Holographic Ricci dark energy as running vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Paxy; Mathew, Titus K.
2016-04-01
Holographic Ricci dark energy (DE) that has been proposed ago has faced problems of future singularity. In the present work, we consider the Ricci DE with an additive constant in its density as running vacuum energy. We have analytically solved the Friedmann equations and also the role played by the general conservation law followed by the cosmic components together. We have shown that the running vacuum energy status of the Ricci DE helps to remove the possible future singularity in the model. The additive constant in the density of the running vacuum played an important role, such that, without that, the model predicts either eternal deceleration or eternal acceleration. But along with the additive constant, equivalent to a cosmological constant, the model predicts a late time acceleration in the expansion of the universe, and in the far future of the evolution it tends to de Sitter universe.
Cosmological consequences of interacting modified holographic Ricci dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit
2016-07-01
In this present work, we have studied various aspects of modified holographic Ricci dark energy interacting with pressureless dark matter in a flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe. We have observed that reconstructed Hubble parameter H={dot{a}}/{a}, expressed as a function of redshift z=a^{-1}-1, exhibits an increasing pattern with evolution of the universe. The equation of state parameter has behaved like ``quintessence" for various combinations of α and β. Deceleration parameter has stayed in negative level and this has indicated accelerated expansion of the universe. Fractional densities expressed as function of z has indicated transition of the universe from a matter dominated to dark energy dominated phase. Finally we have created statefinder trajectories in {r-s} plane and we have observed that for modified holographic Ricci dark energy interacting with pressureless dark matter it is possible to attain ΛCDM phase of the universe.
Quantisation of the holographic Ricci dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albarran, Imanol; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam
2015-08-01
While general relativity is an extremely robust theory to describe the gravitational interaction in our Universe, it is expected to fail close to singularities like the cosmological ones. On the other hand, it is well known that some dark energy models might induce future singularities; this can be the case for example within the setup of the Holographic Ricci Dark Energy model (HRDE). On this work, we perform a cosmological quantisation of the HRDE model and obtain under which conditions a cosmic doomsday can be avoided within the quantum realm. We show as well that this quantum model not only avoid future singularities but also the past Big Bang.
Anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy cosmological model with hybrid expansion law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kanika; Sultana, Tazmin
2015-11-01
Here in this paper we present a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-II metric filled with dark matter and anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy. To solve the Einstein's field equations we have taken the hybrid expansion law (HEL) which exhibits a cosmic transition of the universe from decelerating to accelerating phase. We have investigated the physical and geometrical properties of the model. It is observed that the anisotropy of the universe and that of the modified holographic Ricci dark energy tends to zero at later times and the universe becomes homogeneous, isotropic and flat. We have also studied the cosmic jerk parameter.
f(T) Gravity from Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model with New Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peng; Huang, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Fang-Fang
2013-11-01
Commonly used boundary conditions in reconstructing f(T) gravity from holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model are found to cause some problem, we therefore propose new boundary conditions in this paper. By reconstructing f(T) gravity from the RDE with these new boundary conditions, we show that the new ones are better than the present commonly used ones since they can give the physically expected information, which is lost when the commonly used ones are taken in the reconstruction, of the resulting f(T) theory. Thus, the new boundary conditions proposed here are more suitable for the reconstruction of f(T) gravity.
Modified Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model and Statefinder Diagnosis in Flat Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathew, Titus K.; Suresh, Jishnu; Divakaran, Divya
2013-07-01
Evolution of the universe with modified holographic Ricci dark energy model is considered. Dependency of the equation of state parameter and deceleration parameter on the redshift and model parameters are obtained. It is shown that the density evolution of both the nonrelativistic matter and dark energy are same until recent times. The evolutionary trajectories of the model for different model parameters are obtained in the statefinder planes, r - s and r - q planes. The present statefinder parameters are obtained for different model parameter values, using that the model is differentiated from other standard models like the ΛCDM model. We have also shown that the evolutionary trajectories are depending on the model parameters, and at past times the dark energy is behaving like cold dark matter, with equation of state equal to zero.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, En-Kun; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Jin-Ling; Duan, Peng-Fei
2015-11-01
Generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Bianchi Type I universe with the generalized holographic Ricci dark energy model is studied in this paper. The behavior of dark energy's equation of state parameter indicates that it is matter-like in the early time of the universe but phantom-like in the future. By analysing the evolution of the deviations of state parameter and the total pressure of the universe, we find that for an anisotropic Bianchi Type I universe, it transits from a high anisotropy stage to a more homogeneous stage in the near past. Using the normal entropy given by Gibbs' law of thermodynamics, it is proved that the generalized second law of thermodynamics does not always satisfied throughout the history of the universe when we assume the universe is enclosed by the generalized Ricci scalar radius R_{gr}. It becomes invalid in the near past to the future, and the formation of the galaxies will be helpful in explaining such phenomenon, for that the galaxies's formation is an entropy increase process. The negative change rate of the horizon entropy and internal entropy occur in different period indicates that the influences of galaxies formation is wiped from internal to the universe's horizon.
Interacting Ricci Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Khomenko, Iuliia
2013-11-01
In the derivation of Holographic Dark Energy (HDE), the area law of the black hole entropy assumes a crucial role. However, the entropy-area relation can be modified including some quantum effects, motivated from the Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG), string theory and black hole physics. In this paper, we study the cosmological implications of the interacting logarithmic entropy-corrected HDE (LECHDE) model in the framework of Brans-Dicke (BD) cosmology. As system’s infrared (IR) cut-off, we choose the average radius of Ricci scalar curvature, i.e. R -1/2. We obtain the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ω D , the deceleration parameter q and the evolution of energy density parameter of our model in a non-flat universe. Moreover, we study the limiting cases corresponding to our model without corrections and to the Einstein’s gravity.
Instability in interacting dark sector: an appropriate holographic Ricci dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Ramón; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Videla, Nelson
2016-08-01
In this paper we investigate the consequences of phantom crossing considering the perturbative dynamics in models with interaction in their dark sector. By mean of a general study of gauge-invariant variables in comoving gauge, we relate the sources of instabilities in the structure formation process with the phantom crossing. In order to illustrate these relations and its consequences in more detail, we consider a specific case of an holographic dark energy interacting with dark matter. We find that in spite of the model is in excellent agreement with observational data at background level, however it is plagued of instabilities in its perturbative dynamics. We reconstruct the model in order to avoid these undesirable instabilities, and we show that this implies a modification of the concordance model at background. Also we find drastic changes on the parameters space in our model when instabilities are avoided.
Interacting Ricci dark energy with logarithmic correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Jamil, Mubasher; Myrzakulov, R.
2012-07-01
Motivated by the holographic principle, it has been suggested that the dark energy density may be inversely proportional to the area A of the event horizon of the universe. However, such a model would have a causality problem. In this work, we consider the entropy-corrected version of the holographic dark energy model in the non-flat FRW universe and we propose to replace the future event horizon area with the inverse of the Ricci scalar curvature. We obtain the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω Λ, the deceleration parameter q and ΩD' in the presence of interaction between Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM). Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon, K-essence, dilaton and quintessence scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Khurshudyan, Martiros; Aly, Ayman A.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we studied the cosmological application of the interacting Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in the framework of the scalar Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity model. We studied the properties of the reconstructed potential , the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), the Weak Energy Condition (WEC) and the deceleration parameter q for three different models of scale factor, i.e. the emergent, the intermediate and the logamediate one. We obtained that , for the emergent scenario, has a decreasing behavior, while, for the logamediate scenario, the potential start with an increasing behavior then, for later times, it shows a slowly decreasing behavior. Finally, for the intermediate scenario, the potential has an initial increasing behavior, then for a time of t≈1.2, it starts to decrease. We also found that both SEC and WEC are violated for all the three scale factors considered. Finally, studying the plots of q, we derived that an accelerated universe can be achieved for the three models of scale factor considered.
Thermodynamics of interacting holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arevalo, Fabiola; Cifuentes, Paulo; Peña, Francisco
2016-01-01
The thermodynamics of a scheme of dark matter-dark energy interaction is studied considering a holographic model for the dark energy in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We obtain a total entropy rate for a general horizon and we study the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics for a cosmological interaction as a free function. Additionally, we discuss two horizons related to the Ricci and Ricci-like model and its effect on an interacting system.
Can holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Momeni, Davood; Altaibayeva, Aziza; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2015-03-01
Motivated by the quantum essence of wormholes, in this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris-Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy. Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.
Interacting Ricci dark energy in scalar Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Pasqua, Antonio; Aly, Ayman A.
2014-02-01
This paper reports a study on the cosmological application of interacting Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) density in the scalar Gauss-Bonnet framework. The interacting holographic RDE model has been employed to obtain the equation of state (EoS) in a spatially flat universe. The main results of this paper are that the reconstructed potential of scalar Gauss-Bonnet gravity for the interacting RDE model decays with the evolution of the universe. However, it is an increasing function of the scalar field . Both the strong and weak energy conditions are violated. A phantom-like behavior of the EoS parameter has been obtained. The effective EoS parameter stays below -1 but tends to -1 with the evolution of the universe. However, it cannot cross the phantom boundary. Finally, the interacting RDE model in Gauss-Bonnet gravity gives accelerated expansion of the universe.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model
Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com
2012-01-01
We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.
Power-law and logarithmic entropy-corrected Ricci viscous dark energy and dynamics of scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio
2013-08-01
In this work, I consider the logarithmic-corrected and the power-law corrected versions of the holographic dark energy (HDE) model in the non-flat FRW universe filled with a viscous Dark Energy (DE) interacting with Dark Matter (DM). I propose to replace the infra-red cut-off with the inverse of the Ricci scalar curvature R. I obtain the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω Λ , the deceleration parameter q and the evolution of energy density parameter \\varOmegaD' in the presence of interaction between DE and DM for both corrections. I study the correspondence of the logarithmic entropy corrected Ricci Dark Dnergy (LECRDE) and power-law entropy corrected Ricci Dark Energy (PLECRDE) models with the the Modified Chaplygin Gas (MCG) and some scalar fields including tachyon, K-essence, dilaton and quintessence. I also make comparisons with previous results.
Reconstruction and stability of f( R, T) gravity with Ricci and modified Ricci dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Zubair, M.
2014-01-01
We take the Ricci and modified Ricci dark energy models to establish a connection with f( R, T) gravity, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The function f( R, T) is reconstructed by considering this theory as an effective description of these models. We consider a specific model which permits the standard continuity equation in this modified theory. It is found that f( R, T) functions can reproduce expansion history of the considered models which is in accordance with the present observational data. We also explore the Dolgov-Kawasaki stability condition for the reconstructed f( R, T) functions.
Power-law entropy-corrected Ricci dark energy and dynamics of scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Jamil, Mubasher; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Majeed, Bushra
2012-10-01
Motivated by the holographic principle, it has previously been suggested that the dark energy (DE) density can be inversely proportional to the area A of the event horizon of the Universe. However, this kind of model would have a casuality problem. In this work, we study the power-law entropy-corrected holographic DE (PLECHDE) model in the non-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, with the future event horizon replaced by the average radius of the Ricci scalar curvature. We derive the equation of state parameter ωΛ, the deceleration parameter q and the evolution of energy density parameter ΩD‧ in the presence of interaction between DE and dark matter. We consider the correspondence between our Ricci-PLECHDE model and the modified Chaplygin gas and the tachyon, K-essence, dilaton and quintessence scalar fields. The potential and dynamics of the scalar field models have been reconstructed according to the evolutionary behaviour of the interacting entropy-corrected holographic DE model.
Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Abbaspour Moghaddam, Z.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Som, S.; Sil, A.
2014-08-01
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
Inflation with holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Li, Miao; Wang, Yi
2007-07-01
We investigate the corrections of the holographic dark energy to inflation paradigm. We study the evolution of the holographic dark energy in the inflationary universe in detail, and carry out a model-independent analysis on the holographic dark energy corrections to the primordial scalar power spectrum. It turns out that the corrections generically make the spectrum redder. To be consistent with the experimental data, there must be a upper bound on the reheating temperature. We also discuss the corrections due to different choices of the infrared cutoff.
A dynamical system analysis of holographic dark energy models with different IR cutoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahata, Nilanjana; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2015-07-01
The paper deals with a dynamical system analysis of the cosmological evolution of an holographic dark energy (HDE) model interacting with dark matter (DM) which is chosen in the form of dust. The infrared cutoff of the holographic model is considered as future event horizon or Ricci length scale. The interaction term between dark energy (DE) and DM is chosen of following three types: (i) proportional to the sum of the energy densities of the two dark components, (ii) proportional to the product of the matter energy densities and (iii) proportional to DE density. The dynamical equations are reduced to an autonomous system for the three cases and corresponding phase space is analyzed.
Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M. R.
2009-08-01
We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include G-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the G-variation.
Reconstructing f(R, t) Gravity from Holographic Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houndjo, M. J. S.; Piattella, Oliver F.
2012-03-01
We consider cosmological scenarios based on f(R, T) theories of gravity (R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor) and numerically reconstruct the function f(R, T) which is able to reproduce the same expansion history generated, in the standard General Relativity theory, by dark matter and holographic dark energy. We consider two special f(R, T) models: in the first instance, we investigate the modification R + 2f(T), i.e. the usual Einstein-Hilbert term plus a f(T) correction. In the second instance, we consider a f(R) + λT theory, i.e. a T correction to the renown f(R) theory of gravity.
G-corrected holographic dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekjani, M.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.
2013-08-01
Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of G, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of G. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of G-corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of G on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for G-corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in s- r plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.
Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hao
2009-10-01
The holographic dark energy (HDE) is now an interesting candidate of dark energy, which has been studied extensively in the literature. In the derivation of HDE, the black hole entropy plays an important role. In fact, the entropy-area relation can be modified due to loop quantum gravity or other reasons. With the modified entropy-area relation, we propose the so-called “entropy-corrected holographic dark energy" (ECHDE) in the present work. We consider many aspects of ECHDE and find some interesting results. In addition, we briefly consider the so-called “entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy" (ECADE).
Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction
Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar E-mail: mufarooq@yahoo.com
2010-03-01
The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Aly, Ayman A.
2013-10-01
In this work, we study the power-law and the logarithmic entropy corrected versions of the Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in the framework of the Brans-Dicke cosmology non-minimally coupled with a chameleon scalar field ϕ. Considering the presence of interaction between Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM), we derived the expressions of some relevant cosmological parameters, i.e. the equation of state parameter ω D , the deceleration parameter q and the evolution of the energy density parameter \\varOmega'D.
Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landim, Ricardo C. G.
2016-02-01
We embed models of holographic dark energy (HDE) coupled to dark matter (DM) in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared (IR) cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the DE. The second case has the future event horizon as IR cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodam-Mohammadi, A.
In this work, the PLECHDE model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR-cutoff is studied. The evolution of dark energy density, deceleration and EoS parameters are calculated. I demonstrate that under a condition, our universe can accelerate near the phantom barrier at present time. We calculate these parameters also in PLECHDE at Ricci scale, when α = 2 and β = 1, and a comparison between Ricci scale, G-O cutoff and non-corrected HDE without matter field with G-O cutoff is done. The correspondence between this model and some scalar field of dark energy models is established. By this method, the evolutionary treatment of kinetic energy and potential for quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton fields, are obtained. I show that the results has a good compatibility with previous work in the limiting case of flat, dark dominated and non-corrected holographic dark energy.
Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy in the DGP braneworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffari, S.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.
2015-01-01
Many dark energy (DE) models have been proposed, in recent years, to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. It seems necessary to differentiate the various DE models in order to check the viability of each model. The statefinder diagnostic is a useful method to accomplish this. In this paper, we investigate the statefinder diagnosis parameters for the holographic dark energy (HDE) model in two cosmological setups. First, we study the statefinder diagnosis for HDE in the context of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe in Einstein gravity. Then, we extend our study to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld framework. For the system's IR cutoff we choose the Hubble radius and the Granda-Oliveros cutoff inspired by the Ricci scalar curvature. We plot the evolution of statefinder parameters {r ,s } in terms of the redshift parameter z . We also compare the results with those obtained for statefinder diagnosis parameters of other DE models, in particular the Λ CDM model.
Holographic dark energy models: a comparison from the latest observational data
Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xin E-mail: renzhe@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2009-06-01
The holographic principle of quantum gravity theory has been applied to the dark energy (DE) problem, and so far three holographic DE models have been proposed: the original holographic dark energy (HDE) model, the agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model, and the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. In this work, we perform the best-fit analysis on these three models, by using the latest observational data including the Union+CFA3 sample of 397 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The analysis shows that for HDE, χ{sub min}{sup 2} = 465.912; for RDE, χ{sub min}{sup 2} = 483.130; for ADE, χ{sub min}{sup 2} = 481.694. Among these models, HDE model can give the smallest χ{sup 2}{sub min}. Besides, we also use the Bayesian evidence (BE) as a model selection criterion to make a comparison. It is found that for HDE, ADE, and RDE, Δln BE = −0.86, −5.17, and −8.14, respectively. So, it seems that the HDE model is more favored by the observational data.
Power-law entropy-corrected new holographic dark energy in Horava-Lifshitz cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, Bharat; Ansari, M.
2014-12-01
Purpose of this paper is to study power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (PLECHDE) in the frame work of Horava-Lifshitz cosmology with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR-cutoff. Considering interacting and non-interacting scenario of PLECHDE with dark matter in a spatially non-flat universe, we investigate the cosmological implications of this model in detail. We obtain equation of state parameter, deceleration parameter and the evolution of dark energy density to explain the expansion of the universe. We also find out these parameters for Ricci scale. Finally, we find out a cosmological application of our work by evaluating a relation for the equation of state of dark energy for law red-shifts.
Observational constraints to Ricci dark energy model by using: SN, BAO, OHD, fgas data sets
Xu, Lixin; Wang, Yuting E-mail: wangyuting0719@163.com
2010-06-01
We perform a global constraint on the Ricci dark energy model with both the flat case and the non-flat case, using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and the combined observational data from the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, Supernovae of type Ia (397), baryon acoustic oscillations, current Cosmic Microwave Background, and the observational Hubble function. In the flat model, we obtain the best fit values of the parameters in 1σ,2σ regions: Ω{sub m0} = 0.2927{sup +0.0420+0.0542}{sub −0.0323−0.0388}, α = 0.3823{sup +0.0331+0.0415}{sub −0.0418−0.0541}, Age/Gyr = 13.48{sup +0.13+0.17}{sub −0.16−0.21}, H{sub 0} = 69.09{sup +2.56+3.09}{sub −2.37−3.39}. In the non-flat model, the best fit parameters are found in 1σ,2σ regions:Ω{sub m0} = 0.3003{sup +0.0367+0.0429}{sub −0.0371−0.0423}, α = 0.3845{sup +0.0386+0.0521}{sub −0.0474−0.0523}, Ω{sub k} = 0.0240{sup +0.0109+0.0133}{sub −0.0130−0.0153}, Age/Gyr = 12.54{sup +0.51+0.65}{sub −0.37−0.49}, H{sub 0} = 72.89{sup +3.31+3.88}{sub −3.05−3.72}. Compared to the constraint results in the ΛCDM model by using the same datasets, it is shown that the current combined datasets prefer the ΛCDM model to the Ricci dark energy model.
Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui
2015-08-01
Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.
Power Law and Logarithmic Ricci Dark Energy Models in Hořava-Lifshitz Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Khurshudyan, Martiros; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Hakobyan, Margarit; Movsisyan, Artashes
2015-03-01
In this work, we studied the Power Law and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected versions of the Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in a spatially non-flat universe and in the framework of Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology. For the two cases containing non-interacting and interacting RDE and Dark Matter (DM), we obtained the exact differential equation that determines the evolutionary form of the RDE energy density. Moreover, we obtained the expressions of the deceleration parameter q and, using a parametrization of the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω D given by the relation ω D ( z) = ω 0+ ω 1 z, we derived the expressions of both ω 0 and ω 1. We interestingly found that the expression of ω 0 is the same for both non-interacting and interacting case. The expression of ω 1 for the interacting case has strong dependence from the interacting parameter b 2. The parameters derived in this work are done in small redshift approximation and for low redshift expansion of the EoS parameter.
Holographic dark energy and f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghamohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh
2011-02-01
We investigate the corresponding relation between f(R) gravity and holographic dark energy. We introduce a type of energy density from f(R) that has the same role as holographic dark energy. We obtain the differential equation that specifies the evolution of the introduced energy density parameter based on a varying gravitational constant. We discover the relation for the equation of state parameter for low redshifts that contains varying G correction.
Thermodynamical description of the interaction between holographic dark energy and dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin; Lin, Chi-Yong; Pavón, Diego; Abdalla, Elcio
2008-04-01
We present a thermodynamical description of the interaction between holographic dark energy and dark matter. If holographic dark energy and dark matter evolve separately, each of them remains in thermodynamic equilibrium. A small interaction between them may be viewed as a stable thermal fluctuation that brings a logarithmic correction to the equilibrium entropy. From this correction we obtain a physical expression for the interaction which is consistent with phenomenological descriptions and passes reasonably well the observational tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Pasqua, Antonio; Malekjani, M.; Khomenko, Iuliia; Monshizadeh, M.
2013-06-01
In this work, we have studied the logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR cutoff. The evolution of dark energy (DE) density {\\varOmega}'D, the deceleration parameter, q, and equation of state parameter (EoS), ω Λ , are calculated. We show that the phantom divide may be crossed by choosing proper model parameters, even in absence of any interaction between dark energy and dark matter. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^' analysis, the pair parameters { r, s} and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') is calculated for flat GO-LECHDE universe. At present time, the pair { r, s} can mimic the ΛCDM scenario for a value of α/ β≃0.87, which is lower than the corresponding one for observational data ( α/ β=1.76) and for Ricci scale ( α/ β=2). We find that at present, by taking the various values of ( α/ β), the different points in r- s and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') plans are given. Moreover, in the limiting case for a flat dark dominated universe at infinity ( t→∞), we calculate { r, s} at G-O scale. For Ricci scale ( α=2, β=1) we obtain { r=0, s=2/3}.
Logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy with nonminimal kinetic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amani, Ali R.; Sadeghi, J.; Farajollahi, H.; Pourali, M.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we have considered a cosmological model with the non--minimal kinetic coupling terms and investigated its cosmological implications with respect to the logarithmic entropy-- corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE). The correspondence between LECHDE in flat FRW cosmology and the phantom dark energy model with the aim to interpret the current universe acceleration is also examined.
Planck constraints on holographic dark energy
Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2013-09-01
We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup −1}Mpc{sup −1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}−χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ{sup 2} is equal to 6
Holographic dark energy with time varying parameter c 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekjani, M.; Zarei, R.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.
2013-02-01
We consider the holographic dark energy model in which the model parameter c 2 evolves slowly with time. First we calculate the evolution of EoS parameter as well as the deceleration parameter in this generalized version of holographic dark energy (GHDE). Depending on the parameter c 2, the phantom regime can be achieved earlier or later compare with original version of holographic dark energy. The evolution of energy density of GHDE model is investigated in terms of parameter c 2. We also show that the time-dependency of c 2 can effect on the transition epoch from decelerated phase to accelerated expansion. Finally, we perform the statefinder diagnostic for GHDE model and show that the evolutionary trajectories of the model in s- r plane are strongly depend on the parameter c 2.
Power-Law entropy corrected holographic dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, Ahmad; Jamil, Mubasher
2011-10-01
Among various scenarios to explain the acceleration of the universe expansion, the holographic dark energy (HDE) model has got a lot of enthusiasm recently. In the derivation of holographic energy density, the area relation of the black hole entropy plays a crucial role. Indeed, the power-law corrections to entropy appear in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by the power-law corrected entropy, we propose the so-called "power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy" (PLECHDE) in this Letter. We investigate the cosmological implications of this model and calculate some relevant cosmological parameters and their evolution. We also briefly study the so-called "power-law entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy" (PLECADE).
Dynamical behavior of the extended holographic dark energy with the Hubble horizon
Liu Jie; Gong Yungui; Chen Ximing
2010-04-15
The extended holographic dark energy model with the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff avoids the problem of the circular reasoning of the holographic dark energy model. Unfortunately, it is hit with the no-go theorem. In this paper, we consider the extended holographic dark energy model with a potential, V({phi}), for the Brans-Dicke scalar field. With the addition of a potential for the Brans-Dicke scalar field, the extended holographic dark energy model using the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff is a viable dark energy model, and the model has the dark energy dominated attractor solution.
Holographic vortices in the presence of dark matter sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.
2015-12-01
The dark matter seem to be an inevitable ingredient of the total matter configuration in the Universe and the knowledge how the dark matter affects the properties of superconductors is of vital importance for the experiments aimed at its direct detection. The homogeneous magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the surface of (2+1) dimensional s-wave holographic superconductor in the theory with dark matter sector has been modeled by the additional U(1)-gauge field representing dark matter and coupled to the Maxwell one. As expected the free energy for the vortex configuration turns out to be negative. Importantly its value is lower in the presence of dark matter sector. This feature can explain why in the Early Universe first the web of dark matter appeared and next on these gratings the ordinary matter forming cluster of galaxies has formed.
Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavón, Diego
2007-06-01
It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.
Quantum gravity and the holographic dark energy cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastase, Horatiu
2016-04-01
The holographic dark energy model is obtained from a cosmological constant generated by generic quantum gravity effects giving a minimum length. By contrast, the usual bound for the energy density to be limited by the formation of a black hole simply gives the Friedmann equation. The scale of the current cosmological constant relative to the inflationary scale is an arbitrary parameter characterizing initial conditions, which however can be fixed by introducing a physical principle during inflation, as a function of the number of e-folds and the inflationary scale.
Cosmology of some holographic dark energy models in chameleonic Brans-Dicke gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Waheed, Saira
2013-11-01
We study some holographic dark energy models in chameleonic Brans-Dicke field gravity by taking interaction between the dark energy components in FRW universe. Firstly, we take the holographic dark energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off and discuss interacting as well as non-interacting cases. Secondly, we consider the holographic dark energy with both power-law as well as logarithmic corrections using Hubble scale as infrared cut-off in interacting case only. We describe the evolution of some cosmological parameters for these holographic dark energy models. It is concluded that the phantom crossing can be achieved more easily in the presence of chameleonic Brans-Dicke field as compared to simple Brans-Dicke as well as Einstein's gravity. Also, the deceleration parameter strongly confirms the accelerated expanding behavior of the universe.
On the internal consistency of holographic dark energy models
Horvat, R
2008-10-15
Holographic dark energy (HDE) models, underpinned by an effective quantum field theory (QFT) with a manifest UV/IR connection, have become convincing candidates for providing an explanation of the dark energy in the universe. On the other hand, the maximum number of quantum states that a conventional QFT for a box of size L is capable of describing relates to those boxes which are on the brink of experiencing a sudden collapse to a black hole. Another restriction on the underlying QFT is that the UV cut-off, which cannot be chosen independently of the IR cut-off and therefore becomes a function of time in a cosmological setting, should stay the largest energy scale even in the standard cosmological epochs preceding a dark energy dominated one. We show that, irrespective of whether one deals with the saturated form of HDE or takes a certain degree of non-saturation in the past, the above restrictions cannot be met in a radiation dominated universe, an epoch in the history of the universe which is expected to be perfectly describable within conventional QFT.
Thermodynamical Aspects of Modified Holographic Dark Energy Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hui; Zhang, Yi
2014-07-01
We investigate the unified first law and the generalized second law in a modified holographic dark energy model. The thermodynamical analysis on the apparent horizon can work and the corresponding entropy formula is extracted from the systematic algorithm. The entropy correction term depends on the extra-dimension number of the brane as expected, but the interplay between the correction term and the extra dimensions is more complicated. With the unified first law of thermodynamics well-founded, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is discussed and it is found that the second law can be violated in certain circumstances. Particularly, if the number of the extra dimensions is larger than one, the generalized law of thermodynamics is always satisfied; otherwise, the validity of the second law can only be guaranteed with the Hubble radius greatly smaller than the crossover scale rc of the 5-dimensional DGP model.
Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy f(T) Gravity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Rani, Shamaila
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the power-law entropy corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) model in the framework of f(T) gravity. We assume infrared (IR) cutoff in terms of Granda-Oliveros (GO) length and discuss the constructed f(T) model in interacting as well as in non-interacting scenarios. We explore some cosmological parameters like equation of state (EoS), deceleration, statefinder parameters as well as ωT-ωT‧ analysis. The EoS and deceleration parameters indicate phantom behavior of the accelerated expansion of the universe. It is mentioned here that statefinder trajectories represent consistent results with ΛCDM limit, while evolution trajectory of ωT-ωT‧ phase plane does not approach to ΛCDM limit for both interacting and non-interacting cases.
Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvat, R.
2015-11-01
In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c = 1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.
Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant
Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M.R. E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn
2010-03-01
We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1σ we find Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub −0.03}, Ω{sub k0} = −0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub −0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub −0.14} and Δ{sub G}≡G'/G = −0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub −0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = −1.04{sup +0.15}{sub −0.20}.
Holographic Dark Energy in Higher Derivative Gravity with Varying Gravitational Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, Bharat; Ansari, M.
2013-09-01
In this paper we investigate the holographic dark energy scenario in higher derivative gravity with a varying gravitational constant. We introduce a kind of energy density from higher derivative gravity which has role of the same as holographic dark energy. We obtain the exact differential equation , which determine the evolution of the dark energy density based on varying gravitational constant G. We also find out a cosmological application of our work by evaluating a relation for the equation of state of dark energy for low redshifts containing varying G correction.
Contact term, its holographic description in QCD and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2012-08-01
In this work we study the well-known contact term, which is the key element in resolving the so-called U(1)A problem in QCD. We study this term using the dual holographic description. We argue that in the dual picture the contact term is saturated by the D2-branes which can be interpreted as the tunneling events in Minkowski space-time. We quote a number of direct lattice results supporting this identification. We also argue that the contact term receives a Casimir-like correction ˜(ΛQCDR)-1 rather than the naively expected exp(-ΛQCDR) when the Minkowski space-time R3,1 is replaced by a large but finite manifold with a size R. Such a behavior is consistent with other quantum field theory (QFT)-based computations when powerlike corrections are due to nontrivial properties of topological sectors of the theory. In holographic description, such a behavior is due to a massless Ramond-Ramond (RR) field living in the bulk of multidimensional space when powerlike corrections is a natural outcome of a massless RR field. In many respects, the phenomenon is similar to the Aharonov-Casher effect when the “modular electric field” can penetrate into a superconductor where the electric field is exponentially screened. The role of “modular operator” from the Aharonov-Casher effect is played by a large-gauge transformation operator T in four-dimensional QCD, resulting in the transparency of the system to topologically nontrivial pure gauge configurations. We discuss some profound consequences of our findings. In particular, we speculate that a slow variation of the contact term in expanding universe might be the main source of the observed dark energy.
Zero cosmological constant and nonzero dark energy from the holographic principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jae-Weon
2013-09-01
The first law of thermodynamics and the holographic principle applied to an arbitrary large cosmic causal horizon are shown to naturally demand a zero cosmological constant and a non-zero dynamical dark energy in the form of the holographic dark energy. A semiclassical analysis shows that the holographic dark energy has a parameter d = 1 and an equation of state comparable to current observational data if the entropy of the horizon saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking bound. This result indicates that quantum field theory should be modified on a large scale to explain the dark energy. The relations among the dark energy, the quantum vacuum energy and the entropic gravity are also discussed.
Cosmic accelerated expansion and the entropy-corrected holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, H. Mohseni; Jamil, Mubasher
2011-06-01
By considering the logarithmic correction to the energy density, we study the behavior of Hubble parameter in the holographic dark energy model. We assume that the universe is dominated by interacting dark energy and matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe, which may be occurred in the early universe or late time, is studied.
Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology
Setare, M.R.; Jamil, Mubasher E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk
2010-02-01
We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.
Quantum UV/IR relations and holographic dark energy from entropic force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Miao; Wang, Yi
2010-04-01
We investigate the implications of the entropic force formalism proposed by Verlinde. We show that an UV/IR relation proposed by Cohen et al., as well as an uncertainty principle proposed by Hogan can be derived from the entropic force formalism. We show that applying the entropic force formalism to cosmology, there is an additional term in the Friedmann equation, which can be identified as holographic dark energy. We also propose an intuitive picture of holographic screen, which can be thought of as an improvement of Susskind's holographic screen.
Holographic Dark Energy Model with Time Varying G as Well as c 2 Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, Bharat; Ansari, M.
2014-04-01
In this paper, we study a holographic dark energy model with time varying gravitational constant G as well as holographic parameter c 2 in flat FRW space-time geometry. We obtain the evolution of equation of state parameter and the exact differential equation, which determine the evolution of the dark energy density based on varying G and c 2 parameter. Also, we determine the deceleration parameter to explain the expansion of the universe. Further, we study the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. Finally, we find out a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the holographic dark energy equation of state for low red-shifts containing both varying G and c 2 parameter corrections.
Revisit of the interaction between holographic dark energy and dark matter
Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Li, Song; Li, Miao; Zhang, Xin E-mail: sli@itp.ac.cn E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2012-06-01
In this paper we investigate the possible direct, non-gravitational interaction between holographic dark energy (HDE) and dark matter. Firstly, we start with two simple models with the interaction terms Q∝ρ{sub dm} and Q∝ρ{sub de}, and then we move on to the general form Q∝ρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub de}{sup β}. The cosmological constraints of the models are obtained from the joint analysis of the present Union2.1+BAO+CMB+H{sub 0} data. We find that the data slightly favor an energy flow from dark matter to dark energy, although the original HDE model still lies in the 95.4% confidence level (CL) region. For all models we find c < 1 at the 95.4% CL. We show that compared with the cosmic expansion, the effect of interaction on the evolution of ρ{sub dm} and ρ{sub de} is smaller, and the relative increment (decrement) amount of the energy in the dark matter component is constrained to be less than 9% (15%) at the 95.4% CL. By introducing the interaction, we find that even when c < 1 the big rip still can be avoided due to the existence of a de Sitter solution at z→−1. We show that this solution can not be accomplished in the two simple models, while for the general model such a solution can be achieved with a large β, and the big rip may be avoided at the 95.4% CL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, D. R. K.; Raju, P.; Sobhanbabu, K.
2016-04-01
Five dimensional spherically symmetric space-time filled with two minimally interacting fields; matter and holographic dark energy components is investigated in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961). To obtain a determinate solution of the highly non-linear field equations we have used (i) a relation between metric potentials and (ii) an equation of state which represents disordered radiation in five dimensional universe. The solution obtained represents a minimally interacting and radiating holographic dark energy model in five dimensional universe. Some physical and Kinematical properties of the model are, also, studied.
Holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with logarithmic correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Karami, K.; Jamil, M.; Kazemi, E.; Haddad, M.
2012-03-01
In the derivation of holographic dark energy density, the area law of the black hole entropy plays a crucial role. However, the entropy-area relation can be modified from the inclusion of quantum effects, motivated from the loop quantum gravity, string theory and black hole physics. In this paper, we study cosmological implication of the interacting entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters of the entropy-corrected holographic dark energy in a non-flat Universe. As system's IR cutoff we choose the radius of the event horizon measured on the sphere of the horizon, defined as L = ar( t). We find out that when the entropy-corrected holographic dark energy is combined with the Brans-Dicke field, the transition from normal state where w D > -1 to the phantom regime where w D < -1 for the equation of state of interacting dark energy can be more easily achieved for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made.
Thermodynamics of Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy in a Non-Flat FRW Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Sheykhi, Ahmad; Farooq, M. Umar
An entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) was recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Using this new definition, we investigate its thermodynamical features including entropy and energy conservation. We describe the thermodynamical interpretation of the interaction between ECHDE and dark matter in a non-flat universe. We obtain a relation between the interaction term of the dark components and thermal fluctuation. Our study further generalizes the earlier works86, 87 in this direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Jamil, Mubasher
2011-01-01
Recently one of us derived the action of modified gravity consistent with the holographic and new-agegraphic dark energy. In this paper, we investigate the stability of the Lagrangians of the modified gravity as discussed in (Setare in Int J Mod Phys D 17:2219, 2008; Setare in Astrophys Space Sci 326:27, 2010). We also calculate the statefinder parameters which classify our dark energy model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sanjay
2016-01-01
The present work deals with the accretion of two interacting fluids: dark matter and a hypothetical fluid as the holographic dark energy components onto wormhole in a non-flat FRW universe. First of all, following Cruz et al. (Phys. Lett. B 669, 271 2008), we obtained an exact solution of the Einstein's field equations. Solution describes effectively the actual acceleration and indicates a big rip type future singularity of the universe. After that we have studied the evolution of the mass of wormhole embedded in this FRW universe in order to reproduce a stable universe protected against future-time singularity. We found that the accretion of these dark components leads to a gradual increase of wormhole mass. It is also observed that contrary to the case as shown by Cruz et al. (Phys. Lett. B 669, 271 2008), the big rip singularity of the universe with a divergent Hubble parameter of this dark energy model may be avoided by a big trip. We have established a correspondence between the holographic dark energy with the polytropic gas dark energy model and obtained the potential as well as dynamics of the scalar field which describes the polytropic cosmology.
P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.
2016-03-01
The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with dark matter sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the coupling constant α to the dark matter sector is affected by the dark matter density ρD . For ρ D > ρ the transition temperature is a decreasing function of α. The critical chemical potential μ c for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal depends on the chemical potential of dark matter μ D and for μ D = 0 is a decreasing function of α.
Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy with F(R, T) Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, R. Amani; Samiee-Nouri, A.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we consider F(R, T) gravity as a linear function of the curvature and torsion scalars and interact it with logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy to evaluate cosmology solutions. The model is investigated by FRW metric, and then the energy density and the pressure of dark energy are calculated. Also we obtain equation of state (EoS) parameter of dark energy and plot it with respect to both variable of redshift and e-folding number. Finally, we describe the scenario in three status: early, late and future time by e-folding number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, K.; Khaledian, M. S.; Jamil, Mubasher
2011-02-01
Here we consider the entropy-corrected version of the holographic dark energy (DE) model in the non-flat universe. We obtain the equation of state parameter in the presence of interaction between DE and dark matter. Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting entropy-corrected holographic DE model.
Holographic entanglement entropy in insulator/superconductor transitions with dark matter sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yan; Chen, Lu; Liu, Guohua
2016-05-01
We generalize the Stückelberg holographic superconductor model by including dark matter sector in the five-dimensional AdS soliton space-time beyond the probe limit. We study phase transitions with large charge of the scalar field through the condensation of the scalar operator and the holographic topological entanglement entropy of the system. We find that the entanglement entropy is a good probe of the order of phase transitions and second-order critical phase transition points. By investigating the behaviors of the entanglement entropy, we show that the larger coupling parameter α makes the first-order phase transition more difficult to happen. In all, we conclude that the entanglement entropy can be used to study the effects of the dark matter sector in this general insulator/superconductor system.
Revisit of the interacting holographic dark energy model after Planck 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xin
2016-08-01
We investigate the observational constraints on the interacting holographic dark energy model. We consider five typical interacting models with the interaction terms Q = 3βHρde, Q = 3βHρc, Q = 3βH(ρde+ρc), Q = 3βH√ρdeρc, and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc, respectively, where β is a dimensionless coupling constant. The observational data we use in this paper include the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae data, the Planck 2015 distance priors data of cosmic microwave background observation, the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, and the Hubble constant direct measurement. We make a comparison for these five interacting holographic dark energy models by employing the information criteria, and we find that, within the framework of holographic dark energy, the Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc model is most favored by current data, and the Q = 3βHρc model is relatively not favored by current data. For the Q = 3βHρde and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc models, a positive coupling β can be detected at more than 2σ significance.
Correspondence between entropy-corrected holographic and Gauss-Bonnet dark-energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Jamil, Mubasher
2010-11-01
In the present work we investigate the cosmological implications of the entropy-corrected holographic dark-energy (ECHDE) density in the Gauss-Bonnet framework. This is motivated from the loop quantum gravity corrections to the entropy-area law. Assuming the two cosmological scenarios are valid simultaneously, we show that there is a correspondence between the ECHDE scenario in flat universe and the phantom dark-energy model in the framework of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with a potential. This correspondence leads consistently to an accelerating universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavirad, Hamzeh; Malekjani, Mohammad
2014-02-01
We constrain holographic dark energy (HDE) with time varying gravitational coupling constant in the framework of the modified Friedmann equations using cosmological data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic microwave background radiation and X-ray gas mass fraction. Applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, we obtain the best fit values of the model and cosmological parameters within 1 σ confidence level (CL) in a flat universe as: , , and the HDE constant . Using the best fit values, the equation of state of the dark component at the present time w d0 at 1 σ CL can cross the phantom boundary w=-1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jianyong; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, Ru-Keng
2005-03-01
Using the recently obtained holographic cosmic duality, we reached a reasonable quantitative agreement between predictions of the cosmic microwave background radiation at small l and the WMAP observations, showing the power of the holographic idea. We also got constraints on the dark energy and its behaviour as a function of the redshift upon relating it to the small l CMB spectrum. For a redshift independent dark energy, our constraint is consistent with the supernova results, which again shows the correctness of the cosmic duality prescription. We have also extended our study to the redshift dependence of the dark energy.
A 5D holographic dark energy in DGP-BRANE cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajollahi, H.; Ravanpak, A.
2014-02-01
This paper is aimed to investigate 5D holographic dark energy (HDE) in DGP-Brane cosmology by employing a combination of Sne Ia, BAO and CMB observational data and constraining cosmological parameters. The FRW dynamics for the normal branch ( ɛ=+1) solution of induced gravity brane-world model is taken with the assumption that matter in 5D bulk is HDE such that its holographic nature is reproduced effectively in 4D universe. In the HDE model, we used Hubble horizon as IR cutoff instead of future event horizon. This way, while the model predicts current universe acceleration, it also removes the problem of circular reasoning and causality observed in using future event horizon as IR cutoff.
The entropy-corrected holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke cosmology with varying mass fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajollahi, H.; Tayebi, F.
2013-07-01
We aim in this paper to study Brans-Dicke cosmology in the presence of varying mass fermions and a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we also probe the entropy corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) in the model in two non-interacting and interacting scenarios. The model parameters are constrained by using the recent SNe Ia observational data and tested against observational data of Hubble parameter. For a comparison, we also constrained and tested the cosmological parameters in ΛCDM model with the same observational data. We show that in non of the scenarios the model prediction is better than ΛCDM model.
Entropy-corrected holographic scalar field models of dark energy in Kaluza-Klein universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Jawad, Abdul
2013-12-01
We investigate the evolution of interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic corrections in the flat Kaluza-Klein universe. We evaluate the equation of state parameter and also reconstruct the scalar field models in this scenario. For this purpose, the well-known choice of scale factor in the power law form is taken. It is interesting to mention here that the corresponding equation of state parameter crosses the phantom divide line for a particular choice of interacting parameters. Finally, we conclude that the behavior of the dynamical scalar field as well as the scalar potential is consistent with the present observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sanjay
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have considered the closed FRW universe filled with two interacting fluids; dark matter and holographic dark energy components. Under certain conditions, this dark energy model is characterised by a big rip type future singularity and therefore a finite life time of the universe (Cruz et al., 2008). As the universe passes through a significant time when the matter and the dark energy densities are roughly comparable between the matter and the dark energy dominated era. So, we calculated the fraction of total life time of the universe when the universe passes through the coincidental stage for this future singularity by considering 1/ro
Interacting entropy-corrected holographic dark energy with apparent horizon as an infrared cutoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Malekjani, M.
2012-05-01
In this work we consider the entropy-corrected version of interacting holographic dark energy (HDE), in the non-flat universe enclosed by apparent horizon. Two corrections of entropy so-called logarithmic `LEC' and power-law `PLEC' in HDE model with apparent horizon as an IR-cutoff are studied. The ratio of dark matter to dark energy densities u, equation of state parameter w D and deceleration parameter q are obtained. We show that the cosmic coincidence problem is solved for interacting models. By studying the effect of interaction in EoS parameter of both models, we see that the phantom divide may be crossed and also understand that the interacting models can drive an acceleration expansion at the present and future, while in non-interacting case, this expansion can happen only at the early time. The graphs of deceleration parameter for interacting models, show that the present acceleration expansion is preceded by a sufficiently long period deceleration at past. Moreover, the thermodynamical interpretation of interaction between LECHDE and dark matter is described. We obtain a relation between the interaction term of dark components and thermal fluctuation in a non-flat universe, bounded by the apparent horizon. In limiting case, for ordinary HDE, the relation of interaction term versus thermal fluctuation is also calculated.
Li, Yun-He; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiao-Dong E-mail: swang@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2013-02-01
In this paper, we report the results of constraining the holographic dark energy model with spatial curvature and massive neutrinos, based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo global fit technique. The cosmic observational data include the full WMAP 7-yr temperature and polarization data, the type Ia supernova data from Union2.1 sample, the baryon acoustic oscillation data from SDSS DR7 and WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, and the latest measurements of H{sub 0} from HST. To deal with the perturbations of dark energy, we adopt the parameterized post-Friedmann method. We find that, for the simplest holographic dark energy model without spatial curvature and massive neutrinos, the phenomenological parameter c < 1 at more than 4σ confidence level. The inclusion of spatial curvature enlarges the error bars and leads to c < 1 only in about 2.5σ range; in contrast, the inclusion of massive neutrinos does not have significant influence on c. We also find that, for the holographic dark energy model with spatial curvature but without massive neutrinos, the 3σ error bars of the current fractional curvature density Ω{sub k0} are still in order of 10{sup −2}; for the model with massive neutrinos but without spatial curvature, the 2σ upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos is Σm{sub ν} < 0.48 eV. Moreover, there exists clear degeneracy between spatial curvature and massive neutrinos in the holographic dark energy model, which enlarges the upper bound of Σm{sub ν} by more than 2 times. In addition, we demonstrate that, making use of the full WMAP data can give better constraints on the holographic dark energy model, compared with the case using the WMAP ''distance priors''.
Scalar field reconstruction of power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Sheykhi, Ahmad
2011-10-01
A so-called 'power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy' (PLECHDE) was recently proposed to explain the dark energy (DE)-dominated universe. This model is based on the power-law corrections to black hole entropy that appear when dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields between the inside and the outside of the horizon. In this paper, we suggest a correspondence between the interacting PLECHDE and the tachyon, quintessence, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models of DE in a non-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Then, we reconstruct the potential terms accordingly, and present the dynamical equations that describe the evolution of the scalar field DE models.
Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj
2016-05-01
In this paper we consider the non-viscous and viscous holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity in which the infra-red cutoff is set by the Hubble horizon. We find power-law and exponential form of scale factor for non-viscous and viscous models, respectively. It is shown that the Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is suitable for both the models to explain the recent accelerated expansion. In non-viscous model, we find that there is no phase transition. However, viscous model explains the phase transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase. The cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters are discussed to analyze the dynamics of evolution of the Universe for both the models. The trajectories for viscous model are plotted in r-s and r-q planes to discriminate our model with the existing dark energy models which show the quintessence like behavior.
Dark Energy Models and Laws of Thermodynamics in Bianchi i Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia
2012-10-01
This paper is devoted to check validity of the laws of thermodynamics for locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type I (BI) universe model which is filled with combination of dark matter and dark energy (DE). We take two types of DE models, i.e. generalized holographic DE (HDE) and generalized Ricci DE (RDE). It is proved that the first and generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) are valid on the apparent horizon for both the models. Further, we take fixed radius L of the apparent horizon with original holographic or RDE. We conclude that the first and GSLT do not hold on the horizon of fixed radius L for both the models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Rahul; Debnath, Ujjal
2014-05-01
We have discussed the correspondence of the well-accepted f( G) gravity theory with two dark energy models: ( m, n)-type holographic dark energy (( m, n)-type HDE) and entropy-corrected ( m, n)-type holographic dark energy. For this purpose, we have considered the power law form of the scale factor a( t) = a 0 t p , p > 1. The reconstructed f( G) in these models has been found and the models in both cases are found to be realistic. We have also discussed the classical stability issues in both models. The ( m, n)-type HDE and its entropy-corrected version are more stable than the ordinary HDE model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, Kayoomars; Abdolmaleki, Asrin
2013-07-01
In the present work, we reconstruct different f(T)-gravity models corresponding to the original and entropy-corrected versions of the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models. We also obtain the equation of state parameters of the corresponding f(T)-gravity models. We conclude that the original holographic and new agegraphic f(T)-gravity models behave like the phantom or quintessence model, whereas in the entropy-corrected models, the equation of state parameter can justify the transition from the quintessence state to the phantom regime as indicated by the recent observations.
A 750 GeV graviton from holographic composite dark sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmona, Adrián
2016-09-01
We show that the 750 GeV di-photon excess can be interpreted as a spin-2 resonance arising from a strongly interacting dark sector featuring some departure from conformality. This spin-2 resonance has negligible couplings to the SM particles, with the exception of the SM gauge bosons which mediate between the two sectors. We have explicitly studied the collider constraints as well as some theoretical bounds in a holographic five dimensional model with a warp factor that deviates from AdS5. In particular, we have shown that it is not possible to decouple the vector resonances arising from the strong sector while explaining the di-photon anomaly and keeping the five dimensional gravity theory under perturbative control. However, vector resonances with masses around the TeV scale can be present while all experimental constraints are met.
On holographic dark energy in non-isotropic Universe with Brans-Dicke theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossienkhani, H.
2016-07-01
A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I Universe has been studied with the interacting holographic dark energy (HDE) in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. At first, we obtain the equation of state parameter, the deceleration parameter and the evolution equation of the interacting HDE in BD theory. We find that, in this case, ω_{Λ} can cross the phantom line (ω_{Λ}>-1) and eventually the Universe approaches a de-Sitter phase of expansion (ω_{Λ}→-1). Then, we extend our study to the case of stability of the interacting HDE in BI Universe according to BD theory. In case of we find that the squared sound speed of the interacting HDE is either positive or negative. This implies that the interacting HDE in BD theory can lead to a stable Universe favored by observations at the present time in an anisotropic Universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghamohammadi, A.; Saaidi, K.; Setare, M. R.
2011-04-01
We study the holographic dark energy on the subject of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with a time dependent gravitational constant G( t), in the non-flat space-time. We obtain the differential equation that specify the evolution of the dark energy density parameter based on varying gravitational constant. We find out a relation for the state parameter of the dark energy equation of state to low red-shifts which containing varying G corrections in the non-flat space-time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabir, Rudra
2016-07-01
In this assignment we will present a reconstruction scheme between f(R) gravity with ordinary and entropy corrected (m,n)-type holographic dark energy. The correspondence is established and expressions for the reconstructed f(R) models are determined. To study the evolution of the reconstructed models plots are generated. The stability of the calculated models are also investigated using the squared speed of sound in the background of the reconstructed gravities.
Cosmological constraints on the new holographic dark energy model with action principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Zhenhui
2013-07-01
Recently, a new holographic dark energy (HDE) model with action principle was proposed [M. Li and R. X. Miao, arXiv:1210.0966]. It is the first time that the HDE model is derived from the action principle. This model completely solves the causality and circular problems in the original HDE model and automatically gives rise to a dark radiation component. Thus, it is worth investigating such an interesting model by confronting it with the current cosmological observations, so that we can check whether the model is consistent with the data and determine the regions of parameter space allowed. These issues are explored in this work. First, we investigate the dynamical behaviors and the cosmic expansion history of the model and discuss how they are related with the model parameter c. Then, we fit the model to a combination of the present Union2.1+BAO+CMB+H0 data. We find the model yields χmin2=548.798 (in a nonflat universe), comparable to the results of the original HDE model (549.461) and the concordant ΛCDM model (550.354). At 95.4% C.L., we get 1.41
Holographic dark energy in the DGP braneworld with Granda-Oliveros cutoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffari, S.; Dehghani, M. H.; Sheykhi, A.
2014-06-01
We consider the holographic dark energy (HDE) model in the framework of the DGP braneworld with Granda-Oliveros infrared (IR) cutoff, L =(αH˙+βH2)-1/2. With this choice for IR cutoff, we are able to derive evolution of the cosmological parameters such as the equation of state and the deceleration parameters, w and q, as the functions of the redshift parameter z. As far as we know, most previous models of HDE presented in the literature, do not give analytically ω =ω(z) and q=q(z). We plot the evolution of these parameters versus z and discuss that the results are compatible with the recent observations. With suitably choosing the parameters, this model can exhibit a transition from deceleration to the acceleration around z≈0.6. Then we suggest a correspondence between the quintessence and tachyon scalar fields and HDE in the framework of the DGP braneworld. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the evolution of the scalar fields and the scalar potentials. We also investigate the stability of the presented model by calculating the squared sound speed, vs2, whose sign determines the stability of the model. Our study shows that vs2 could be positive provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. In particular, for α>1, β>0, and α<1, β<0, we have vs2>0 during the history of the Universe, and so the stable dark-energy-dominated universe can be achieved. This is in contrast to the HDE in standard cosmology, which is unstable against background perturbations and so cannot lead to a stable dark- energy-dominated universe.
Analysis on a general class of holographic type dark energy models
Huang, Zhuo-Peng; Wu, Yue-Liang E-mail: ylwu@itp.ac.cn
2012-07-01
We present a detail analysis on a general class of holographic type dark energy models characterized by the length scale L = 1/a{sup n}(t)∫{sub 0}{sup t}dt' a{sup m}(t'). We show that n ≥ 0 is required by the recent cosmic accelerated expansion of universe. In the early universe dominated by the constituent with constant equation of state w{sub m}, we have w{sub de} ≅ −1−2n/3 for n ≥ 0 and m < 0, and w{sub de} ≅ −(2/3)(n−m)+w{sub m} for n > m ≥ 0. The models with n > m ≥ 0 become single-parameter models like the ΛCDM model due to the analytic feature Ω{sub de} ≅ d{sup 2}/4(2m+3w{sub m}+3){sup 2}a{sup 2(n−m)} at radiation- and matter-dominated epoch. Whereas the cases n = m ≥ 0 should be abandoned as the dark energy cannot dominate the universe forever and there might be too large fraction of dark energy in early universe, and the cases m > n ≥ 0 are forbidden by the self-consistent requirement Ω{sub de} << 1 in the early universe. Thus a detailed study on the single-parameter models corresponding to cases n > m ≥ 0 is carried out by using recent observations. The best-fit analysis indicates that the conformal-age-like models with n = m+1, i.e. L∝1/Ha in early universe, are more favored and also the models with smaller n for the given n−m are found to fit the observations better. The equation of state of the dark energy in models with n = m+1 > 0 transits from w{sub de} < −1 during inflation to w{sub de} > −1 in radiation- and matter-dominated epoch, and then back to w{sub de} < −1 eventually. The best-fit result of the case (n = 0, m = −1) which is so-called ηHDE model proposed in (Huang 2012) is the most favorable model and compatible with the ΛCDM model.
A modified holographic dark energy model with infrared infinite extra dimension(s)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Yungui; Li, Tianjun
2010-01-01
We propose a modified holographic dark energy (MHDE) model with the Hubble scale as the infrared (IR) cutoff. Introducing the infinite extra dimension(s) at very large distance scale, we consider the black hole mass in higher dimensions as the ultraviolet cutoff. Thus, we can probe the effects of the IR infinite extra dimension(s). As a concrete example, we consider the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model and its generalization. We find that the DGP model is dual to the MHDE model in five dimensions, and the ΛCDM model is dual to the MHDE model in six dimensions. Fitting the MHDE model to the observational data, we obtain that Ωm0=0.269-0.027+0.030, Ωk0=0.003-0.012+0.011, and the number of the spatial dimensions is N=4.78-0.44+0.68. The best fit value of N implies that there might exist two IR infinite extra dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin
2015-04-01
The model of holographic dark energy (HDE) with massive neutrinos and/or dark radiation is investigated in detail. The background and perturbation evolutions in the HDE model are calculated. We employ the PPF approach to overcome the gravity instability difficulty (perturbation divergence of dark energy) led by the equation-of-state parameter w evolving across the phantom divide w=-1 in the HDE model with c<1. We thus derive the evolutions of density perturbations of various components and metric fluctuations in the HDE model. The impacts of massive neutrino and dark radiation on the CMB anisotropy power spectrum and the matter power spectrum in the HDE scenario are discussed. Furthermore, we constrain the models of HDE with massive neutrinos and/or dark radiation by using the latest measurements of expansion history and growth of structure, including the Planck CMB temperature data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the JLA supernova data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the cosmic shear data of weak lensing, the Planck CMB lensing data, and the redshift space distortions data. We find that ∑ mν<0.186 eV (95% CL) and Neff=3.75+0.28-0.32 in the HDE model from the constraints of these data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, P.; Sobhanbabu, K.; Reddy, D. R. K.
2016-02-01
Five-dimensional spherically symmetric space-time filled with two minimally interacting fields, matter and holographic dark energy components, is investigated in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). An explicit solution of the field equations is obtained. Some physical and kinematic properties of the model are also studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2006-08-01
The unifying approach to early-time and late-time universe based on phantom cosmology is proposed. We consider gravity-scalar system which contains usual potential and scalar coupling function in front of kinetic term. As a result, the possibility of phantom-non-phantom transition appears in such a way that universe could have effectively phantom equation of state at early time as well as at late time. In fact, the oscillating universe may have several phantom and non-phantom phases. Role in each of two phase and can be absorbed into the redefinition of the scalar field. Right on the transition point, however, the factor cannot be absorbed into the redefinition and play the role to connect two phases smoothly. Holographic dark energy where infrared cutoff is identified with combination of FRW parameters: Hubble constant, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant and universe life-time (if finite). Depending on the specific choice of the model the number of interesting effects occur: the possibility to solve the coincidence problem, crossing of phantom divide and unification of early-time inflationary and late-time accelerating phantom universe. The bound for holographic entropy which decreases in phantom era is also discussed.
Zhai, Zhong-Xu; Liu, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Tong-Jie E-mail: tjzhang@bnu.edu.cn
2011-08-01
The newly released observational H(z) data (OHD) is used to constrain Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy. By the use of the length scale and time scale as the IR cut-off including Hubble horizon (HH), future event horizon (FEH), age of the universe (AU), and conformal time (CT), we achieve four different Λ(t)CDM models which can describe the present cosmological acceleration respectively. In order to get a comparison between such Λ(t)CDM models and standard ΛCDM model, we use the information criteria (IC), Om(z) diagnostic, and statefinder diagnostic to measure the deviations. Furthermore, by simulating a larger Hubble parameter data sample in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 2.0, we get the improved constraints and more sufficient comparison. We show that OHD is not only able to play almost the same role in constraining cosmological parameters as SNe Ia does but also provides the effective measurement of the deviation of the DE models from standard ΛCDM model. In the holographic and agegraphic scenarios, the results indicate that the FEH is more preferable than HH scenario. However, both two time scenarios show better approximations to ΛCDM model than the length scenarios.
On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, Martiros
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe (according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from Om and Om3 analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe (within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^'_{de}, ω_{de}) has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. Our study showed that theoretical results from considered phenomenological models are consistent with the available observational data and symmetries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, K.; Khaledian, M. S.
2011-03-01
Here, we peruse cosmological usage of the most promising candidates of dark energy in the framework of f( R) theory. We reconstruct the different f( R) modified gravity models in the spatially flat FRW universe according to the ordinary and entropy-corrected versions of the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models, which describe accelerated expansion of the universe. We also obtain the equation of state parameter of the corresponding f( R)-gravity models. We conclude that the holographic and new agegraphic f( R)-gravity models can behave like phantom or quintessence models. Whereas the equation of state parameter of the entropy-corrected models can transit from quintessence state to phantom regime as indicated by recent observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adabi, Farzin; Karami, Kayoomars; Felegary, Fereshte; Azarmi, Zohre
2012-01-01
We study the entropy-corrected version of the holographic dark energy (HDE) model in the framework of modified Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We consider a non-flat universe filled with an interacting viscous entropy-corrected HDE (ECHDE) with dark matter. Also included in our model is the case of the variable gravitational constant G. We obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters of the interacting viscous ECHDE. Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting viscous ECHDE model with time-varying G.
Ricci inheritance collineations in Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Tahir; Musharaf, Aisha; Khan, Suhail
2016-03-01
In this paper, we investigate Ricci Inheritance Collineations (RICs) in Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes. RICs are discussed in detail when Ricci tensor is degenerate and nondegenerate. In both the cases, RICs are obtained and it turns out that the dimension of Lie algebra of RICs is finite when Ricci tensor is nondegenerate. In the case when Ricci tensor is degenerate, we get finite as well as infinite dimensional group of RICs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Salako, Ines G.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the properties of the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model in the context of Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology with infrared cut-off given by the recently proposed by Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one proportional to the Hubble parameter squared. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two free parameters which are the proportional constants of the two terms of the cut-off. We derive the expression of the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ωD and of the deceleration parameter q for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors and in the limiting case of a flat Dark Dominated Universe. Moreover, we study the squared speed of the sound vs2 and the statefinder diagnostic \\{r,s\\} in order to understand the cosmological properties of the model considered. We also develop a correspondence between the model considered and three scalar field models: the tachyon, the k-essence and the quintessence ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit
2013-12-01
In this work, we studied the Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) model in a spatially non-flat universe and in the framework of Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology. As infrared cutoff of the system we considered the cut-off recently proposed by Granda and Oliveros which contains two terms, one proportional to H 2 and one to . For the two cases containing non-interacting and interacting Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM), we obtained the exact differential equation that determines the evolution of the density parameter. Moreover, we derived the expressions of the deceleration parameter q and, using a parametrization of the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω D of our model as ω D ( z)= ω 0+ ω 1 z, we derived both the expressions of ω 0 and ω 1 for both non-interacting and interacting cases. All derivations made in this work are done in small redshift approximation and for low redshift expansion of the equation of state (EoS) parameter.
Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.
2015-09-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.
Ricci Flow-based Spherical Parameterization and Surface Registration.
Chen, X; He, H; Zou, G; Zhang, X; Gu, X; Hua, J
2013-09-01
This paper presents an improved Euclidean Ricci flow method for spherical parameterization. We subsequently invent a scale space processing built upon Ricci energy to extract robust surface features for accurate surface registration. Since our method is based on the proposed Euclidean Ricci flow, it inherits the properties of Ricci flow such as conformality, robustness and intrinsicalness, facilitating efficient and effective surface mapping. Compared with other surface registration methods using curvature or sulci pattern, our method demonstrates a significant improvement for surface registration. In addition, Ricci energy can capture local differences for surface analysis as shown in the experiments and applications. PMID:24019739
A Magnified Glance into the Dark Sector: Probing Cosmological Models with Strong Lensing in A1689
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magaña, Juan; Cárdenas, V. Motta ´ctor H., Vi; Verdugo, T.; Jullo, Eric
2015-11-01
In this paper we constrain four alternative models to the late cosmic acceleration in the universe: Chevallier–Polarski–Linder (CPL), interacting dark energy (IDE), Ricci holographic dark energy (HDE), and modified polytropic Cardassian (MPC). Strong lensing (SL) images of background galaxies produced by the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 are used to test these models. To perform this analysis we modify the LENSTOOL lens modeling code. The value added by this probe is compared with other complementary probes: Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We found that the CPL constraints obtained for the SL data are consistent with those estimated using the other probes. The IDE constraints are consistent with the complementary bounds only if large errors in the SL measurements are considered. The Ricci HDE and MPC constraints are weak, but they are similar to the BAO, SN Ia, and CMB estimations. We also compute the figure of merit as a tool to quantify the goodness of fit of the data. Our results suggest that the SL method provides statistically significant constraints on the CPL parameters but is weak for those of the other models. Finally, we show that the use of the SL measurements in galaxy clusters is a promising and powerful technique to constrain cosmological models. The advantage of this method is that cosmological parameters are estimated by modeling the SL features for each underlying cosmology. These estimations could be further improved by SL constraints coming from other galaxy clusters.
Ricci inheritance collineations in Bianchi type II spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Tahir; Akhtar, Sumaira Saleem; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Suhail
2016-06-01
In this paper, we present a complete classification of Bianchi type II spacetime according to Ricci inheritance collineations (RICs). The RICs are classified considering cases when the Ricci tensor is both degenerate as well as non-degenerate. In case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor, it is found that Bianchi type II spacetime admits 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-dimensional Lie algebra of RICs. In the case when the Ricci tensor is degenerate, majority cases give rise to infinitely many RICs, while remaining cases admit finite RICs given by 4, 5 or 6.
Ricci solitons, Ricci flow and strongly coupled CFT in the Schwarzschild Unruh or Boulware vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Wiseman, Toby
2011-11-01
The elliptic Einstein-DeTurck equation may be used to numerically find Einstein metrics on Riemannian manifolds. Static Lorentzian Einstein metrics are considered by analytically continuing to Euclidean time. The Ricci-DeTurck flow is a constructive algorithm to solve this equation, and is simple to implement when the solution is a stable fixed point, the only complication being that Ricci solitons may exist which are not Einstein. Here we extend previous work to consider the Einstein-DeTurck equation for Riemannian manifolds with boundaries, and those that continue to static Lorentzian spacetimes which are asymptotically flat, Kaluza-Klein, locally AdS or have extremal horizons. Using a maximum principle, we prove that Ricci solitons do not exist in these cases and so any solution is Einstein. We also argue that the Ricci-DeTurck flow preserves these classes of manifolds. As an example, we simulate the Ricci-DeTurck flow for a manifold with asymptotics relevant for AdS5/CFT4. Our maximum principle dictates that there are no soliton solutions, and we give strong numerical evidence that there exists a stable fixed point of the flow which continues to a smooth static Lorentzian Einstein metric. Our asymptotics are such that this describes the classical gravity dual relevant for the CFT on a Schwarzschild background in either the Unruh or Boulware vacua. It determines the leading O(N2c) part of the CFT stress tensor, which interestingly is regular on both the future and past Schwarzschild horizons.
Spacetimes of Weyl and Ricci type N in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuchynka, M.; Pravdová, A.
2016-06-01
We study the geometrical properties of null congruences generated by an aligned null direction of the Weyl tensor (WAND) in spacetimes of Weyl and Ricci type N (possibly with a non-vanishing cosmological constant) in an arbitrary dimension. We prove that a type N Ricci tensor and a type III or N Weyl tensor have to be aligned. In such spacetimes, the multiple WAND has to be geodetic. For spacetimes with type N aligned Weyl and Ricci tensors, the canonical form of the optical matrix in the twisting and non-twisting cases is derived and the dependence of the Weyl and the Ricci tensors and Ricci rotation coefficients on the affine parameter of the geodetic null congruence generated by the WAND is obtained.
A 5D noncompact and non Ricci flat Kaluza-Klein Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabi, F.
2009-03-01
A model universe is proposed in the framework of 5D noncompact Kaluza-Klein cosmology which is not Ricci flat. The 4D part as the Robertson-Walker metric is coupled to conventional perfect fluid, and its extra-dimensional part is coupled to a dark pressure through a scalar field. It is shown that neither early inflation nor current acceleration of the 4D universe would happen if the nonvacuum states of the scalar field would contribute to 4D cosmology.
Mean Curvature Flow in a Ricci Flow Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lott, John
2012-07-01
Following work of Ecker (Comm Anal Geom 15:1025-1061, 2007), we consider a weighted Gibbons-Hawking-York functional on a Riemannian manifold-with-boundary. We compute its variational properties and its time derivative under Perelman's modified Ricci flow. The answer has a boundary term which involves an extension of Hamilton's differential Harnack expression for the mean curvature flow in Euclidean space. We also derive the evolution equations for the second fundamental form and the mean curvature, under a mean curvature flow in a Ricci flow background. In the case of a gradient Ricci soliton background, we discuss mean curvature solitons and Huisken monotonicity.
Karami, K.
2010-01-01
Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.
Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.
2016-09-01
We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.
1994-01-01
Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.
Axion-dilaton cosmology, Ricci flows and integrable structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlando, Domenico
2007-09-01
In this work, based on [Ioannis Bakas, Domenico Orlando, and P. Marios Petropoulos. Ricci flows and expansion in axion-dilaton cosmology. JHEP 01 (2007) 040], we study renormalization-group flows by deforming a class of conformal sigma-models. At leading order in α, renormalization-group equations represent a Ricci flow. In the three-sphere background, the latter is described by the Halphen system, which is exactly solvable in terms of modular forms. The round sphere is found to be the unique perturbative infra-red fixed point at one loop order.
Year-End Report, 1975-1976. Matteo Ricci College.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteo Ricci Coll., Seattle, WA.
Outlined and explained in detail are the inauguration and operation of Matteo Ricci College, a school in Seattle that allows a student to enter ninth grade and after the successful completion of six school years (instead of eight) receive a bachelor of arts degree in humanities. The school is the result of planning by Seattle Preparatory School…
Ricci-flat spacetimes with l-conformal Galilei symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyavsky, D.; Galajinsky, A.
2016-03-01
Ricci-flat metrics of the ultrahyperbolic signature which enjoy the l-conformal Galilei symmetry are constructed. They involve the AdS2-metric in a way similar to the near horizon black hole geometries. The associated geodesic equations are shown to describe a second order dynamical system for which the acceleration generators are functionally independent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas
2015-04-01
We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Tom
2012-10-01
The theory of holographic spacetime (HST) generalizes both string theory and quantum field theory (QFT). It provides a geometric rationale for supersymmetry (SUSY) and a formalism in which super-Poincare invariance follows from Poincare invariance. HST unifies particles and black holes, realizing both as excitations of noncommutative geometrical variables on a holographic screen. Compact extra dimensions are interpreted as finite-dimensional unitary representations of super-algebras, and have no moduli. Full field theoretic Fock spaces, and continuous moduli are both emergent phenomena of super-Poincare invariant limits in which the number of holographic degrees of freedom goes to infinity. Finite radius de Sitter (dS) spaces have no moduli, and break SUSY with a gravitino mass scaling like Λ1/4. In regimes where the Covariant Entropy Bound is saturated, QFT is not a good description in HST, and inflation is such a regime. Following ideas of Jacobson, the gravitational and inflaton fields are emergent classical variables, describing the geometry of an underlying HST model, rather than "fields associated with a microscopic string theory". The phrase in quotes is meaningless in the HST formalism, except in asymptotically flat and AdS spacetimes, and some relatives of these.
Spectral functionals, nonholonomic Dirac operators, and noncommutative Ricci flows
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2009-07-15
We formulate a noncommutative generalization of the Ricci flow theory in the framework of spectral action approach to noncommutative geometry. Grisha Perelman's functionals are generated as commutative versions of certain spectral functionals defined by nonholonomic Dirac operators and corresponding spectral triples. We derive the formulas for spectral averaged energy and entropy functionals and state the conditions when such values describe (non)holonomic Riemannian configurations.
Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Chaplygin Gas Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farooq, M. Umar; Jamil, Mubasher; Rashid, Muneer A.
2010-10-01
Holographic dark energy (HDE), presents a dynamical view of dark energy which is consistent with the observational data and has a solid theoretical background. Its definition follows from the entropy-area relation S( A), where S and A are entropy and area respectively. In the framework of loop quantum gravity, a modified definition of HDE called “entropy-corrected holographic dark energy” (ECHDE) has been proposed recently to explain dark energy with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation. Using this new definition, we establish a correspondence between modified variable Chaplygin gas, new modified Chaplygin gas and the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas with the entropy corrected holographic dark energy and reconstruct the corresponding scalar potentials which describe the dynamics of the scalar field.
Holographic bounds and Higgs inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvat, R.
2011-05-01
In a recently proposed scenario for primordial inflation, where the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson plays a role of the inflation field, an effective field theory (EFT) approach is the most convenient for working out the consequences of breaking of perturbative unitarity, caused by the strong coupling of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. The domain of validity of the EFT approach is given by the ultraviolet (UV) cutoff, which, roughly speaking, should always exceed the Hubble parameter in the course of inflation. On the other hand, applying the trusted principles of quantum gravity to a local EFT demands that it should only be used to describe states in a region larger than their corresponding Schwarschild radius, manifesting thus a sort of UV/IR correspondence. We consider both constraints on EFT, to ascertain which models of the SM Higgs inflation are able to simultaneously comply with them. We also show that if the gravitational coupling evolves with the scale factor, the holographic constraint can be alleviated significantly with minimal set of canonical assumptions, by forcing the said coupling to be asymptotically free.
Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong
2014-04-18
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth
1988-01-01
Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.
Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrader, Robert
2016-05-01
This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field. On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. Dedicated to Ludwig Faddeev on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
Metrics with prescribed Ricci curvature on homogeneous spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulemotov, Artem
2016-08-01
Let G be a compact connected Lie group and H a closed subgroup of G. Suppose the homogeneous space G / H is effective and has dimension 3 or higher. Consider a G-invariant, symmetric, positive-semidefinite, nonzero (0, 2)-tensor field T on G / H. Assume that H is a maximal connected Lie subgroup of G. We prove the existence of a G-invariant Riemannian metric g and a positive number c such that the Ricci curvature of g coincides with cT on G / H. Afterwards, we examine what happens when the maximality hypothesis fails to hold.
Real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Young Jin
2016-08-01
First we introduce the notion of commuting and parallel Ricci tensor for real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm. Then, according to the A-isotropic unit normal N, we give a complete classification of real hypersurfaces in Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor.
Linder, Eric V.
2004-04-01
The physical process leading to the acceleration of the expansion of the universe is unknown. It may involve new high energy physics or extensions to gravitation. Calling this generically dark energy, we examine the consistencies and relations between these two approaches, showing that an effective equation of state function w(z) is broadly useful in describing the properties of the dark energy. A variety of cosmological observations can provide important information on the dynamics of dark energy and the future looks bright for constraining dark energy, though both the measurements and the interpretation will be challenging. We also discuss a more direct relation between the spacetime geometry and acceleration, via ''geometric dark energy'' from the Ricci scalar, and superacceleration or phantom energy where the fate of the universe may be more gentle than the Big Rip.
Vadivelan, V; Chandar Shekar, B
2016-08-10
The phase transmission holographic optical element in silver halide holographic emulsion, especially for holographic collimator sights, is fabricated and the desired diffraction efficiency is obtained with very high transmission. One of the main drawbacks of these holograms are that they become dark by being exposed under sunlight, and this darkness drastically reduces the visible transmission and diffraction efficiency of a holographic optical element, hence it is not suitable for weapon sight application. To overcome this problem, we transferred a holographic optical element with a reticle image from silver halide into polycarbonate by using copying, electroforming, and recombination techniques. The holographic optical element in polycarbonate has many advantages; the detailed method of fabrication, transfer, and its characterization are presented. The very interesting result of diffraction efficiency variation with angle obtained in polycarbonate is discussed. PMID:27534494
Variable G Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher
2010-11-01
Motivated by several observational and theoretical developments concerning the variability of Newton’s gravitational constant with time G( t), we calculate the varying G correction to the statefinder parameters for four models of dark energy namely interacting dark energy holographic dark energy, new-agegraphic dark energy and generalized Chaplygin gas.
Cosmological evolution with interaction between dark energy and dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotin, Yuri L.; Kostenko, Alexander; Lemets, Oleg A.; Yerokhin, Danylo A.
2015-12-01
In this review we consider in detail different theoretical topics associated with interaction in the dark sector. We study linear and nonlinear interactions which depend on the dark matter and dark energy densities. We consider a number of different models (including the holographic dark energy and dark energy in a fractal universe), with interacting dark energy and dark matter, have done a thorough analysis of these models. The main task of this review was not only to give an idea about the modern set of different models of dark energy, but to show how much can be diverse dynamics of the universe in these models. We find that the dynamics of a universe that contains interaction in the dark sector can differ significantly from the Standard Cosmological Model.
Lorentzian three-metrics with degenerate Ricci tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McManus, Des J.
1995-03-01
A classification of Lorentzian three-metrics whose Ricci tensor satisfies Rij=λ1gij+λ2vivj with λ1 and λ2(≠0) constant where vivi=κ(=0 or ±1) is given. An explicit coordinate representation is given for all the metrics that admit a G4 group as their maximal isometry group. Those metrics that admit a G3 as their maximal isometry group belong to either Bianchi class VI0, or VII0, or VIII, or IX when κ ≠ 0, and to either Bianchi class III, or IV, or VI0, VIh, or VIII when κ=0. An explicit coordinate representation is given for all the inhomogeneous solutions in the case κ ≠ 0.
Ricci magnetic geodesic motion of vortices and lumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alqahtani, L. S.; Speight, J. M.
2015-12-01
Ricci magnetic geodesic (RMG) motion in a Kähler manifold is the analogue of geodesic motion in the presence of a magnetic field proportional to the Ricci form. It has been conjectured to model low-energy dynamics of vortex solitons in the presence of a Chern-Simons term, the Kähler manifold in question being the n-vortex moduli space. This paper presents a detailed study of RMG motion in soliton moduli spaces, focusing on the cases of hyperbolic vortices and spherical CP1 lumps. It is shown that RMG flow localizes on fixed point sets of groups of holomorphic isometries, but that the flow on such submanifolds does not, in general, coincide with their intrinsic RMG flow. For planar vortices, it is shown that RMG flow differs from an earlier reduced dynamics proposed by Kim and Lee, and that the latter flow is ill-defined on the vortex coincidence set. An explicit formula for the metric on the whole moduli space of hyperbolic two-vortices is computed (extending an old result of Strachan's), and RMG motion of centred two-vortices is studied in detail. Turning to lumps, the moduli space of static n-lumps is Ratn, the space of degree n rational maps, which is known to be Kähler and geodesically incomplete. It is proved that Rat1 is, somewhat surprisingly, RMG complete (meaning that the initial value problem for RMG motion has a global solution for all initial data). It is also proved that the submanifold of rotationally equivariant n-lumps, Ratneq, a topologically cylindrical surface of revolution, is intrinsically RMG incomplete for n = 2 and all n ≥ 5, but that the extrinsic RMG flow on Rat2eq (defined by the inclusion Rat2eq ↪Rat2) is complete.
Holographic entropy production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao
2014-10-01
The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.
Correspondence Between Dgp Brane Cosmology and 5d Ricci-Flat Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Yongli; Xu, Lixin; Liu, Hongya
We discuss the correspondence between the DGP brane cosmology and 5D Ricci-flat cosmology by letting their metrics equal each other. By this correspondence, a specific geometrical property of the arbitrary integral constant I in DGP metric is given and it is related to the curvature of 5D bulk. At the same time, the relation of arbitrary functions μ and ν in a class of Ricci-flat solutions is obtained from DGP brane metric.
Interactive holographic display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Beam-Ryeol; Kim, Jin-Woong; Chernyshov, Oleksii O.; Park, Min-Chul
2014-06-01
A holographic display which is capable of displaying floating holographic images is introduced. The display is for user interaction with the image on the display. It consists of two parts; multiplexed holographic image generation and a spherical mirror. The time multiplexed image from 2 X 10 DMD frames appeared on PDLC screen is imaged by the spherical mirror and becomes a floating image. This image is combined spatially with two layered TV images appearing behind. Since the floating holographic image has a real spatial position and depth, it allows a user to interact with the image.
Ricci collineation vectors in fluid space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamparlis, M.; Mason, D. P.
1990-07-01
The properties of fluid space-times that admit a Ricci collineation vector (RCV) parallel to the fluid unit four-velocity vector ua are briefly reviewed. These properties are expressed in terms of the kinematic quantities of the timelike congruence generated by ua. The cubic equation derived by Oliver and Davis [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 30, 339 (1979)] for the equation of state p=p(μ) of a perfect fluid space-time that admits an RCV, which does not degenerate to a Killing vector, is solved for physically realistic fluids. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a fluid space-time to admit a spacelike RCV parallel to a unit vector na orthogonal to ua are derived in terms of the expansion, shear, and rotation of the spacelike congruence generated by na. Perfect fluid space-times are studied in detail and analogues of the results for timelike RCVs parallel to ua are obtained. Properties of imperfect fluid space-times for which the energy flux vector qa vanishes and na is a spacelike eigenvector of the anisotropic stress tensor πab are derived. Fluid space-times with anisotropic pressure are discussed as a special case of imperfect fluid space-times for which na is an eigenvector of πab.
Constraints on holographic cosmologies from strong lensing systems
Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Bonilla, Alexander; Motta, Verónica; Campo, Sergio del E-mail: alex.bonilla@uv.cl E-mail: sdelcamp@ucv.cl
2013-11-01
We use strongly gravitationally lensed (SGL) systems to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. Data available in the literature (redshift and velocity dispersion) is used to obtain the Einstein radius and compare it with model predictions. We found that the ΛCDM is the best fit to the data. Although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that two of the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, a stringent test lead us to the result that neither of the holographic models are competitive with the ΛCDM. These results highlight the importance of Strong Lensing measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to shed some light into the dark universe.
Friedmann Propulsion in an Flat Holographic Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, Bernd
2008-01-01
Because of inversion symmetries in holographic systems, the spatial compression of lower-dimensional holographic memory leads to an expansion of the holographic image and vice versa (scaling duality), where the geometric mean between the small quantum memory and cosmic image scale defines the inversion scale, the unit scale to normalize the global holographic currents of momentum exchange. Assigning to the cosmic image (bulk) a 4d, to the quantum memory (baryon) a 2d, and to the inversion scale a 3d spherical topology, the cosmic critical density in the flat FRW cosmic test model corresponds to 1 memory unit (baryon). Otherwise, if we expect expansion driven by 3d Einstein gravity on all scales, we get the well known cosmic ``dark matter'' deficit of 96% or 0.04 baryons per unit volume. The cosmic deficit or quantum excess is assigned by Gauss law to the topological ratio 4d bulk surface S3 to 2d quantum surface S1, which dilutes gravity or the mass density by the dimensionless factor 0.04~S3/2/S13 = 1/(8π) leading to a theoretical Hubble parameter of 73.2 kms-1 Mpc-1. Regarding propulsion based on fractional linear transforms mapping the quantum compression by inversion to a cosmic expansion, the anisotropic transform resembles the Alcubierre mechanism if expansion is behind and the compression ahead of the spaceship.
Loop Quantum Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2013-09-01
In this paper, we have calculated the statefinder parameters for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe in the gravitational framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). As examples, we study two types of dark energy models namely Holographic dark energy and New-Agegraphic dark energy.
Ricci collineation vectors in fluid space-times
Tsamparlis, M. ); Mason, D.P. )
1990-07-01
The properties of fluid space-times that admit a Ricci collineation vector (RCV) parallel to the fluid unit four-velocity vector {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are briefly reviewed. These properties are expressed in terms of the kinematic quantities of the timelike congruence generated by {ital u}{sup {ital a}}. The cubic equation derived by Oliver and Davis (Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare {bold 30}, 339 (1979)) for the equation of state {ital p}={ital p}({mu}) of a perfect fluid space-time that admits an RCV, which does not degenerate to a Killing vector, is solved for physically realistic fluids. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a fluid space-time to admit a spacelike RCV parallel to a unit vector {ital n}{sup {ital a}} orthogonal to {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are derived in terms of the expansion, shear, and rotation of the spacelike congruence generated by {ital n}{sup {ital a}}. Perfect fluid space-times are studied in detail and analogues of the results for timelike RCVs parallel to {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are obtained. Properties of imperfect fluid space-times for which the energy flux vector {ital q}{sup {ital a}} vanishes and {ital n}{sup {ital a}} is a spacelike eigenvector of the anisotropic stress tensor {pi}{sub {ital ab}} are derived. Fluid space-times with anisotropic pressure are discussed as a special case of imperfect fluid space-times for which {ital n}{sup {ital a}} is an eigenvector of {pi}{sub {ital ab}}.
Permanent holographic storage medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, R. A.
1976-01-01
Storage unit is electrostatically-charged multilayered laminate. Ability of system to store information in holographic forms is due to specific electrical, optical, and chemical characteristics of its materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac
1979-01-01
Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preston, K., Jr.
1972-01-01
The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.
Holographic content addressable storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George
2015-03-01
We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.
Cosmological model favored by the holographic principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina; Dobosz, Anna; Sołtysek, Bożena
2016-03-01
We present a regular spherically symmetric cosmological model of the Lemaitre class distinguished by the holographic principle as the thermodynamically stable end-point of quantum evaporation of the cosmological horizon. A source term in the Einstein equations connects smoothly two de Sitter vacua with different values of cosmological constant and corresponds to anisotropic vacuum dark fluid defined by symmetry of its stress-energy tensor which is invariant under the radial boosts. Global structure of space-time is the same as for the de Sitter space-time. Cosmological evolution goes from a big initial value of the cosmological constant towards its presently observed value.
Conically Scanned Holographic LIDAR Telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary
1993-01-01
Holographic LIDAR telescope includes holographic disk, rotation of which sweeps collimated, monochromatic beam of light from laser through conical scan. Holographic disk diffracts light scattered back from target volume or area to focal point located at stationary photomultiplier detector. Two conical baffles prevent stray light from reaching detector.
Ricci curvature of Diff S/sup 1//SL(2,R)
Bowick, M.J.; Lahiri, A.
1988-09-01
Previous calculations of the Ricci curvature for the manifold Diff Diff(S/sup 1/)/S/sup 1/ are extended to Diff(S/sup 1/)/SL(2R). These manifolds are distinguished by being coadjoint orbits of Diff(S/sup 1/) which admit compatible symphectic and complex structures, making them Kaehler manifolds.
The Law of Unintended Consequences Revisited: The Case of Ricci v. DeStefano
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Matthew; Malesick, Michael; Templeton, Jordan
2009-01-01
Deciding it necessary to review the earlier ruling of the Second Circuit court, on January 9, 2009 the U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari in the case "Ricci v. DeStefano." The case originates from New Haven, Connecticut where a group of firefighters argue that city officials violated their Title VII rights by dismissing the results of tests…
Eigenvalue inequalities for the buckling problem of the drifting Laplacian on Ricci solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Feng; Mao, Jing; Wang, Qiaoling; Wu, Chuanxi
2016-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the buckling problem of the drifting Laplacian and get a general inequality for its eigenvalues on a bounded connected domain in complete Ricci solitons supporting a special function. By applying this general inequality, we obtain some universal inequalities for eigenvalues of the same problem on bounded connected domains in the Gaussian shrinking solitons and some general product solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri
2015-03-01
Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.
Towards a Holographic Theory of Cosmology — Threads in a Tapestry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Y. Jack
2013-10-01
In this paper, we address several fundamental issues in cosmology: What is the nature of dark energy and dark matter? Why is the dark sector so different from ordinary matter? Why is the effective cosmological constant nonzero but so incredibly small? What is the reason behind the emergence of a critical acceleration parameter of magnitude 10-8 cm/s2 in galactic dynamics? We suggest that the holographic principle is the linchpin in a unified scheme to understand these various issues.
Batell, Brian; Gherghetta, Tony
2007-08-15
We compute the precise elementary/composite field content of mass eigenstates in holographic duals of warped models in a slice of AdS{sub 5}. This is accomplished by decomposing the bulk fields not in the usual Kaluza-Klein basis, but rather into a holographic basis of 4D fields, corresponding to purely elementary source or conformal field theory (CFT) composite fields. Generically, this decomposition yields kinetic and mass mixing between the elementary and composite sectors of the holographic theory. Depending on where the bulk zero mode is localized, the elementary/composite content may differ radically, which we show explicitly for several examples including the bulk Randall-Sundrum graviton, bulk gauge boson, and Higgs boson.
Yi Piljin
2011-10-21
We overview a holographic QCD based on the D4-D8 string theory model, with emphasis on baryons and nucleon-meson interactions thereof. Baryons are realized as holographic images of Skyrmions, but with much qualitative changes. This allows us to derive, without adjustable parameters, couplings of baryons to the entire tower of spin one mesons and also to pseudoscalar mesons. We find some surprisingly good match against empirical values for nucleons, in particular. Tensor couplings to all axial-vectors and iso-singlet vectors all vanish, while, for {rho} mesons, tensor couplings are found to be dominant. We close with various cautionary comments and speculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Piljin
2011-10-01
We overview a holographic QCD based on the D4-D8 string theory model, with emphasis on baryons and nucleon-meson interactions thereof. Baryons are realized as holographic images of Skyrmions, but with much qualitative changes. This allows us to derive, without adjustable parameters, couplings of baryons to the entire tower of spin one mesons and also to pseudoscalar mesons. We find some surprisingly good match against empirical values for nucleons, in particular. Tensor couplings to all axial-vectors and iso-singlet vectors all vanish, while, for ρ mesons, tensor couplings are found to be dominant. We close with various cautionary comments and speculations.
Computer generated holographic microtags
Sweatt, William C.
1998-01-01
A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.
Computer generated holographic microtags
Sweatt, W.C.
1998-03-17
A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.
Probing gravitation, dark energy, and acceleration
Linder, Eric V.
2004-02-20
The acceleration of the expansion of the universe arises from unknown physical processes involving either new fields in high energy physics or modifications of gravitation theory. It is crucial for our understanding to characterize the properties of the dark energy or gravity through cosmological observations and compare and distinguish between them. In fact, close consistencies exist between a dark energy equation of state function w(z) and changes to the framework of the Friedmann cosmological equations as well as direct spacetime geometry quantities involving the acceleration, such as ''geometric dark energy'' from the Ricci scalar. We investigate these interrelationships, including for the case of super acceleration or phantom energy where the fate of the universe may be more gentle than the Big Rip.
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-21
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-21
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less
Chidi holographic video system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Benton, Stephen A.
2000-03-01
Holo-Chidi is a holographic video processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time computation of Computer Generated Holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. It's processing engine is adapted from Chidi which is reconfigurable multimedia processing system used for real-time synthesis and analysis of digital video frames. Holo-Chidi is made of two main components: the sets of Chidi processor cards and the display video concentrator card. The processor cards are used for hologram computation while the display video concentrator card acts as frame buffer for the system. The display video concentrator also formats the computed holographic data and converts them to analog form for feeding the acousto-optic modulators of the Media Lab's Mark-II holographic display system. The display video concentrator card can display the computed holograms from the Chidi cards loaded from its high-speed I/O interface port or precomputed holograms loaded from a PC through the United Serial Bus port of its communications processor at above video refresh rates. This paper discusses the design of the display video concentrator used to display holographic video in the Mark-II system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández de Córdoba, P.; Isidro, J. M.; Vazquez Molina, J.
2016-07-01
We present a map of standard quantum mechanics onto a dual theory, that of the classical thermodynamics of irreversible processes. While no gravity is present in our construction, our map exhibits features that are reminiscent of the holographic principle of quantum gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-01
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.
Cluster formation in ferrofluids induced by holographic optical tweezers.
Masajada, Jan; Bacia, Marcin; Drobczyński, Sławomir
2013-10-01
Holographic optical tweezers were used to show the interaction between a strongly focused laser beam and magnetic nanoparticles in ferrofluid. When the light intensity was high enough, magnetic nanoparticles were removed from the beam center and formed a dark ring. The same behavior was observed when focusing vortex or Bessel beams. The interactions between two or more separated rings of magnetic nanoparticles created by independent optical traps were also observed. PMID:24081086
Simplest holographic technique: unsurpassed features very friendly to practical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Valery
1996-12-01
Holography and holographic interferometry in spite of their attractive features are rather rarely used for industrial inspections of products and components or in medical practice due to relative complexity, costs, lengthy multi- stage procedures, need of dark rooms and vibration insulation. But the most of these drawbacks might be avoided if momental holography on silver halide (SH) media is involved. Momental technique simplifies drastically the holographic process and ensures quasi real time or real time (in situ) bright reconstructions from holograms, real time or double exposure holographic interferograms. This technique permits the user to avoid dark rooms and to work with standard office or industrial illumination of 0.5 klx or even much more. Moreover, very bright holograms and holographic interferograms might be obtained also in the street in a diffused daylight or even under strong direct sunlight illumination. High quality off-axis and reflection holograms, interferograms, HOE were obtained utilizing ruby, semiconductor, He-Ne and Ar laser sources. Agfa-Gevaert 8 E 75 HD films and plates, Russian PFG-03 and PFG-03 C (color) plates were used as recording media. Different levels of external polychromatic illumination were applied to holograms and holographic interferograms during production. Extremely high levels (more than 50 klx) were also tested. Bright holographic reconstructions were obtained even in such unpromising environment. Photographic images from such holograms are presented. One of the holograms was momentally photoprocessed in the light of projector (a few klx) during presentation of this paper at the conference 'Holographic and Diffractive Techniques' in Berlin. Another unique feature of the technique: extremely long-term storage of holographic data on SH media in latent form is shown. It relates both to holograms recorded with cw lasers and to those recorded with pulsed laser sources. The latter case is the most interesting because it was
Intelligent holographic databases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbastathis, George
Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features
Holographic Optical Data Storage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising
Analytic holographic superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzog, Christopher P.
2010-06-01
We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.
Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru
2007-04-15
We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.
Holographic subsonic flow visualization.
Reinheimer, C J; Wiswall, C E; Schmiege, R A; Harris, R J; Dueker, J E
1970-09-01
A pulsed ruby laser holographic interferometer was used to detect density gradients in the airflow around an airfoil at subsonic speeds in a low speed wind tunnel. These experiments proved that vibration of the optical components or object between exposures of the interferometric hologram does not destroy the detection of density gradients but actually can aid in the flow visualization. The density gradients determined from the fringe pattern analysis are consistent with the anticipated flow pattern. PMID:20094197
Holographic Plossl Retroreflectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene
2006-01-01
Holographic retroreflectors that function equivalently to Plossl eyepieces have been developed and used in free-space optical communication systems that utilize laser beams. Plossl eyepieces are well known among telescope designers. They have been adopted for use a retroreflectors and as focusing elements (for reception) and collimating elements (for transmission) in optical communication systems. A retro-reflector that incorporates a Plossl eyepiece is termed a cat's-eye retroreflector.
Investigation of Holographic Scanners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Lian Qin
Holographic scanners are capable of challenging both the speed and resolution of polygon scanners. This work investigates, in detail, the design and operation of a holographic scanner with an aspherical reflector. The characteristics of this holographic scanner are presented through theoretical analyses and computer simulation. The calculated data and the experimental results show that this system has excellent scan line straightness and scan linearity. The influence of the eccentricity and wobble of the hologram on the quality of the scan lines can be minimized by proper choice of system parameters. This unique system can readily perform 1-D, 2 -D, 3-D and selective scans. These features make suitable applications for robot vision, part inspection, high speed printing, and input/output devices for computers. If the hologram is operating in the reflective mode, there are no transmissive components in this scanner. It can be used with acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves with longer wavelengths, such as infrared, microwaves, millimeter waves. Since it is difficult to find a suitable recording material for these waves, a technique for making computer -generated holograms has also been developed here. The practical considerations for making quality holograms are summarized. An improved coating process for photoresist and a novel anti-reflection setup for the hologram plate are developed. The detailed experimental processes are included. The planar grating scanner for one dimensional, two-dimensional and cross-scanning patterns is analyzed and demonstrated. A comparison is made with two other two-dimensional scanners.
Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics
Toeppen, John S.
1995-01-01
A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.
Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics
Toeppen, J.S.
1995-04-25
A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.
Laser addressed holographic memory system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.
1973-01-01
Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.
Robust holographic storage system design.
Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru
2011-11-21
Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. PMID:22109441
Probing gravitational dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-01
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χs. It is a Bbb Z2 odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξsχs2Script R, where ξs is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξsχs2Script R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξhH†HScript R, induces effective couplings between χs2 and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Probing gravitational dark matter
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-27
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Archiving Saudi heritage using the holographic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Althagafi, A.; Richardson, M.
2015-03-01
This paper focuses on the use of the Yuri Nikolaevich DENISYUK holographic recording process to document, archive and display Saudi heritage. The goal of this research is to develop a technique of archiving heritage by using a high-tech holographic process to capture a three-dimensional presentation of ancient jewelry artifacts of the Saudi Heritage in particular. This study concentrates on five particular items of handmade authentic ancient metal jewelry from different parts of Saudi Arabia. When conducting this research experiments were conducted using both red-green sensitive plates sensitive to 633 nm and 532 nm respectively. Material thickness ranged between 1.5 and 3 millimeters were used, consequently in the dark room, varied chemicals for developing the holograms were employed. Red and green laser devices were also used with exposure times between 8 to 18 seconds of laser light dispersion through diffused surfaces in reflection holography. The outcome in each case was varied. The holograms captured the jewelry pieces with all the engravings and minute details, thus archiving the Saudi Heritage of that time. What makes holograms a revolutionary method for presenting valuable and/or ancient artifacts is the fact that they offer a more practical and convenient solution to travel around the world than displaying the originals items. Thus, museum visitors can enjoy and appreciate the precious artifacts otherwise unseen and lost without holography.
Holographic movie: the first step to holographic video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo
1992-05-01
Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. With this in mind, we have developed an experimental holographic movie system and produced a short duration 3D movie. A number of dolls and moving objects were positioned within a background and illuminated with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). Conventional film-making techniques were used during holographic recording to create a more attractive sequence. The techniques included stop-motion, tracking, enhanced depth perception, up-shots, and overlaps. A series of 300 Fresnel type holograms was recorded on standard holographic films. An interesting technical point is that the film was 10 mm high by 200 mm wide. After developing, the films were sandwiched between two rigid acrylic drums (about 1 m in diameter). The drum is rotated and the films illuminated with the He-Ne laser. The display speed can be varied from 6 to 24 frames per second. The films are viewed through a window. Even though this prototype is relatively primitive the resulting holographic movie is quite effective. Several interesting effects were noted. For example, it was found that objects in the movie must not rapidly shift their depth because the human eye cannot track them is they do.
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-10-15
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Holographic model of hadronization.
Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew
2008-04-25
We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well. PMID:18518189
Holographic Model of Hadronization
Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew
2008-04-25
We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.
Simplification of holographic procedures.
Carcel, J T; Rodemann, A H; Florman, E; Domeshek, S
1966-07-01
The present state of the holographic art has set many stringent parameters on the production of holograms, such as extreme mechanical, temperature, and air stability for long periods of time, and slow film emulsions with extremely high resolution. The Physical Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Naval Training Device Center has investigated, experimented, and produced many clear high resolution holograms in a ground-level Butler Building without close temperature controls and using other than expensive, massive, and extremely rigid optical mounts and equipment. PMID:20049046
Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri
2015-05-15
We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160
Holographic magnetic phase transition
Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew
2009-09-15
We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.
Holographic effective field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martucci, Luca; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2016-06-01
We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.
Interferometric holographic cinematography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fagot, H.
1985-07-01
Double exposition holographic interferometry was employed to obtain a 35 mm scientific film. The deformations and deplacements of a loudspeaker were visualized at 20 to 70 Hz vibration frequencies. A 30 mJ YAG laser was used. The two successive pulses of each hologram are produced at 4 ms interval by the same laser beam. The 35 mm camera operates at 10 Hz. The device is limited to low frequency phenomena. The development of higher frequency systems is discussed with a view to nondestructive control of vibration in aircraft structures.
Fast fluorescence holographic microscopy
Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Qu, Xinghua; Yao, Hai; Gao, Bruce Z.
2015-01-01
FINCHSCOPE is a new technology of fluorescence holographic microscopy. It has been successfully applied to recording high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens without the need for scanning. In this study, we revealed and analyzed an intrinsic phenomenon, called ghost lens effect, on spatial light modulator which is the core element enabling the incoherent correlation in the FINCHSCOPE. The ghost lens effect can degrade the imaging quality by introducing multiple spherical waves with different focal lengths into the correlation and thus increasing the noise in the recorded holograms. PMID:25767693
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sani, Roberto
2010-01-01
Sustained by rich archival and published material, this paper describes the experience of Father Matteo Ricci in China in the perspective of the general evolution of the Church and European Catholicism between the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. Father Matteo Ricci's missionary works are re-read in the light of the more complex urgencies…
Holographic cosmic quintessence on the dilatonic brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Lin, Feng-Li
2002-02-01
Recently quintessence has been proposed to explain the observation data of supernovae indicating a time-varying cosmological constant and accelerating universe. Inspired by this and its mysterious origin, we look for the possibility that quintessence is the holographic dark matter dominating in the late time in the brane world scenarios. We consider both the cases of a static and moving brane in a dilaton gravity background. For the static brane we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method motivated by holographic renormalization group to study the intrinsic FRW cosmology on the brane and find the constraint on the bulk potential for quintessence. This constraint requires a negative slowly varying bulk potential which implies an anti-de Sitter-like bulk geometry and could be possibly realized from higher dimensional supergravities or string theory. We find a similar constraint for the moving brane cases and that the quintessence on it has the effect of a mildly time-varying Newton constant.
Intellectual property in holographic interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David
2006-08-01
This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.
Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)
1993-01-01
An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopwood, Anthony I.
1991-10-01
This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.
Engineering holographic graphene
Semenoff, Gordon W.
2012-09-24
We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.
Holographic p -wave superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang
2014-12-01
In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/yμ increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.
Holographic Solar Photon Thrusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg
2006-01-01
A document discusses a proposal to incorporate holographic optical elements into solar photon thrusters (SPTs). First suggested in 1990, SPTs would be systems of multiple reflective, emissive, and absorptive surfaces (solar sails) that would be attached to spacecraft orbiting the Earth to derive small propulsive forces from radiation pressures. An SPT according to the proposal would include, among other things, a main sail. One side of the sail would be highly emissive and would normally face away from the Earth. The other side would be reflective and would be covered by white-light holographic images that would alternately become reflective, transmissive, and absorptive with small changes in the viewing angle. When the spacecraft was at a favorable orbital position, the main sail would be oriented to reflect sunlight in a direction to maximize the solar thrust; when not in a favorable position, the main sail would be oriented to present a substantially absorptive/emissive aspect to minimize the solar drag. By turning the main sail slightly to alternate between the reflective and absorptive/ emissive extremes, one could achieve nearly a doubling or halving of the radiational momentum transfer and, hence, of the solar thrust.
The traveltime holographic principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.
Ricci curvature: An economic indicator for market fragility and systemic risk.
Sandhu, Romeil S; Georgiou, Tryphon T; Tannenbaum, Allen R
2016-05-01
Quantifying the systemic risk and fragility of financial systems is of vital importance in analyzing market efficiency, deciding on portfolio allocation, and containing financial contagions. At a high level, financial systems may be represented as weighted graphs that characterize the complex web of interacting agents and information flow (for example, debt, stock returns, and shareholder ownership). Such a representation often turns out to provide keen insights. We show that fragility is a system-level characteristic of "business-as-usual" market behavior and that financial crashes are invariably preceded by system-level changes in robustness. This was done by leveraging previous work, which suggests that Ricci curvature, a key geometric feature of a given network, is negatively correlated to increases in network fragility. To illustrate this insight, we examine daily returns from a set of stocks comprising the Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) over a 15-year span to highlight the fact that corresponding changes in Ricci curvature constitute a financial "crash hallmark." This work lays the foundation of understanding how to design (banking) systems and policy regulations in a manner that can combat financial instabilities exposed during the 2007-2008 crisis. PMID:27386522
Ricci curvature: An economic indicator for market fragility and systemic risk
Sandhu, Romeil S.; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Tannenbaum, Allen R.
2016-01-01
Quantifying the systemic risk and fragility of financial systems is of vital importance in analyzing market efficiency, deciding on portfolio allocation, and containing financial contagions. At a high level, financial systems may be represented as weighted graphs that characterize the complex web of interacting agents and information flow (for example, debt, stock returns, and shareholder ownership). Such a representation often turns out to provide keen insights. We show that fragility is a system-level characteristic of “business-as-usual” market behavior and that financial crashes are invariably preceded by system-level changes in robustness. This was done by leveraging previous work, which suggests that Ricci curvature, a key geometric feature of a given network, is negatively correlated to increases in network fragility. To illustrate this insight, we examine daily returns from a set of stocks comprising the Standard and Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) over a 15-year span to highlight the fact that corresponding changes in Ricci curvature constitute a financial “crash hallmark.” This work lays the foundation of understanding how to design (banking) systems and policy regulations in a manner that can combat financial instabilities exposed during the 2007–2008 crisis. PMID:27386522
Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models
Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-08-12
We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.
Holographic microscopy studies of emulsions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witherow, W. K.
1981-01-01
A holographic microscopy system that records and observes the dynamic properties of separation of dispersed immiscible fluids is described. The holographic construction system and reconstruction system that were used to obtain particle size and distribution information from the holograms are discussed. The holographic microscopy system is used to observed the phase separating processes in immiscible fluids that were isothermally cooled into the two phase region. Nucleation, growth rates, coalescence, and particle motion are successfully demonstrated with this system. Thus a holographic particle sizing system with a resolution of 2 micrometers and a field of view of 100 cu cm was developed that provides the capability of testing the theories of separating immiscible fluids for particle number densities in the range of 10 to 10 to the 7th power particles.
Fast photochromism in polymer matrix with plasticizer and real-time dynamic holographic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Norihito; Abe, Jiro
2013-04-01
We have developed a photochromic polymer film for the use of real-time dynamic hologram, fabricated by the plasticized polymer doped with the fast photochromic molecule. The addition of a plasticizer into the conventional polymer is proved to be effective to improve the photochromic performances for the polymer film doped with the fast photochromic molecule that shows instantaneous coloration upon exposure to UV light and rapid fading in the dark. The plasticized photochromic polymers enable the real-time control of the writing and erasing of a holographic grating and show a higher recording sensitivity compared with other organic holographic materials.
Holographic Recording Materials Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.
1976-01-01
Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Clifford V.
2014-10-01
It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.
Holographic Vortex Coronagraph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palacios, David
2010-01-01
A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.
Striped holographic superconductor
Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico; Papanikolaou, Stefanos
2011-03-15
We study inhomogeneous solutions of a 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. Our results provide a holographic model of superconductivity in the presence of a charge density wave sourced by a modulated chemical potential. We find that below a critical temperature T{sub c} superconducting stripes develop. We show that they are thermodynamically favored over the normal state by computing the grand canonical potential. We investigate the dependence of T{sub c} on the modulation's wave vector, which characterizes the inhomogeneity. We find that it is qualitatively similar to that expected for a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer theory, but we point out a quantitative difference. Finally, we use our solutions to compute the conductivity along the direction of the stripes.
Causality & holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Lawrence, Albion; Rangamani, Mukund
2014-12-01
We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.
Applications of holographic spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Terrence J.
Here we present an overview of the theory of holographic spacetime (HST), originally devised and primarily developed by Tom Banks and Willy Fischler, as well as its various applications and predictions for cosmology and particle phenomenology. First we cover the basic theory and motivation for holographic spacetime and move on to present the latest developments therein as of the time of this writing. Then we indicate the origin of the quantum degrees of freedom in the theory and then present a correspondence with low energy effective field theory. Further, we proceed to show the general origins of inflation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) within the theory of HST as well as predict the functional forms of two and three point correlation functions for scalar and tensor curvature fluctuations in the early universe. Next, we constrain the theory parameters by insisting on agreement with observational bounds on the scalar spectral index of CMB fluctuations from the Planck experiment as well as theoretical bounds on the number of e-folds of inflation. Finally, we argue that HST predicts specific gauge structures for the low-energy effective field theory at the present era and proceed to construct a viable supersymmetric model extension. Constraints on model parameters and couplings are then calculated by numerically minimizing the theory's scalar potential and comparing the resultant model mass spectra to current observational limits from the LHC SUSY searches. In the end we find that the low-energy theory, while presenting a little hierarchy problem, is fully compatible with current observational limits. Additionally, the high-energy underlying theory is generically compatible with observational constraints stemming from inflation, and predictions on favored model parameters are given.
Compact Holographic Data Storage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.
2001-01-01
NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Dark Matter Decays from Nonminimal Coupling to Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catà, Oscar; Ibarra, Alejandro; Ingenhütt, Sebastian
2016-07-01
We consider the standard model extended with a dark matter particle in curved spacetime, motivated by the fact that the only current evidence for dark matter is through its gravitational interactions, and we investigate the impact on the dark matter stability of terms in the Lagrangian linear in the dark matter field and proportional to the Ricci scalar. We show that this "gravity portal" induces decay even if the dark matter particle only has gravitational interactions, and that the decay branching ratios into standard model particles only depend on one free parameter: the dark matter mass. We study in detail the case of a singlet scalar as a dark matter candidate, which is assumed to be absolutely stable in flat spacetime due to a discrete Z2 symmetry, but which may decay in curved spacetimes due to a Z2-breaking nonminimal coupling to gravity. We calculate the dark matter decay widths and we set conservative limits on the nonminimal coupling parameter from experiments. The limits are very stringent and suggest that there must exist an additional mechanism protecting the singlet scalar from decaying via this gravity portal.
Dark Matter Decays from Nonminimal Coupling to Gravity.
Catà, Oscar; Ibarra, Alejandro; Ingenhütt, Sebastian
2016-07-01
We consider the standard model extended with a dark matter particle in curved spacetime, motivated by the fact that the only current evidence for dark matter is through its gravitational interactions, and we investigate the impact on the dark matter stability of terms in the Lagrangian linear in the dark matter field and proportional to the Ricci scalar. We show that this "gravity portal" induces decay even if the dark matter particle only has gravitational interactions, and that the decay branching ratios into standard model particles only depend on one free parameter: the dark matter mass. We study in detail the case of a singlet scalar as a dark matter candidate, which is assumed to be absolutely stable in flat spacetime due to a discrete Z_{2} symmetry, but which may decay in curved spacetimes due to a Z_{2}-breaking nonminimal coupling to gravity. We calculate the dark matter decay widths and we set conservative limits on the nonminimal coupling parameter from experiments. The limits are very stringent and suggest that there must exist an additional mechanism protecting the singlet scalar from decaying via this gravity portal. PMID:27447497
Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.
1974-01-01
The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.
Holographic Information Storage and Retrieval. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spencer, J. R.
A four-month investigation was made of holographic information storage and retrieval. After an extensive review of the state of the art of various holographic systems, it was concluded that digital holographic storage techniques hold the greatest promise for commercial development, especially since they are particularly well suited to computer…
Plane Symmetric Dark Energy Models in the Form of Wet Dark Fluid in f ( R, T) Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirde, V. R.; Shekh, S. H.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we have investigated the plane symmetric space-time with wet dark fluid (WDF), which is a candidate for dark energy, in the framework of f ( R, T) gravity Harko et al. 2011, Phys. Rev. D, 84, 024020), where R and T denote the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor respectively. We have used the equation of state in the form of WDF for the dark energy component of the Universe. It is modeled on the equation of state p = ω( ρ - ρ ∗). The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained for power-law and exponential volumetric expansion. The geometrical and physical parameters for both the models are studied. Also, we have discussed the well-known astrophysical phenomena, namely the look-back time, proper distance, the luminosity distance and angular diameter distance with red shift.
Bose-Einstein condensation on a manifold with non-negative Ricci curvature
Akant, Levent Ertuğrul, Emine Tapramaz, Ferzan Turgut, O. Teoman
2015-01-15
The Bose-Einstein condensation for an ideal Bose gas and for a dilute weakly interacting Bose gas in a manifold with non-negative Ricci curvature is investigated using the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates of the Laplace operator. The main focus is on the nonrelativistic gas. However, special relativistic ideal gas is also discussed. The thermodynamic limit of the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates is taken and the results are used to derive bounds for the depletion coefficient. In the case of a weakly interacting gas, Bogoliubov approximation is employed. The ground state is analyzed using heat kernel methods and finite size effects on the ground state energy are proposed. The justification of the c-number substitution on a manifold is given.
Composite Higgs models, Dark Matter and {lambda}
Diaz Cruz, J. Lorenzo
2009-04-20
We suggest that dark matter can be identified with a stable composite fermion X{sup 0}, that arises within the holographic AdS/CFT models, where the Higgs boson emerges as a composite pseudo-goldstone boson. The predicted properties of X{sup 0} satisfies the cosmological bounds, with m{sub X{sup 0}}{approx}4{pi}f{approx_equal}O(TeV). Thus, through a deeper understanding of the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, a resolution of the Dark Matter enigma is found. Furthermore, by proposing a discrete structure of the Higgs vacuum, one can get a distinct approach to the cosmological constant problem.
Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho
2016-03-01
A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.
In-line digital holographic imaging in volume holographic microscopy.
Zhai, Xiaomin; Lin, Wei-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wang, Po-Hao; Yeh, Li-Hao; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Singh, Vijay Raj; Luo, Yuan
2015-12-01
A dual-plane in-line digital holographic imaging method incorporating volume holographic microscopy (VHM) is presented to reconstruct objects in a single shot while eliminating zero-order and twin-image diffracted waves. The proposed imaging method is configured such that information from different axial planes is acquired simultaneously using multiplexed volume holographic imaging gratings, as used in VHM, and recorded as in-line holograms where the corresponding reference beams are generated in the fashion of Gabor's in-line holography. Unlike conventional VHM, which can take axial intensity information only at focal depths, the proposed method digitally reconstructs objects at any axial position. Further, we demonstrate the proposed imaging technique's ability to effectively eliminate zero-order and twin images for single-shot three-dimensional object reconstruction. PMID:26625046
Indeterminacy of holographic quantum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, Craig J.
2008-10-01
An effective theory based on wave optics is used to describe indeterminacy of position in holographic spacetime with a UV cutoff at the Planck scale. Wave functions describing spacetime positions are modeled as complex disturbances of quasimonochromatic radiation. It is shown that the product of standard deviations of two position wave functions in the plane of a holographic light sheet is equal to the product of their normal separation and the Planck length. For macroscopically separated positions the transverse uncertainty is much larger than the Planck length, and is predicted to be observable as a “holographic noise” in relative position with a distinctive shear spatial character, and an absolutely normalized frequency spectrum with no parameters once the fundamental wavelength is fixed from the theory of gravitational thermodynamics. The spectrum of holographic noise is estimated for the GEO600 interferometric gravitational-wave detector and is shown to approximately account for currently unexplained noise between about 300 and 1400 Hz. In a holographic world, this result directly and precisely measures the fundamental minimum interval of time.
Holographic lithography for biomedical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.
2012-06-01
Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels
Joseph Silk
2010-01-08
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
Joseph Silk
2009-09-23
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Trout, Aaron D
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime
Trout, Aaron D.
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, Ujjal
2015-12-01
In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark matter and dark energy onto of (n+2)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and Morris-Thorne wormhole. The mass and the rate of change of mass for (n+2)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and Morris-Thorne wormhole have been found. We have assumed some candidates of dark energy like holographic dark energy, new agegraphic dark energy, quintessence, tachyon, DBI-essence, etc. The black hole mass and the wormhole mass have been calculated in term of redshift when dark matter and above types of dark energies accrete onto them separately. We have shown that the black hole mass increases and wormhole mass decreases for holographic dark energy, new agegraphic dark energy, quintessence, tachyon accretion and the slope of increasing/decreasing of mass sensitively depends on the dimension. But for DBI-essence accretion, the black hole mass first increases and then decreases and the wormhole mass first decreases and then increases and the slope of increasing/decreasing of mass not sensitively depends on the dimension.
Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay
2001-01-01
We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.
Improvements of holographic data storage technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhen; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Zhengzi; Cao, Guoqiang; Hou, Yibing
2005-09-01
Holographic data storage has many advantages, which makes it become one of the most hopeful next-generation data storage techniques. In the past, the struggles of holographic data storage have been frustrated for the absence of suitable system components and recording materials. Recently, the development of practical components for holographic systems, such as SLMs, CCDs and some newly recording materials, has rekindled interest in this technology. In this paper, we analyze the present situation of holographic data storage techniques and some latest improvements of key components and recording materials in relative companies or laboratories are summarized. At last, market outlook of holographic data storage products is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheok Peng; Chia, Yong Poo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, A.; Khoo, Xuan Jie; Tay, Kiat Long; Zhou, Junxiang
2009-12-01
This paper describes how a Digital Holographic Projector is designed and implemented to project two-dimension virtual images onto the volumetric display media. In this research, we focus on the method to create 3D models, diffractive algorithm and the display media. A 3D model is generated based on the 360° view with views at every 10° interval from a 3D perspective view software. The hologram interference fringes are re-producing from the Fraunhofer algorithm. In order to make more flexible and portable, a Compact Vision System is introduced to storage multiply interference fringes. At the same time, the fringes are sent out at 30 Hz frame by frame continually to the digital micro-mirror1. With the presence of Nd: YVO4 green laser and various optical components, the 3D 360° hologram images are dynamically reconstructed and projected onto the high speed rotating diffuser forming a 3D model at any viewing angle on the volumetric display media. Both volumetric display media, wet and dry methods are demonstrated to show their feasibility and convenience. Finally, the dry volumetric technique with vertical projection mounting is adopted and as the result shown that the speckle noise is significance reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheok Peng; Chia, Yong Poo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, A.; Khoo, Xuan Jie; Tay, Kiat Long; Zhou, Junxiang
2010-03-01
This paper describes how a Digital Holographic Projector is designed and implemented to project two-dimension virtual images onto the volumetric display media. In this research, we focus on the method to create 3D models, diffractive algorithm and the display media. A 3D model is generated based on the 360° view with views at every 10° interval from a 3D perspective view software. The hologram interference fringes are re-producing from the Fraunhofer algorithm. In order to make more flexible and portable, a Compact Vision System is introduced to storage multiply interference fringes. At the same time, the fringes are sent out at 30 Hz frame by frame continually to the digital micro-mirror1. With the presence of Nd: YVO4 green laser and various optical components, the 3D 360° hologram images are dynamically reconstructed and projected onto the high speed rotating diffuser forming a 3D model at any viewing angle on the volumetric display media. Both volumetric display media, wet and dry methods are demonstrated to show their feasibility and convenience. Finally, the dry volumetric technique with vertical projection mounting is adopted and as the result shown that the speckle noise is significance reduced.
Scanning holographic lidar telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.
1993-01-01
We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.
Full Color Holographic Endoscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.
2013-02-01
The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.
Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP
Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl
2011-09-01
In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ΛCDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ΛCDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ΛCDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.
Holographic characterization of protein aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David
Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.
Holographic films from carotenoid pigments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.
2014-02-01
Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.
Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters
Lutz, Christoph; Otis, Thomas S.; DeSars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge; DiGregorio, David A.; Emiliani, Valentina
2009-01-01
Stimulation of light-sensitive chemical probes has become a powerful tool for the study of dynamic signaling processes in living tissue. Classically, this approach has been constrained by limitations of lens–based and point-scanning illumination systems. Here we describe a novel microscope configuration that incorporates a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to generate holographic patterns of illumination. This microscope can produce illumination spots of variable size and number and patterns shaped to precisely match user-defined elements in a specimen. Using holographic illumination to photolyse caged glutamate in brain slices, we demonstrate that shaped excitation on segments of neuronal dendrites and simultaneous, multi-spot excitation of different dendrites enables precise spatial and rapid temporal control of glutamate receptor activation. By allowing the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible method for activation of various photosensitive proteins and small molecules. PMID:19160517
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, Gary
The observational evidence for dark matter in the universe is reviewed. Constraints on the baryon density from primordial nucleosynthesis are presented and compared to the dynamical estimates of the mass on various scales. Baryons can account for the observed luminous mass as well as some, perhaps most, of the 'observed' dark mass. However if, as inflation/naturalness suggest, the total density of the universe is equal to the critical density, then nonbaryonic dark matter is required. The assets and liabilities of, as well as the candidates for, hot and cold dark matter are outlined. At present, there is no completely satisfactory candidate for nonbaryonic dark matter.
Glueball decay in holographic QCD
Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji
2008-04-15
Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.
Invisible engineering of holographic illusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Martin J.
1993-03-01
Recent developments in production techniques of pulsed holograms and holographic stereograms have ameliorated to provide high quality three dimensional illusions that echo the apparently innate need of society to replicate itself through artificial means. A commercial platform has been found for these archetypical illusions through the mass production and distribution of embossed stereograms that depict popular celebrities from the music industry. As pulse recordings of the rich and famous become better known, and as former presidents queue to join the holographic hall of fame, the author asks `is it documentation or entertainment that is shaping the future of holography?'
Hadron physics in holographic QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santra, A. B.; Lombardo, U.; Bonanno, A.
2012-07-01
Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting subatomic particles such as neutrons, protons, pions and others, collectively known as baryons and mesons. Physics of strong interaction is difficult. There are several approaches to understand it. However, in the recent years, an approach called, holographic QCD, based on string theory (or gauge-gravity duality) is becoming popular providing an alternative description of strong interaction physics. In this article, we aim to discuss development of strong interaction physics through QCD and string theory, leading to holographic QCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Shuvendu; Debnath, Ujjal; Jamil, Mubasher; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2012-07-01
In this work, we have calculated the deceleration parameter, statefinder parameters and EoS parameters for different dark energy models with variable G correction in homogeneous, isotropic and non-flat universe for Kaluza-Klein Cosmology. The statefinder parameters have been obtained in terms of some observable parameters like dimensionless density parameter, EoS parameter and Hubble parameter for holographic dark energy, new agegraphic dark energy and generalized Chaplygin gas models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knopp, Jerome
1996-01-01
Astronauts are required to interface with complex systems that require sophisticated displays to communicate effectively. Lightweight, head-mounted real-time displays that present holographic images for comfortable viewing may be the ideal solution. We describe an implementation of a liquid crystal television (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the display of holograms. The implementation required the solution of a complex set of problems. These include field calculations, determination of the LCTV-SLM complex transmittance characteristics and a precise knowledge of the signal mapping between the LCTV and frame grabbing board that controls it. Realizing the hologram is further complicated by the coupling that occurs between the phase and amplitude in the LCTV transmittance. A single drive signal (a gray level signal from a framegrabber) determines both amplitude and phase. Since they are not independently controllable (as is true in the ideal SLM) one must deal with the problem of optimizing (in some sense) the hologram based on this constraint. Solutions for the above problems have been found. An algorithm has been for field calculations that uses an efficient outer product formulation. Juday's MEDOF 7 (Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter) algorithm used for originally for filter calculations has been successfully adapted to handle metrics appropriate for holography. This has solved the problem of optimizing the hologram to the constraints imposed by coupling. Two laboratory methods have been developed for determining an accurate mapping of framegrabber pixels to LCTV pixels. A friendly software system has been developed that integrates the hologram calculation and realization process using a simple set of instructions. The computer code and all the laboratory measurement techniques determining SLM parameters have been proven with the production of a high quality test image.
Holographic analyzer and image scanner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The characteristics, components, and operating procedures are described for a holographic camera real images projection displayer and scanner unit having the capability to upgrade to multiple types of automated raster scan patterns. Schematics of the optical components are included with a diagram of the electric circuit connections.
Music holographic physiotherapy by laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Changhuan
1996-09-01
Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.
Holographic enhanced remote sensing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.
1990-01-01
The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.
Holographic nondestructive testing of laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuckenberg, F. H.
1973-01-01
Very small differences in laminate thickness result in interference fringes in holograph image. These indicate presence of unbonded area. Theoretical knowledge of membrane deflection may be used in conjunction with reduced number of pretest experiments to determine number of optical fringes that should appear for given laminate.
Holographic diagnostics of biological microparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyomin, Victor V.; Sokolov, Vladimir V.
1996-05-01
Problem of studies of biological microojects is actual one for ecology, medicine, biology. Holographic techniques are useful to solve the problem. The above microojects are transparent or semitransparent ones in a visible light rather often. The case of an optically soft particle, (that is of a particle whose substance has the refractive index close to that of the surrounding medium) is quite probable in biological water suspensions. Some peculiarities of holographing optically soft microparticles are analyzed in this paper. We propose a technique to calculate a light intensity distribution in the plane of a hologram and in the plane of a holographic image of a particle of an arbitrary shape at an arbitrary distance from the latter plane. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated by calculational results obtained analytically for some simple cases. In a more complicated cases the technique can make a basis for numerical computations. The method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles is proposed. We also present in this paper some experimental results on holographic detection of the water drops and such optically soft particles as ovums of helmints in human jaundice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Knox
2011-10-01
The goal of the Guard Dark program is to collect WFC3/IR dark current data prior to each visit in two of the Multi-Cycle Treasury {MCT} programs in Cycle 19. By scheduling a dark current observation between the last pre-MCT observation and the first MCT visit, we will be able to measure any residual persistent signal resulting from the former which may affect the latter.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-09-15
Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.
Holographic Gratings for Optical Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukhtarev, Nickolai
2002-01-01
Investigation of astronomical objects and tracking of man-made space objects lead to generation of huge amount of information for optical processing. Traditional big-size optical elements (such as optical telescopes) have a tendency for increasing aperture size in order to improve sensitivity. This tendency leads to increasing of weight and costs of optical systems and stimulate search for the new, more adequate technologies. One approach to meet these demands is based on developing of holographic optical elements using new polymeric materials. We have investigated possibility to use new material PQ-PMMA (phenantrenequinone-doped PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate)) for fabrication of highly selective optical filters and fast spatial-temporal light modulators. This material was originally developed in Russia and later was tested in CalTech as a candidate material for optical storage. Our theoretical investigation predicts the possibility of realization of fast spatial and temporal light modulation, using volume reflection-type spectral filter. We have developed also model of holographic-grating recording in PQ-PMMA material, based on diffusional amplification. This mechanism of recording allow to receive high diffraction efficiency during recording of reflection-type volume holographic grating (holographic mirror). We also investigated recording of dynamic gratings in the photorefractive crystals LiNbO3 (LN) for space-based spectroscopy and for adaptive correction of aberrations in the telescope's mirrors. We have shown, that specific 'photogalvanic' mechanism of holographic grating recording in LN allow to realize recording of blazed gratings for volume and surface gratings. Possible applications of dynamic gratings in LN for amplification of images, transmitted through an imaging fiber guide was also demonstrated.
Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.
2008-07-02
One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.
Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni, Davood; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-05-01
Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors) with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T >Tc) to the superconductor phase (T
Dark matter and dark radiation
Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc
2009-01-15
We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant {alpha}-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on {alpha}-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies {alpha}-circumflex < or approx. 10{sup -3} for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.
Compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide holographic optical elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyun, Kyungsuk P.; Choi, Chilsung; Morozov, Alexander V.; Kim, Sunil; An, Jungkwuen
2013-03-01
We propose compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide hologram while reducing overall device size and quantity of elements with integrated functionality of each optical element. For glasses-free 3D experience anywhere anytime, it is critical to make holography device that can be as compact and integrated as possible. Compared to the conventional optics-based structure, our RGB WGH-based one reduces the overall size by 20 times, the number of components by 10 times, and improves the optical efficiency by 3 times, with comparable holographic quality to the conventional optics-based approaches. Proposed research can be useful for both general consumers and professionals like 3D photography and medical 3D image printing applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linder, Eric
2008-02-01
Dark energy is the name given to the unknown physics causing the current acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Whether dark energy is truly a new component of energy density or an extension of gravitational physics beyond general relativity is not yet known. From: Mattia Galiazzo Address: mattia.galiazzo@univie.ac.at Database: ast
Holographic projection with higher image quality.
Qu, Weidong; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Qiaofeng
2016-08-22
The spatial resolution limited by the size of the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the holographic projection can hardly be increased, and speckle noise always appears to induce the degradation of image quality. In this paper, the holographic projection with higher image quality is presented. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is 2 times of that of the existing holographic projection, and speckles are suppressed well at the same time. Finally, the effectiveness of the holographic projection is verified in experiments. PMID:27557197
Volume holographic gratings: fabrication and characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.; Pagliarulo, V.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.
2015-05-01
Volume Holographic Gratings is designed and fabricated to obtain a simple, lightweight and cheap light deflector. The entire process, starting from the chemical preparation of the photosensitive material, to the recording of Volume Holographic Gratings and their appropriate characterization, is reported. The recording material was a new photopolymer sensitive to light at 532nm. Results showed that the recorded Volume Holographic Grating presents a very high value of the diffraction efficiency, up to 94%. In addition, a flexible material is used to write Volume Holographic Gratings.
Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.
1973-01-01
The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ficnar, Andrej
In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based
Holographic quenches with a gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre
2016-06-01
In order to holographically model quenches with a gapped final hamiltonian, we consider a gravity-scalar theory in anti-de Sitter space with an infrared hard wall. We allow a time dependent profile for the scalar field at the wall. This induces an energy exchange between bulk and wall and generates an oscillating scalar pulse. We argue that such backgrounds are the counterpart of quantum revivals in the dual field theory. We perform a qualitative comparison with the quench dynamics of the massive Schwinger model, which has been recently analyzed using tensor network techniques. Agreement is found provided the width of the oscillating scalar pulse is inversely linked to the energy density communicated by the quench. We propose this to be a general feature of holographic quenches.
Holographic Chern-Simons defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki
2016-06-01
We study SU( N ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.
Collinear holographic data storage system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiaodi; Lin, Xiao; Wu, Anan
2013-08-01
Holographic data storage system is a promising candidate of the next-generation of storage equipment. However, conventional technologies (called 2-axis holography) still have essential issues for commercialization of products. In this paper, we introduce the collinear holography that can produce a small, practical data storage system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. In this technology the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be placed on one side of the recording media. The special media structure uses a pre-formatted reflective layer for the focus/tracking servo and for reading address information. It also uses a dichroic mirror interlayer for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density.
Multi-wavelength holographic profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbosa, E. A.; Gesualdi, M. R.; Muramatsu, M.
2006-01-01
A novel method for surface profilometry by holography is presented. We used a diode laser emitting at many wavelengths simultaneously as the light source and a Bi 12TiO 20 (BTO) crystal as the holographic medium in single exposure processes. The employ of multi-wavelength, large free spectral range (FSR) lasers leads to holographic images covered of interference fringes corresponding to the contour lines of the studied surface. In order to obtain the relief of the studied surface, the fringe analysis was performed by the phase stepping technique (PST) and the phase unwrapping was carried out by the Cellular-automata method. We analysed the relief of a tilted flat metallic bar and a tooth prosthesis.
Pion condensation in holographic QCD
Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua
2010-11-01
We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.
Advances in holographic particle velocimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David
1993-12-01
Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.
Holographic recording materials - A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.
1975-01-01
Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.
Sound modes in holographic superfluids
Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos
2009-11-15
Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Beam shaping for holographic techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei
2014-09-01
Uniform intensity of laser radiation is very important in holographic and interferometry technologies, therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Holography and interferometry have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam, most important of them are flatness of phase front and extended depth of field. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers piShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. This approach is used in SLM-based technologies of Computer Generated Holography, Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms, holographic data storage, holographic projection, lithography, interferometric recording of Volume Bragg Gratings. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to vary beam size and shape, thus adapting an optical system to requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.
Holographic system for nondestructive testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.
Electromagnetic holographic imaging of bioimpedance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Partin, Alan W.
1998-05-01
The electromagnetic bioimpedance method has successfully measured the very subtle conductivity changes associated with brain edema and prostate tumor. This method provides noninvasive measurements using non-ionizing magnetic fields applied with a small coil that avoids the use of contact electrodes. This paper introduces results from combining a holographic signal processing algorithm and a low power coil system that helps provide the 3D image of impedance contrast that should make the noninvasive electromagnetic bioimpedance method useful in health care.
RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2013-11-01
The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2μm size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.
Holographic gunsights for small arms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tai, Anthony M.; Sieczka, Eric J.; Radler, Richard; Upatnieks, Juris
1996-05-01
Holographic gunsights were first demonstrated in the mid 1970s by researchers at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under contracts with the Air Force and the Army. The sights utilized He-Ne gas lasers and were designed for use with large weapons systems. With the advent of low cost visible laser diode, ERIM formed a new company, EOTech, to develop, manufacture and market a holographic gun sight for small arms. A hologram is used to reconstruct the image of a reticle pattern that appears at the target plane. Unlike red-dot sights, virtually any reticle pattern, 2D or 3D, can be formed. The design challenges include an opto-mechanical package that is compact, light weight and low cost which can withstand recoils up to 4,000 Gs and provide fine elevation/windage pointing adjustments, and optics that are aberration-free and stable over a wide temperature range. Manufacturing challenges include the mass production of high quality holographic optics at low cost and the precision alignment of the very low f/number optics.
Holographic lens for optical correlator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, G. B.; Koreshev, S. N.; Pavlov, A. V.; Shubnikov, Y. I.
1984-08-01
Aberrations in holographic optics place limitations on the information capacity of the data that can be processed by holographic optical correlators. Nonetheless, the aberrations can be reduced sufficiently for an extensive class of devices such as those for real time data input using space-time light modulators and a TV channel. This paper analyzes the aberrations of holographic lenses, demonstrating the feasibility of an off-axis lens for correlation image analysis with aberrations similar to an axial lens. A requirement that the wave aberrations not exceed a quarter-wavelength was placed on the lens. Equations are solved for coma and astigmatism, and used to plot the maximum wave aberrations as a function of the spatial frequency of the proposed signal for three cases: (1) normal propagation of a diverging beam and oblique propagation of a plane beam; (2) oblique propagation of diverging and parallel beams, symmetrical with respect to the normal to the photographic plate; (3) oblique propagation of the diverging beam and normal propagation of the parallel beam. The angle between the beam axes was 45 deg in all cases, with a lens focal length of 350 mm and an operture of 32 mm.
Medical applications of holographic stereograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujiuchi, Jumpei
1991-02-01
A method for displaying 3D images of medical objects by using holographic stereogram is described together with basic properties of reconstructed images of cylindrical holographic stereograms. INTRODUCTI ON A holographic stereogram (HS) is a synthesized hologram from an original film which consists of a series of ordinary photographs taken from different directions of an object and is possible to apply to an object whose hologram is very difficult or impossible to take with conventional techniques [U. Such a feature of HS can be used for 3D display of medical images such as X-ray images computer assisted tomogrphy (CT) images nuclear magnetic reasonance images (MRI) or ultrasonic images of a patient. CYLINDRICAL HOLOGRAPHI C STEREOGRAMS The original film of the medical HS is taken by rotating around the body axis of a patient a U-shaped arm equipment one end of which has a pulse X-ray source and the other end a movie camera with an image intensifier [2]. Synthesis of HS is carried out by using a special optical system the hologram is shaped into a cylinder and is reconstructed by illuminating the hologram with a small white light source located on the axis of the cylinder. Such a HS is called multiplex hologram (MH) the most popular HS and the reconstructed image can be observed in the cylinder. The formation of reconstructed image is made in unusual way and fundamental properties
Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Caselli, Richard J.; Wang, Yalin
2014-01-01
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. PMID:25285374
Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Thompson, Paul M; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin
2015-01-01
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. PMID:25285374
Monitoring by holographic radar systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco
2013-04-01
Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to
Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es
2009-07-01
The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.
Holographic recording in acrylamide photopolymers: thickness limitations.
Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Pandey, Nitesh; Babeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent
2009-05-10
Holographic recording in thick photopolymer layers is important for application in holographic data storage, volume holographic filters, and correlators. Here, we studied the characteristics of acrylamide-based photopolymer layers ranging in thickness from 250 microm to 1 mm. For each thickness, samples with three different values of absorbance were studied. By measuring the diffraction efficiency growth of holographically recorded gratings and studying the diffraction patterns obtained, the influence of scattering on the diffraction efficiency of thick volume holographic gratings was analyzed. It was found that, above a particular thickness and absorbance, the diffraction efficiency significantly decreased because of increased holographic scattering. From the diffraction efficiency dependence on absorbance and thickness it is possible to choose photopolymer layer properties that are suitable for a particular holographic application. This study was carried out to determine the highest layer thickness that could be used for phase code multiplexed holographic data storage utilizing thick photopolymer layers as a recording medium. Based on our studies to date we believe that the layer to be used for phase coded reference beam recording with 0.1 absorbance at 532 nm can have a thickness up to 450 microm. The potential use of thicker layers characterized by low scattering losses is part of our continuing research. PMID:19424384
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…
Holographic brain: a good analogy gone bad
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulfield, H. John
2002-07-01
One way of honoring the world's two greatest holographers is to remove from their field the association with the offbeat world of the holographic mind. Basing itself on analogical musings of two very creative scientists who were themselves not holographers, this 'field' of the holographic brain has strayed far from science and into the absurd. So much absurdity has been written by so many people that the one legitimate study of holographic principle in dolphins has been grouped too often with the nonsense. Here is taken most of the 'target statements' form one book. We could not bear to read them all this closely. We will attempt to determine what tidbit of fact led to the statements and to suggest alternative explanations when there is something to explain.
Holographic f(T)-gravity model with power-law entropy correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, K.; Asadzadeh, S.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Safari, Z.
2013-10-01
Using the correspondence between the f(T)-gravity model and the holographic dark energy model with the power-law entropy correction, we reconstruct the holographic f(T)-gravity model with the power-law entropy correction. We fit the model parameters by using the latest observational data including type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble parameter data. We also check the viability of our model using a cosmographic analysis approach. Using the best-fit values of the model, we obtain the evolutionary behavior of the effective torsion equation-of-state parameter of the power-law entropy-corrected holographic f(T)-gravity model, as well as the deceleration parameter of the Universe. We also investigate different energy conditions in our model. Furthermore, we examine the validity of the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics. Finally, we point out the growth rate of the matter density perturbation in our model. We conclude that in the power-law entropy-corrected holographic f(T)-gravity model, the Universe begins a matter-dominated phase and approaches a de Sitter regime at late times, as expected. It also can justify the transition from the quintessence state to the phantom regime in the near past, as indicated by recent observations. Moreover, this model is consistent with current data, it passes the cosmographic test, and it fits the data of the growth factor as well as the ΛCDM model.
Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage
Hesselink; Orlov; Liu; Akella; Lande; Neurgaonkar
1998-11-01
Optically gated recording and nonvolatile readout in a digital volume holographic data storage system that uses a pair of mutually incoherent light sources during recording and only one for readout were demonstrated recently. This approach used stoichiometric lithium niobate, which after post-growth processing gave rise to an at least two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over the best materials reported previously. It is also shown that by adding certain dopants (iron and manganese) to near-stoichiometric lithium niobate, the dark storage time and gating efficiency can be increased compared with previous work. The underlying physical mechanisms of gated recording and the effectiveness of the gating process responsible for this manifold improved performance are discussed, and bipolarons and small polarons are identified as the responsible photorefractive species. PMID:9804540
The Holographic Scenario, the Modified Inertia and the Dynamics of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giné, Jaume
2012-11-01
This paper attempts to connect two new gravitational mechanisms: the Verlinde's holographic model of gravity and the modification of inertia resulting from a Hubble-scale Casimir effect (MiHsC) of McCulloch. First we give a short survey about how the holographic scenario can give the correct dynamics of the universe. The introduction of a two-holographic screens one comparable to the Hubble horizon and a second screen that takes into account the contribution of all the matter between the test particle and the observer gives directly the modified Friedmann acceleration equation for the dynamical evolution of the universe. Improvements of this equation using the quantum corrections will realize the inflation at high energy scales and the late-time acceleration (i.e. the accelerated expansion of the universe nowadays) obviating the dark energy. From both models we can derive a version of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) observed in the dynamics of the astronomical objects obviating the dark matter and explaining other astronomical anomalies. A first connection between both theories is given at the end of the paper.
Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.
Holographic thermalization with Weyl corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2016-01-01
We consider holographic thermalization in the presence of a Weyl correction in five dimensional AdS space. We first obtain the Weyl corrected black brane solution perturbatively, up to first order in the coupling. The corresponding AdS-Vaidya like solution is then constructed. This is then used to numerically analyze the time dependence of the two point correlation functions and the expectation values of rectangular Wilson loops in the boundary field theory, and we discuss how the Weyl correction can modify the thermalization time scales in the dual field theory. In this context, the subtle interplay between the Weyl coupling constant and the chemical potential is studied in detail.
Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-05-01
We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
50 years of holographic interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetson, Karl A.
2015-01-01
Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.
Holographic storage of multicolor information.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burton, G. T.; Clay, B. R.
1972-01-01
Discussion of the merits of the use of holography for storing multicolor information. Holography is shown capable to provide in a compact, easily duplicated, inexpensive, and readily retrievable manner the storage capacity required for the ever growing amounts of alphanumeric, graphic, continuous tone, color, and black-and-white data generated. Following a definition of the holographic concept, the advantages of holography for multicolor information recording, indexing, registration, and reconstruction are reviewed. Special attention is given to display applications including a multicolor moving-map display, a NASA multifunction display, and an automatic-test-equipment information storage system.
Three Dimensional Holographic Archival Memory
Gibbard, Bruce
2006-11-09
To address the DOE need for the storage and handling of terabyte of nuclear physics data, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed a new multi-terabit, 90° recording geometry 3D holographic archival optical memory storage and search system. In contrast to state-of-the-art memory approaches, 3DHAM handles the data through highly parallel optical processing in conjunction with highly redundant hologram multiplexing. The 3DHAM system advantages also stem from its unique 3D volume-recording medium, which theoretically has a significantly greater data density than diskbased systems.
Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?
Brown, Adam R; Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-05-13
We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature. PMID:27232013
Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung
2015-12-14
We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993
Moving through a multiplex holographic scene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrongovius, Martina
2013-02-01
This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.
Pereira-Dias, B.; Hernaski, C. A.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.
2011-04-15
The combined effects of the Lorentz-symmetry violating Chern-Simons and Ricci-Cotton actions are investigated for the Einstein-Hilbert gravity in the second-order formalism modified by higher derivative terms, and their consequences on the spectrum of excitations are analyzed. We follow the lines of previous works and build up an orthonormal basis of projector-like operators for the degrees of freedom, rather than for the spin modes of the fields. With this new basis, the attainment of the propagators is remarkably simplified and the identification of the physical and unphysical modes becomes more immediate. Our conclusion is that the only tachyon- and ghost-free model is the Einstein-Hilbert action added up by the Chern-Simons term with a timelike vector of the type v{sup {mu}=}({mu},0-vector). Spectral consistency imposes that the Ricci-Cotton term must be switched off. We then infer that gravity with Lorentz-symmetry violation imposes a drastically different constraint on the background if compared to ordinary gauge theories whenever conditions for the suppression of tachyons and ghosts are imposed.
Kinetics of formation of holographic structure of a hologram mirror in dichromated gelatin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kzuzhilin, Yu E.; Mel'nichenko, Yu. B.; Shilov, V. V.
1991-02-01
Optical spectrometry Xray diffraction and molecular light sea ttering were used to investigate the formation of holographic structure of a hologram mirx''or in a gelatin layer sensitized with ammo nium dichromate. It is shown that the intheed phase contrast of the holographic structure is formed due to rnicrophase separation o the system watergelatin-isopropanol into two polymerenrihed or sol ventenriched phases further polymer glass transition which results in the interruption of phase development and micropore formation caused by the removal of a solvent from the recording medium. Pore size distribution is determined by the density of crosslinks (mi tial and formed as a result of photochemical and dark reactions) in the bulk of the recording medium. t.
Intellectual property analysis of holographic materials business
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David
2006-02-01
The paper presents an overview of intellectual property in the field of holographic photosensitive materials and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic materials have been uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, and Japanese Patent Office for the time frame of 1971 through November 2005. The patent analysis has unveiled trends in patent temporal distribution, leading IP portfolios, companies competition within the holographic materials market and other interesting insights.
Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography
1995-07-28
The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less
Interacting Dark Fluid in Anisotropic Universe with Dynamical Deceleration Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhav, K. S.; Bokey, V. D.; Bansod, A. S.; Munde, S. L.
2016-06-01
In this paper we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi Type-I and V universe filled with Interacting Dark Matter and Holographic Dark Energy. The solutions of field equations are obtained for both models under the assumption of linearly varying deceleration parameter which yields dynamical deceleration parameter. It has been observed that the anisotropy of expansion dies out very quickly (soon after inflation) in both models (B-I, B-V). The physical and geometrical parameters for the both models have been obtained and discussed in details.
Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croon, Djuna; Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica
2016-07-01
Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM5, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of "colours" N , thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a `Little Randall-Sundrum Model', which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM5 with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.
Holographic baryons from oblate instantons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozali, Moshe; Stang, Jared B.; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2014-02-01
We investigate properties of baryons in a family of holographic field theories related to the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD. Starting with the N f = 2 Sakai-Sugimoto model, we truncate to a 5D Yang-Mills action for the gauge fields associated with the noncompact directions of the flavor D8-branes. We define a free parameter γ that controls the strength of this Yang-Mills term relative to the Chern-Simons term that couples the Abelian gauge field to the SU(2) instanton density. Moving away from γ = 0 should incorporate some of the effects of taking the Sakai-Sugimoto model away from large 't Hooft coupling λ. In this case, the baryon ground state corresponds to an oblate SU(2) instanton on the bulk flavor branes: the usual SO(4) symmetric instanton is deformed to spread more along the field theory directions than the radial direction. We numerically construct these anisotropic instanton solutions for various values of γ and calculate the mass and baryon charge profile of the corresponding baryons. Using the value γ = 2.55 that has been found to best fit the mesonic spectrum of QCD, we find a value for the baryon mass of 1.19 GeV, significantly more realistic than the value 1.60 GeV computed previously using an SO(4) symmetric ansatz for the instanton.
Holographic spectrograph for space telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa
2013-09-01
A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.
Holographic holes and differential entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Matthew; Myers, Robert C.; Wien, Jason
2014-10-01
Recently it has been shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula evaluated on certain closed surfaces in the bulk of a holographic spacetime has an interpretation as the differential entropy of a particular family of intervals (or strips) in the boundary theory [1, 2]. We first extend this construction to bulk surfaces which vary in time. We then give a general proof of the equality between the gravitational entropy and the differential entropy. This proof applies to a broad class of holographic backgrounds possessing a generalized planar symmetry and to certain classes of higher-curvature theories of gravity. To apply this theorem, one can begin with a bulk surface and determine the appropriate family of boundary intervals by considering extremal surfaces tangent to the given surface in the bulk. Alternatively, one can begin with a family of boundary intervals; as we show, the differential entropy then equals the gravitational entropy of a bulk surface that emerges from the intersection of the neighboring entanglement wedges, in a continuum limit.
Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy
Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan
2010-01-01
Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. PMID:21197025
Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy.
Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan
2010-12-20
Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. PMID:21197025
Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.
1985-01-01
A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.
Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebbeni, Jean P. L.
1992-03-01
Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.
Holographic Interferometry--A Laboratory Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Frutos, A. M.; de la Rosa, M. I.
1988-01-01
Explains the problem of analyzing a phase object, separating the contribution due to thickness variations and that due to refractive index variations. Discusses the design of an interferometer and some applications. Provides diagrams and pictures of holographic images. (YP)
Emergence in holographic scenarios for gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieks, Dennis; van Dongen, Jeroen; de Haro, Sebastian
2015-11-01
'Holographic' relations between theories have become an important theme in quantum gravity research. These relations entail that a theory without gravity is equivalent to a gravitational theory with an extra spatial dimension. The idea of holography was first proposed in 1993 by Gerard 't Hooft on the basis of his studies of evaporating black holes. Soon afterwards the holographic 'AdS/CFT' duality was introduced, which since has been intensively studied in the string theory community and beyond. Recently, Erik Verlinde has proposed that even Newton's law of gravitation can be related holographically to the 'thermodynamics of information' on screens. We discuss these scenarios, with special attention to the status of the holographic relation in them and to the question of whether they make gravity and spacetime emergent. We conclude that only Verlinde's scheme straightforwardly instantiates emergence. However, assuming a non-standard interpretation of AdS/CFT may create room for the emergence of spacetime and gravity there as well.
Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.
Noncontact dimensional measurement system using holographic scanning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagan, Stephen F.; Rosso, Robert S.; Rowe, David M.
1997-07-01
Holographic scanning systems have been used for years in point-of-sale bar code scanners and other low resolution applications. These simple scanning systems could not successfully provide the accuracy and precision required to measure, inspect and control the production of today's high tech optical fibers, medical extrusions and electrical cables. A new class of instruments for the precision measurement of industrial processes has been created by the development of systems with a unique combination of holographic optical elements that can compensate for the wavelength drift in laser diodes, the application of proprietary post-processing algorithms, and the advancements in replication methods to fabricate low cost holographic scanning discs. These systems have improved upon the performance of traditional polygon mirror scanners. This paper presents the optical configuration and design features that have been incorporated into a holographic scanning inspection system that provides higher productivity, increased product quality and lower production costs for many manufacturers.
Meson wave function from holographic approaches
Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.
2010-08-04
We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.
Holographic data processing methods for medical prognosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonov, V. A.; Grosmann, M. H.; Kartavenko, V. I.; Larkin, A. I.; Trukhanov, K. A.
2015-10-01
The various methods of laser coherent photonic implementations of multiparametric classification are discussed in this paper. The holographic and optical data processing methods for medical application are considered. Inverse two-phase coding and analysis of light distribution in the correlation plane enables us to realize a number of algorithms: search for a precedent, Hamming distance measurement, Bayes probability algorithm, deterministic and ‘correspondence’ algorithms. The experimental holographic results for medicine prognosis are shown.
Iron (III)/multiacrylate-based holographic mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucchetta, D. E.; Nucara, L.; Criante, L.; Simoni, F.; Boni, A.; Xu, Ji-Hua; Bizzarri, R.; Castagna, R.
2013-11-01
We propose an holographic mixture, based on a nonconventional photoinitiator mixed with an acrylate monomer, in which high resolution thick holographic gratings are written. The used mixture that preferably works at UV and Blue-visible wavelengths shows many interesting features, such as high post-polymerization transparency, high writing resolution, and high angular selectivity. The information is permanently storable. Standard experimental techniques have been used to characterize the physical properties of the written gratings.
Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.
2003-01-01
We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.
Level of holographic noise in interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyaninov, Igor I.
2009-04-01
The level of holographic noise expected to be observed in interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as GEO600 is reexamined. It is demonstrated that earlier estimates are based on assumed linear diffractive behavior of Planck radiation. Since nonlinear effects, such as self-focusing, are expected to appear at much lower energies, the expected level of holographic noise must be reduced by many orders of magnitude.
Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afonin, S. S.; Pusenkov, I. V.
2016-06-01
We consider the soft wall holographic approach for description of the high-T_c superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological and does not describe the superconducting phase transition. On the other hand, technically it is simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-T_c materials in the superconducting phase. Some examples of emerging models are analyzed.
Influence of TFT-LCD pixel structure on holographic representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai
2008-09-01
As a new holographic display device, TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays) is key technical component of holographic representation for easy controlled by computer. With the development of exquisite processing technology, that it instead of the traditional holographic plate become historical necessity and would be the development direction of holographic optics. Based on principles of holography and display character of LCD, the property which the LCD was used as a holographic plate was analyzed. The emphasis on discuss influence of LCD black matrix on holographic representation. First, analyzed on LCD pixel structure, the LCD pixel structure mathematical model was established. LCD was character representation by pixel structure parameters. Then, the influence of LCD pixels structure on holographic representation was analyzed by computer simulation. Meanwhile, the SONY LCX023 was chosen for holographic plate, the He-Ne laser which the wavelength is 0.6328um was holographic representation light source. The holographic representation system was established for test influence of LCD on holographic representation. Final, compared between computer simulations and optical experimental results, the mathematical model of LCD was proved to be true. When aperture ratio is 0.625, the holographic representation wouldn't be distinguished between representation images. At the same time, some useful results was acquired for improve application effects of LCD in holographic representation.
Moothanchery, Mohesh; Bavigadda, Viswanath; Toal, Vincent; Naydenova, Izabela
2013-12-10
Shrinkage of photopolymer materials is an important factor for their use in holographic data storage and for fabrication of holographic optical elements. Dimensional change in the holographic element leads to a requirement for compensation in the reading angle and/or wavelength. Normally, shrinkage is studied at the end of the polymerization process and no information about the dynamics is obtained. The aim of this study was to use holographic interferometry to measure the shrinkage that occurs during holographic recording of transmission diffraction gratings in acrylamide photopolymer layers. Shrinkage in photopolymer layers can be measured over the whole recorded area by real-time capture of holographic interferograms at regular intervals during holographic recording using a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The optical path length change, and hence the shrinkage, are determined from the captured fringe patterns. Through analysis of the real-time shrinkage curves, it is possible to distinguish two processes that determine the value of shrinkage in the photopolymer layer. These processes are ascribed to monomer polymerization and crosslinking of polymer chains. The dependence of shrinkage of the layers on the conditions of recording such as recording intensity, single or double beam exposure, and the physical properties of the layers, such as thickness, were studied. Higher shrinkage was observed with recordings at lower intensities and in thinner layers. Increased shrinkage was also observed in the case of single beam polymerization in comparison to the case of double beam holographic exposure. PMID:24513896
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Steven L.; Harvey, Karen; Richardson, Martin; Blyth, Jeff
2011-02-01
HARMAN technology's new holographic emulsions; red sensitive and green sensitive assisted by smaller grain sizes, novel sensitization and coating technology have been shown to achieve high diffraction efficiencies and narrow band reconstruction capabilities. Authors demonstrate processing optimizations and material behavior characteristics for Transmission image Masters as well as Holographic Optical Elements (HOE's).
Holographic Equilibration of Nonrelativistic Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gürsoy, Umut; Jansen, Aron; Sybesma, Watse; Vandoren, Stefan
2016-07-01
We study far-from-equilibrium physics of strongly interacting plasmas at criticality and zero charge density for a wide range of dynamical scaling exponents z in d dimensions using holographic methods. In particular, we consider homogeneous isotropization of asymptotically Lifshitz black branes with full backreaction. We find stable evolution and equilibration times that exhibit small dependence of z and are of the order of the inverse temperature. Performing a quasinormal mode analysis, we find a corresponding narrow range of relaxation times, fully characterized by the fraction z /(d -1 ). For z ≥d -1 , equilibration is overdamped, whereas for z
Coherent Digital Holographic Adaptive Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Changgeng
A new type of adaptive optics (AO) based on the principles of digital holography (DH) is proposed and developed for the use in wide-field and confocal retinal imaging. Digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO) dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector of the conventional AO system. DH is an emergent imaging technology that gives direct numerical access to the phase of the optical field, thus allowing precise control and manipulation of the optical field. Incorporation of DH in an ophthalmic imaging system can lead to versatile imaging capabilities at substantially reduced complexity and cost of the instrument. A typical conventional AO system includes several critical hardware pieces: spatial light modulator, lenslet array, and a second CCD camera in addition to the camera for imaging. The proposed DHAO system replaces these hardware components with numerical processing for wavefront measurement and compensation of aberration through the principles of DH. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD
de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins
2011-11-08
The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.
Vector fields in holographic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
B. Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas
2013-11-01
We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The scalar and vector matter profiles in this region are complex from an AdS viewpoint, with universal asymptotic phases. The dual description of the semiclassical NBWF thus involves complex deformations of Euclidean CFTs.
Survey of holographic security systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.
1990-04-01
The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.
Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse
Fiol, Bartomeu
2010-07-01
We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.
Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.
Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M
2007-03-01
A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nf
Peebles, P James E
2015-10-01
The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526
Peebles, P. James E.
2015-01-01
The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526
String junctions and holographic interfaces
Chiodaroli, Marco; Gutperle, Michael; Hung, Ling-Yan; Krym, Darya
2011-01-15
In this paper we study half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions with multiple AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xM{sub 4} asymptotic regions, where M{sub 4} is either T{sup 4} or K{sub 3}. These solutions were first constructed in [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] and have geometries given by the warped product of AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2}xM{sub 4} over {Sigma}, where {Sigma} is a Riemann surface. We show that the holographic boundary has the structure of a star graph, i.e. n half-lines joined at a point. The attractor mechanism and the relation of the solutions to junctions of self-dual strings in six-dimensional supergravity are discussed. The solutions of [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] are constructed introducing two meromorphic and two harmonic functions defined on {Sigma}. We focus our analysis on solutions corresponding to junctions of three different conformal field theories and show that the conditions for having a solution charged only under Ramond-Ramond three-form fields reduce to relations involving the positions of the poles and the residues of the relevant harmonic and meromorphic functions. The degeneration limit in which some of the poles collide is analyzed in detail. Finally, we calculate the holographic boundary entropy for a junction of three CFTs and obtain a simple expression in terms of poles and residues.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compton-thick AGNs from the 70-month Swift/BAT cat. (Ricci+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, C.; Ueda, Y.; Koss, M. J.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Bauer, F. E.; Gandhi, P.
2016-03-01
Our group has recently carried out the largest study of broadband X-ray emission of AGNs (C. Ricci et al. 2015, in preparation), analyzing in detail the 0.3-150keV spectra of the 834 AGNs reported in the latest release (70 months, Baumgartner et al. 2013, J/ApJS/207/19) of the Swift/BAT catalog. We present here the first results of our work, focused on the detection of 55 Compton-thick (CT) AGNs, 26 of which are reported for the first time as candidate CT sources. We collected the best X-ray data below 10keV available as of 2013 March, using spectra from XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, Swift/XRT, and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics). (1 data file).
Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya
2008-12-15
In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.
Quasi-normal modes of a massless scalar field around the 5D Ricci-flat black string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Molin; Liu, Hongya; Gui, Yuanxing
2008-05-01
As one candidate of the higher dimensional black holes, the 5D Ricci-flat black string is considered in this paper. By means of a non-trivial potential Vn, the quasi-normal modes of a massless scalar field around this black string space are studied. By using the classical third-order WKB approximation, we carefully analyze the evolution of frequencies in two aspects, one is the induced cosmological constant Λ and the other is the quantum number n. The massless scalar field decays more slowly because of the existence of the fifth dimension and the induced cosmological constant. If an extra dimension has in fact existed near the black hole, the quasi-normal frequencies may have some indication of it.
A low-resolution 3D holographic volumetric display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Javid; Underwood, Ian; Greenaway, Alan; Halonen, Mikko
2010-05-01
A simple low resolution volumetric display is presented, based on holographic volume-segments. The display system comprises a proprietary holographic screen, laser projector, associated optics plus a control unit. The holographic screen resembles a sheet of frosted glass about A4 in size (20x30cm). The holographic screen is rear-illuminated by the laser projector, which is in turn driven by the controller, to produce simple 3D images that appear outside the plane of the screen. A series of spatially multiplexed and interleaved interference patterns are pre-encoded across the surface of the holographic screen. Each illumination pattern is capable of reconstructing a single holographic volume-segment. Up to nine holograms are multiplexed on the holographic screen in a variety of configurations including a series of numeric and segmented digits. The demonstrator has good results under laboratory conditions with moving colour 3D images in front of or behind the holographic screen.
Evanescent polarization holographic recording of sub-200-nm gratings in an azobenzene polyester.
Ramanujam, P S
2003-12-01
I demonstrate high-resolution polarization holographic recording with evanescent waves in a thin film of an azobenzene polyester deposited directly on the hypotenuse of a highly refractive prism. A spatial frequency greater than 7000 lines/mm and diffraction efficiency greater than 1% have been achieved. It was found that diffraction efficiency increases in the dark after the writing beams have been switched off. The biphotonic effect found in other azobenzene polymers, which converts cis states of the azobenzene to trans states followed by an ordering process that is due to aggregation, is proposed as the reason for this increase in diffraction efficiency. PMID:14680187
Analysis of dark matter and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongquan, Han
2016-05-01
As the law of unity of opposites of the Philosophy tells us, the bright material exists, the dark matter also exists. Dark matter and dark energy should allow the law of unity of opposites. The Common attributes of the matter is radiation, then common attributes of dark matter must be absorb radiation. Only the rotation speed is lower than the speed of light radiation, can the matter radiate, since the speed of the matter is lower than the speed of light, so the matter is radiate; The rotate speed of the dark matter is faster than the light , so the dark matter doesn't radiate, it absorbs radiation. The energy that the dark matter absorb radiation produced (affect the measurement of time and space distribution of variations) is dark energy, so the dark matter produce dark energy only when it absorbs radiation. Dark matter does not radiate, two dark matters does not exist inevitably forces, and also no dark energy. Called the space-time ripples, the gravitational wave is bent radiation, radiation particles should be graviton, graviton is mainly refers to the radiation particles whose wavelength is small. Dark matter, dark energy also confirms the existence of the law of symmetry.
Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred
2014-02-01
The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.
The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo
2011-01-01
Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that…
Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.
Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K
2015-01-01
Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media. PMID:26146767
Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.
2008-04-01
Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.
Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.
2015-11-01
Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.
The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.
1993-02-01
We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.
Phase structures of holographic screen thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Jian-Long
2014-07-01
Holographic screens are the generalization of the event horizon of a black hole in entropic force scheme, which are defined by setting Newton potential ϕ constant, i.e. e2ϕ = c = const. We demonstrate that the integrated first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the (r-r) component of Einstein equations, so that we strengthen the correspondence between thermodynamics and gravity. We show that there are not only the first law of thermodynamics, but also kinds of phase transitions of holographic screens. These phase transitions are characterized by the discontinuity of their heat capacities. In (n+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) spacetime, we analyze three kinds of phase transitions, which are of the holographic screens with Q = 0 (charge), constant Φ (electrostatic potential) and nonzero constant Q. In the Q = 0 case, only the holographic screens with 0≤c<1 can undergo phase transition. In the constant Φ case, the constraints become as 0<= c+16˜ {Γ }2Φ 2<1, where ˜ {Γ } is a dimensional-dependent parameter. By verifying the Ehrenfest equations, we show that the phase transitions in this case are all second order phase transitions. In the constant Q case, there might be two, or one, or no phase transitions of holographic screens, depending on the values of Q and c.
Holography and the virtual patient: the holographic medical image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Kathryn; Erickson, Ronald R.; Webster, John M.
1996-12-01
Practical holographic systems utilizing the pulsed laser are finding potential applications in medicine. Exploiting both the hologram's true 3D image and holographic interferometry these techniques enhance the physician's vision beyond the 2D radiological imaging of even the best CT and MRI. The authors describe the use of pulsed laser holography as applied to the morphological specialties: anatomy, pathology, and surgery. The authors report on the Holographic Brain Anatomy Atlas for medical education; pathologic documentation with holography, and the use of holographic interferometry in surgical planning. The techniques are outlined and a discussion on the interpretation of holographic interferometry with living subjects is provided.
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.
2012-02-16
The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light
A holographic quantum Hall ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristjansen, C.; Pourhasan, R.; Semenoff, G. W.
2014-02-01
A detailed numerical study of a recent proposal for exotic states of the D3-probe D5 brane system with charge density and an external magnetic field is presented. The state has a large number of coincident D5 branes blowing up to a D7 brane in the presence of the worldvolume electric and magnetic fields which are necessary to construct the holographic state. Numerical solutions have shown that these states can compete with the the previously known chiral symmetry breaking and maximally symmetric phases of the D3-D5 system. Moreover, at integer filling fractions, they are incompressible with integer quantized Hall conductivities. In the dual superconformal defect field theory, these solutions correspond to states which break the chiral and global flavor symmetries spontaneously. The region of the temperature-density plane where the D7 brane has lower energy than the other known D5 brane solutions is identified. A hypothesis for the structure of states with filling fraction and Hall conductivity greater than one is made and tested by numerical computation. A parallel with the quantum Hall ferromagnetism or magnetic catalysis phenomenon which is observed in graphene is drawn. As well as demonstrating that the phenomenon can exist in a strongly coupled system, this work makes a number of predictions of symmetry breaking patterns and phase transitions for such systems.
Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason
2016-08-01
As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.
Holographic entanglement beyond classical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrella, Taylor; Dong, Xi; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Martin, Victoria L.
2013-09-01
The Rényi entropies and entanglement entropy of 1+1 CFTs with gravity duals can be computed by explicit construction of the bulk spacetimes dual to branched covers of the boundary geometry. At the classical level in the bulk this has recently been shown to reproduce the conjectured Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy. We study the one-loop bulk corrections to this formula. The functional determinants in the bulk geometries are given by a sum over certain words of generators of the Schottky group of the branched cover. For the case of two disjoint intervals on a line we obtain analytic answers for the one-loop entanglement entropy in an expansion in small cross-ratio. These reproduce and go beyond anticipated universal terms that are not visible classically in the bulk. We also consider the case of a single interval on a circle at finite temperature. At high temperatures we show that the one-loop contributions introduce expected finite size corrections to the entanglement entropy that are not present classically. At low temperatures, the one-loop corrections capture the mixed nature of the density matrix, also not visible classically below the Hawking-Page temperature.
Exact holographic mapping in free fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ching Hua; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we perform a detailed analysis of the exact holographic mapping first introduced in arXiv:1309.6282, which was proposed as an explicit example of holographic duality between quantum many-body systems and gravitational theories. We obtain analytic results for free fermion systems that not only confirm previous numerical results, but also elucidate the exact relationships between the various physical properties of the bulk and boundary systems. These analytic results allow us to study the asymptotic properties that are difficult to probe numerically, such as the near-horizon regime of the black-hole geometry. We shall also explore a few interesting but hitherto unexplored bulk geometries, such as that corresponding to a boundary critical fermion with a nontrivial dynamical critical exponent. Our analytic framework also allows us to study the holographic mapping of some of these boundary theories in dimensions 2+1 or higher.
Photopolymeric multifunctional dendrimer toward holographic applications.
Jeong, Yong-Cheol; Jung, Bokyung; Park, Jung-Ki
2012-09-26
We present a photopolymeric multifunctional dendrimer for holographic applications. In this study, we described a synthesis of multiphotoreactive dendrimer and phase compatible polymer matrix as well as a numerical simulation of the dendrimer. This holographic photopolymer containing a nanosized photoreactive organic dendrimer could address the aggregation issue of conventional inorganic nanoparticle additives and allowed writing-induced shrinkage to be successfully reduced to the extent of acceptable values for 130 μm thick film. In this report, holographic performance including diffraction efficiency (DE), transmission, photosensitivity, modulation of refractive index, polarization sensitivity, and volume shrinkage has been discussed. The page-wise recording by using an amplitude spatial light modulator (SLM) was also demonstrated. PMID:22950741
Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao
2015-11-01
The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.
Collapse and revival in holographic quenches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre
2015-04-01
We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, Ujjal
2015-02-01
First, we describe the ordinary holographic dark energy (HDE), ( m, n) type holographic dark energy, entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) for logarithmic and power-law versions and pilgrim dark energy (PDE) models. Next, we introduce the ( m, n) type pilgrim dark energy and its entropy-corrected versions of logarithmic and power-law forms i.e., ( m, n) type LECPDE and PLECPDE models. The main motivation of the work is to have reconstructions of f( R), f( G), f( T), and Einstein-Aether gravities from ( m, n) type entropy-corrected pilgrim dark energy (ECPDE). Briefly the idea of our proposed entropy-corrected ( m, n) type pilgrim dark energy model is discussed. We also discuss the modified Friedmann equations for f( R), f( G), f( T), and Einstein-Aether gravities and then from the equations we find the effective density and pressure for the f( R), f( G), f( T), and Einstein-Aether gravities sectors, respectively. These can be treated as an effective dark energy. Assuming the power-law solution of the scale factor, a˜ t δ , we can reconstruct the unknown functions of f( R), f( G), f( T), and F( K) of Einstein-Aether gravities from logarithmic and power-law corrected versions of ECPDE. Finally, we give some cosmological implications of the reconstructed models.
Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael
1994-09-01
The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cembranos, J. A. R.; Dobado, A.; Maroto, A. L.
Extra-dimensional theories contain additional degrees of freedom related to the geometry of the extra space which can be interpreted as new particles. Such theories allow to reformulate most of the fundamental problems of physics from a completely different point of view. In this essay, we concentrate on the brane fluctuations which are present in brane-worlds, and how such oscillations of the own space-time geometry along curved extra dimensions can help to resolve the Universe missing mass problem. The energy scales involved in these models are low compared to the Planck scale, and this means that some of the brane fluctuations distinctive signals could be detected in future colliders and in direct or indirect dark matter searches.
Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
2010-01-08
Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?
Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.
2015-03-01
Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, e.g., lenslet arrays for sensing or multi-acuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach to adaptive optics based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile is possible not only with the conventional coherent type of digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates complex - i.e. amplitude plus phase - hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using a guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. The adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.
Holographic cold nuclear matter and neutron star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoroku, Kazuo; Kubo, Kouki; Tachibana, Motoi; Toyoda, Fumihiko
2014-04-01
We have previously found a new phase of cold nuclear matter based on a holographic gauge theory, where baryons are introduced as instanton gas in the probe D8//lineD8 branes. In our model, we could obtain the equation of state (EOS) of our nuclear matter by introducing Fermi momentum. Then, here we apply this model to the neutron star and study its mass and radius by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations in terms of the EOS given here. We give some comments for our holographic model from a viewpoint of the other field theoretical approaches.
A computer test of holographic flavour dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filev, Veselin G.; O'Connor, Denjoe
2016-05-01
We perform computer simulations of the Berkooz-Douglas (BD) matrix model, holographically dual to the D0/D4-brane intersection. We generate the fundamental condensate versus bare mass curve of the theory both holographically and from simulations of the BD model. Our studies show excellent agreement of the two approaches in the deconfined phase of the theory and significant deviations in the confined phase. We argue the discrepancy in the confined phase is explained by the embedding of the D4-brane which yields stronger α' corrections to the condensate in this phase.
Holographic superconductors from the massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Hua Bi; Wu, Jian-Pin
2014-08-01
A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite dc conductivity, the ac conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power-law fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.
Experimental approach toward holographic interferometric fringe interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. K.
1974-01-01
Current literature concerning the measurement of small displacements by the laser holographic technique was reviewed. It was found that existing theories are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to apply to any realistic nondestructive testing conditions in which the geometries of the objects are complex and the three-dimensional displacements are irregular. An experimental approach was adopted for interpreting correlation between real time holographic fringe patterns and small displacements. Preliminary results show that the present method is feasible for the quantitative interpretation of the fringes as well as the calibration of the mobile HNDT system.
Digital holographic Michelson interferometer for nanometrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sevrygin, Alexander A.; Korotkov, V. I.; Pulkin, S. A.; Tursunov, I. M.; Venediktov, D. V.; Venediktov, V. Yu.; Volkov, O. V.
2014-11-01
The paper considers the dynamic holographic interferometry schemes with amplification (multiplication) of holographic fringes and with correction for distortions, imposed by the interferometer scheme elements. The use of digital microscope and of the matrix light modulator with direct addressing provides the completely digital closed-loop performance of the overall system for real-time evaluation of nano-scale objects size. Considered schemes were verified in the laboratory experiment, using the Michelson micro-interferometer, equipped by the USB-microscope and digital holography stage, equipped by the Holoeye spatial light modulator.
Improved performance in coaxial holographic data recording.
Tanaka, Kenji; Hara, Masaaki; Tokuyama, Kazutatsu; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Ishioka, Koji; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenjiro
2007-11-26
We describe a coaxial holographic recording system for achieving high recording density. We implement several techniques, such as an objective lens with high numerical aperture (NA), high capacity page data format, a random binary phase mask, and an optical noise reduction element. Our system successfully realizes a hologram recording/retrieving at a low diffraction efficiency less than 2.0 x 10(-3) and achieves a raw data density of 180 Gbit/in.(2), thus demonstrating the potential of a coaxial holographic system for high-density optical storage systems. PMID:19550907
Low holographic concentration effects on CIGS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Jose E.; Russo, Juan M.; Zhang, Deming; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn A.
2010-08-01
We present the results of combining copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic cells with holographic planar concentrating film over a broad range of illumination levels. The film, originally designed for silicon bifacial solar applications worked well with the CIGS cells. The Voc, cell efficiency and fill factor reached full operating values at lower light levels; with a significant boost in performance being recorded. The holographic regions of the concentrator act as extended heat transfer surfaces, allowing the CIGS cells to operate at lower operational temperatures than they normally would in a traditional PV application.
Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide
Griggs, D.
1993-10-01
This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.
Shape of mesons in holographic QCD
Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung
2009-10-15
Based on the expectation that the constituent quark model may capture the right physics in the large N limit, we point out that the orbital angular momentum of the quark-antiquark pair inside light mesons of low spins in the constituent quark model may provide a clue for the holographic dual string model of large N QCD. Our discussion, relying on a few suggestive assumptions, leads to a necessity of world-sheet fermions in the bulk of dual strings that can incorporate intrinsic spins of fundamental QCD degrees of freedom. We also comment on the interesting issue of the size of mesons in holographic QCD.
General properties of holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Matthew
2014-03-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi formula implies many general properties of entanglement entropies in holographic theories. We review the known properties, such as continuity, strong subadditivity, and monogamy of mutual information, and fill in gaps in some of the previously-published proofs. We also add a few new properties, including: properties of the map from boundary regions to bulk regions implied by the RT formula, such as monotonicity; conditions under which subadditivity-type inequalities are saturated; and an inequality concerning reflection-symmetric states. We attempt to draw lessons from these properties about the structure of the reduced density matrix in holographic theories.
Real-time holographic surveillance system
Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.
1995-10-03
A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.
Real-time holographic surveillance system
Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks
1995-01-01
A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.
Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system
Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.
1996-09-17
A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.
Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system
Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.
1996-01-01
A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guntaka, Sridhar Reddy; Toal, Vincent; Martin, Suzanne
2002-12-01
A diffractive optical element is described that can be used to implement a very simple self-aligning electronic speckle-pattern interferometer and holographic interferometer that requires only a laser source and a camera in the optical setup.
Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun
2009-10-15
Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.
Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.
Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho
2016-06-01
A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally. PMID:27244395
Using (4+1) Split and Energy Conditions to Study the Induced Matter in 5d Ricci-Flat Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Yongli; Liu, Hongya; Xu, Lixin
We use (4+1) split to derive the 4D induced energy density ρ and pressure p of the 5D Ricci-flat cosmological solutions which are characterized by having a bounce instead of a bang. The solutions contain two arbitrary functions of time t and, therefore, are mathematically rich in giving various cosmological models. By using four known energy conditions (null, weak, strong, and dominant) to pick out and study physically meaningful solutions, we find that the 4D part of the 5D solutions asymptotically approaches to the standard 4D FRW models and the expansion of the universe is decelerating for normal induced matter for which all the four energy conditions are satisfied. We also find that quintessence might be normal or abnormal, depending on the parameter w of the equation of state. If -1 ≤ w < -1/3, the expansion of the universe is accelerating and the quintessence is abnormal because the strong energy condition is violated while other three are satisfied. For phantom, all the four energy conditions are violated. Before the bounce, all the four energy conditions are violated, implying that the cosmic matter before the bounce could be explained as a phantom that has a large negative pressure and makes the universe bouncing. In the early times after the bounce, the dominant energy condition is violated, while the other three are satisfied, and so the cosmic matter could be explained as a super-luminal acoustic matter.
Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan
2016-03-01
To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears.
Testing and inspecting lens by holographic means
Hildebrand, Bernard P.
1976-01-01
Processes for the accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of oncave and convex lens surfaces through holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and said convex surfaces to be so tested.
Thermal stress studies using optical holographic interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, W. J.; Woods, D. C.
1974-01-01
The application of holography to thermal stress studies is discussed. Interference fringes as produced by holograms and their interpretation are reviewed in relation to workpiece displacement. Three potential mechanisms are given to explain thermal displacement as detected by holographic methods. Results of some thermal stressing studies are reported, including tests on a live rocket motor.
The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, James R.
Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…
Full-color holographic 3D printer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio
2003-05-01
A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.
High sensitive materials in medical holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osanlou, A.; Snashall, E.; Osanlou, O.; Osanlou, R.; Mirlis, E.; Shi, Lishen; Bjelkhagen, H.
2015-02-01
High sensitivity is defined in relation to the energy required to perform holographic recording. High sensitivity in silver halide materials is their main advantage over other similarly high resolving power holographic recording materials. This work reports progress on the development of silver halide based 'true colour holographic imaging', under a microscope. A thin layer of ultrafine grains of silver halide crystals of around 10 nm average diameter, dispersed in a colloid and coated on a substrate is used as the recording media. The significance of this method so far, is in its ability to produce 'true colour' three-dimensional images of specimen. The recordings have an appreciable depth, permitting the observer to scan through the image under a microscope, as one might with a real specimen sample. Current methods could perform ' True colour holographic imaging' directly under a microscope. The recording methodology has the potential for deeper complex and scattering media imaging, using very small pulses of appropriate laser wavelengths. The methodology, using novel nanosize panchromatic recording media consisting of dispersed fine nano grain crystals, could potentially revolutionise related medical imaging techniques. Future development of digital media will allow it to be utilized in this manner.
Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage.
Matharu, Avtar S; Jeeva, Shehzad; Ramanujam, P S
2007-12-01
A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity, is discussed. Polymeric liquid crystals play an important role in the development of materials for holographic storage and photoresponsive materials based on azobenzene are targeted for discussion due to their ease of photo-reversion between trans- and cis-states. Although the final polymer may not be liquid crystalline, irradiation can induce ordered domains. The mesogens act in a co-operative manner, enhancing refractive indices and birefringences. Surface relief gratings are discussed as a consequence of holographic storage. Cholesteric polymers comprising azobenzene are briefly highlighted. Irradiation causing cis-trans-isomerisation can be used to control helix pitch. A brief mention of liquid crystals is also made since these materials may be of future interest since they are optically transparent and amenable to photo-induced anisotropy. PMID:17982514
Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhevnikov, A.; Gertz, F.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Khitun, A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.
Meson wave function from holographic models
Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.
2009-09-01
We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.
Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction
Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan
2016-01-01
To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears. PMID:26964671
Gravitation from entanglement in holographic CFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faulkner, Thomas; Guica, Monica; Hartman, Thomas; Myers, Robert C.; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2014-03-01
Entanglement entropy obeys a `first law', an exact quantum generalization of the ordinary first law of thermodynamics. In any CFT with a semiclassical holographic dual, this first law has an interpretation in the dual gravitational theory as a constraint on the spacetimes dual to CFT states. For small perturbations around the CFT vacuum state, we show that the set of such constraints for all ball-shaped spatial regions in the CFT is exactly equivalent to the requirement that the dual geometry satisfy the gravitational equations of motion, linearized about pure AdS. For theories with entanglement entropy computed by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula S = /(4 G N), we obtain the linearized Einstein equations. For theories in which the vacuum entanglement entropy for a ball is computed by more general Wald functionals, we obtain the linearized equations for the associated higher-curvature theories. Using the first law, we also derive the holographic dictionary for the stress tensor, given the holographic formula for entanglement entropy. This method provides a simple alternative to holographic renormalization for computing the stress tensor expectation value in arbitrary higher derivative gravitational theories.
Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device
Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.
2015-04-06
In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.
Holographic Compact Disk Read-Only Memories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tsuen-Hsi
1996-01-01
Compact disk read-only memories (CD-ROMs) of proposed type store digital data in volume holograms instead of in surface differentially reflective elements. Holographic CD-ROM consist largely of parts similar to those used in conventional CD-ROMs. However, achieves 10 or more times data-storage capacity and throughput by use of wavelength-multiplexing/volume-hologram scheme.
Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.
1995-01-01
Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.
Holographic reflection gratings in photopolymerizable solgel materials.
Murciano, A; Blaya, S; Carretero, L; Madrigal, R F; Fimia, A
2006-08-01
The recording of holographic reflection gratings with a spatial frequency higher than 5400 lines/mm in photopolymerizable solgel materials is experimentally demonstrated. Diffraction efficiencies near 60% and a FWHM of 2.5 nm centered at 531.5 nm are achieved. Moreover, the effect of the energetic exposure is characterized at different recording intensities. PMID:16832471
Holographic reflection gratings in photopolymerizable solgel materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murciano, A.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Madrigal, R. F.; Fimia, A.
2006-08-01
The recording of holographic reflection gratings with a spatial frequency higher than 5400 lines/mm in photopolymerizable solgel materials is experimentally demonstrated. Diffraction efficiencies near 60% and a FWHM of 2.5 nm centered at 531.5 nm are achieved. Moreover, the effect of the energetic exposure is characterized at different recording intensities.
Photorefractive phase-conjugation digital holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Huang-Tian; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun
2015-05-01
In this work, we propose an innovative method for digital holographic microscopy named as photorefractive phaseconjugation digital holographic microscopy (PPCDHM) technique based on the phase conjugation dynamic holographic process in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal and the retrieval of phase and amplitude of the object wave were performed by a reflection-type digital holographic method. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification by self-pumped conjugation (SPPC) as they have an increased SNR. The interest of the PPCDHM is great, because its hologram is created by interfered the amplified phase-conjugate wave field generated from a photorefractive phase conjugator (PPC) correcting the phase aberration of the imaging system and the reference wave onto the digital CCD camera. Therefore, a precise three-dimensional description of the object with high SNR can be obtained digitally with only one hologram acquisition. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram from which the phase distribution can be obtained simultaneously with distribution of intensity at the surface of the object.
Holographic analysis as an inspection method for welded thin-wall tubing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Lawrence; Mulholland, John; Genin, Joseph; Matthews, Larryl
1990-01-01
The feasibility of using holographic interferometry for locating flaws in welded tubing is explored. Two holographic techniques are considered: traditional holographic interferometry and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Several flaws including cold laps, discontinuities, and tube misalignments are detected.
Holographic recording aspects of high-resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berneth, Horst; Bruder, Friedrich K.; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Jurbergs, David; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan
2011-02-01
We have been developing a new class of recording materials for volume holography, offering the advantages of full color recording and depth tuning without any chemical or thermal processing, combined with low shrinkage and detuning. These photopolymers are based on the two-chemistry concept in which the writing chemistry is dissolved in a preformed polymeric network. This network gives the necessary mechanical stability to the material prior to recording. In this paper we describe several aspects of holographic recording into Bayfol® HX which are beneficial for its effective use and discuss them within a more elaborate reaction-diffusion model. Inhibition phenomena and the influence of precure are studied within this model and are investigated experimentally for single hologram recording and angular multiplexed hologram recordings. Also the dark reaction after the exposure period and the minimum allowable waiting time for full hologram formation are addressed. The proper understanding of these phenomena is important for the optimal usage of these new materials, in for example step-and-repeat mass production of holograms.
Lensless in-line holographic microscope with Talbot grating illumination.
Feng, Shaodong; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Jigang
2016-07-15
We have developed a wide field-of-view lensless in-line holographic microscope (LIHM) capable of acquiring microscopic images with a compact design. In our imaging system, a Ronchi grating was illuminated by a collimated laser beam to generate a Talbot self-imaging grating illumination on the sample, and the in-line holograms were recorded by a CMOS imaging sensor behind the sample. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was then applied to reconstruct the sample image while eliminating the twin-image background that appears in traditional in-line holography. In the algorithm, the dark areas of the illumination grating were used as a known constraint to define the sample support that led to convergence of the iteration. The whole-sample image can be acquired by laterally shifting the grating. We demonstrated the performance of our iteration algorithm and imaging system by successfully acquiring images of polystyrene microspheres with 5 μm diameter and the wing of a green lacewing. PMID:27420484
Cosmological constraints on induced gravity dark energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballardini, M.; Finelli, F.; Umiltà, C.; Paoletti, D.
2016-05-01
We study induced gravity dark energy models coupled with a simple monomial potential propto σn and a positive exponent n. These simple potentials lead to viable dark energy models with a weak dependence on the exponent, which characterizes the accelerated expansion in the asymptotic attractor, when ordinary matter becomes negligible. We use recent cosmological data to constrain the coupling γ to the Ricci curvature, under the assumptions that the scalar field starts at rest deep in the radiation era and that the gravitational constant in the Einstein equations is compatible with the one measured in a Cavendish-like experiment. By using Planck 2015 data only, we obtain the 95 % CL bound γ < 0.0017 for n=4, which is further tightened to γ < 0.00075 by adding Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data. This latter bound improves by ~ 30 % the limit obtained with the Planck 2013 data and the same compilation of BAO data. We discuss the dependence of the γ and ˙ GN/GN (z=0) on n.
Light dark matter and dark radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heo, Jae Ho; Kim, C. S.
2016-03-01
Light ( M ≤ 20 MeV) dark-matter particles freeze out after neutrino decoupling. If the dark-matter particle couples to a neutrino or an electromagnetic plasma, the late time entropy production from dark-matter annihilation can change the neutrino-to-photon temperature ratio, and equally the effective number of neutrinos N eff. We study the non-equilibrium effects of dark-matter annihilation on the N eff and the effects by using a thermal equilibrium approximation. Both results are constrained with Planck observations. We demonstrate that the lower bounds of the dark-matter mass and the possibilities of the existence of additional radiation particles are more strongly constrained for dark-matter annihilation process in non-equilibrium.
Silver-doped photopolymer media for holographic recording.
Pramitha, V; Nimmi, K P; Subramanyan, N V; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, K; Kartha, C Sudha
2009-04-20
Incorporation of silver ions into a dye-sensitized poly(vinyl alcohol)/acrylamide photopolymer is observed to give better performance compared to other metal-ion-doped photopolymer holographic recording media. Plane-wave transmission gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films using a He-Ne laser, and various holographic parameters were optimized so as to explore maximum potential of the material for various holographic applications. Silver-doped films showed good energy sensitivity, and gratings recorded in optimized film exhibited a diffraction efficiency of more than 75%. The potential of the material for holographic data storage applications is also studied using peristrophic multiplexing. PMID:19381175
Violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargın, Ozan; Faizal, Mir
2016-02-01
In this paper, we analyze the holographic principle using loop quantum gravity (LQG). This will be done by using polymeric quantization for analysing Yurtsever's holographic bound on the entropy, which is obtained from local quantum field theories. As the polymeric quantization is the characteristic feature of loop quantum gravity, we will argue that this calculation will indicate the effect of loop quantum gravity on the holographic principle. Thus, we will be able to explicitly demonstrate the violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity.
Photosensitive holographic material with a medium of fluorescent ink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Mellado-Villaseñor, G.
2012-03-01
Recent researches have been reported that is possible increase the diffraction efficiency parameter from holographic gratings when photosensitive material (PVA with ammonium dichromate) it is painted after register the hologram with commercial fluorescent ink. In this research we shown that PVA as a binder, with the fluorescent ink and ammonium dichromate, this mixed can be used as recording medium. We characterize this material by implementing holographic films in which holographic gratings are recorded with a He- Cd laser at 442nm, and measuring holographic parameters such as diffraction efficiency. We get increased the diffraction efficiency and also the lifetime of the film.
Holographic Scaling and Dynamical Gauge Effects in Disordered Atomic Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gemelke, Nathan
2016-05-01
Quantum systems with strong disorder, and those far from equilibrium or interacting with a thermal reservior, present unique challenges in a range of physical contexts, from non-relativistic condensed-matter settings, such as in study of localization phenomena, to relativistic cosmology and the study of fundamental interactions. Recently, two related concepts, that of the entropy of entanglement, and the controversial suggestion of entropic emergent gravity, have shed insight on several long-standing questions along these lines, suggesting that strongly disordered systems with causal barriers (either relativistic or those with Lieb-Robinson-like bounds) can be understood using holographic principles in combination with the equivalence between quantum vacuua thermal baths via the Unruh effect. I will discuss a range of experiments performed within a strong, topologically disordered medium for neutral atoms which simultaneously introduces quenched disorder for spin and mass transport, and provides simple mechanisms for open coupling to various types of dissipative baths. Under conditions in which a subset of quantum states are continuously decoupled from the thermal bath, dark state effects lead to slow light phenomena mimicking gravitational lensing in general relativity in a characterizable table-top disordered medium. Non-equilibrium steady-states are observed in direct analogy with the evaporation of gravitational singularities, and we observe scaling behaviors that can be directly connected to holographic measures of the information contained in disorder. Finally, I will show how a dynamic-gauge-field picture of this and similar systems can lead to a natural description of non-equilibrium and disordered phenomena, and how it provides some advantages over the Harris and Luck criteria for describing critical phenomena. Connections between out-of-equilibrium dynamics and some long-unresolved issues concerning the existence of a gauge-boson mass gap in certain Yang
Holographic Josephson junction from massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ya-Peng; Li, Huai-Fan; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2016-05-01
We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity. If the boundary theory is independent of spatial directions, i.e., if the chemical potential is homogeneous in spatial directions, we find that the graviton mass parameter will make it more difficult for the normal metal-superconductor phase transition to take place. In the holographic model of the Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass parameter. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass parameter. If one interprets the graviton mass parameter as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, this indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.
Deformation of a holographic image in space
Schumann, W.; Cuche, D.
1982-01-01
In the preliminary part of this paper, the third-order aberrations (coma) of the points of a modified holographic image are investigated by means of the seocond-order terms in the transverse-ray equation. In the main part, however, the deformation of the holographic image as a whole (more precisely, the deformation of the vicinity of each point) is treated: First a duality concept is used; then it is outlined in such a way that the same third-order tensor as the one describing the coma appears in the deformation in space. This third-order tensor contains both the derivative and the square of the second-order tensor that describes the astigmatism.
Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly
Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero
2012-08-01
Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.
Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Shinsuke; Nakayama, Yu
2016-08-01
Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.
Compression of digital holographic data: an overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufaux, Frederic; Xing, Yafei; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice; Schelkens, Peter
2015-09-01
Holography has the potential to become the ultimate 3D experience. Nevertheless, in order to achieve practical working systems, major scientific and technological challenges have to be tackled. In particular, as digital holographic data represents a huge amount of information, the development of efficient compression techniques is a key component. This problem has gained significant attention by the research community during the last 10 years. Given that holograms have very different signal properties when compared to natural images and video sequences, existing compression techniques (e.g. JPEG or MPEG) remain suboptimal, calling for innovative compression solutions. In this paper, we will review and analyze past and on-going work for the compression of digital holographic data.
Conformal quantum mechanics and holographic quench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Järvelä, Jarkko; Keränen, Ville; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko
2016-02-01
Recently, there has been much interest in holographic computations of two-point nonequilibrium Green functions from anti-de Sitter- (AdS-)Vaidya backgrounds. In the strongly coupled quantum field theory on the boundary, the dual interpretation of the background is an equilibration process called a holographic quench. The two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya spacetime is a special case, dual to conformal quantum mechanics. We study how the quench is incorporated into a Hamiltonian H +θ (t )Δ H and into correlation functions. With the help of recent work on correlation functions in conformal quantum mechanics, we first rederive the known two-point functions, and then compute nonequilibrium three- and four-point functions. We also compute the three-point function Witten diagram in the two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya background, and find agreement with the conformal quantum mechanics result.
Holographic representation of higher spin gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Debajyoti; Xiao, Xiao
2015-04-01
Extending the results of [1,2] on the holographic representation of local gauge field operators in anti-de Sitter space, here we construct the bulk operators for higher spin gauge fields at the leading order in 1/N expansion. Working in the holographic gauge for higher spin gauge fields, we show that gauge field operators with integer spin s >1 can be represented by an integration over a ball region, which is the interior region of the spacelike bulk light cone on the boundary. The construction is shown to be anti-de Sitter covariant up to gauge transformations, and the two-point function between higher spin gauge fields and the boundary higher spin current exhibits singularities on both bulk and boundary light cones. We also comment on a possible extension to the level of three-point functions and carry out a causal construction for higher spin fields in de Sitter spacetime.
Holographic Reconstruction Of A Synthetised Subpicosecond Pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tribillon, G.; Salazar, R.
1983-10-01
Subpicosecond pulses have been synthetized with a dye laser. The 8000 GHz broadband source corresponds to a temporal resolution of ▵t = 1/▵ν = 0,12 ps. The holographic recording set-up proposed by N. Abramson has been used to visualize the light in flight, but the wavelength dependence of the hologram introduces a disper sion in the reconstructed image. Compensation techniques have been applied and an other recording system has been developed. Experimental results of the reconstructed holographic wavefront are presented. The interesting possibility to obtain a reconstruction in white light is compared with the coherent case. The signal-to-noise ratio of the image is discussed.
Very general holographic superconductors and entanglement thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2014-12-01
We construct and analyze holographic superconductors with generalized higher derivative couplings, in single R-charged black hole backgrounds in four and five dimensions. These systems, which we call very general holographic superconductors, have multiple tuning parameters and are shown to exhibit a rich phase structure. We establish the phase diagram numerically as well as by computing the free energy, and then validated the results by calculating the entanglement entropy for these systems. The entanglement entropy is shown to be a perfect indicator of the phase diagram. The differences in the nature of the entanglement entropy in R-charged backgrounds compared to the AdS-Schwarzschild cases are pointed out. We also compute the analogue of the entangling temperature for a subclass of these systems and compare the results with non-hairy backgrounds.
Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures
Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu
2010-12-09
Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)
HOMES Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ditto, Thomas D.; McGrew, Stephen P.
2013-09-01
A novel telescope architecture is proposed specifically for the purpose of taking spectra of exoplanets orbiting stars within 10 pc ("the neighborhood"). The primary objective and the secondary spectrograph are holographic optical elements (HOEs) formed on flat membrane substrates of low areal mass that can be transported on cylinder rolls that are compatible with the payload geometry of delivery vehicles. Ribbon-shaped HOEs of up to 100 x 10 meters are contemplated. Computer models are presented with these dimensions. The models predict resolving power better than 10 mas. Because the primary separates wavelengths, we consider coronagraphs that use the divide and conquer strategy of one wavelength at a time. After delivery at the second Lagrange point, the stowed membranes are unfurled into flat holographic optics positioned in a four part formation spanning 1 km of open space.
More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions
Jensen, Kristan
2010-08-15
We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.
Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani
2000-01-01
The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.
Exploring unconventional capabilities of holographic tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez, R. J.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.
2011-06-01
We report an investigation of manipulation and trapping capabilities of polarization holographic tweezers. A polarization gradient connected with a modulation of the ellipticity shows an optical force related to the polarization of the light that can influence optically isotropic particles. While in the case of birefringent particles an unconventional trapping in circularly polarized fringes is observed. A liquid crystal emulsion has been adopted to investigate the capabilities of the holographic tweezers. The unusual trapping observed for rotating bipolar nematic droplets has suggested the involvement of the lift hydrodynamic force responsible of the Magnus effect, originating from the peculiar optical force field. We show that the Magnus force which is ignored in the common approach can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.
Development of 3D holographic endoscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özcan, Meriç; Önal Tayyar, Duygu
2016-03-01
Here we present the development of a 3D holographic endoscope with an interferometer built around a commercial rigid endoscope. We consider recording the holograms with coherent and incoherent light separately without compromising the white light imaging capacity of the endoscope. In coherent light based recording, reference wave required for the hologram is obtained in two different ways. First, as in the classical holography, splitting the laser beam before the object illumination, and secondly creating the reference beam from the object beam itself. This second method does not require path-length matching between the object wave and the reference wave, and it allows the usage of short coherence length light sources. For incoherent light based holographic recordings various interferometric configurations are considered. Experimental results on both illumination conditions are presented.
Holographic NDT of thin titanium plate described
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, R.
1986-01-01
Holography is a technique for recording the amplitude and phase changes of an object on a photographic plate in the form of interference fringes. Because the holographic interference method can examine a component in the noncontact mode and is not bothered by complicated part shape or surface roughness, it has been widely used in nondestructive testing. In the rapidly developing aerospace industry, titanium and titanium alloy thin plates are used more and more but local delamination has been found in the production process of bonded titanium plates. Using ultrasonic methods, such defects are difficult to detect and large area delaminations with tightly closed edges can easily be missed. Other testing methods are also unsuccessful. A holographic method was developed for detecting defects in thin titanium plates and several high temperature alloy plates were tested. The testing equipment, methods and results are discussed.
Measurements of Holographic Properties of Bacteriorhodopsin Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downie, John D.; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Several different bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are characterized with respect to general holographic properties. Experimental measurements include diffraction efficiency and sensitivity as functions of writing intensity and grating frequency, hologram thermal decay behavior, diffraction efficiency as a function of grating tilt within the film and modulation depth, and estimates of the refractive index change from the diffraction efficiency data. The films studied include those made from wildtype BR and the genetic variants D96N and D96N/T46V. The maximum diffraction efficiency measured was just over 3% for a hydrated wildtype BR film. The films' holographic properties were found to be relatively insensitive to grating frequency and grating tilt angle. The diffraction efficiency dropped off more sharply as a function of modulation depth than a purely linear medium, and only the hydrated wildtype film exhibited significant behavior variation with different writing intensities.
Advanced Compact Holographic Data Storage System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George
2000-01-01
JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Advanced Holographic Memory (AHM) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electro-optic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and highspeed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology to enhance mission capabilities for all NASA's Earth Science Mission. In this paper, recent technology progress in developing this CHDS at JPL will be presented.
Holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayasaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Satoshi
2016-03-01
Arbitrary and variable beam shaping of femtosecond pulses by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) have been applied to femtosecond laser processing. The holographic femtosecond laser processing has been widely used in many applications such as two-photon polymerization, optical waveguide fabrication, fabrication of volume phase gratings in polymers, and surface nanostructuring. A vector wave that has a spatial distribution of polarization states control of femtosecond pulses gives good performances for the femtosecond laser processing. In this paper, an in- system optimization of a CGH for massively-parallel femtosecond laser processing, a dynamic control of spatial spectral dispersion to improve the focal spot shape, and the holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing are demonstrated.
Holographic vortex liquids and superfluid turbulence.
Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong; Adams, Allan
2013-07-26
Superfluid turbulence is a fascinating phenomenon for which a satisfactory theoretical framework is lacking. Holographic duality provides a systematic approach to studying such quantum turbulence by mapping the dynamics of a strongly interacting quantum liquid into the dynamics of classical gravity. We use this gravitational description to numerically construct turbulent flows in a holographic superfluid in two spatial dimensions. We find that the superfluid kinetic energy spectrum obeys the Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling law, with energy injected at long wavelengths undergoing a direct cascade to short wavelengths where dissipation by vortex annihilation and vortex drag becomes efficient. This dissipation has a simple gravitational interpretation as energy flux across a black hole event horizon. PMID:23888034
Biometric Identification Using Holographic Radar Imaging Techniques
McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.
2007-04-01
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.
Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.
1987-01-01
An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.
Multidimensional optical fractionation with holographic verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Ke; Grier, David
2010-03-01
Colloidal particles driven through a periodic potential energy landscape can become kinetically locked in to symmetry-selected directions. The path a given particle follows has been predicted to depend sensitively on such properties as the particle's size and refractive index. These predictions, however, have not been tested experimentally. We present experimental observations of colloidal silica spheres' trajectories through specially structured arrays of holographic optical traps, using quantitative methods of holographic video microscopy to track the particles' motions in three dimensions and simultaneously to measure their radii and refractive indexes with part-per-thousand resolution. Single-particle tracking and characterization enable us to demonstrate sorting of colloidal particles into spatially separated fractions with part-per-thousand resolution in either particle size or refractive index. Even more dramatically, these results agree quantitatively with previously untested predictions for the threshold of kinetically locked-in transport.
Improvements to the modal holographic wavefront sensor.
Kong, Fanpeng; Lambert, Andrew
2016-05-01
The Zernike coefficients of a light wavefront can be calculated directly by intensity ratios of pairs of spots in the reconstructed image plane of a holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). However, the response curve of the HWFS heavily depends on the position and size of the detector for each spot and the distortions introduced by other aberrations. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the intensity of each spot by setting a threshold to select effective pixels and using the weighted average intensity within a selected window. Compared with using the integral intensity over a small window for each spot, we show through a numerical simulation that the proposed method reduces the dependency of the HWFS's response curve on the selection of the detector window. We also recorded a HWFS on a holographic plate using a blue laser and demonstrated its capability to detect the strength of encoded Zernike terms in an aberrated beam. PMID:27140379
Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2015-07-01
We study collective excitations of cold (2 + 1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.
Note on zero temperature holographic superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Minyong; Lan, Shanquan; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao
2016-06-01
In this note, we have addressed various issues on zero temperature holographic superfluids. First, inspired by our numerical evidence for the equality between the superfluid density and particle density, we provide an elegant analytic proof for this equality by a boost trick. Second, using not only the frequency domain analysis but also the time domain analysis from numerical relativity, we identify the hydrodynamic normal modes and calculate out the sound speed, which is shown to increase with the chemical potential and saturate to the value predicted by the conformal field theory in the large chemical potential limit. Third, the generic non-thermalization is demonstrated by the fully nonlinear time evolution from a non-equilibrium state for our zero temperature holographic superfluid. Furthermore, a conserved Noether charge is proposed in support of this behavior.
Fast holographic-like stereogram display using shell rendering and a holographic screen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mendonca, Candido F. X.; Falcao, Alexandre X.; Vannini, Cesar Augusto D. C.; Lunazzi, Jose J.
1999-05-01
Display systems relying on computer graphics techniques usually create 2.5D image display on a 2D screen. To obtain 3D image display, most system uses auxiliary devices or viewing tricks, such as polarized glasses, virtual reality helmet, detection of observer's location, divergent viewing, etc. We call these systems stereoscopic. A system that can display 3D images in a natural way is called a self- stereoscopic system. We know that stereoscopic system do not have horizontal parallax such as seen in holograms, which display continuum parallax. In this paper, we introduce a new technique based on shell rendering to discretize horizontal parallax by coding several views of the object forming a holographic-like stereogram and a new self- stereoscopic 3D display system to visualize holographic stereograms on a holographic screen. We also demonstrate the new system using medical image data.
Quantitative roadmap of holographic media performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, Benjamin A.; McLeod, Robert R.
2015-09-01
For holographic photopolymer media, the "formula limit" concept enables facile calculation of the fraction of writing chemistry that is usefully patterned, and the fraction that is wasted. This provides a quantitative context to compare the performance of a diverse range of media formulations from the literature, using only information already reported in the original works. Finally, this analysis is extended to estimate the scope of achievable future performance improvements.
Holographic consequences of a no transmission principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T.
2016-01-01
Two quantum field theories whose Hilbert spaces do not overlap cannot transmit a signal to one another. From this simple principle, we deduce some highly nontrivial consequences for holographic quantum gravity. These include: (i) certain cosmological bounces are forbidden, (ii) generic singularities inside black holes cannot be resolved, and (iii) traversable wormholes do not exist. At the classical level, this principle rules out certain types of naked singularities and suggests that new singularity theorems should exist.
Using a portable holographic camera in cosmetology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakanas, R.; Gudaitis, G. A.; Zacharovas, S. J.; Ratcliffe, D. B.; Hirsch, S.; Frey, S.; Thelen, A.; Ladrière, N.; Hering, P.
2006-07-01
The HSF-MINI portable holographic camera is used to record holograms of the human face. The recorded holograms are analyzed using a unique three-dimensional measurement system that provides topometric data of the face with resolution less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The main advantages of this method over other, more traditional methods (such as laser triangulation and phase-measurement triangulation) are discussed.
Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.
1995-01-01
Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.
Magnetic oscillations in a holographic liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giangreco M. Puletti, V.; Nowling, S.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.
2015-04-01
We present a holographic perspective on magnetic oscillations in strongly correlated electron systems via a fluid of charged spin 1 /2 particles outside a black brane in an asymptotically anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The resulting backreaction on the spacetime geometry and bulk gauge field gives rise to magnetic oscillations in the dual field theory, which can be directly studied without introducing probe fermions, and which differ from those predicted by Fermi liquid theory.
Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.
1998-01-01
Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.
Broadband Hybrid Holographic Multiplexing with Geometric Metasurfaces.
Huang, Lingling; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Li, Xiaowei; Song, Xu; Bai, Benfeng; Wang, Yongtian; Zentgraf, Thomas
2015-11-01
An effective way for broadband holographic multiplexing based on geometric metasurfaces is demonstrated by the integration of several recording channels into a single device. Each image can be individually addressed with a unique set of parameters, such as circular polarization, position, and angle. Such a technique paves the way for a wide range of applications related to optical patterning, encryption, and information processing. PMID:26398589
Holographic center high-mounted stoplight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Ronald T.
1991-07-01
The holographic center high mounted stoplight achieves the required performance of a conventional center high mounted stoplight, but without the obstruction to the driver's view through the rear window. A lamp located in the roof illuminates a transmission image hologram mounted on the inner surface of the automobile rear window. The hologram strongly diffracts the incident light rearward but is transparent to the driver looking in his rearview mirror.
Optical Correlator With Complex Holographic Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin
1992-01-01
Experimental real-time optical correlator includes complex-valued holographic filter computed from one of two input scenes. Made more tolerant of errors in patterns to be recognized. Filter function essentially coded hologram computed by Burchhardt's method, in which complex value of each pixel of fast Fourier transform of image represented by three real, nonnegative numbers. In generating optical correlator according to method, phasor of each pixel in Fourier transform represented by intensities in three adjacent pixels.
Holographic interferometric tomography for reconstructing flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cha, Soyoung S.
1994-01-01
Holographic interferometric tomography is a technique for instantaneously capturing and quantitatively reconstructing three-dimensional flow fields. It has a very useful application potential for high-speed aerodynamics. However, three major challenging tasks need to be accomplished before its practical applications. First, fluid flows are mostly unsteady or at least non repeatable. Consequently, a means for Instantaneously recording three-dimensional flow fields, that is, a simple holographic technique for simultaneously recording multi-directional projections, needs to be developed. Second, while holographic interferometry provides enormous data storage capabilities, expeditious data extraction from complicated interferograms is very important for timely near real-time applications. Third, unlike medical applications, flow tomography does not provide complete data sets but instead involves ill-posed reconstruction problems of incomplete projection and limited angular scanning. During this summer research period, new experimental techniques and corresponding hardware were developed and tested to address the above mentioned tasks. The first task was achieved by diffuser illumination. This concept allows instantaneous capture of many projections with a conventional setup for single-projection recording. For the second task, a phase-shifting technique was incorporated. This technique allows one to acquire multiple phase-stepped interferograms for a single projection and thus to extract phase information from intensity data almost at real-time. For the third task, the research that has been extensively conducted previously was utilized. In this research period, a complete experimental setup that provides the above three major capabilities was designed, built, and tested by integrating all the techniques. A simple laboratory experiment for simulating wind-tunnel testing was then conducted. A test flow was produced by employing a relatively simple device that generated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielsson, Ulf H.
2012-07-01
In this paper we propose a mechanism that protects theories violating a holographic bound suggested in arXiv:1203.5476 from developing accelerated expansion. The mechanism builts on work on transplanckian physics, and a non-trivial choice of vacuum states. If correct, it lends further support for detectable signatures in the CMBR signalling new physics.
Dark Energy Models and Cosmic Acceleration with Anisotropic Universe in f(T) Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Sehrish, Azeem
2014-04-01
This paper is devoted to studing the accelerated expansion of the universe in context of f(T) theory of gravity. For this purpose, we construct different f(T) models and investigate their cosmological behavior through equation of state parameter by using holographic, new agegraphic and their power-law entropy corrected dark energy models. We discuss the graphical behavior of this parameter versus redshift for particular values of constant parameters in Bianchi type I universe model. It is shown that the universe lies in different forms of dark energy, namely quintessence, phantom, and quintom corresponding to the chosen scale factors, which depend upon the constant parameters of the models.
Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter
Adrian, R.J.; Barnhart, D.H.; Papen, G.A.
1996-08-20
A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time. 13 figs.
Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter
Adrian, Ronald J.; Barnhart, Donald H.; Papen, George A.
1996-01-01
A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time.
A holographic model of the Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdmenger, Johanna; Hoyos, Carlos; O'Bannon, Andy; Wu, Jackson
2013-12-01
We propose a model of the Kondo effect based on the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, also known as holography. The Kondo effect is the screening of a magnetic impurity coupled anti-ferromagnetically to a bath of conduction electrons at low temperatures. In a (1+1)-dimensional CFT description, the Kondo effect is a renormalization group flow triggered by a marginally relevant (0+1)-dimensional operator between two fixed points with the same Kac-Moody current algebra. In the large- N limit, with spin SU( N) and charge U(1) symmetries, the Kondo effect appears as a (0+1)-dimensional second-order mean-field transition in which the U(1) charge symmetry is spontaneously broken. Our holographic model, which combines the CFT and large- N descriptions, is a Chern-Simons gauge field in (2+1)-dimensional AdS space, AdS 3, dual to the Kac-Moody current, coupled to a holographic superconductor along an AdS 2 sub-space. Our model exhibits several characteristic features of the Kondo effect, including a dynamically generated scale, a resistivity with power-law behavior in temperature at low temperatures, and a spectral flow producing a phase shift. Our holographic Kondo model may be useful for studying many open problems involving impurities, including for example the Kondo lattice problem.
Holographic display with tilted spatial light modulator.
Kozacki, Tomasz
2011-07-10
In this paper, we analyze a holographic display system utilizing a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS). An LCoS SLM works in reflection, and, in some applications, it is convenient to use with an inclined illumination. Even with a highly inclined illumination, the holographic display is capable of good-quality image generation. We show that the key to obtain high-quality reconstructions is the tilt-dependent calibration and algorithms. Typically, an LCoS SLM is illuminated with a plane wave with normal wave vector. We use inclined illumination, which requires development of new algorithms and display characterization. In this paper we introduce two algorithms. The first one is designed to process a digital hologram captured in CCD normal configuration, so it can be displayed in SLM tilted geometry, while the second one is capable of synthetic hologram generation for tilted SLM configuration. The inclined geometry asymmetrically changes the field of view of a holographic display. The presented theoretical analysis of the aliasing effect provides a formula for the field of view as a function of SLM tilt. The incidence angle affects SLM performance. Both elements of SLM calibration, i.e., pixel phase response and wavefront aberrations, strongly depend on SLM tilt angle. The effect is discussed in this paper. All of the discussions are accompanied with experimental results. PMID:21743569
Holographic thermalization in a quark confining background
Ageev, D. S. Aref’eva, I. Ya.
2015-03-15
We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact, a trapped surface formation. As the vacuum confining background, we considered the well-know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential and reproduces the QCD β-function. We perturb the vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of trapped surface formation, which results in a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain, we can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. We find that the dependence of the multiplicity on energy for the intermediate background has an asymptotic expansion whose first term depends on energy as E{sup 1/3}, which is very similar to the experimental dependence of particle multiplicities on the colliding ion energy obtained from the RHIC and LHC. However, this first term, at the energies where the approximation of the confining metric by the intermediate background works, does not saturate the exact answer, and we have to take the nonleading terms into account.
A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Henrique; Gryb, Sean; Koslowski, Tim; Mercati, Flavio; Smolin, Lee
2015-01-01
We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial conformal (Weyl) invariance. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to advertise the simple classical mechanism, trading off gauge symmetries, that underlies the bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics to readers interested in dualities of the type of AdS/conformal field theory (CFT); and (2) to highlight that this mechanism can be used to explain certain results of holographic renormalization, providing an alternative to the AdS/CFT conjecture for these cases. To make contact with the usual semiclassical AdS/CFT correspondence, we provide, in addition, a heuristic argument that makes it plausible that the classical equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics turns into a duality between radial evolution in gravity and the renormalization group flow of a CFT. We believe that Shape Dynamics provides a new perspective on gravity by giving conformal structure a primary role within the theory. It is hoped that this work provides the first steps toward understanding what this new perspective may be able to teach us about holographic dualities.
Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.
2005-01-01
We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.
Holographic Hall conductivities from dyonic backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindgren, Jonathan; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-07-01
We develop a general framework for computing the holographic 2-point functions and the corresponding conductivities in asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds with an electric charge density, a constant magentic field, and possibly non-trivial scalar profiles, for a broad class of Einstein-Maxwell-Axion-Dilaton theories, including certain Chern-Simons terms. Holographic renormalization is carried out for any theory in this class and the computation of the renormalized AC conductivities at zero spatial momentum is reduced to solving a single decoupled first order Riccati equation. Moreover, we develop a first order fake supergravity formulalism for dyonic renormalization group flows in four dimensions, allowing us to construct analytically infinite families of such backgrounds by specifying a superpotential at will. These RG flows interpolate between AdS4 in the UV and a hyperscaling violating Lifshitz geometry in the IR with exponents 1 < z < 3 and θ = z + 1. For 1 < z < 2 the spectrum of fluctuations is gapped and discrete. Our hope and intention is that this analysis can serve as a manual for computing the holographic 1- and 2-point functions and the corresponding transport coefficients in any dyonic background, both in the context of AdS/CMT and AdS/QCD.
Holographic Flow Visualization at NASA Langley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.
2005-01-01
Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadow-graph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.
Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trolinger, James D.
1993-01-01
Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for the measurement of temperature and concentration in various crystal growth experiments destined for space. The method measures refractive index changes in the experiment test cell. A refractive index change can be caused by concentration changes, temperature changes, or a combination of temperature and concentration changes. If the refractive index changes are caused by temperature and concentration changes occurring simultaneously in the experiment test cell, the contributions by the two effects cannot be separated by conventional measurement methods. By using two wavelengths, two independent interferograms can be produced from the reconstruction of the hologram. The two interferograms will be different due to dispersion properties of fluid materials. These differences provide the additional information that allows the separation of simultaneously occurring temperature and concentration gradients. There is no other technique available that can provide this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort are to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. To achieve these objectives, the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique must be determined for geometry's and materials that are relevant to the Materials Processing in the Space program of NASA. This will be achieved through the use of a specially designed two-color holographic interferometry breadboard optical system. In addition to experiments to achieve the primary goals, the breadboard will also provide inputs to the design of an optimum space flight system.
Drawing Lines with Light in Holographic Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin
2013-02-01
This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.
The techniques of holographic particle sizing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L.
1973-01-01
Depending on the mechanism of particle production, the resultant particle size and velocity distribution may range over several orders of magnitude. In general, if particle size information is desired from a given type generator, one must resort to some form of experimental determination of the distribution. If the source of particle production is a dynamic one involving a reasonable volume, holography provides a tailor-made particle size and velocity distribution detector. This is evidenced by the fact that holography allows the entire volume to be recorded on one exposure without any interference with the volume of interest. Herein lies a very important characteristic of the holographic particle detection technique: It provides a holographic nondestructive testing technique in the fullest sense of the definition of nondestructive testing. This report provides a description of three different systems useful in this technique and includes the experimental results from one of the holographic systems which was used to detect particle size and velocity distribution from the Skylab waste tank.
Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components
Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T; Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V
2010-02-28
The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L{sup -1}). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Real-time holographic camera system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazhenov, Mikhail Y.; Grabovski, Vitaly V.; Stolyarenko, Alexandr V.; Zahaykevich, George A.
1997-04-01
The holographic camera system for surface-relief hologram multiple reversible registration is presented. Photosensitive media is a single-layer photothermoplastic polymer on a glass substrate with conductive layer. This exclude a charges accumulation in the polymer volume and permits to realize an efficient enhancement of latent electrostatic image and its fast pulse heating development. The processes of charging, photogeneration, carriers transport, fast development and erasing, image enhancement were studied in detail and optimized. In order to improve some defects of photothermoplastic recording, originating from influences of circumstances and recording conditions, some new processes were developed: (1) fast charging with pulses corona in closed dielectric volume, (2) optoelectronic enhancement of electrostatic image, and (3) fast pulsed development with automatically controlled temperature rate. The dust-proof recording camera with built-in highvoltage power supply, thermo- and photosensors was designed to meet the needs of real-time or multiple- exposure interferometry, holographic training recording, holographic storage systems, correlation investigations and pattern recognition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolos, Laura; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen
2015-12-01
We investigate compact objects formed by dark matter admixed with ordinary matter made of neutron-star matter and white-dwarf material. We consider non-self annihilating dark matter with an equation of state given by an interacting Fermi gas. We find new stable solutions, dark compact planets, with Earth-like masses and radii from a few Km to few hundred Km for weakly interacting dark matter which are stabilized by the mutual presence of dark matter and compact star matter. For the strongly interacting dark matter case, we obtain dark compact planets with Jupiter-like masses and radii of few hundred Km. These objects could be detected by observing exoplanets with unusually small radii. Moreover, we find that the recently observed 2 M⊙ pulsars set limits on the amount of dark matter inside neutron stars which is, at most, 1 0-6 M⊙ .
Kumar, Jason
2014-06-24
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
DarkSide search for dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; De Haas, E.; Derbin, A.; Di Pietro, G.; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.
2013-11-01
The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chun-Xiao; Liu, Mo-Lin; Liu, Hong-Ya
2008-10-01
As one exact candidate of the higher dimensional black hole, the 5D Ricci Qat Schwarzschild-de Sitter black string space presents something interesting. In this paper, we give a numerical solution to the real scalar field around the Nariai black hole by the polynomial approximation. Unlike the previous tangent approximation, this fitting function makes a perfect match in the leading intermediate region and gives a good description near both the event and the cosmological horizons. We can read from our results that the wave is close to a harmonic one with the tortoise coordinate. Furthermore, with the actual radial coordinate the waves pile up almost equally near the both horizons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori
2016-08-01
An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2016-06-01
Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at ∼1{{M}ȯ} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses >{{10}6}{{M}ȯ} and luminosities >{{10}10}{{L}ȯ} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.
Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2016-06-01
Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses >[Formula: see text] and luminosities >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars. PMID:27214049
The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.
Spergel, David N
2015-03-01
A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. PMID:25745164
Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio
1999-01-01
We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei
2010-09-01
Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Colin
2011-10-01
Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Justin
2012-10-01
Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Justin
2013-10-01
Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.
Possibilities of holographic techniques in laser scanning microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Yu.; Muravyeva, M.; Dudenkova, V.; Mukhina, I.; Meglinski, I.
2015-07-01
Holographic scanning microscopy - novel technique both in laser scanning microscopy and digital holographic microscopy allow multimodal approach to cell and tissue investigation in biomedical applications promising new advantages (quantitative phase imaging, superresolution, computerized tomography), but regular reconstruction leads to incorrectness. Analysis of light propagation through the schematics allows to offer reconstruction procedures depending on recording conditions.
Designing the Holographic Whole Language Program. Opinion Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fluellen, Jerry
A paper describes how David Bohm's holographic world view can be used to design a whole language program. Characterized by interconnectedness and multidimensionality, Bohm's holographic paradigm joins Eastern and Western belief systems in an old fashion pursuit of wisdom, on the one hand, and a new fashion pursuit of solutions to nonlinear…
Holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad
2016-01-01
We study holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity using the Chern-Simons-like formulation of the model. We explicitly present Gibbons- Hawking term as well as all counterterms needed to make the action finite in terms of dreibein and spin-connection. This can be used to find correlation functions of stress tensor of holographic dual field theory.
Coupling dark energy to dark matter inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marra, Valerio
2016-09-01
We propose that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter inhomogeneities. Through this coupling energy could be transferred to/from the scalar field, which could possibly enter an accelerated regime. Though phenomenological, this scenario is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter inhomogeneities become sufficiently strong. Here we study a possible realization of this idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. In particular, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model-unlike standard models of cosmic late acceleration-does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.
Nondestructive testing of composite materials by holographic interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebbeni, J.; de Smet, M.-A.
Techniques for the nondestructive testing of composites by holographic interferometry are discussed, and results from tests analyzing carbon/epoxy composites for two types of defects, resulting from the impact of steel rods and the introduction of mylar inhomogeneities, are presented. Holographic techniques for the interferometric real-time observation of the superposition of the object and the holographic image, and for the recording on two photosensitively different plates of holographic images of the object in the neutral and deformed states, are discussed. Results show that a defect of 0.02 mm, situated at less than three layers below the observed surface, could be precisely characterized, and that for certain cases of 3-12 layers, defects could be detected by a fringe deviation. Better definition of the zone of impact was obtained by the holographic method than by an ultrasound method.
Depth perception and user interface in digital holographic television
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barabas, James; Jolly, Sundeep; Smalley, Daniel E.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.
2012-03-01
A holographic television system, featuring realtime incoherent 3D capture and live holographic display is used for experiments in depth perception. Holographic television has the potential to provide more complete visual representations, including latency-free motion parallax and more natural affordances for accommodation. Although this technology has potential to improve realism in many display applications, we investigate benefits in uses where direct vision of a workspace is not possible. Applications of this nature include work with hazardous materials, teleoperation over distance, and laparoscopic surgery. In this study, subjects perform manual 3D object manipulation tasks where they can only see the workspace through holographic closed-circuit television. This study is designed to compare performance at manual tasks using holographic television compared to performance with displays that mimic 2D, and stereoscopic television.
Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung
2005-09-01
Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.
Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong
2003-05-01
The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.
Holographic illuminator for synchrotron-based projection lithography systems
Naulleau, Patrick P.
2005-08-09
The effective coherence of a synchrotron beam line can be tailored to projection lithography requirements by employing a moving holographic diffuser and a stationary low-cost spherical mirror. The invention is particularly suited for use in an illuminator device for an optical image processing system requiring partially coherent illumination. The illuminator includes: (1) a synchrotron source of coherent or partially coherent radiation which has an intrinsic coherence that is higher than the desired coherence, (2) a holographic diffuser having a surface that receives incident radiation from said source, (3) means for translating the surface of the holographic diffuser in two dimensions along a plane that is parallel to the surface of the holographic diffuser wherein the rate of the motion is fast relative to integration time of said image processing system; and (4) a condenser optic that re-images the surface of the holographic diffuser to the entrance plane of said image processing system.
On the monogamy of holographic n -partite information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirabi, S.; Tanhayi, M. Reza; Vazirian, R.
2016-05-01
We investigate the monogamy of holographic n -partite information for a system consisting of n disjoint parallel strips with the same width and separation in AdS and AdS black brane geometries. More precisely, we study the sign of this quantity, e.g., for n =4 , 5, in various dimensions and for different parameters. Our results show that for quantum field theories with holographic duals, the holographic 4-partite information is always positive, and the sign of holographic 5-partite information is found to be negative in the dual strongly coupled 1 +1 dimensional conformal field theory. This latter result indicates that the holographic 4-partite information is monogamous. We also find the critical points corresponding to the possible phase transitions of these quantities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Robert H.
2014-02-01
1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters revisited: missing mass found; 8. CDM confronts galaxy rotation curves; 9. The new cosmology: dark matter is not enough; 10. An alternative to dark matter: Modified Newtonian Dynamics; 11. Seeing dark matter: the theory and practice of detection; 12. Reflections: a personal point of view; Appendix; References; Index.
Stability of holographic gratings recorded in photopolymer films using different dyes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchida, Keiichi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Sekine, Seishi
2006-02-01
In this study, stability of holographic gratings recorded in four photopolymer films with different dyes was experimentally examined. Also, dye concentration was optimized to get high diffraction efficiency. Each film contains triethanolamine and acrylamide in polyvinyl alcohol matrix, and one type of dye: eosin Y, methyl violet, rhodamine B or rose bengal. Dye concentrations were adjusted so that transmittances of the four films 60 μm thick were approximately 94%. The photopolymer films were exposed by two intersecting beams of a YVO laser at 532 nm to form holographic grating with spatial frequency of 653 line/mm until the diffraction efficiency reached its maximum. The power of each recording beam was 10 mW, and its diameter was 2.25 mm each. Diffraction efficiency was measured using a YVO laser beam for the recorded films undergoing either 300 sec reconstruction or 5-day dark storage. The photopolymer film containing eosin Y showed the best stability both for a 300 sec reconstruction and for 5-day storage. Regarding optimization of dye concentration, the diffraction efficiencies of more than 60 % were obtained when an amount of eosin Y is between 1 mg and 50 mg, which was solved in 9.1 % polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution of 110 g.
An input-data page modulation scheme for content-addressable holographic digital data storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar
2005-05-01
We implement a new modulation scheme for inputting digital data pages for content-addressable holographic data storage. This scheme, which is a modification of the hybrid ternary modulation (HTM) scheme, exploits the advantages of both pure phase modulation and hybrid ternary modulation. The technique of using binary phase data pages with equal number of 0 and π using twisted-nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator reduces strong dc component and produces a more homogeneous spectral distribution at the recording plane. This technique should facilitate better recording of all spatial frequencies, and thus improve the discrimination capability of a content-addressable memory. In HTM, there are three states to represent binary bits, whereas in the proposed code, we use the two bright states with a difference of π for coding the binary data. The third state, which is a dark state, is used to code the undesired regions of the spatial light modulator (SLM) while performing a search operation using a small search argument. We also introduce a new balanced modulation code which is a modified version of the 8:12 modulation code to address the coding subtleties associated with phase-based data pages. The proposed technique enhances the discrimination capability of content search using small search arguments, thereby giving better results in associative recall in a holographic memory system, with very low number of false hits compared to the existing schemes. A comparative study is presented of discrimination ratio and SNR for the different modulation schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciapurin, Igor V.; Robu, Stephan V.; Vlad, Lyudmila A.; Lessard, Roger A.; Tork, Amir; Lafond, Christophe; Bolte, Michel
2001-06-01
We report a new photochromic composite polymer consisting of poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) polymeric matrix with a nitro-brome-substituted spiropyran (BNSP) photochromic dye. The PEPC + BNSP films can be considered as negative photochromic recording media. They are colored in the initial state and bleached upon irradiation within the visible spectra. When we placed the bleached samples to the darkness, they slowly revert to the colored form. This process has strong temperature dependence, so one can either 'freeze'' or accelerate changing of the current coloration state in the PEPC + BNSP. The experimental measurements are evaluated in conjunction with its potential applications for optical holographic recording in the visible spectral range. The real-time holographic recording procedure in PEPC + BNSP films was studied. The diffraction efficiency values reached the maximum of 23 percent at spatial frequency of 1600 line pairs per mm, during direct hologram recording with the 532 nm Coherent VERDI laser irradiation. Light exposures were ranged from 70 to 280 mJ/cm2. The investigated compounds have good perspectives for use in holography, two-photon optical data storage, electro-optics, and optical-limiting applications due to coupling of some unique properties such as high optical non-linearity, well charge transport, short response times, no-limiting resolution ability, etc.
Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew
2013-05-24
We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas. PMID:23745856
Visual Method of Measuring Reflection-Type Characteristics of Holographic Optical Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jai-Soon; Smirnov, Vadim V.; Son, Jung-Young; Chun, You-Seek; Im, Tong-Gun
1998-12-01
A highly diverging laser beam is used to measure angular and spectral selectivities and grating vector direction for reflection-type holographic optical elements (HOE s). The intensity distribution of the beam transmitted from the HOE s reveals dark, ring-shaped patterns. Since these ring patterns are formed as a result of the beam diffracted by the HOE s, the thicknesses and the diameters of the ring patterns convey information on both the angular and the spectral selectivities of the HOE s. In addition the deviation of the ring centers relative to the center of the intensity distribution reveals the grating vector direction. Determination of values related to the ring patterns permits highly accurate measurement of HOE characteristics, such as the upper limit of the diffraction wavelength, the angular and the spectral selectivities, and the grating vector direction. This is proved experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elenevskii, D. S.; Krainiukov, N. I.; Shaposhnikov, Iu. N.; Khramov, A. G.
The vibroshifting fields generated by turbine blades and aerospace engines are calculated numerically with a mathematical system incorporating holographic-interferometry data. The vibroshift field is computed directly from the interferogram pattern, whereas the deformation and strain of the object are obtained experimentally on the basis of the resulting data. The experimental installation is shown diagrammatically, and algorithms are presented which permit the analysis of brightness distributions of interferogram-pattern points, fringe centers, and the geometrical parameters of the image. Interferogram processing conducted on a PC with 512 x 512-pixel capacity is conducted for a compressor blade by means of the time-averaging and with the proposed local approximation by a second-order surface. The vibroshift vector field and corresponding projection demonstrate the results of detection of dark fringes and filtered skeletons facilitated by the method.
The darkness of spin-0 dark radiation
Marsh, M.C. David
2015-01-01
We show that the scattering of a general spin-0 sector of dark radiation off the pre-recombination thermal plasma results in undetectably small spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Dark Forces and Light Dark Matter
Hooper, Dan; Weiner, Neal; Xue, Wei
2012-09-01
We consider a simple class of models in which the dark matter, X, is coupled to a new gauge boson, phi, with a relatively low mass (m_phi \\sim 100 MeV-3 GeV). Neither the dark matter nor the new gauge boson have tree-level couplings to the Standard Model. The dark matter in this model annihilates to phi pairs, and for a coupling of g_X \\sim 0.06 (m_X/10 GeV)^1/2 yields a thermal relic abundance consistent with the cosmological density of dark matter. The phi's produced in such annihilations decay through a small degree of kinetic mixing with the photon to combinations of Standard Model leptons and mesons. For dark matter with a mass of \\sim10 GeV, the shape of the resulting gamma-ray spectrum provides a good fit to that observed from the Galactic Center, and can also provide the very hard electron spectrum required to account for the observed synchrotron emission from the Milky Way's radio filaments. For kinetic mixing near the level naively expected from loop-suppressed operators (epsilon \\sim 10^{-4}), the dark matter is predicted to scatter elastically with protons with a cross section consistent with that required to accommodate the signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II.
Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aisenberg, Sol
2006-03-01
The standard model of the universe has many mysteries and defects requiring the use of large fudge factors such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy. We will show that Dark Matter is needed when we try to extend Newton's law of gravity (based upon observations in our solar system) to galactic distances. Dark Matter was introduced to explain the observed flat velocity rotation curves of the outer parts of spiral galaxies, as observed by Vera. Rubin. Much earlier, the (under appreciated) Fritz Zwicky introduced the need for large amounts of missing invisible matter to explain the surprising observed motion of groups of remote galaxies. In our hypothesis, the modification of Newton's laws by the addition of a linear term to the gravitational constant that increases with distance will eliminate the need for dark matter. Our hypothesis is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom, which depends upon acceleration. The Red shift observations by Hubble as a function of distance, and interpreted as ``apparent Doppler effect'' led to the unproven belief that the universe is expanding, and thus to the Big Bang. In turn the apparent acceleration of the expansion required the introduction of Dark Energy. Actually there are three additional components of the red shift that are solely due to gravity and distance and can be larger than the Doppler contribution.
Holoscopy--holographic optical coherence tomography.
Hillmann, Dierck; Lührs, Christian; Bonin, Tim; Koch, Peter; Hüttmann, Gereon
2011-07-01
Scanning optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited in sensitivity and resolution by the restricted focal depth of the confocal detection scheme. Holoscopy, a combination of holography and Fourier-domain full-field OCT, is proposed as a way to detect photons from all depths of a sample volume simultaneously with uniform sensitivity and lateral resolution, even at high NAs. By using the scalar diffraction theory, as frequently applied in digital holographic imaging, we fully reconstruct the object field with depth-invariant imaging quality. In vivo imaging of human skin is demonstrated with an image quality comparable to conventionally scanned OCT. PMID:21725421
A holographic color camera for recording artifacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jith, Abhay
2013-02-01
Advent of 3D televisions has created a new wave of public interest in images with depth. Though these technologies create moving pictures with apparent depth, it lacks the visual appeal and a set of other positive aspects of color holographic images. The above new wave of interest in 3D will definitely help to fuel popularity of holograms. In view of this, a low cost and handy color holography camera is designed for recording color holograms of artifacts. It is believed that such cameras will help to record medium format color holograms outside conventional holography laboratories and to popularize color holography. The paper discusses the design and the results obtained.
Chaotic maps, Hamiltonian flows, and Holographic methods.
Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami
2010-01-01
Holographic functional methods are introduced as probes of discrete time-stepped maps that lead to chaotic behavior. The methods provide continuous time interpolation between the time steps, thereby revealing the maps to be quasi-Hamiltonian systems underlain by novel potentials that govern the motion of a perceived point particle. Between turning points, the particle is strictly driven by Hamiltonian dynamics, but at each encounter with a turning point the potential changes abruptly, loosely analogous to the switchbacks on a mountain road. A sequence of successively deepening switchback potentials explains, in physical terms, the frequency cascade and trajectory folding that occur on the particular route to chaos revealed by the logistic map.
Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-07-01
We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.
Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander
2016-05-01
An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities.
Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.
Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R
2015-09-01
Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474
High dynamic range holographic data storage media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Askham, Fred; Ayres, Mark R.; Urness, Adam C.
2015-08-01
Holographic data storage (HDS) employs the physics of holography to record digital data in three dimensions in a highly stable photopolymer medium. The photopolymer medium must provide the essential characteristics of low scatter and high dynamic range while maintaining low recording induced physical shrinkage and long archival lifetimes. In this article, we report on media advancements employing Akonia's DREDTM technology which provide a 5x increase in media dynamic range with unchanged media shrinkage. We also discuss the implications of these results for photopolymer media mechanistic models.
Analytic Treatment on Stimulated Holographic Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Liu, Xian-Ming; Liu, Wen-Biao
Using the classical time-average approximation to deal with equation of motion for scalar field, holographic superconductor with a time-dependent chemical potential is studied analytically in probe limit. On the basis of the minimum eigenvalue of Sturm-Liouville equation, concrete values of the phase transition temperature and critical frequency are obtained. The condensed solution in high frequency regime is also calculated. It is shown that the phase transition temperature enhances and the superconductivity can be got easier as the frequency of the time-dependent chemical potential, which should be larger than the critical frequency, rises.
DC conductivity of magnetised holographic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Melgar, Luis
2016-01-01
We consider general black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density with nonvanishing magnetic fields and local magnetisation currents, which generically break translation invariance explicitly. We show that the thermoelectric DC conductivity of the field theory can be obtained by solving a system of generalised Stokes equations on the black hole horizon. For various examples, including Q-lattices and one-dimensional lattices, we solve the Stokes equations explicitly and obtain expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon.
Soft x-ray holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stickler, Daniel; Frömter, Robert; Stillrich, Holger; Menk, Christian; Tieg, Carsten; Streit-Nierobisch, Simone; Sprung, Michael; Gutt, Christian; Stadler, Lorenz-M.; Leupold, Olaf; Grübel, Gerhard; Oepen, Hans Peter
2010-01-01
We present a new x-ray microscopy technique based on Fourier transform holography (FTH), where the sample is separate from the optics part of the setup. The sample can be shifted with respect to the holography optics, thus large-scale or randomly distributed objects become accessible. As this extends FTH into a true microscopy technique, we call it x-ray holographic microscopy (XHM). FTH allows nanoscale imaging without the need for nanometer-size beams. Simple Fourier transform yields an unambiguous image reconstruction. We demonstrate XHM by studying the magnetic domain evolution of a Co/Pt multilayer film as function of locally varied iron overlayer thickness.
Phase-contrast and holographic computed laminography
Helfen, L.; Baumbach, T.; Cloetens, P.; Baruchel, J.
2009-03-09
In-line phase contrast is combined with laminography to image in three dimensions regions of interest in laterally extended flat specimens of weak absorption contrast. The principle of the method and a theoretical description of the imaging process are outlined. The present instrumental implementation enables reconstructing nondestructively the internal structure at different lateral specimen positions with micron resolution. The feasibility and application potential are demonstrated for both phase-contrast and holographic (i.e., using phase retrieval) laminography by the three-dimensional imaging of fuel-cell diffusion layers.
Holographic features of spatial coherence wavelets.
Castaneda, Roman; Betancur, Rafael; Hincapie, Diego
2008-08-01
The behavior of the marginal power spectrum as a two-channel-multiplexed hologram is analyzed. Its "negative energies" make it quite different from the conventional holograms, i.e., it is not recordable in general and the objects to be reconstructed (the cross-spectral densities at both the aperture and the observation planes) are virtual. The holographic reconstruction results from the superposition of the spatial coherence wavelets that carry the marginal power spectrum. These features make the marginal power spectrum a powerful tool for analysis and synthesis of optical fields, for instance, in optical information processing (signal encryption) and beam shaping for microlithography. PMID:18677351