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer (HTG) employs off-axis Fresnel zone plate (OFZP) as beam splitter and beam diverger in place of two separate elements that perform those functions in conventional TwymanGreen interferometer.

  12. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  13. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  14. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  15. Nanocomposites from Stable Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymeric Matrices Using Dispersion Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.

  16. Photoluminescent conductor polymer holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limón, B.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-02-01

    An organic conductor polymer was doped with benzalkonium chloride to get a photoluminescent effect at 560 nm and it was used as holographic material. We used a digital image to generate a hologram in a computer and it was transferred by microlithography techniques to our polymer to get a phase hologram. The transference is successful by rubbing, the heat increment produce temperature gradients and the information in the mask is transferred to the material by the refraction index changes, thus the film is recorded. We recorded some gratings to observe the behavior of photoluminescent light with different frequencies when it is radiated with a green laser beam at 532 nm.

  17. Construction of drug-polymer thermodynamic phase diagrams using Flory-Huggins interaction theory: identifying the relevance of temperature and drug weight fraction to phase separation within solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiwei; Booth, Jonathan; Meehan, Elizabeth; Jones, David S; Li, Shu; Andrews, Gavin P

    2013-01-07

    Amorphous drug-polymer solid dispersions have the potential to enhance the dissolution performance and thus bioavailability of BCS class II drug compounds. The principle drawback of this approach is the limited physical stability of amorphous drug within the dispersion. Accurate determination of the solubility and miscibility of drug in the polymer matrix is the key to the successful design and development of such systems. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on Flory-Huggins theory, to predict and compare the solubility and miscibility of drug in polymeric systems. The systems chosen for this study are (1) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate HF grade (HPMCAS-HF)-felodipine (FD) and (2) Soluplus (a graft copolymer of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol)-FD. Samples containing different drug compositions were mixed, ball milled, and then analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The value of the drug-polymer interaction parameter χ was calculated from the crystalline drug melting depression data and extrapolated to lower temperatures. The interaction parameter χ was also calculated at 25 °C for both systems using the van Krevelen solubility parameter method. The rank order of interaction parameters of the two systems obtained at this temperature was comparable. Diagrams of drug-polymer temperature-composition and free energy of mixing (ΔG(mix)) were constructed for both systems. The maximum crystalline drug solubility and amorphous drug miscibility may be predicted based on the phase diagrams. Hyper-DSC was used to assess the validity of constructed phase diagrams by annealing solid dispersions at specific drug loadings. Three different samples for each polymer were selected to represent different regions within the phase diagram.

  18. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  19. Understanding strongly coupling magnetism from holographic duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu

    2016-07-01

    The unusual magnetic materials are significant in both science and technology. However, because of the strongly correlated effects, it is difficult to understand their novel properties from theoretical aspects. Holographic duality offers a new approach to understanding such systems from gravity side. This paper will give a brief review of our recent works on the applications of holographic duality in understanding unusual magnetic materials. Some quantitative comparision between holographic results and experimental data will be shown and some predictions from holographic duality models will be discussed.

  20. Holographic Routing Network For Parallel Processing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniloff, Eric S.; Johnson, Kristina M.; Reif, John H.

    1989-10-01

    Dynamic holographic architectures for connecting processors in parallel computers have been generally limited by the response time of the holographic recording media. In this paper we present a different approach to dynamic optical interconnects involving spatial light modulators (SLMs) and volume holograms. Multiple-exposure holograms are stored in a volume recording media, which associate the address of a destination processor encoded on a spatial light modulator with a distinct reference beam. A destination address programmed on the spatial light modulator is then holographically steered to the correct destination processor. We present the design and experimental results of a holographic router for connecting four originator processors to four destination processors.

  1. Progress in the printing techniques of the holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Changqing; Yan, Xingpeng; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Zhiqiang

    2015-10-01

    Holographic stereogram display technology is one of the research focuses in three-dimensional (3D) holographic display. Holographic stereogram is essentially to infinitely approach the true 3D object using a sequence of 2D perspective images. In this paper, several holographic printing methods are summarized firstly, including two-steps transfer hologram printing technique, horizontal parallax only (HPO) stereogram with laser direct writing and holographic elements based full-parallax holographic stereogram method. Also the principles of printing, method of recording, and the various factors that affect the printing quality of the holographic stereogram are discussed and analyzed in detail. Then, after designing the matching relationship between full-parallax holographic stereogram and holographic elements, a new method to print holographic stereogram is proposed. With this method, image distortions can be decreased to improve the printing quality because this method has less impact factors and easier operations in experiment. Finally, it points out the recent development state of holographic stereogram.

  2. Characterization of physico-mechanical properties of indomethacin and polymers to assess their suitability for hot-melt extrusion processs as a means to manufacture solid dispersion/solution.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Rina J; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Iyer, Raman M; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, A Waseem; Zia, Hossein

    2005-11-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the physical and viscoelastic properties of binary mixtures of drug and selected polymers to assess their suitability for use in the hot-melt extrusion (HME) process as a means to improve solubility by manufacturing either solid dispersion or solid solution. Indomethacin (INM) was selected as a model drug. Based on comparable solubility parameters, the selected polymers were Eudragit EPO (EPO), polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymer (PVP-VA), polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), and poloxamer 188 (P188). The various drug and polymer systems were characterized for thermal and rheological properties as a function of drug concentration to provide an insight into miscibility and processibility of these systems. From the thermal analysis studies, a single T(g) was observed for the binary mixtures of INM/EPO, INM/PVP-VA, and INM/PVPK30, indicating miscibility of drug and polymer in the given ratios. In the case of mixtures of INM/P188, two melting endotherms were observed with decreasing drug melting point as a function of polymer concentration indicating partial miscibility of drug in polymer. As part of the rheological evaluation, zero rate viscosity (eta(o)) and activation energy (E(a)) was determined for the various systems using torque rheometer at varying shear rates and temperatures. The eta(o) for binary mixtures of drug and EPO, PVP-VA and PVPK30 were found to be significantly lower as compared to pure polymer, indicating disruption of the polymer structure due to miscibility of the drug. On the other hand, INM/P188 mixtures showed a higher eta(o) compared to pure polymer indicating partial miscibility of drug and polymer. With respect to E(a), the mixtures of INM/EPO showed an increase in E(a) with increasing drug concentration, suggesting antiplasticization effect of the drug. These findings corroborate the thermal analysis results showing increase T(g) for the various binary mixtures. The mixtures of INM

  3. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; ...

    2016-06-28

    Here, we study SU(N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of themore » defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.« less

  4. Towards holographic quantum energy teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios; Lin, Feng-Li; Liu, Pei-Hua

    2016-12-01

    We propose a simplified protocol of quantum energy teleportation (QET) for the holographic conformal field theory in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with or without a black hole. As a tentative proposal, we simplify the standard QET by replacing Alice's local measurement with the local projection, which excites the system from the ground state into a particular state dual to a Banados geometry. We then mimic Bob's local operation of the usual QET for extracting energy by deforming the UV surface with a local bump. Adopting the surface-state duality, this deformation corresponds to local unitary. We evaluate the extraction of energy from the holographic stress tensor and find that Bob always gains energy extraction in our protocol. This could be related to the positive energy theorem of the dual gravity. Moreover, the ratio of extraction energy to the injection one is a universal function of the UV surface deformation profile.

  5. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  6. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    We study SU( N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  7. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-06-28

    Here, we study SU(N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  8. Data storage on holographic memory card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppa, Pal; Erdei, Gabor; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Varhegyi, Peter; Ujvari, T.; Loerincz, Emoeke; Szarvas, Gabor; Hvilsted, Soeren; Ramanujam, P. S.; Richter, Peter I.

    2000-10-01

    Our goal is to develop a re-writable holographic memory card system based on thin film polymer media on credit card size plastic carriers. Data is stored in our system in form of polarization holograms that present high efficiency and excellent suppression of higher orders even for thin material. Data is written on the card in a parallel way using spatial light modulators to encode the object beam that is Fourier transformed by a custom objective lens and interferes with the reference beam (of orthogonal polarization) on the card. We use reflective carrier in order to read out the data from the same side of the card. This allows us to have a compact system and standard ID 1 type carrier card. The optical system and the data organization are optimized to have a data density higher than 1bit/micrometers 2. We expect to pass the limit of 10 bit/micrometers 2 with the introduction of phase coded multiplexing that would provide more than 2Gbyte capacity if using half the card area as active surface.

  9. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    High density optical data storage, driven by the information revolution, remains at the forefront of current research areas. Much of the current research has focused on photorefractive materials (SBN and LiNbO3) and polymers, despite various problems with expense, durability, response time and retention periods. Photon echo techniques, though promising, are questionable due to the need for cryogenic conditions. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are an attractive alternative recording medium. Great strides have been made in refining BR, and materials with storage lifetimes as long as 100 days have recently become available. The ability to deposit this robust polycrystalline material as high quality optical films suggests the use of BR as a recording medium for commercial optical disks. Our own recent research has demonstrated the suitability of BR films for real time spatial filtering and holography. We propose to fully investigate the feasibility of performing holographic mass data storage in BR. Important aspects of the problem to be investigated include various data multiplexing techniques (e.g. angle- amplitude- and phase-encoded multiplexing, and in particular shift-multiplexing), multilayer recording techniques, SLM selection and data readout using crossed polarizers for noise rejection. Systems evaluations of storage parameters, including access times, memory refresh constraints, erasure, signal-to-noise ratios and bit error rates, will be included in our investigations.

  10. Holographic Interferometry The Twentieth Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1985-08-01

    Professor Ryszard Pryputniewicz of Worcester Polytechnic Institute has assembled a significant group of papers on the subject of holographic interferometry in celebration of the first twenty years of activity in this field. Several of these papers were received too late for inclusion in this issue but will be published as a group in the next issue of Optical Engineering. Taken together, these papers are an indication of the tremendous progress made during the twenty years of this field's existence.

  11. Disordered holographic systems: Functional renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Allan; Yaida, Sho

    2015-12-01

    We study quenched disorder in strongly correlated systems via holography, focusing on the thermodynamic effects of mild electric disorder. Disorder is introduced through a random potential which is assumed to self-average on macroscopic scales. Studying the flow of this distribution with energy scale leads us to develop a holographic functional renormalization scheme. We test this scheme by computing thermodynamic quantities and confirming that the Harris criterion for relevance, irrelevance, or marginality of quenched disorder holds.

  12. Holographic recording materials - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.

  13. Design relationships for holographic memories.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugt, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The maximum capacity of a block-oriented, random-access memory is determined primarily by the geometrical parameters of the lenses required to create a Fourier transform of a spatial bit pattern and to image the reconstructed bits onto a photodetector array. Furthermore, the maximum packing density is determined primarily by the same parameters. Several important relationships are developed that are useful in the preliminary design of holographic memories.

  14. Advances in holographic particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David

    1993-12-01

    Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.

  15. Electromagnetic holographic imaging of bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Partin, Alan W.

    1998-05-01

    The electromagnetic bioimpedance method has successfully measured the very subtle conductivity changes associated with brain edema and prostate tumor. This method provides noninvasive measurements using non-ionizing magnetic fields applied with a small coil that avoids the use of contact electrodes. This paper introduces results from combining a holographic signal processing algorithm and a low power coil system that helps provide the 3D image of impedance contrast that should make the noninvasive electromagnetic bioimpedance method useful in health care.

  16. Pion condensation in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.

  17. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  18. RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2μm size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.

  19. Holographic cosmology from BIonic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we will use a BIonic solution for analyzing the holographic cosmology. A BIonic solution is a configuration of a D3-brane and an anti-D3-brane connected by a wormhole, and holographic cosmology is a recent proposal to explain cosmic expansion by using the holographic principle. In our model, a BIonic configuration will be produced by the transition of fundamental black strings. The formation of a BIonic configuration will cause inflation. As the D3-brane moves away from the anti-D3-brane, the wormhole will get annihilated, and the inflation will end with the annihilation of this wormhole. However, it is possible for a D3-brane to collide with an anti-D3-brane. Such a collision will occur if the distance between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane reduces, and this will create tachyonic states. We will demonstrate that these tachyonic states will lead to the formation of a new wormhole, and this will cause acceleration of the universe before such a collision.

  20. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to

  1. Optics for full-parallax holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Michael A.; Klein, Arno; Plesniak, Wendy J.; Kropp, Adam B.; Chen, Benjie

    1997-04-01

    In the evolution of synthetic holography as a viable medium for industrial design and scientific visualization, the inclusion of full parallax represents a logical next step from the previous horizontal parallax-only approaches. The significant increase in full-parallax information content implies the need for high speed perspective view synthesis, optimized mechano-optical recording systems, and novel hologram illumination approaches. This paper outlines recording techniques for producing full-parallax holographic stereograms of computer-synthesized and acquired data. We document on-the-fly high-speed rendering software that integrates the printing and image-synthesis steps. In the interest of hologram printer size control, approaches for optical image plane enlargement are highlighted, and successful examples of A4-size (30 cm X 21 cm) full- parallax images are presented. We assess perspective-view array and image-plane pixel resolutions and their effect on overall image quality, in particular with respect to medium- size formats. Finally, we demonstrate optimized illumination techniques for controlling image clarity, including dispersion-compensated and edge-illuminated approaches.

  2. Anticounterfeit holographic marks with secret codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou; Zhang, Xiangsu; Lai, Hongkai

    1993-11-01

    The paper introduces the methods of making secret codes in the holograms for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting, especially the production of two kinds of visual holographic secret codes. The optical arrangements for recording are presented, and the effective results from using the visual secret codes into holographic trade marks are reported.

  3. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  4. Real-time preprocessing of holographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Bradley W.; Poon, Ting-Chung

    1995-11-01

    Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a holographic recording technique that uses active optical heterodyne scanning to generate holographic information pertaining to an object. The holographic information manifests itself as an electrical signal suitable for real-time image reconstruction using a spatial light modulator. The electrical signal that carries the holographic information can also be digitized for computer storage and processing, allowing the image reconstruction to be performed numerically. In previous experiments with this technique, holographic information has been recorded using the interference pattern of a plane wave and a spherical wave of different temporal frequencies to scan an object. However, the proper manipulation of the pupil functions in the recording stage can result in real-time processing of the holographic edge extraction technique as an important example of real-time preprocessing of holographic information that utilizes alternate pupils in the OSH recording stage. We investigate the theory of holographic preprocessing using a spatial frequency-domain analysis based on the recording system's optical transfer function. The theory is reinforced through computer simulation.

  5. Holographic brain: a good analogy gone bad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2002-07-01

    One way of honoring the world's two greatest holographers is to remove from their field the association with the offbeat world of the holographic mind. Basing itself on analogical musings of two very creative scientists who were themselves not holographers, this 'field' of the holographic brain has strayed far from science and into the absurd. So much absurdity has been written by so many people that the one legitimate study of holographic principle in dolphins has been grouped too often with the nonsense. Here is taken most of the 'target statements' form one book. We could not bear to read them all this closely. We will attempt to determine what tidbit of fact led to the statements and to suggest alternative explanations when there is something to explain.

  6. A novel cation exchange polymer as a reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent for the rapid determination of rhodamine B residue in chili powder and chili oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2014-12-29

    This paper presents a new analytical method for the determination of rhodamine B (RB) residue in chili powder and chili oil based on a novel reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-dSPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Chili powder and chili oil samples were first extracted with acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) and acetonitrile, respectively. Then, RB from the extract was adsorbed to the polymer cation exchange (PCX) sorbent with the characteristics of ion exchange and reversed-phase retention. Subsequently, the analyte in PCX sorbent was eluted with ammonium hydroxide/methanol (1:99, v/v) through a simple unit device equipped with 1 mL syringe and 0.22 μm nylon syringe filter. All of the samples were analyzed by UHPLC–HRMS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, and the LODs and LOQs of the r-dSPE cleanup method were investigated. The method showed a good linearity (R2 > 0.999) in the ranges of 0.01–1 μg/L and 1–100 μg/L for the analyte. The LODs of RB for chili powder and chili oil samples were 0.5 μg/kg. The average recoveries of RB from the samples spiked at four different concentrations (2, 20, 500 and 5000 μg/kg) were in a range from 76.7 to 104.9%. Results showed that the proposed method was simple, fast, economical and effective for the determination of RB in chili powder and chili oil. Considering the excellent sorptive performance of PCX for RB, further work should be done to evaluate the usefulness of the PCX in r-dSPE for the clean-up and analyses of other trace-level alkaline contaminants.

  7. Using Radiochromic Films to Characterize the Dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} Nano-sized Grain Clusters in Protective Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Nolasco, A.V.

    2015-07-01

    . This result is discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of EB3 film, once the main components are C (42.3%), H (39.7%) and O (16.0%)1-2. Based on the above results, we have speculated about the abilities of XR-AQ films in the detection of the distribution of nano-sized particles that has high mass-energy attenuation coefficients for low energy x-rays, in polymer composites. In another investigation we tested the ability of XR-QA2 Gafchromic{sup R} films to evaluate the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in protective composites. The P(VDFTrFE)/ ZrO{sub 2} film was sandwiched between two XR-QA2 radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to 100 mGy of the x-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam. After storage for 24 hours at room temperature under no light conditions, the irradiated radiochromic films were scanned under the same conditions in order to obtain a more reliable result. All films were scanned using the same size ROI in high resolution mode and saved as tagged image file format (TIFF). The untreated scanned image of the XR-AQ2 film directed exposed to the X-ray beam and the correspondent treated image with digital filters are shown. The untreated and treated image of the XR-AQ2 film that was exposed to the attenuated x-ray beam is shown. The image treated with digital filters seems to reproduce the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in the P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix. This result is also discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of XR-AQ2 film and compared to the MEV images obtained from the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZrO{sub 2} composites. The results indicate a clear correlation between the 2D radiochromic image and the MEV photography.

  8. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  9. High speed holographic digital recorder.

    PubMed

    Roberts, H N; Watkins, J W; Johnson, R H

    1974-04-01

    Concepts, feasibility experiments, and key component developments are described for a holographic digital record/reproduce system with the potential for 1.0 Gbit/sec rates and higher. Record rates of 500 Mbits/sec have been demonstrated with a ten-channel acoustooptic modulator array and a mode-locked, cavity-dumped argon-ion laser. Acoustooptic device technology has been advanced notably during the development of mode lockers, cavity dumpers, beam deflectors, and multichannel modulator arrays. The development of high speed multichannel photodetector arrays for the readout subsystem requires special attention. The feasibility of 1.0 Gbits/sec record rates has been demonstrated.

  10. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  11. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Matti

    2017-03-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the θ-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, Nf/Nc, and θ, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  12. The holographic supersymmetric Casimir energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti Genolini, Pietro; Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2017-01-01

    We consider a general class of asymptotically locally AdS5 solutions of minimal gauged supergravity, which are dual to superconformal field theories on curved backgrounds S1×M3 preserving two supercharges. We demonstrate that standard holographic renormalization corresponds to a scheme that breaks supersymmetry. We propose new boundary terms that restore supersymmetry, and show that for smooth solutions with topology S1×R4 the improved on-shell action reproduces both the supersymmetric Casimir energy and the field theory supersymmetric relation between charges.

  13. Holographic Read-Only Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, F.; Zhou, G.; Psaltis, D.

    The most successful use of optical memories so far has been as read-only memories (ROM). A main reason for this success has been the availability of inexpensive methods to mass-produce copies of recorded disks. This has made it possible to publish data (audio, video, databases, computer games) and distribute it widely through normal retail channels. In this chapter, we show results of a holographic read-only memory (HROM) of which digital data on a master disk can be copied onto replicate disks efficiently.

  14. Holographic superconductors with hyperscaling violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, ZhongYing

    2013-09-01

    We investigate holographic superconductors in asympototically geometries with hyperscaling violation. The mass of the scalar field decouples from the UV dimension of the dual scalar operator and can be chosen as negative as we want, without disturbing the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We first numerically find that the scalar condenses below a critical temperature and a gap opens in the real part of the conductivity, indicating the onset of superconductivity. We further analytically explore the effects of the hyperscaling violation on the superconducting transition temperature. We find that the critical temperature increases with the increasing of hyperscaling violation.

  15. Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.

  16. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues.

  17. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  18. Polymer Gelatin Waveguide In Conjuction With Integrated Holographic Optical Elements On GaAs, LiNb03, Glass, And Aluminum Substrates For Optical Interconnects, Signal Processing, And Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray T.

    1990-02-01

    We have observed waveguiding in thin films of polymer gelatin on GaAs, LiNb03, glass and aluminum substrates. A graded index profile can be induced in the gelatin layer and tuned by wet processing. This makes it possible to form waveguides on any smooth surface. Locally sensitizing the gelatin waveguide with ammonium dichromate allows us to integrate single and multiplexed gratings on the same substrate to perform various functions for optical interconnects and signal processing. A waveguide grating coupler that converts free space TEM00 laser light to a two dimensional spherical guided wave with 50° angle of divergence has also demonstrated. A passive broadcasting network can be formed using this new technology. Further plausible applications such as WD(D)M local area network, optical interconnection, and optical computing are also presented.

  19. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plantz, N. W. M.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Vandoren, S.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, following an introduction to the concept of intrinsic dynamics and its implementation within holographic models, we compute the intrinsic spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase, using a fully backreacted bulk geometry. We also present a vector-like large-N version of the Ginzburg–Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC–BCS crossover.

  20. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  1. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  2. Precision Assembly of Complex Cellular Microenvironments using Holographic Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M.; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D.; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  3. Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

  4. Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-12-20

    Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels.

  5. Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM5, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of "colours" N , thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a `Little Randall-Sundrum Model', which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM5 with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.

  6. Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

  7. Polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2007-01-09

    Polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites that exhibit superior properties compared to the polymer alone, and methods-for producing these polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites, are provided. Polymeric surfactant compatabilizers are adsorbed onto the surface of hydrophilic or natural phyllosilicates to facilitate the dispersal and exfoliation of the phyllosilicate in a polymer matrix. Utilizing polymeric glycol based surfactants, polymeric dicarboxylic acids, polymeric diammonium surfactants, and polymeric diamine surfactants as compatabilizers facilitates natural phyllosilicate and hydrophilic organoclay dispersal in a polymer matrix to produce nanocomposites.

  8. Information Characteristics of Holographic and Laser Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Physical principles of structural and informational analysis of coherent optical fields and processes of their digitization during imaging and transfer and recording of optical and holographic images are considered.

  9. Emergence in holographic scenarios for gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieks, Dennis; van Dongen, Jeroen; de Haro, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    'Holographic' relations between theories have become an important theme in quantum gravity research. These relations entail that a theory without gravity is equivalent to a gravitational theory with an extra spatial dimension. The idea of holography was first proposed in 1993 by Gerard 't Hooft on the basis of his studies of evaporating black holes. Soon afterwards the holographic 'AdS/CFT' duality was introduced, which since has been intensively studied in the string theory community and beyond. Recently, Erik Verlinde has proposed that even Newton's law of gravitation can be related holographically to the 'thermodynamics of information' on screens. We discuss these scenarios, with special attention to the status of the holographic relation in them and to the question of whether they make gravity and spacetime emergent. We conclude that only Verlinde's scheme straightforwardly instantiates emergence. However, assuming a non-standard interpretation of AdS/CFT may create room for the emergence of spacetime and gravity there as well.

  10. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  11. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  12. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekjani, M.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of G, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of G. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of G-corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of G on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for G-corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in s- r plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  13. Lensless Digital Holographic Microscopy for Life Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serabyn, E.; Liewer, K.; Wallace, J. K.; Rider, S.; Lindensmith, C.; Nadeau, J.

    2016-10-01

    Microscopy capable of volume imaging can be used to search for microbial life on ocean worlds. Here we discuss our recent digital holographic microscope (DHM) systems, which provide micron-scale resolution in a very compact package.

  14. Holographic QCD for H-dibaryon (uuddss)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Hideo; Matsumoto, Kohei

    2017-03-01

    The H-dibaryon (uuddss) is studied in holographic QCD for the first time. In holographic QCD, four-dimensional QCD, i.e., SU(Nc) gauge theory with chiral quarks, can be formulated with S1-compactified D4/D8/\\overline {{{D8}}} -brane system. In holographic QCD with large (Nc, all the baryons appear as topological chiral solitons of Nambu-Goldstone bosons and (axial) vector mesons, and the H-dibaryon can be described as an SO(3)-type topological soliton with B = 2. We derive the low-energy effective theory to describe the H-dibaryon in holographic QCD. The H-dibaryon mass is found to be twice of the B = 1 hedgehog-baryon mass, MH ≃ 2.00MB=1HH, and is estimated about 1.7GeV, which is smaller than mass of two nucleons (flavor-octet baryons), in the chiral limit.

  15. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  16. Holographic Interferometry--A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Frutos, A. M.; de la Rosa, M. I.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the problem of analyzing a phase object, separating the contribution due to thickness variations and that due to refractive index variations. Discusses the design of an interferometer and some applications. Provides diagrams and pictures of holographic images. (YP)

  17. Electrically Switched Holographic Film for High Speed Optical Beam Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, R. L.; Natarajan, L. V.; Tondiglia, V. P.; Bunning, T. J.

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a novel composite material which forms electrically switchable gratings upon standard holographic recording. The gratings consist of periodic arrays of nanometer scale liquid crystal domains in a dense polymer host. NMR and SEM studies indicate a homeotropic alignment of the liquid crystal with an axial defect or symmetry axis along the long axis of prolate sheroid droplets. Samples exhibit good optical quality with high diffraction efficiency in a single Bragg mode. The diffraction efficiency can be modulated by an external electric field, and wide on/off dynamic range switching (>25 dB) is achieved. Simple models relate the dynamic range, switching voltage (<5 V/μm), and response time (25 μs) to the material morphology. Applications incorporating high speed beam steering will be discussed.

  18. Antihumidity dichromated gelatin holographic recording material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lurong; Dai, Chaoming; Guo, Yongkang; Cai, Tiequan

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we present an antihumidity dichromated gelatin holographic recording material called AHDCG. It possesses the good optical performances of common dichromated gelatin (DCG). The holograms produced by this material, under common laboratory circumstances (RH > 80 usually), have been kept for more than one year without degradation in efficiency. The method of making this material, the surface structure, and its holographic properties are presented.

  19. Holographic data processing methods for medical prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. A.; Grosmann, M. H.; Kartavenko, V. I.; Larkin, A. I.; Trukhanov, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The various methods of laser coherent photonic implementations of multiparametric classification are discussed in this paper. The holographic and optical data processing methods for medical application are considered. Inverse two-phase coding and analysis of light distribution in the correlation plane enables us to realize a number of algorithms: search for a precedent, Hamming distance measurement, Bayes probability algorithm, deterministic and ‘correspondence’ algorithms. The experimental holographic results for medicine prognosis are shown.

  20. Digital holographic nondestructive testing of laminate composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karray, Mayssa; Christophe, Poilane; Gargouri, Mohamed; Picart, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Optical digital holographic techniques can be used for nondestructive testing of materials. Digital holographic nondestructive testing essentially measures deformations on the surface of the object. However, there is sufficient sensitivity to detect subsurface and internal defects in metallic and composite specimens. We investigate and discuss the vibration analysis of laminated composite glass-epoxy using time averaging in digital Fresnel holography to visualize the modes of vibration and to test the integrity of the structures of studied materials.

  1. The recent holographic material: Konica P7000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Masashi; Kubota, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Masachika; Yamauchi, Tsuyoshi; Kumasawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    A newly developed silver halide material, KONIKA MINOLTA OPTO P7000, was examined its holographic characteristics. The commercially available material, KONIKA P5600, is blue-green sensitive but the new P7000 shows enough sensitivity to red light for practical use. We recorded holograms with He-Ne laser light on P7000 plates and evaluated the holographic characteristics such as diffraction efficiency and reconstructed wavelength. The results are discussed comparing with those of former Agfa products.

  2. Holographic Combiners for Head-Up Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    AFAL-TR-77 -110 S HOLOGRAPHIC COMBINERS FOR HEAD-UP DISPLAYS S Radar and Optics Division Environmental Research Institute of Michigan P.O. Box 8618...to 200. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(RWihen Data Entered) FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Radar and Optics Division of the...with fringes parallel to the surface......31 Figure 13. Raytrace through the F-4 HUD with a holographic combiner

  3. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  4. Coherent Digital Holographic Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng

    A new type of adaptive optics (AO) based on the principles of digital holography (DH) is proposed and developed for the use in wide-field and confocal retinal imaging. Digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO) dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector of the conventional AO system. DH is an emergent imaging technology that gives direct numerical access to the phase of the optical field, thus allowing precise control and manipulation of the optical field. Incorporation of DH in an ophthalmic imaging system can lead to versatile imaging capabilities at substantially reduced complexity and cost of the instrument. A typical conventional AO system includes several critical hardware pieces: spatial light modulator, lenslet array, and a second CCD camera in addition to the camera for imaging. The proposed DHAO system replaces these hardware components with numerical processing for wavefront measurement and compensation of aberration through the principles of DH. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. Rotationally Invariant Holographic Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, James L.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Gheen, Gregory; Johnston, Alan R.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-06-01

    A multi-channel holographic correlator has been constructed which can identify and track objects of a given shape across the input field independent of their in-plane rotation. This system, derived from the classic Vander Lugt correlator, incorporates a hololens to store an array of matched spatial filters (MSFs) on thermoplastic film. Each member of the MSF array is generated from a different incrementally rotated version of the training object. Rotational invariant tracking is achieved through superposition of the corresponding array of the correlations in the output plane. Real time tracking is accomplished by utilizing a liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) illuminated with a CRT to process video input signals. The system can be programmed to recognize different objects by recording the MSF array on re-usable thermoplastic film. Discussion of the system architecture and laboratory results are presented.

  6. Survey of holographic security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  7. Volume phase holographic gratings for astronomy based on solid photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Insausti, Maider; Garzón, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) are gaining more and more interest as optical dispersing elements in new astronomical spectrographs at low and medium resolution. A key point is the development of new photosensitive materials suitable to produce VPHGs that match the stringent requirements of the astronomical environment. Here we report on the performances of VPHG based on Bayfol®HX solid photopolymer films developed by Bayer MaterialScience AG. Parameters affecting the grating efficiency (e. g. photopolymer film thickness and refractive index modulation) are measured and linked to the performances of VPHG working in the VIS-NIR region. Moreover, the behavior at low temperature and the aging properties of such materials/gratings are reported. Substantial efficiency gains on a new VPHG installed at the Asiago's spectrograph are shown and proven on the observation of a standard star (hr5501).

  8. Holographic gratings in hybrid sol-gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschella, R.; Marino, I.-G.; Lottici, P. P.; Bersani, D.; Lorenzi, A.; Montenero, A.

    2003-08-01

    Organic-inorganic films based on SiO2, containing Disperse Red 1 (DR1), carbazole units and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF), have been prepared by a sol-gel technique. Diffraction gratings have been produced through different effects: photoinduced birefringence and photorefractivity, using 488.0 nm and 632.8 nm light, respectively. Pure polarization holographic birefringence gratings have been investigated and diffraction efficiencies higher than those obtained by light intensity modulation have been measured. The study of the temporal behavior of the diffraction efficiencies makes possible the identification of different processes involved in the DR1 molecular orientation: angular hole burning (AHB), angular redistribution (AR), Cis molecules gain has been determined by two-beam coupling (2BC) measurements. The effect of the polarization of the writing beams on the grating and of a circularly polarized photoisomerizing radiation during grating erasure has been interpreted in terms of an orientation contribution to the grating formation.

  9. Cryogenic Volume-Phase Holographic Grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Yamada, Toru; Tokoku, Chihiro; Onodera, Masato; Hanesaka, Mai; Kodate, Kashiko; Katsuno Uchimoto, Yuka; Maruyama, Miyoko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    We have developed high-dispersion VPH (volume phase holographic) grisms with zinc selenide (ZnSe) prisms for the cryogenic optical system of MOIRCS (Multi-Object near-InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph) for Y-, J-, H-, and K-band observations. We fabricated VPH gratings using a hologram resin. After several heat cycles at between room temperature and 120 K, the VPH gratings were assembled to grisms by gluing with two ZnSe prisms. Several heat cycles were also carried out for the grisms before being installed into MOIRCS. We measured the efficiencies of the VPH grisms in a laboratory, and found them to be 70%-82%. The performances obtained by observations of MOIRCS with the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope have been found to be very consistent with the results in the laboratory test. This is the first astronomical application of cryogenic VPH grisms.

  10. Holographic anticounterfeit method and device with encoded pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pai P.

    1999-06-01

    An advanced holographic anti-counterfeit method and device is proposed to make the labels, which are used to identify the commercial products, being highly difficult to duplicate. This method provides a dot-matrix hologram, which is formed with a synthesized image including a random dispersed background pattern and a creative graphic design as a hidden pattern encoded into the background pattern. The background pattern is visible to the naked eyes of a viewer, but the hidden pattern can be viewed only through a special viewing device, such as a lenticular lens sheet. If the lenticular lens sheet covers the hologram irrelevantly or with an unfitted specification, the hidden pattern can't be decoded, and the moire effect will appear. A logo of U.S. MAIL is demonstrated as the encoded pattern, and the synthesized image is recorded in a 35 mm X 35 nm dot- matrix hologram on the photo-plate.

  11. Difference Holographic Interferometry Of Light-Bulbs At Direct Transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyimesi, F.; Fuzessy, Z.

    1990-04-01

    Difference holographic interferometry makes the direct interferometric comparison of two objects possible by using holographic illuminations. In the present paper the case of phase objects is investigated at direct transillumination.

  12. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  13. Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Roberto; De Sio, Luciano; Veltri, Alessandro; Umeton, Cesare; Sukhov, Andrey V

    2004-06-01

    We present a new kind of UV-cured holographic grating that consists of polymer slices alternated with pure nematic films. By preventing the appearance of the nematic phase during the curing process, it is possible to avoid the formation of liquid-crystal droplets and obtain a sharp and uniform morphology, which reduces scattering losses and increases diffraction efficiency.

  14. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  15. The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that…

  16. Highly-dispersed Ta-oxide catalysts prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous plating bath for polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Cha, Dongkyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-09-18

    The Ta-oxide cathode catalysts were prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous solution. These catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity and have an onset potential of 0.92 V(RHE) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The highly-dispersed Ta species at the nanometer scale on the carbon black was an important contributor to the high activity.

  17. A Cross-Linking Succinonitrile-Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte with Uniformly Dispersed Vinyl-Functionalized SiO2 Particles for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Ding, Fei; Liu, Jiaquan; Zhang, Qingqing; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jinli; Xu, Qiang

    2016-09-14

    A cross-linking succinonitrile (SN)-based composite polymer electrolyte (referred to as "CLPC-CPE"), in which vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles connect with trimethylolpropane propoxylate triacrylate (TPPTA) monomers by covalent bonds, was prepared by an ultraviolet irradiation (UV-curing) process successfully. Vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles may react with TPPTA monomers to form a cross-linking network within the SN-based composite polymer electrolyte under ultraviolet irradiation. Vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles as the fillers of polymer electrolyte may improve both the thermal stability of CLPC-CPE and interfacial compatibility between CLPC-CPE and electrodes effectively. There is no weight loss for CLPC-CPE until above 230 °C. The ionic conductivity of CLPC-CPE may reach 7.02 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 25 °C. CLPC-CPE has no significant oxidation current until up to 4.6 V (vs Li/Li(+)). The cell of LiFePO4/CLPC-CPE/Li has presented superior cycle performance and rate capability. The cell of LiFePO4/CLPC-CPE/Li may deliver a high discharge capacity of 154.4 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 C after 100 charge-discharge cycles, which is similar than that of the control cell of LiFePO4/liquid electrolyte/Li. Furthermore, the cell of LiFePO4/CLPC-CPE/Li can display a high discharge capacity of 112.7 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 2 C, which is higher than that of the cells assembled with other plastic crystal polymer electrolyte reported before obviously.

  18. Formation of Pickering emulsions stabilized via interaction between nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous phase and polymer end groups dissolved in oil phase.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hayata; Fujii, Syuji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-06-26

    The influence of end groups of a polymer dissolved in an oil phase on the formation of a Pickering-type hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion and on the morphology of HAp nanoparticle-coated microspheres prepared by evaporating solvent from the emulsion was investigated. Polystyrene (PS) molecules with varying end groups and molecular weights were used as model polymers. Although HAp nanoparticles alone could not function as a particulate emulsifier for stabilizing dichloromethane (oil) droplets, oil droplets could be stabilized with the aid of carboxyl end groups of the polymers dissolved in the oil phase. Lower-molecular-weight PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups formed small droplets and deflated microspheres, due to the higher concentration of carboxyl groups on the droplet/microsphere surface and hence stronger adsorption of the nanoparticles at the water/oil interface. In addition, Pickering-type suspension polymerization of styrene droplets stabilized by PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups successfully led to the formation of spherical HAp-coated microspheres.

  19. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  20. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.