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Sample records for holothuria scabra collected

  1. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Liu, Bao-Shu; La, Ming-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoidea A (2) and holothurin A1 (3). Scabraside A (1) is a new triterpene glycoside, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from Holothuria scabra for the first time. They showed antifungal activities (1 < or = MIC80 < or = 16 microg mL(-1)).

  2. The timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria scabra on the Kenyan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiga, N. A.; Kawaka, J. A.; Ndirangu, S.

    2009-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is a widely distributed and economically important species that has been harvested in Kenya for decades. No previous studies have been carried out on the reproduction of this species in Kenya. Standard gonad index methods were used to analyze reproductive patterns of individuals collected monthly in 1998-1999, 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. Morphological characteristics, gonad tubule lengths and fecundity were also measured. Mean monthly gonad indices were significantly correlated between males and females indicating synchronous gonad development between the sexes. Gonad indices showed a biannual pattern that was consistent in all three years with a minor spawning event occurring between August and September and a major spawning event between November and December. The pattern of gonad growth showed significant variability between years and between months. Temporal changes in gonad growth correlated significantly with gonad tubule length and absolute fecundity. Monthly gonad indices also correlated significantly with monthly measurements of air temperature and light suggesting a possible role for both factors in timing gametogenesis and spawning. There was a shift in sex ratio from unity in the 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 samples to significantly more males in the 2006-2007 samples, as well as a significant reduction in mean sizes (body wall weight) and reproductive output (gonad index) which suggests that the reproductive success of this species is potentially negatively affected by fishing.

  3. Destruction of a Holothuria scabra population by overfishing at Abu Rhamada Island in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mohamed Hamza

    2005-10-01

    Populations of Holothuria scabra at Abu Rhamada Island were investigated during 52 months, from July 1999 to October 2003. During the first 23 months (July, 1999-May, 2001) the Island had a robust population with a tri-modal size frequency distribution curve, very high densities (85.7-95.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), high abundance (3362-3110 individuals) and biomass (46.7-34.3 kg/100 m2). Also, during this period most individuals were at depths between 4 and 6m and no individuals were recorded deeper than 15m. The population declined after harvesting began (June, 2001) and by March, 2002 the size frequency distribution showed a bimodal pattern with an obvious decrease in abundance of large individuals. There was also a slight reduction in densities (73.2-60.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (2292-1682 individuals) and biomass (21.6-11.3 kg/100 m2), and a marked shift towards deeper waters. Overfishing reached its maximum during the final 19 months of the study, and by October, 2003, density (30.7-0.4 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (802-10 individuals) and biomass (6.9-0.1 kg/100 m2) were all greatly reduced. The size frequency distribution of the population became unimodal, large animals disappeared and no recruits were seen. During this period, individuals were found at very deep depths (30 to >40 m). The study also showed that sandy substrate was the preferred habitat for H. scabra, accommodating the largest number of individuals. The population of H. scabra at Abu Rhamada Island was found to spawn biannually from 1999 to 2001, then only once during 2002 when high fishing pressure occurred, and ceased completely in 2003. The sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1 before fishing begun, but shifted to an increasing male bias reaching 93% males by January 2003. None of the small animals remaining after January, 2003 could be sexed. Size at sexual maturity decreased from prefishing (185 mm for females and 160 mm for

  4. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role.

  5. Effects of thermal stress on the immune and oxidative stress responses of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Elham; Kühnhold, Holger; Novais, Sara C; Alves, Luís M F; Indriana, Lisa; Kunzmann, Andreas; Slater, Matthew; Lemos, Marco F L

    2017-01-01

    Holothuria scabra is the most valued and cultured tropical sea cucumber, given the great demand of this species for human consumption. However, despite its ecological and economic relevance, little is known regarding its immune responses under thermal stress. Here, the main goal was to study the response of sea cucumbers to temperature stress, assessing sub-organismal alterations and acclimation capacities of juveniles to temperature changes. After changing temperature (1 °C/day) for 6 days, organisms were exposed to temperature conditions of 21 °C (cold), 27 °C (control), and 33 °C (warm) over a 30 day period. At each 15-day interval (T0, T15, and T30), six replicates per condition were killed for biochemical analysis. Immune responses were addressed by studying the activity of phenoloxidase (PO) and prophenoloxidase (ProPO) in the coelomic fluid. Antioxidant defence responses-catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymatic activities-were measured in the muscle and respiratory tree tissues, whereas oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring levels of superoxide radicals (ROS), DNA-strand breaks and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Juvenile H. scabra increased SOD and PO activities when temperature was elevated, and revealed low levels of ROS and damage in both cold and warm treatments throughout the experiment, confirming the organism's moderate thermal stress. After the short acclimation period, the immune and antioxidant responses prevented damage and maintained homeostasis. This multi-biomarker approach highlights its usefulness to monitor the health of H. scabra and to gain insight concerning the use of this high-valued species in global-scale aquaculture from different temperature regions.

  6. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  7. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  8. Molecular and morphological discrimination between an invasive ascidian, Ascidiella aspersa, and its congener A. scabra (Urochordata: Ascidiacea).

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Teruaki; Oohara, Ichiro; Saitoh, Kenji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kanamori, Makoto; Baba, Katsuhisa; Turon, Xavier; Bishop, John D D

    2014-03-01

    The solitary ascidian Ascidiella aspersa (Müller, 1776) has sometimes been regarded as conspecific with A. scabra (Müller, 1776), although previous detailed morphological comparisons have indicated that the two are distinguishable by internal structures. Resolution of this taxonomic issue is important because A. aspersa has been known as a notoriously invasive ascidian, doing much damage to aquaculture e.g. in Hokkaido, Japan. We collected many specimens from European waters (including the Swedish coast, near the type localities of these two species) and Hokkaido, Japan (as an alien population) and made molecular phylogenetic analyses using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and found that in terms of COI sequences all the analyzed specimens were clustered into two distinct groups, one of which is morphologically referable to A. aspersa and the other to A. scabra. Thus, these two species should be regarded as distinct from each other.

  9. Holothuria leucospilota Extract Induces Apoptosis in Leishmania major Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    FOROUTAN-RAD, Masoud; KHADEMVATAN, Shahram; SAKI, Jasem; HASHEMITABAR, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to survey antileishmanial activity of methanolic Holothuria leucospilota extract against Leishmania major promastigotes in vitro. Methods: Promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and after reaching the stationary phase, the study was conducted with different concentrations of the extract. Afterwards, MTT colorimetric assay for the obtaining of 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was utilized. Furthermore, in order to determine the possible induction of apoptosis in L. major promastigotes, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation methods were employed using annexin-V FLUOS staining kit and DNA ladder kit, respectively. Results: The IC50 value of H. leucospilota extract at three time points of 24, 48, and 72 h was estimated 2000, 300 and 85 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, the extract revealed a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity. Furthermore, various characteristics of apoptosis appeared after L. major promastigotes treatment, which included cell shrinkage, formation of apoptotic bodies, blebbing of the cell membrane, and externalization of phosphatidylserine, although no laddering pattern was observed. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of H. leucospilota possesses lethal effect on L. major promastigotes and induces the apoptosis in parasites. Further studies are required to address the apoptosis mechanism in vivo. PMID:28127339

  10. Gynogenesis in gentians (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra): production of haploids and doubled haploids.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hisako; Yokoi, Shuji; Hikage, Takashi; Nishihara, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Ken-ich; Takahata, Yoshihito

    2011-06-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on gentian (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra and their hybrids), which is an important ornamental flower. When unfertilized ovules were cultured in 1/2 NLN medium containing a high concentration of sucrose (100 g/l), embryo-like structures (ELS) were induced. Although genotypic variation was observed in ELS induction, all four genotypes produced ELSs ranging from 0.93 to 0.04 ELSs per flower bud. The ovules collected from flower buds of later stages (just before anthesis or flower anthesis) tended to exhibit higher response. The dark culture condition produced more than four times as many ELSs than in 16-h light condition. A significant number of plantlets were directly regenerated from ELSs on MS regeneration medium. The ploidy levels of 179 regenerated plants were determined by flow cytometry, revealing that the majority of them were diploid (55.9%) and haploid (31.3%). When a total of 54 diploid plants were examined by molecular genetic markers, 52 (96.3%) were considered as doubled haploids (DHs). This is the first report showing successful gynogenesis in gentian. The production of haploids and DHs by unfertilized ovule culture opens a novel prospect in gentian F1 hybrid breeding.

  11. AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values.

  12. Holothuria (Selenkothuria) parvispinea n. sp. (Echinodermata, Hololthuroidea, Holothuriidae) with key to the sub-genus Selenkothuria.

    PubMed

    Massin, Claude

    2013-01-30

    Description of a new species from Australia, belonging to the subgenus Selenkothuria (Holothuria, Aspidochirotida). A dichotomous key of the thirteen valid species included in the subgenus is also given. The species H. perrieri Thandar, 1977 and H. spinea Cherbonnier, 1988 are considered as non valid.

  13. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  14. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Isolated From Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Adibpour, Neda; Nasr, Farhad; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Shakouri, Arash; Ameri, Abdolghani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in March and May 2011 and identified by the scale method according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of the body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid, methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts of the body wall were evaluated by the spot test. In addition, their antifungal activity was assessed by the broth dilution method. Results: The displayed effect was microbiostatic at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 µg/mL rather than microbicidal. The highest activity of hydroalcoholic extracts was exhibited by body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. brasilensis. However, none of the methanol, chloroform and n-haxane extracts showed appreciable effects against Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans. Moreover, cuvierian organs did not possess any antifungal potential. Conclusions: Our data indicated that water-methanol extracts from the body wall of H. leucospilota possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, additional and in-depth studies are required to isolate and identify the active component(s). PMID:25147657

  15. Differential proteomic response to heat stress in thermal Agrostis scabra and heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenping; Huang, Bingru

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of heat-responsive proteins is critical for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance. The objective of this study was to compare proteins differentially expressed in two C(3) grass species contrasting in heat tolerance, heat-tolerant thermal Agrostis scabra and heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera L., and to identify heat-responsive proteins for short- and long-term responses. Plants were exposed to 20/15 degrees C (day/night, control) or 40/35 degrees C (day/night, heat stress) in growth chambers. Leaves were harvested at 2 and 10 days after temperature treatment. Proteins were extracted and separated by fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Thermal A. scabra had superior heat tolerance than A. stolonifera, as indicated by the maintenance of higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency under heat stress. The two-dimensional difference electrophoresis detected 68 heat-responsive proteins in the two species. Thermal A. scabra had more protein spots either down- or up-regulated at 2 days of heat stress, but fewer protein spots were altered at 10 days of heat stress compared with A. stolonifera. Many protein spots exhibited transient down-regulation in thermal A. scabra (only at 2 days of heat treatment), whereas down-regulation of many proteins was also found at 10 days of heat treatment in A. stolonifera, which suggested that protein metabolism in thermal A. scabra might acclimate to heat stress more rapidly than those in A. stolonifera. The sequences of 56 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using mass spectrometry. The results suggest that the maintenance or less severe down-regulation of proteins during long-term (10 days) heat stress may contribute to the superior heat tolerance in thermal A. scabra, including those involved in photosynthesis [RuBisCo, RuBisCo activase, chloroplastic glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chloroplastic aldolase, oxygen-evolving complex

  16. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  17. Multi-residue analysis of 36 priority and emerging pollutants in marine echinoderms (Holothuria tubulosa) and marine sediments by solid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Hidalgo, F; Ibáñez-Yuste, A J; Alonso, E; Vilchez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to Holothuria tubulosa specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r(2)) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of Holothuria collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323ngg(-1) d.w. in sediment and Holothuria samples, respectively).

  18. Phylogeography of the Atlanto-Mediterranean sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata: the combined effects of historical processes and current oceanographical pattern.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, G H; González-Wangüemert, M; Marcos, C; Pérez-Ruzafa, A

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the genetic structure of populations of the widely distributed sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata Grube, 1840, and investigated the effects of marine barriers to gene flow and historical processes. Several potential genetic breaks were considered, which would separate the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, the isolated Macaronesian Islands from the other locations analysed, and the Western Mediterranean and Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). We analysed mitochondrial 16S and COI gene sequences from 177 individuals from four Atlantic locations and four Mediterranean locations. Haplotype diversity was high (H=0.9307 for 16S and 0.9203 for COI), and the haplotypes were closely related (π=0.0058 for 16S and 0.0071 for COI). The lowest genetic diversities were found in the Aegean Sea population. Our results showed that the COI gene was more variable and more useful for the detection of population structure than the 16S gene. The distribution of mtDNA haplotypes, the pairwise F(ST) values and the results of exact tests and amova revealed: (i) a significant genetic break between the population in the Aegean Sea and those in the other locations, as supported by both mitochondrial genes, and (ii) weak differentiation of the Canary and Azores Islands from the other populations; however, the populations from the Macaronesian Islands, Algarve and West Mediterranean could be considered to be a panmictic metapopulation. Isolation by distance was not identified in H. (H.) mammata. Historical events behind the observed findings, together with the current oceanographic patterns, were proposed and discussed as the main factors that determine the population structure and genetic signature of H. (H.) mammata.

  19. Combined toxicity of copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, and chrome to the copepod Tisbe holothuriae

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Dimas, S.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years much work has been concerned with the determination of various contaminants in the environment and with the establishment of the toxicity of these compounds to marine animals. Heavy metals are of increasing concern as pollutants of marine and especially coastal environments. Mixtures of heavy metals may produce unexpected effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of six heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr) to the marine copepod Tisbe holothuriae Humes and to see whether there is any interaction between these metals, when applied jointly.

  20. Molecular systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic and a molecular clock for the diversification of the Holothuriidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, Giomar Helena; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-11-01

    This work investigates the systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic in the light of a wider molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Holothuriidae, and it also provides a time-scale for the family diversification using mitochondrial markers and the molecular clock hypothesis. The subgenera Holothuria and Roweothuria are retrieved as paraphyletic. At least four separate lineages, with quite different time frameworks were identified. There are at least three species with an apparent long evolutionary history, H. forskali, H. sanctori and H. impatiens and six species belonging to Holothuria, Roweothuria and Vaneyothuria, which have diverged relatively recently.

  1. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats.

  2. Effects of Tin on Enzyme Activity in Holothuria grisea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tatiana Miura; Mattar, Lívia Pôncio; Pereira, Edgar Rocha; Merçon, Julia; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Cruz, Zilma Maria Almeida

    2016-11-30

    This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations. These results indicate that H. grisea is a potential bioindicator for seascape habitat monitoring programs, as its biochemical markers show sensitivity to trace elements that can indicate a rise in pollution levels.

  3. Identification of causal relationships among traits related to drought resistance in Stylosanthes scabra using QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Thumma, B R; Naidu, B P; Chandra, A; Cameron, D F; Bahnisch, L M; Liu, C

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that a negative relationship exists between transpiration efficiency (TE) and carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) and between TE and specific leaf area (SLA) in Stylosanthes scabra. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to confirm these relationships in an F(2) population and to study the causal nature of these relationships through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. One hundred and twenty F(2) genotypes from a cross between two genotypes within S. scabra were used. Three replications for each genotype were maintained through vegetative propagation. Water stress was imposed by maintaining plants at 40% of field capacity for about 45 d. To facilitate QTL analysis, a genetic linkage map consisting of 151 RAPD markers was developed. Results from this study show that Delta was significantly and negatively correlated with TE and biomass production. Similarly, SLA showed significant negative correlation with TE and biomass production. Most of the QTL for TE and Delta were present on linkage groups 5 and 11. Similarly, QTL for SLA, transpiration and biomass productivity traits were clustered on linkage groups 13 and 24. One unlinked marker was also associated with these traits. There were several markers coincident between different traits. At all the coincident QTL, the direction of QTL effects was consistent with phenotypic data. At the coincident markers between TE and Delta, high alleles of TE were associated with low alleles of Delta. Similarly, low alleles of SLA were associated with high alleles of biomass productivity traits and transpiration. At the coincident markers between trans-4-hydroxy-N:-methyl proline (MHP) and relative water content (RWC), low alleles of MHP were associated with high alleles of RWC. This study suggests the causal nature of the relationship between TE and Delta. Phenotypic data and QTL data show that SLA was more closely associated with biomass production than with TE. This study also shows that a cause

  4. Application of quantitative 1H-NMR method to determination of gentiopicroside in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Hasebe, Yuko; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure gentiopicroside content in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. Gentiopicroside is a major component of Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. The purity of gentiopicroside was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the H-3 signal at δ 7.44 ppm or the H-8 signal at δ 5.78 ppm in methanol-d 4 of gentiopicroside to that of a hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The concentration of HMD was corrected with SI traceability by using potassium hydrogen phthalate of certified reference material (CRM) grade. As a result, the gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae radix as determined by qHNMR was found to be 1.76 and 2.17 %, respectively. The gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae scabrae radix was 2.73 and 3.99 %, respectively. We demonstrated that this method is useful for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  5. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  6. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  7. Neuroanatomy of the tube feet and tentacles in Holothuria glaberrima (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Abreu-Arbelo, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are a key group in understanding the evolution of the nervous system in the Metazoa. Remarkably, little is known about echinoderm neurobiology. The echinoderm podia, which are unique echinoderm modifications and comprise structures responsible for locomotion and feeding, have been largely neglected in nervous system studies. Here, we have applied immunohistological approaches using different neuronal markers to describe the neuroanatomy of the holothurian podia and its relation to the muscular component. We show, using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867), the direct innervation of the podia by the ectoneural component of the nervous system, as well as the existence of a connection between the nervous system components in the main nerves, the muscle, and the connective tissue. These findings confirm the ectoneural origin of the tube feet’s main nervous system and demonstrate its neuroanatomic complexity. We also show the presence of fibers and neurons within the tube feet mesothelium and connective tissue. The study of these simple structures will help us elucidate the echinoderms’ neuromuscular circuit and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:20461218

  8. Temporal and spatial analysis of enteric nervous system regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Tossas, Karen; Qi‐Huang, Sunny; Cuyar, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited information on the regeneration of the enteric nervous system (ENS) following major reconstruction of the digestive tract. We have studied ENS regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima which undergoes an organogenic process forming a new digestive tract at the tip of the mesentery. Our results show that (1) a degeneration of nerve fibers occurs early in the regeneration process, prior to eventual regeneration; (2) nerve fibers that innervate the regenerating intestine are of extrinsic and intrinsic origin; (3) innervation by extrinsic fibers occurs in a gradient that begins in the proximal area of the regenerate; (4) late events include the appearance of nerve fibers that project from the serosa into the connective tissue and of nerve bundles in the mesothelial layer; (5) neurons and neuroendocrine cells appear early following the formation of the epithelial layers. Our results provide not only a comparative biological approach to study ENS regeneration but also an alternative point of view for the study of enteric neuropathologies and for the innervation of organs made in vitro. PMID:27499861

  9. Spatial distribution patterns and movements of Holothuria arguinensis in the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegenthaler, Andjin; Cánovas, Fernando; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Holothurian populations are under pressure worldwide because of increasing demand for beche-de-mer, mainly for Asian consumption. Importations to this area from new temperate fishing grounds provide economic opportunities but also raise concerns regarding future over-exploitation. Studies on the habitat preferences and movements of sea cucumbers are important for the management of sea cucumber stocks and sizing of no-take zones, but information on the ecology and behavior of temperate sea cucumbers is scarce. This study describes the small-scale distribution and movement patterns of Holothuria arguinensis in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa national park (Portugal). Mark/recapture studies were performed to record their movements over time on different habitats (sand and seagrass). H. arguinensis preferred seagrass habitats and did not show a size or life stage-related spatial segregation. Its density was 563 ind. ha- 1 and mean movement speed was 10 m per day. Movement speed did not differ between habitats and the direction of movement was offshore during the day and shoreward during the night. Median home range size was 35 m2 and overlap among home ranges was 84%. H. arguinensis' high abundance, close association with seagrass and easy catchability in the intertidal zone, indicate the importance of including intertidal lagoons in future studies on temperate sea cucumber ecology since those systems might require different management strategies than fully submerged habitats.

  10. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant.

  11. Antioxidant and immunological activities of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Chenyu; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-04

    Two polysaccharide fractions, GSP I-a and GSP II-b, were isolated from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots. Both GSP I-a and GSP II-b comprised seven monosaccharides: fructose, mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and fucose. Ultraviolet and infrared analyses show that GSP I-a and GSP II-b are proteoglycans. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity suggests that GSP I-a and GSP II-b scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. However, the scavenging activity of the latter is stronger than that of the former. GSP I-a and GSP II-b have relatively low reducing powers and scavenging activities toward superoxide anions and hydroxyls. GSP I-a and GSP II-b significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation when lipopolysaccharide is used as a mitogen for lymphocytes, but only GSP I-a can significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation within the test-dosage range when concanavalin A is used as a mitogen.

  12. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0: 1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC 50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  13. LPS-Induced Genes in Intestinal Tissue of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A.; Rivera-Cardona, Gabriela; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50) unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7) of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43) had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin), metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt), metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein) and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein). The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response. PMID:19584914

  14. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  15. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  16. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  17. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA

  18. Electrophysiological properties of isolated photoreceptors from the eye of Lima scabra

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Photoreceptor cells were enzymatically dissociated from the eye of the file clam, Lima scabra. Micrographs of solitary cells reveal a villous rhabdomeric lobe, a smooth soma, and a heavily pigmented intermediate region. Membrane voltage recordings using patch electrodes show resting potentials around -60 mV. Input resistance ranges from 300 M omega to greater than 1 G omega, while membrane capacitance is of the order of 50-70 pF. In darkness, quantum bumps occur spontaneously and their frequency can be increased by dim continuous illumination in a fashion graded with light intensity. Stimulation with flashes of light produces a depolarizing photoresponse which is usually followed by a transient hyperpolarization if the stimulus is sufficiently intense. Changing the membrane potential with current-clamp causes the early phase to invert around +10 mV, while the hyperpolarizing dip disappears around -80 mV. With bright light, the biphasic response is followed by an additional depolarizing wave, often accompanied by a burst of action potentials. Both Na and Ca ions are required in the extracellular solution for normal photoexcitation: the response to flashes of moderate intensity is greatly degraded either when Na is replaced with Tris, or when Ca is substituted with Mg. By contrast, quantum bumps elicited by dim, sustained light are not affected by Ca removal, but they are markedly suppressed in a reversible way in 0 Na sea water. It was concluded that the generation of the receptor potential is primarily dependent on Na ions, whereas Ca is probably involved in a voltage-dependent process that shapes the photoresponse. Light adaptation by repetitive flashes leads to a decrease of the depolarizing phase and a concomitant enhancement of the hyperpolarizing dip, eventually resulting in a purely hyperpolarizing photoresponse. Dark adaptation restores the original biphasic shape of the photoresponse. PMID:2007886

  19. Whole-cell clamp of dissociated photoreceptors from the eye of Lima scabra.

    PubMed

    Nasi, E

    1991-01-01

    Voltage-dependent membrane currents were investigated in enzymatically dissociated photoreceptors of Lima scabra using the whole-cell clamp technique. Depolarizing steps to voltages more positive than -10 mV elicit a transient inward current followed by a delayed, sustained outward current. The outward current is insensitive to replacement of a large fraction of extracellular Cl- with the impermeant anion glucuronate. Superfusion with tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine reversibly abolishes the outward current, and internal perfusion with cesium also suppresses it, indicating that it is mediated by potassium channels. Isolation of the inward current reveals a fast activation kinetics, the peak amplitude occurring as early as 4-5 ms after stimulus onset, and a relatively rapid, though incomplete inactivation. Within the range of voltages examined, spanning up to +90 mV, reversal was not observed. The inward current is not sensitive to tetrodotoxin at concentrations up to 10 microM, and survives replacement of extracellular Na with tetramethylammonium. On the other hand, it is completely eliminated by calcium removal from the perfusing solution, and it is partially blocked by submillimolar concentrations of cadmium, suggesting that it is entirely due to voltage-dependent calcium channels. Analysis of the kinetics and voltage dependence of the isolated calcium current indicates the presence of two components, possibly reflecting the existence of separate populations of channels. Barium and strontium can pass through these channels, though less easily than calcium. Both the activation and the inactivation become significantly more sluggish when these ions serve as the charge carrier. A large fraction of the outward current is activated by preceding calcium influx. Suppression of this calcium-dependent potassium current shows a small residual component resembling the delayed rectifier. In addition, a transient outward current sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (Ia) could

  20. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  1. First report of the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of Holothuria arguinensis, a new resource for aquaculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roggatz, Christina C; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Pereira, Hugo; Rodrigues, Maria João; da Silva, Manuela Moreira; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2016-09-01

    This work reports for the first time the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of the edible sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis from the North-eastern Atlantic. H. arguinensis has high levels of protein, with the amino acids profile dominated by alanine, glycine and proline and low lysine/arginine ratios. Its carbohydrate and energetic contents are also low as well as the total lipid levels, although its lipid profile is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, H. arguinensis has high levels of calcium. The water and ethanol extracts show ability to scavenge free radicals and to chelate copper and iron ions. Our results indicate that H. arguinensis has a balanced nutritional quality suitable for human consumption. In addition, it contains compounds with antioxidant potential; thus its intake can contribute for a healthy and well-balanced diet.

  2. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7

  3. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  4. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dakrory, Ahmed I.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Soliman, Amel M.; Mohamed, Ayman S.; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  5. Gentiana scabra Bunge. Formula for Herpes Zoster: Biological Actions of Key Herbs and Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyi; Coyle, Meaghan E; Mansu, Suzi; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2017-03-01

    This study reviewed the biological action of key herbs and evaluated systematically the efficacy and safety of oral Gentiana formula for herpes zoster (HZ). Experimental studies relevant to HZ were identified in PubMed. Randomized controlled trials using Gentiana formula for HZ were identified from nine English and Chinese databases. The primary outcome was evaluation of pain. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Key herbs Gentiana scabra Bunge, Gentiana triflora Pall, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis have shown antiinflammatory actions through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes. Twenty-six clinical studies, involving 2955 participants, were included. Modified Gentiana formula resolved pain earlier than pharmacotherapy when used alone or combined with topical Chinese herbal medicine. Incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower (risk ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.74) with modified Gentiana formula plus topical Chinese herbal medicine. Mild adverse events were reported. Antiinflammatory actions of key herbs of Gentiana formula may explain clinical benefit in hastening pain relief and decreasing postherpetic neuralgia. Few adverse events were reported. Findings were limited by study quality and diversity in intervention and comparator dosage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antiseptic effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) against multi-organ failure induced by sepsis: Molecular and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    SAAD, DALIA Y.; BAIOMY, AHMED A.; MANSOUR, AHMED A.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and severe sepsis patients can develop acute lung and liver injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra methanolic body wall extract (HaE), as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against induced sepsis in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) rat model. In total, 30 males albino rats were divided into three groups (n=10 each) as follows: Sham (Sh), which was used as negative control; sepsis (Se), which was used as a positive control and was subjected to CLP surgery; and Ho, which was subjected to CLP and fed with 200 mg/kg (body weight) of HaE, once daily for 7 days. Subsequently, the expression of various genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction, while liver and lung tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Caspase-3 was significantly reduced in liver and lung tissues in the Ho group, while the expression levels of Gsta2, Cat and Sod1 genes were slightly reduced in the Ho group, when compared with the Se group. In addition, expression levels of tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, liver interleukin (IL)1b and lung IL1a were reduced in the Ho group compared with the Se group. Furthermore, histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of the Se group, including congestion of hepatoportal blood vessel and focal hepatic necrosis, while lung tissues showed marked edema, hemorrhage and alveolar septal thickening. The Ho group showed apparent normal hepatic parenchyma and slight interstitial pneumonia. Immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3 in liver and lung tissues showed no expression in the Sh group, strong expression in the Se group and moderate expression in the Ho group. In conclusion, HaE demonstrated beneficial effect against induced sepsis, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. PMID:27347042

  7. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5(+) B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017.

  8. Apoptosis inducing capacity of Holothuria arenicola in CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Afzali, Mahbubeh; Nikdel, Najme; Mostafapour, Asma; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber is one of the classes of echinoderms, which is considered as a health marine product and possess various biological characteristics with therapeutic application. The present investigation attempted to evaluate the potential of anti-cancer Persian Gulf sea cucumber species Holothuria arenicola (H. arenicola) aqueous extract on mice colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The CT26 carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of extract in 24 and 48 hr, and then its anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay and morphological observations. The apoptotic effect was examined by fluorescence microscopy (DNA fragmentation assay), Flow cytometry, caspase-3 and -9 colorimetric assays. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of sea cucumber extract on CT26 tumor cells transplanted in BALB/c mice was also investigated. Results: The results showed that the water extract of sea cucumber revealed remarkable anti-proliferative effect on CT26 tumor cells with IC50= 31 µg/ml with recruitment of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in vitro. In addition, the colon tumor volume in treated groups remarkably reduced in homozygous mice. Histopathological examination elucidated that sea cucumber extract attenuated tumor size and volume along with apoptosis characteristics. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed that sea cucumber extract induced intrinsic apoptosis in vivo through suppression of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion: Our data confirmed this notion that sea cucumber administrates anti-cancer effect that can be used as complementary in preclinical experiments, so further characterization are recommended for detection sea cucumber metabolites and clinical application. PMID:27279978

  9. Acidic mucopolysaccharide from Holothuria leucospilota has antitumor effect by inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor cell invasion in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Yin; Xu, Bo; Wu, Jiaming; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ming; Zheng, Shizhong; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Changbin; Chen, Lei; Lei, Na

    2009-08-01

    Acidic mucopolysaccharide from Holothuria Leucospilota (HS) may affect some steps in metastasis cascade. In vitro, HS inhibited the growth of B16F10 cells and proliferation of VEGF-induced HUVEC dose-dependently compared to the control, VEGF-induced capillary-like tube networks and the numbers of migratory and invasive cells were significantly inhibited by HS in a dose-dependent manner under the cytotoxic doses. Additionally, VEGF-induced vessel sprouting of rat aortic ring was also inhibited by HS. It also has been demonstrated that the invasive ability of B16F10 melanoma cells through the Matrigel-embedded Boyden chamber was suppressed by 0.5 muM HS. The protein level secreted by B16F10 cells of MMP-2,-9 and VEGF were decreased by HS treatment. In vivo, a tumor growth inhibition study was carried out using mice bearing B16F10 cells model of metastasis, no matter experimental or spontaneous, showed that HS at 5.2, 11.6 and 26 mg/kg (weight of mice) could markedly decreased the metastatic tumors in mouse lung in a dose-dependent manner. In CAM assay and Matrigel plug assay in vivo, HS (50 microg/egg and 100 microg/egg) inhibited new blood vessel formation on the growing chick chorioallantoic membrane, and HS (5.2 and 26 mg/kg body weight) reduced the vessel density in Matrigel plugs implanted in mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HS has antimetastasic properties possibly via its antiangiogenesis induced by downregulation of VEGF and suppression of invasive ability of cancer cells mediated by downregulation of MMP-2, -9 and their activities.

  10. Interactions and accumulation differences of metal(loid)s in three sea cucumber species collected from the Northern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Aydın, Mehmet; Şahin, ÜlküAlver

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted on Holothuria polii, Holothuria tubulosa, and Holothuria mammata collected from five stations with different depths in the Northern Mediterranean Sea. The body walls and guts of these holothurians were examined in terms of interactions of 10 metals (iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)) and one metalloid (arsenic (As)) using a multivariate analysis, and interspecies differences were determined. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed significant differences between the species in terms of metal(loid) accumulations. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a more association between H. tubulosa and H. polii with regard to the accumulation. The cluster analysis (CA) located Pb concentrations of the guts to the farthest place from all elements regardless of the species. A correlation analysis displayed that the element concentrations of the guts were more closely related to each other compared with those of the walls. The most inconsistent element in terms of correlations was the gut Fe contents. Accordingly, while Fe concentrations of H. mammata and H. tubulosa were correlated with all elements (except Pb) in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) (divalent cation transporter 1 (DCT1) or natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 (NRAMP2)) belonging to the NRAM protein family, this was not the case in H. polii. Consequently, significant relationships between accumulated metal(loid)s that changed by tissues and sea cucumber species were observed.

  11. Gene flow and population history in high dispersal marine invertebrates: mitochondrial DNA analysis of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) populations from the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Uthicke, S; Benzie, J A H

    2003-10-01

    The sea cucumber, Holothuria nobilis, has a long-lived planktotrophic larvae, and previous allozyme surveys have suggested that high dispersal is realized. In contrast, recent ecological studies indicate that dispersal is low. To reconcile these data, and to investigate the evolution of this Indo-Pacific species, we screened geographical variation in 559 bp of a mitochondrial gene (COI) in 360 samples from the Australasian region and La Réunion. Sequences from La Réunion differed by > 7% from others and may constitute another species. Haplotype diversity in other samples was high (0.942, SD = 0.007), but haplotypes were closely related (mean nucleotide diversity: 0.0075, SD = 0.0041). AMOVA, pairwise FST values and exact tests did not detect significant population structure. Nested clade analysis showed that one of two main clades was over-represented in west Australia, whereas the other was more common in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Isolation-by-distance was identified as the main determinant of population structure at several clade levels. Contiguous range expansion was inferred for evolutionary older clade levels and this may correspond to a late Pleistocene (88 000-193 000 years ago) population expansion inferred from haplotype mismatch distributions. Thus, the population genetic structures detected are likely to be formed prior to the last ice age, with some indications for high dispersal on shorter time scales.

  12. Transcriptional analysis of VEGF-D and TGFβ genes in MCF7 cells exposed to saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber)

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine natural products contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties that have revealed crucial properties in the treatment of some diseases. Some of these compounds have recently received considerable attention for drug discovery. In this study we examined the anti-angiogenic effect of saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber) through evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) expression in a breast cancer cell line. Methods: To investigate the effect of SCS on VEGF-D and TGF-β expression in breast cancer cells, the cells were treated with various concentrations of sample. After 48 h the viability of the cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining, and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression was were evaluated by real time-PCR. Results: Our results revealed that SCS can suppress cell viability and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Sea cucumber saponin at a concentration of 12 μg/ml inhibited VEGF-D and TGFβ expression more than 90% compared with controls. Conclusion: Findings suggest that SCS could inhibit tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26989747

  13. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in Holothuria polii (Delle Chiaje 1823) across a coastal lagoon-open sea environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Coastal lagoons represent habitats with widely heterogeneous environmental conditions, particularly as regards salinity and temperature, which fluctuate in both space and time. These characteristics suggest that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in coastal lagoon and open-coast environments. This study investigates the genetic structure of Holothuria polii at a micro-geographic scale across the Mar Menor coastal lagoon and nearby marine areas, estimating the mitochondrial DNA variation in two gene fragments, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA (16S). Dataset of mitochondrial sequences was also used to test the influence of environmental differences between coastal lagoon and marine waters on population genetic structure. All sampled locations exhibited high levels of haplotype diversity and low values of nucleotide diversity. Both genes showed contrasting signals of genetic differentiation (non-significant differences using COI and slight differences using 16S, which could due to different mutation rates or to differential number of exclusive haplotypes. We detected an excess of recent mutations and exclusive haplotypes, which can be generated as a result of population growth. However, selective processes can be also acting on the gene markers used; highly significant generalized additive models have been obtained considering genetic data from 16S gene and independent variables such as temperature and salinity.

  14. Calbindin-D32k is localized to a subpopulation of neurons in the nervous system of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; García-Rivera, Enrique M; González, Carlos I; García-Arrarás, José E

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates.

  15. Calbindin-D32k Is Localized to a Subpopulation of Neurons in the Nervous System of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; García-Rivera, Enrique M.; González, Carlos I.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates. PMID:22412907

  16. The effects of body temperature and mass on the postprandial metabolic responses of the African egg-eating snakes Dasypeltis scabra and Dasypeltis inornata.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sara; McConnachie, Suzanne; Secor, Stephen; Perrin, Mike

    2013-06-01

    African egg-eating snakes (Dasypeltis) feed only on freshly laid bird eggs which they perforate within their esophagus before swallowing the liquid contents and regurgitating the empty shell. Compared to a snake's typical intact meal, the liquid diet of Dasypeltis would expectedly generate a more moderate postprandial metabolic response and specific dynamic action (SDA). Free-ranging Dasypeltis feed over a range of ambient temperatures and thereby experience predicted temperature-dependent shifts in the duration and magnitude of their postprandial metabolic response. Such shifts would undoubtedly be shared among different species and age classes of Dasypeltis. To examine these expectations, we measured pre- and postprandial metabolic rates of adult Dasypeltis inornata and adult and neonate Dasypeltis scabra in response to liquid egg meals weighing 20% of snake body mass at 20, 25, 27, 30, and 32 °C. With an increase in body temperature, postprandial metabolic profiles of neonate and adult snakes became narrower and shorter in duration. Specific dynamic action varied among temperature treatments, increasing from 20 to 32 °C. Standard metabolic rate, postprandial peak metabolic rate, and SDA scaled with mass exponents that typically did not differ from 1.0. As expected, Dasypeltis digesting a liquid egg diet experienced a more modest postprandial response and SDA, expending on average only 10.6% of the meal's energy on the breakdown, absorption, and assimilation of the egg meal, whereas other colubrids consuming intact rodent or fish meals expend on average 16.3% of the meal's energy on digestion and assimilation. Actively foraging and feeding throughout the avian egg laying season enable Dasypeltis to survive when eggs are not available. The adaptive suite of traits that enable Dasypeltis to consume eggs of large relative size and ingest only the liquid contents may also be joined by physiological adaptations specific to their liquid diet and extended bouts of

  17. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  20. Collection Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  1. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Challenge and Radial Organ Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chuang; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuqiang; Tian, Meilin; Jiao, Wenqian; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) structurally resembles mRNA but cannot be translated into protein. Although the systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs have been increasingly reported in model species, information concerning non-model species is still lacking. Here, we report the first systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in two sea cucumber species: (1) Apostichopus japonicus during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and in heathy tissues and (2) Holothuria glaberrima during radial organ complex regeneration, using RNA-seq datasets and bioinformatics analysis. We identified A. japonicus and H. glaberrima lncRNAs that were differentially expressed during LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration, respectively. Notably, the predicted lncRNA-microRNA-gene trinities revealed that, in addition to targeting protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs might also target lncRNAs, thereby participating in a potential novel layer of regulatory interactions among non-coding RNA classes in echinoderms. Furthermore, the constructed coding-non-coding network implied the potential involvement of lncRNA-gene interactions during the regulation of several important genes (e.g., Toll-like receptor 1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm pave the way for similar studies and future genetic, genomic, and evolutionary research in non-model species.

  2. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  3. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  4. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  5. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  6. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  7. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  8. Collective enumeration.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-04-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a 2-alternative forced-choice task and when in disagreement, they negotiated joint decisions via verbal communication and received feedback about accuracy at the end of each trial. The results showed that two people could collectively count better than either one alone, but not as well as expected by previous models of collective sensory decision making in more basic perceptual domains (e.g., luminance contrast). Moreover, such collective enumeration benefited from prior, noninteractive practice showing that social learning of how to combine shared information about enumeration required substantial individual experience. Finally, the collective context had a positive but transient impact on an individual's enumeration sensitivity. This transient social influence may be explained as a motivational factor arising from the fact that members of a collective must take responsibility for their individual decisions and face the consequences of their judgments.

  9. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  10. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  11. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  13. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  14. Collective Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Carver A.

    2002-08-01

    In this book Carver Mead offers a radically new approach to the standard problems of electromagnetic theory. Motivated by the belief that the goal of scientific research should be the simplification and unification of knowledge, he describes a new way of doing electrodynamics--collective electrodynamics--that does not rely on Maxwell's equations, but rather uses the quantum nature of matter as its sole basis. Collective electrodynamics is a way of looking at how electrons interact, based on experiments that tell us about the electrons directly. (As Mead points out, Maxwell had no access to these experiments.) The results Mead derives for standard electromagnetic problems are identical to those found in any text. Collective electrodynamics reveals, however, that quantities that we usually think of as being very different are, in fact, the same--that electromagnetic phenomena are simple and direct manifestations of quantum phenomena. Mead views his approach as a first step toward reformulating quantum concepts in a clear and comprehensible manner. The book is divided into five sections: magnetic interaction of steady currents, propagating waves, electromagnetic energy, radiation in free space, and electromagnetic interaction of atoms. In an engaging preface, Mead tells how his approach to electromagnetic theory was inspired by his interaction with Richard Feynman. Carver A. Mead is the Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. He won the 1999 Lemelson-MIT Prize for Invention and Innovation.

  15. Collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  16. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  17. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  18. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15–385 kg−1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  19. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  20. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  1. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  2. Collecting Artists' Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalberto, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of increase in library collections of artists' books (artwork conceived in book form and designed entirely by artists) highlights reasons to collect artists' books, major collections, establishing a collection, housing and preservation, organization, outreach, and networking. Collection policy and procedures of Virginia Commonwealth…

  3. On some sea cucumbers from Ghana (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) with descriptions of a new genus and one new species.

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Mjobo, Sifiso

    2014-12-22

    This paper reports on some sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) in the collections of the NHMUK, taken off the coast of Ghana. Most result from collections around Accra during the years 1949-52. A couple of other species are included. Altogether six species are here reported, viz. Holothuria (Holothuria) dakarensis Panning, 1939; Holothuria (Semperothuria) imitans Ludwig, 1875; Holothuria (Vaneyothuria) lentiginosa lentiginosa (von Marenzeller,1893); Stereoderma congoana (Heding, 1935); Ocnus cruciformis Thandar n. sp. and Leptopentacta cabindaensis (Cherbonnier, 1949) herein transferred to a new genus Cherbocnus Thandar erected for this purpose. Another West African species, Cladodactyla monodi Cherbonnier, 1950 is referred to Stereoderma. All cucumariids are West African forms whereas the holothuriids are shared with the North-West Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Sublittoral and bathyal sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the Northern Mozambique Channel with description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Samyn, Yves; Vandenspiegel, Didier

    2016-11-24

    The 2009 expedition with the research vessel Miriky sampled the sublittoral and bathyal waters of the northern Mozambique Channel. This exploration campaign resulted in a small, but very diverse collection of holothuroids comprising 174 specimens representing 31 species, 18 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Of these species, many were hitherto unknown for Madagascar or even for the Indian Ocean, and six, Bathyplotes aymeric sp. nov., Holothuria (Cystipus) yann sp. nov., Holothuria (Stauropora) bo sp. nov., Holothuria (Metriatyla) alex sp. nov., Holothuria (Theelothuria) cyrielle sp.nov., Molpadia thandari sp. nov., are new to science. Molpadia lenticulum (Cherbonnier & Féral, 1981) is a new combination. This contribution provides an illustrated and annotated overview of the poorly known, highly biodiverse, sublittoral and bathyal sea cucumber fauna of the northern Mozambique Channel. Our findings demonstrate how ignorant we are about the poorly explored habitats of our planet and therefore stress the urgent need for more explorations to such regions.

  5. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  6. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  7. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  8. Collection Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuby, Mary

    Undertaken to provide data on the current status of collection development in selected academic libraries, this study also analyzed the structure of the collection development function at Chicago Academic Library Council (CALC) institutions and outlined a formal collection development policy for Chicago State University's Douglas Library.…

  9. Collection Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Blaine H.

    This manual is designed to help bibliographers, librarians, and other materials selectors plan and conduct systematic collection evaluations using both collection centered and client centered techniques. Topics covered in five chapters are: (1) planning the assessment; (2) collection-centered techniques, comprising the compilation of statistics,…

  10. Faculty Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Hershel H.

    Faculties in a number of institutions of higher education utilize collective bargaining agents to represent their interests. Collective bargaining is primarily a community college phenomenon. Of 212 institutions with certified bargaining agents, 150 are 2-year institutions. Motivating factors in choosing the collective bargaining process are: the…

  11. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  12. Collecting Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best…

  13. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  14. Weeding Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slote, Stanley J.

    This work, based on two recent research projects in the weeding of library collections and the identification of core collections, provides a comprehensive summary of the literature and research on these topics. It also presents practical guidance in weeding for the professional librarian or for the library school student. The book is divided into…

  15. Collection Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Law Library, St. Paul.

    This collection development plan of the Minnesota State Law Library includes detailed information on policies and annotations. After an overview of the Library's collection, general policy guidelines on the following are discussed: material selection; principles of selection; exclusions; gifts; interlibrary loan; cooperation; replacements;…

  16. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  17. 78 FR 70577 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection: Uniform Crime... Collection (1) Type of information collection: New Collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: Uniform... agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the department sponsoring the...

  18. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  19. Online Data Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topp, Neal W.; Pawloski, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Describes the eventful history of online data collection and presents a review of current literature following by a list of pros and cons to be considered when stepping into online surveying. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Consulting in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Considers the role of the consultant in the areas of library collection development and weeding, and offers suggestions on determining the need for a consultant, obtaining one, and what to do when the consultant arrives. (FM)

  1. Weeding Your Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Offers guidelines for weeding as part of school library collection development. Highlights include developing a weeding policy; and the CREW (Continuous Review Evaluation and Weeding) method, including reasons for weeding, scheduling, and guidelines for fiction and for nonfiction. (LRW)

  2. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  3. Sparse matrix test collections

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, I.

    1996-12-31

    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  4. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  5. A Survey of Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of computational components, complex, distributed systems of interacting agents are becoming ubiquitous. Such systems, where each agent aims to optimize its own performance, but where there is a well-defined set of system-level performance criteria, are called collectives. The fundamental problem in analyzing/designing such systems is in determining how the combined actions of self-interested agents leads to 'coordinated' behavior on a iarge scale. Examples of artificial systems which exhibit such behavior include packet routing across a data network, control of an array of communication satellites, coordination of multiple deployables, and dynamic job scheduling across a distributed computer grid. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, economies, and the organelles within a living cell. No current scientific discipline provides a thorough understanding of the relation between the structure of collectives and how well they meet their overall performance criteria. Although still very young, research on collectives has resulted in successes both in understanding and designing such systems. It is eqected that as it matures and draws upon other disciplines related to collectives, this field will greatly expand the range of computationally addressable tasks. Moreover, in addition to drawing on them, such a fully developed field of collective intelligence may provide insight into already established scientific fields, such as mechanism design, economics, game theory, and population biology. This chapter provides a survey to the emerging science of collectives.

  6. Spectral imagery collection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Joao M.; Rosario, Dalton; Farley, Vincent; Sohr, Brian

    2010-04-01

    The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL for the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of adverse weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives at 549 and 1280m from the sensor location. The collected database will allow for: 1) Understand of signature variability under the different weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of hyperspectral and polarimetric technologies; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.

  7. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  8. Polarimetric imagery collection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Joao M.; Felton, Melvin; Chenault, David; Sohr, Brian

    2010-04-01

    The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL that is focused on the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives in an open field. The database will allow for: 1) Understanding of signature variability under adverse weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of polarimetric technology; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.

  9. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leon, Amanda; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Tsontos, Vardis; Shie, Chung-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use. Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer.

  10. Dibaryons from Exceptional Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Walcher, Johannes

    2003-09-01

    We discuss aspects of the dictionary between brane configurations in del Pezzo geometries and dibaryons in the dual superconformal quiver gauge theories. The basis of fractional branes defining the quiver theory at the singularity has a K-theoretic dual exceptional collection of bundles which can be used to read off the spectrum of dibaryons in the weakly curved dual geometry. Our prescription identifies the R-charge R and all baryonic U(1) charges QI with divisors in the del Pezzo surface without any Weyl group ambiguity. As one application of the correspondence, we identify the cubic anomaly trRQIQJ as an intersection product for dibaryon charges in large-N superconformal gauge theories. Examples can be given for all del Pezzo surfaces using three- and four-block exceptional collections. Markov-type equations enforce consistency among anomaly equations for three-block collections.

  11. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  12. Quantifying collective effervescence

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are ubiquitous and resilient features of all known human cultures. They are also functionally opaque, costly, and sometimes dangerous. Social scientists have speculated that collective rituals generate benefits in excess of their costs by reinforcing social bonding and group solidarity, yet quantitative evidence for these conjectures is scarce. Our recent study measured the physiological effects of a highly arousing Spanish fire-walking ritual, revealing shared patterns in heart-rate dynamics between participants and related spectators. We briefly describe our results, and consider their implications. PMID:22446541

  13. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  14. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  15. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  16. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  17. Surface reference data collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of remote sensing must define relationships between image data and conditions at corresponding points on the ground. Unfortunately, many published remote sensing reports focus on image processing techniques with little detail regarding the methods used for collecting ground truth data....

  18. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  19. Microcomputer Software Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of special considerations in developing microcomputer software collections, review of standardized cataloging practices, and discussion of problems of selection and acquisition of software. Policies governing loan procedures for microcomputer software which involve four types of copy protection (patent, trade secret, contract,…

  20. Collection Maintenance and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sherry

    This resource guide provides information about the range of activities that can be implemented to maintain and improve the condition of research collections to ensure that they remain usable as long as possible. After an introduction that describes the major activities and a review of an investigation process that gives an overview of good…

  1. The collective coordinates Jacobian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Vinograd, Guy

    2002-05-01

    We develop an expansion for the Jacobian of the transformation from particle coordinates to collective coordinates. As a demonstration, we use the lowest order of the expansion in conjunction with a variational principle to obtain the Percus Yevick equation for a monodisperse hard sphere system and the Lebowitz equations for a polydisperse hard sphere system.

  2. RIF and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the modern case-law intersection between state legislation for school districts that applies to reduction-in-force (RIF) and other state legislation that applies to collective bargaining. One conclusion is that the implementation of RIF is more likely to be negotiable and arbitrable than the reasons for RIF. (96 footnotes) (MLF)

  3. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Wanda V.; And Others

    This document is an overall policy statement for library collection development for the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Part 1 comprises the library mission statement and a list of ongoing objectives. The second part provides some background information about the university environment and campus libraries. It also gives instructions…

  4. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts.

  5. Deterritorializing Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne; Walsh, Susan; Byers, Michele; Rajiva, Mythili

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new move in the methodological practice of collective biography, by provoking a shift beyond any remnant attachment to the speaking/writing subject towards her dispersal and displacement via textual interventions that stress multivocality. These include the use of photographs, drama, and various genres of writing. Using a…

  6. Quick Fixes: Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabb, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The Do It Yourself (DIY) section is an essential and well-used part of the public library's collection and must be kept up-to-date to remain valuable, since tools, materials, and building codes are always changing. Current economic decline has increased the topic's popularity as homeowners choose to remodel rather than buy, or attempt to make…

  7. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  8. The Fall Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeman, Barry A.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for collecting objects on the school grounds or in the surrounding neighborhood. Objects include feathers/fur, leaves, galls, seeds, shells, spiderwebs, and litter. Also presents procedures for making impressions of bark, leaves, fossils, flora, and shadows. All activities can be adopted for students in kindergarten through grade…

  9. Collection Management, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortman, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 literature on collection management is reviewed under six major headings: (1) general overview; (2) materials; (3) kinds of users and libraries; (4) evaluation and cooperation; (5) selection, acquisitions, and allocation; and (6) access, weeding, and preservation. A list of 251 references is provided. (MES)

  10. Sports Reference: A Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons for including sports books in school library reference collections, explains why they should not be found only in public library collections, and provides six annotated bibliographies of sports books suitable for intermediate or middle school library collections. (LRW)

  11. 76 FR 55742 - Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number...

  12. Culture collections and biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2003-06-01

    This review describes the relationships and links between culture collections, which act as sources of genomes, transcriptomes, proteome, and metabolomes, and fields of research biochemistry that demand their support and help. In addition, the invaluable but not always rewarded efforts of these organizations as a source and conservator of organism diversity is discussed. Biological waste-water treatment, ethanol as a non-finite source of energy, Rhodococcus fascians as the source of a citrus-juice debittering agent, the sporulation of filamentous fungi in liquid medium, and biotransformation with growing and resting cells are processes developed by the authors that demonstrate some of the applications of organisms from culture collections in the general field of biotechnology and related areas, including industrial biochemistry and biocatalytic synthesis.

  13. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  14. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  15. Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-11-01

    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).

  16. STARLINK Software Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Steve; Lawden, Mike; Bly, Martin

    The Starlink Software Collection is a set of software which is managed and distributed by the Starlink Project. Some of the software was written by members of the Project, but some of it comes from outside the Project. This note describes the functions of the individual items in the Collection and provides an overview of the software so that readers can identify the items they need. The software is classified into four main divisions: * Packages -- are large collections of programs for people who want to analyse, convert, and display data. They are subdivided into eleven classes to help you find what you want. * Utilities -- are small programs devoted to a specific purpose. For example, they help you prepare for observations, write documents, and write programs. * Subroutine Libraries -- are for programmers writing astronomical software. They provide facilities such as astronomical calculations, data management and graphics. * Infrastructure -- are items which are mainly of interest to people writing programs within the Starlink Software Environment. They are included for completeness. Each item is described in sufficient detail for you to decide whether or not to investigate it further. If you want to find out more about an item, follow the document references given opposite the item name. If you are using the hypertext version of this document, the most up-to-date document references can be found by following the link from the software item name.

  17. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Ramapriyan, H.; Leon, A.; Tsontos, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use.Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Science themes can be: Specific applications (uses) of the data, e.g., landslide prediction Geophysical events (e.g., Hurricane Sandy) A specific science research problem Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer. Eligible resources include anything accessible via URL: data files: data file URLs data subsets: OPeNDAP, webification or Web Coverage Service URLs data visualizations: Web Map Service data search results: OpenSearch Atom response custom analysis workflows: e.g., Giovanni analysis URL

  18. 77 FR 34461 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... income under Code section 108. The collection of information is required for a taxpayer to elect...

  19. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  20. Ice Jam Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Sweden, p. 301- LITERATURE CITED 317. Pomerleau, R.T. (1992a) Field ice measurements Beltaos , S . (1978) Field investigations of river ice for...9, LuleA, Sweden, p. 355-371. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Beltaos , S ., R. Gerard, S . Petryk and T.D. Association of State...AD- A280 067 Ice Jam Data Collection Kathleen D. White and Jon E. ZufelT March 1994 DTIC S EECTEa @8199M411 aF FI 1,0 Tis EWE’~t a, pm. DTIC QUALFPy

  1. Collection Analysis Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Carol; And Others

    This interim report of the University of Wyoming's Collection Analysis Project, whose purpose is to examine the university library's collection development process and make workable recommendations for process improvement, consists of a brief history of the library's collection, including a review of the evolution of the collection development…

  2. Collection Assessment. SPEC Kit 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on collection assessment contains the following documents: (1) "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Library Collections--Draft Copy" (Collection Development Committee, Resource Section, Resources and Technical Services Division, American Library Association); (2) "Guidelines for Collection Assessment"…

  3. 75 FR 68956 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... collection procedures. The interim final rule includes procedures for collection of debts through salary... be referred to debt collection centers for collection. \\7\\ 31 CFR chapter IX. 2. Subpart B, Salary... employees and former FHFA employees who are employed by other agencies by salary offset, that is,...

  4. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  5. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  6. 77 FR 6573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship... Government-wide effort to streamline the process to seek feedback from the public on service delivery, the... Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Collection of Qualitative Feedback through...

  7. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  8. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  9. Collective motion of dimers.

    PubMed

    Penington, Catherine J; Korvasová, Karolína; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2012-11-01

    We consider a discrete agent-based model on a one-dimensional lattice and a two-dimensional square lattice, where each agent is a dimer occupying two sites. Agents move by vacating one occupied site in favor of a nearest-neighbor site and obey either a strict simple exclusion rule or a weaker constraint that permits partial overlaps between dimers. Using indicator variables and careful probability arguments, a discrete-time master equation for these processes is derived systematically within a mean-field approximation. In the continuum limit, nonlinear diffusion equations that describe the average agent occupancy of the dimer population are obtained. In addition, we show that multiple species of interacting subpopulations give rise to advection-diffusion equations. Averaged discrete simulation data compares very well with the solution to the continuum partial differential equation models. Since many cell types are elongated rather than circular, this work offers insight into population-level behavior of collective cellular motion.

  10. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  11. Collection Development Policy, United States Documents Selective Depository Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston Univ., OK.

    The purpose of the government document collection in the Langston University (Oklahoma) libraries is to serve as a complement to the general collection of the libraries. The general collection in turn exists in order to provide the maximum coverage of information to support the curriculum and the community needs. This policy is developed to ensure…

  12. Emergence of Collective Memories

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungmin; Ramenzoni, Verónica C.; Holme, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Background We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced—they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. Methodology/Principal Findings First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (but different from other groups) can form. Conclusions/Significance Our work outlines how the cognitive representation of memories and social structure can co-evolve as a contagious process. We generate some testable hypotheses including that the number of groups is limited as a function of the total population size. PMID:20824141

  13. Waste collection subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Practical ways were explored of improving waste compaction and of providing rapid turnaround between flights at essentially no cost for the space shuttle waste collection subsystem commode. Because of the possible application of a fully developed shuttle commode to the space station, means of providing waste treatment without overboard venting were also considered. Three basic schemes for compaction and rapid turnaround, each fully capable of meeting the objectives, were explored in sufficient depth to bring out the characteristic advantages and disadvantages of each. Tradeoff comparisons were very close between leading contenders and efforts were made to refine the design concepts sufficiently to justify a selection. The concept selected makes use of a sealed canister containing wastes that have been forcibly compacted, which is removable in flight. No selection was made between three superior non-venting treatment methods owing to the need for experimental evaluations of the processes involved. A system requirements definition document has been prepared to define the task for a test embodiment of the selected concept.

  14. Collective Bargaining--Oregon Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Eldon G.

    The implications of the mandatory collective bargaining law in Oregon, House Bill 2263, are described in a case history of Lane Community College. In addition, problems that have emerged as a result of collective bargaining in Oregon are listed. (DB)

  15. 75 FR 42662 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    .... This proposed rule would add salary offset and administrative wage garnishment to the collection... also provide for the collection of debts via salary offset and the use of administrative wage garnishment. Salary offset is the collection of debt owed by a Federal employee by withholding up to...

  16. 75 FR 68203 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    .... PBGC is adding salary offset and administrative wage garnishment to the collection methods allowed..., and to add salary offset and administrative wage garnishment to the collection methods allowed under... operations. The final regulation also provides for the collection of debts via salary offset and the use...

  17. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  18. Houston Cole Library Collection Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Abbot, Ed.; McAbee, Sonja L., Ed.

    This document reports on an assessment of the Jacksonville State University's Houston Cole Library collection that employed a variety of methodologies and tools, including list-checking, direct collection examination, shelflist measurement and analysis, WLN (Washington Library Network) conspectus sheets, analysis of OCLC/AMIGOS Collection Analysis…

  19. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  20. Physician collective bargaining.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Anthony Hunter

    2009-11-01

    Current antitrust enforcement policy unduly restricts physician collaboration, especially among small physician practices. Among other matters, current enforcement policy has hindered the ability of physicians to implement efficient healthcare delivery innovations, such as the acquisition and implementation of health information technology (HIT). Furthermore, the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice have unevenly enforced the antitrust laws, thereby fostering an increasingly severe imbalance in the healthcare market in which dominant health insurers enjoy the benefit of largely unfettered consolidation at the cost of both consumers and providers. This article traces the history of antitrust enforcement in healthcare, describe the current marketplace, and suggest the problems that must be addressed to restore balance to the healthcare market and help to ensure an innovative and efficient healthcare system capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. Specifically, the writer explains how innovative physician collaborations have been improperly stifled by the policies of the federal antitrust enforcement agencies, and recommend that these policies be relaxed to permit physicians more latitude to bargain collectively with health insurers in conjunction with procompetitive clinical integration efforts. The article also explains how the unbridled consolidation of the health insurance industry has resulted in higher premiums to consumers and lower compensation to physicians, and recommends that further consolidation be prohibited. Finally, the writer discusses how health insurers with market power are improperly undermining the physician-patient relationship, and recommend federal antitrust enforcement agencies take appropriate steps to protect patients and their physicians from this anticompetitive conduct. The article also suggests such steps will require changes in three areas: (1) health insurers must be prohibited from engaging in anticompetitive

  1. Stories, skulls, and colonial collections.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The essay explores the hypothesis of colonial collecting processes involving the active addition of the colonial context and historical past to museum objects through the production of short stories. It examines the emergent historicity of collections through a focus on the "histories" that museum workers and colonial agents have been attaching to scientific collections of human skulls. Drawing on the notions of collection trajectory and historiographical work, it offers an alternative perspective from which to approach the creation of singular histories and individual archives for objects in collections.

  2. Current Collection from Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra (Editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (Editor); Stone, Nobie H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

  3. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  4. 77 FR 46527 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. This ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its estimated burden and cost. DATE: Submit written..., Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503....

  5. 77 FR 20820 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ..., 44 U.S.C. 3501-3521, AHRQ invites the public to comment on this proposed information collection...) approve, under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, AHRQ's collection of information for the Synthesis of... healthcareassociated infections (HAIs), both internally and through contracts and grants. AHRQ's grant- and...

  6. Tritium monitor and collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.D.; Wickham, K.L.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Grafwaller, E.G.; Maltrud, H.R.; Bourne, G.L.

    1991-03-26

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next online getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  7. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  8. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  9. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  10. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  11. Writing. Special Collection Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Bloomington, IN.

    This ERIC/RCS Special Collection contains five ERIC Digests (brief syntheses of the research on a specific topic in contemporary education and nine FAST Bibs (Focused Access to Selected Topics--annotated bibliographies with selected entries from the ERIC database), providing up-to-date information in an accessible format. This collection focuses…

  12. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  13. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  14. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed…

  15. Cooperative Collection Management in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorst, Thomas J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve articles focusing on the issue of cooperative collection management describe the history and current status of specific projects within the Illinois Library and Information Network. The last article summarizes the status of coordinated cooperative collection management in Illinois, clarifies terminology, and speculates on future…

  16. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  17. Leadership, collective personality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, David A; Jones, Lisa M

    2005-05-01

    By viewing behavior regularities at the individual and collective level as functionally isomorphic, a referent-shift compositional model for the Big 5 personality dimensions is developed. On the basis of this compositional model, a common measure of Big 5 personality at the individual level is applied to the collective as a whole. Within this framework, it is also hypothesized that leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) would predict collective personality and that collective personality would be significantly related to collective performance. The results supported these hypotheses using a sample of franchised units. On the basis of recent research at the individual level, several interactions among the various personality dimensions were hypothesized and supported. Implications are discussed.

  18. In defence of collective dose.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, I; Sumner, D

    2000-03-01

    Recent proposals for a new scheme of radiation protection leave little room for collective dose estimations. This article discusses the history and present use of collective doses for occupational, ALARA, EIS and other purposes with reference to practical industry papers and government reports. The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis suggests that collective doses which consist of very small doses added together should be used. Moral and ethical questions are discussed, particularly the emphasis on individual doses to the exclusion of societal risks, uncertainty over effects into the distant future and hesitation over calculating collective detriments. It is concluded that for moral, practical and legal reasons, collective dose is a valid parameter which should continue to be used.

  19. Ways to maximize effective collections.

    PubMed

    Spears, Tracy L

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices across the country face a variety of collection challenges, especially when considering the condition of today's economy. It is now more important than ever for a practice to establish proactive collection procedures and learn the keys to minimizing collection problems. This starts with educating patients about your payment terms prior to appointments and educating your staff to be aware of early warning signs when an account could become a problem. Taking steps that lead to quick resolution, while retaining patients, is a vital component to increased cash flow and fewer aging accounts in receivables. Careful review of your practice's policies on billing and collections can lead to a greater knowledge on how healthy the practice really is. This article provides key strategies that will help streamline your billing and collections process and recover money owed to you while maintaining those ever so important patient relationships.

  20. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2011-08-16

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  1. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  2. Blood component collection by apheresis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaler, Edwin A

    2006-07-01

    Apheresis component collection is a rapidly growing area in the blood collection field. Several instruments with varying capabilities are available. This is a brief review of the equipment available for granulocyte and apheresis component collection and indications for their use. In the United States, granulocytes are collected with the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Haemonetics LN9000, and Fresenius AS 104. The use of hetastarch for sedimenting agent and stimulation with G-CSF and G-CSF plus dexamethasone have substantially increased granulocyte yields. Plateletapheresis is performed in the United States on the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, Fenwal Amicus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), and Haemonetics LN9000. Automated red blood cell (RBC) collections are performed with the Haemonetics MCS+LN8150, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), Amicus, and Baxter Alyx. The RBC can be collected concurrently (with other components) in some instruments or separately in others. Plasma is collected concurrently on several instruments. Plasmapheresis for plasma only is performed on the Fenwal Autopheresis C and Haemonetics PCS2. Granulocyte yields range from 0.46 x 10(10) to 1.0 x 10(10) for unstimulated donors and 2.1 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) for donors stimulated with dexamethasone or prednisone. The use of G-CSF and G-CSF with dexamethasone has substantially increased granulocyte yields with yields of 4.1 x 10(10) to 10.8 x 10(10) reported. Platelet collection rates of 0.045-0.115 x 10(11) plt/min have been reported. Collection efficiencies of 46-85.7% have been reported. Automated (apheresis) component collection has the advantages of controlled volumes or doses of component, efficient use of the donor, multiple components from the same donor, better inventory control, and better quality control due to less manipulation of the individual components. Disadvantages of automated

  3. 76 FR 62341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-School Foodservice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment... on this proposed information collection. This collection is a new information collection for the... December 6, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information...

  4. 78 FR 28848 - Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative Database.'' In accordance with the Paperwork... for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative... 1995, AHRQ's collection of information for the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture...

  5. 78 FR 6141 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Antarctic emergency response plan and....) (``ACA'') regulates certain non- governmental activities in Antarctica. The ACA was amended in 1996 by... owner has an emergency response plan. The rule also requires persons organizing a...

  6. 75 FR 18551 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Antarctic emergency response plan and....) (``ACA'') regulates certain non- governmental activities in Antarctica. The ACA was amended in 1996 by... owner has an emergency response plan. The rule also requires persons organizing a...

  7. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  8. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  9. Growing Mathematical Understanding through Collective Image Making, Collective Image Having, and Collective Property Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In the research reported in this paper, we develop a theoretical perspective to describe and account for the growth of collective mathematical understanding. We discuss collective processes in mathematics, drawing in particular on theoretical work in the domains of improvisational jazz and theatre. Using examples of data from a study of elementary…

  10. Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birden, Susan

    The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case…

  11. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  12. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as part of its...

  13. Student Employees and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    Union organizing activities, protection of state and federal labor laws, and the division of students into a separate collective bargaining unit are discussed; and the use of separate units is discouraged. Journal availabilty: University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506.) (MSE)

  14. Fuel collecting and recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.F.

    1980-06-10

    This system serves to collect and recycle fuel leftover in the fuel manifold and fuel distribution system of a gas turbine power plant when it is shutdown and operates in conjunction with the power plant's existing fuel control.

  15. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  16. Neurodynamical model of collective brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1992-01-01

    A dynamical system which mimics collective purposeful activities of a set of units of intelligence is introduced and discussed. A global control of the unit activities is replaced by the probabilistic correlations between them. These correlations are learned during a long term period of performing collective tasks, and are stored in the synaptic interconnections. The model is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations with terminal attractors and repellers, and does not contain any man-made digital devices.

  17. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  18. Remote application for spectral collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Shelli R.; Steele, R. J.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Firpi, Alexer H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the area of collecting field spectral data using a spectrometer, it is common to have the instrument over the material of interest. In certain instances it is beneficial to have the ability to remotely control the spectrometer. While several systems have the ability to use a form of connectivity to capture the measurement it is essential to have the ability to control the settings. Additionally, capturing reference information (metadata) about the setup, system configuration, collection, location, atmospheric conditions, and sample information is necessary for future analysis leading towards material discrimination and identification. This has the potential to lead to cumbersome field collection and a lack of necessary information for post processing and analysis. The method presented in this paper describes a capability to merge all parts of spectral collection from logging reference information to initial analysis as well as importing information into a web-hosted spectral database. This allows the simplification of collecting, processing, analyzing and storing field spectra for future analysis and comparisons. This concept is developed for field collection of thermal data using the Designs and Prototypes (D&P) Hand Portable FT-IR Spectrometer (Model 102). The remote control of the spectrometer is done with a customized Android application allowing the ability to capture reference information, process the collected data from radiance to emissivity using a temperature emissivity separation algorithm and store the data into a custom web-based service. The presented system of systems allows field collected spectra to be used for various applications by spectral analysts in the future.

  19. Curvature Interaction in Collective Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Richard

    2012-12-01

    For the Riemannian space, built from the collective coordinates used within nuclear models, an additional interaction with the metric is investigated, using the collective equivalent to Einstein's curvature scalar. The coupling strength is determined using a fit with the AME2003 ground state masses. An extended finite-range droplet model including curvature is introduced, which generates significant improvements for light nuclei and nuclei in the trans-fermium region.

  20. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  1. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    PubMed

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  2. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  3. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Defines digital library collections and outlines two classes of collection metadata. Describes the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project approach to collection metadata, including the ADL system architecture and collection guidelines and the format and use of the ADL collection metadata. Appendices include ADL collection metadata and example.…

  4. Expression of beta-galactosidase controlled by a nitrogenase promoter in stem nodules of Aeschynomene scabra.

    PubMed

    Legocki, R P; Yun, A C; Szalay, A A

    1984-09-01

    A 365-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment, containing the promoter region of the nitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene from stem Rhizobium BTAi1, has been isolated and sequenced. The transcription initiation sites were localized at positions 152 (major initiation) and 114 (minor initiation) nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. The 200-bp nucleotide sequence upstream of the nifH structural gene shows substantial homology to the corresponding nifH regions of cowpea Rhizobium (100%), Parasponia Rhizobium (89%), and Rhizobium japonicum (88%). The nifH promoter region of stem Rhizobium BTAi1 was fused to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. The fusion and a 1.6-kilobase DNA specifying neomycin phosphotransferase were inserted into a 3,4-kilobase fragment of stem Rhizobium chromosome, and the resulting construct was placed on a mobilizable vector, pREV1000. Stem Rhizobium transconjugants resistant to kanamycin were found to contain the nifH promoter region-lacZ fusion linked to the neomycin phosphotransferase gene at the site of chromosomal homology. Analysis of the DNA from stable transconjugants showed integration of a single copy of these sequences into the chromosome by a double-reciprocal crossover event. The transconjugants formed nitrogen-fixing nodules, indicating that the insertion occurred in a "nonessential" region of the stem Rhizobium chromosome. Transconjugant strain BTAi1000 grows on beta-galactosidase indicator plates under aerobic conditions as white colonies, whereas under microaerobic conditions (97% N(2)/3% O(2)), which derepress nitrogenase, the colonies turn blue within 15-24 hr. beta-Galactosidase activity in derepressed cultures of BTAi1000 showed a 200-fold increase in comparison to the wild-type strain, whereas stem nodules formed by BTAi1000 exhibited 15- to 20-fold higher beta-galactosidase values than wild-type nodules. Nitrogenase promoter-dependent expression of beta-galactosidase in stem nodules was inhibited by fixed nitrogen, suggesting that the nifH promoter-lacZ fusion is controlled coordinately in trans with the native nif region.

  5. 78 FR 2693 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...: Collection of Laboratory Analysis Data on Drug Samples Tested by Non-Federal (State and Local) Crime... Laboratory Analysis Data on Drug Samples Tested by Non-Federal (State and Local Government)...

  6. Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2011-09-01

    Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-μm size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage

  7. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cillik, Ivan; Prochaska, Jan

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE-Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for different operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of

  8. Digital data collection in paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Mcpherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Geraads, Denis; Wynn, Jonathan G; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns of human evolution across space and time requires synthesizing data collected by independent research teams, and this effort is part of a larger trend to develop cyber infrastructure and e-science initiatives. At present, paleoanthropology cannot easily answer basic questions about the total number of fossils and artifacts that have been discovered, or exactly how those items were collected. In this paper, we examine the methodological challenges to data integration, with the hope that mitigating the technical obstacles will further promote data sharing. At a minimum, data integration efforts must document what data exist and how the data were collected (discovery), after which we can begin standardizing data collection practices with the aim of achieving combined analyses (synthesis). This paper outlines a digital data collection system for paleoanthropology. We review the relevant data management principles for a general audience and supplement this with technical details drawn from over 15 years of paleontological and archeological field experience in Africa and Europe. The system outlined here emphasizes free open-source software (FOSS) solutions that work on multiple computer platforms; it builds on recent advances in open-source geospatial software and mobile computing.

  9. Innovation in the collective brain

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality—languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time. PMID:26926282

  10. Collective couplings: Rectification and supertransmittance.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Gernot; Giusteri, Giulio Giuseppe; Celardo, Giuseppe Luca

    2016-09-01

    We investigate heat transport between two thermal reservoirs that are coupled via a large spin composed of N identical two-level systems. One coupling implements the dissipative Dicke superradiance. The other coupling is locally of the pure-dephasing type and requires to go beyond the standard weak-coupling limit by employing a Bogoliubov mapping in the corresponding reservoir. After the mapping, the large spin is coupled to a collective mode with the original pure-dephasing interaction, but the collective mode is dissipatively coupled to the residual oscillators. Treating the large spin and the collective mode as the system, a standard master equation approach is now able to capture the energy transfer between the two reservoirs. Assuming fast relaxation of the collective mode, we derive a coarse-grained rate equation for the large spin only and discuss how the original Dicke superradiance is affected by the presence of the additional reservoir. Our main finding is a cooperatively enhanced rectification effect due to the interplay of supertransmittant heat currents (scaling quadratically with N) and the asymmetric coupling to both reservoirs. For large N, the system can thus significantly amplify current asymmetries under bias reversal, functioning as a heat diode. We also briefly discuss the case when the couplings of the collective spin are locally dissipative, showing that the heat-diode effect is still present.

  11. Innovation in the collective brain.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-03-19

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality--languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time.

  12. Collective Design of an E-Textbook: Teachers' Collective Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine; Pepin, Birgit; Sabra, Hussein; Trouche, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated design processes in teacher collectives, which have been made possible by new "digital" opportunities: platforms, discussion lists, etc. The object of our study is the French Sésamath teacher association and its design of a grade 10 e-textbook, more precisely the design of the "functions" chapter.…

  13. Learning Wisdom through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Luanne; Bickel, Barbara; Fels, Lynn; Gerhard, Gillian; Hoy, Alyson; Jordan, Nané; Nielsen, Wendy; Smith, Annie; Stubbs, Jeannie; Triggs, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The Women Writing Women Collective was a collegial and collaborative response to the isolation that is often experienced by women scholars as they pursue their academic careers. For 5 years, a group of women gathered on a monthly basis to share their writing. In doing so, the group members provided a sounding board for each other as they engaged…

  14. 76 FR 40773 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning limitations on corporate net...: Limitations on Corporate Net Operating Loss Carryforwards. OMB Number: 1545-1275. Regulation Project...

  15. A Comparison between Collective Teacher Efficacy and Collective Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Tiffany D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, researchers have studied teacher efficacy. In the past decade or so, however, collective teacher efficacy has been at the forefront of educational research as an extension of teacher self-efficacy. Educational researchers have been studying this construct to determine its impact on student achievement, teacher quality, and school…

  16. 7 CFR 1250.516 - Collecting handlers and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... who grades, cartons, or breaks such eggs. Such shell egg breaker or egg packer must collect and remit... person who buys or receives nest run eggs from a producer and who does not grade, carton, or break such... indicating that an assessment has already been paid; (3) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(4)...

  17. Collection Development: Great Finds for Your Collectibles Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Margarete

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews 41 books and periodicals about antiques and collectibles such as glassware, porcelain, dolls, buttons, ceramics, folk arts, furniture, jewelry, rugs, textiles, and woodenware. Books are arranged in the following topic areas: price guides; general surveys; out-of-print titles; trends; conservation and restoration; dealers; and…

  18. Learning the Collection: A New Librarian's Experience in Collection Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The author is a reference and instruction librarian at Iowa State University with collection development and liaison responsibilities for chemistry, biochemistry, entomology, and natural resource ecology. She recently came to librarianship with an education and three years' experience in biochemistry and biotechnology. During the last four years…

  19. Controlling Collective Behaviors of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We study the collective dynamics of a population of Dictyostelium cells, focusing on how single cell dynamics influence, and give rise to, the behavior of the aggregate. Through analysis of quantitative single cell experiments, we develop a simple model of the single cell response to time-dependent pulses of the extracellular signaling molecule cAMP, characterized by a particular type of excitable system. We then use this model to study collective multicellular dynamics mediated by diffusion coupling. We first consider the mean-field case where we find an intriguing ``dynamical quorum sensing'' transition in which all cells simultaneously transition from quiescent to oscillating across the phase boundary. Then we include spatial dynamics and study pattern formation, both with and without the cells capable of chemotactic response to signal gradients. Finally, we highlight how modification of single cells can alter the collective dynamics.

  20. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  1. Climate Change and Collective Violence.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W; Patz, Jonathan A

    2017-03-20

    Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence. Public health professionals can help prevent collective violence due to climate change (a) by supporting mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (b) by promoting adaptation measures to address the consequences of climate change and to improve community resilience, and

  2. Shimpent mobility accountability collection (SMAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.E.; Hamberger, C.R.; Moerchen, M.F.; Maddigan, R.J.; Lester, P.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    SMAC{sup 4} is the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) information system that collects, stores, and analyzes information on all unclassified shipments to and from DOE facilities. SMAC is operated for and under the direction of DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) Transportation Management Division (TMD). Currently, SMAC serves DOE Headquarters, Operations offices, Field Offices, and 64 field locations. The system provides data and analysis services to DOE and its contractors, transportation managers, and specialists. It is used to collect data from the sources of transportation activities, screen the data to ensure their quality, train personnel who collect and report the data, analyze data elements, help users conduct their own analyses, and develop and present reports on DOE`s transportation activities to DOE and contractor management.

  3. 75 FR 70030 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV) The... Collection: Existing data collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Survey of Sexual Violence. (3)...

  4. 75 FR 36638 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements for... the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of... each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of an existing collection...

  5. 75 FR 8995 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection, Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Requested ACTION: 30-day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New collection; InfraGard Knowledge... information collection: New collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: InfraGard...

  6. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  7. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  8. Multipoint sensing by intelligent collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Many remote sensing applications require that multiple sensors collect data simultaneously at spatially distributed locations and their information combined in order to characterize the phenomena of interest. Several basic classes of such multipoint measurement systems may be identified. For each, centralized methods exist for combining the raw data from the various sensors. However, recent advancements have given rise to small, integrated nodes comprised of one or more miniaturized sensors, processor, wireless communications capability and power supplies. Collections of these may be deployed and self-organized into intelligent sensor networks capable of performing cooperative signal processing locally, thereby providing substantial benefits.

  9. The power of collective ambition.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Truelove, Emily

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, some companies have not just weathered the economic storm: They've emerged stronger than ever. How did such players as Four Seasons, Sephora, and Standard Chartered Bank defy conventional logic? Instead of pursuing a single ambition, such as profits, employees defined a collective ambition. As a result, those organizations deepened their engagement with employees and other stakeholders and became sustainably profitable. Purpose, a company's reason for existence, is the central element of collective ambition. The other elements--vision, targets and milestones, strategic and operational priorities, brand promise, core values, and leader behaviors--must be aligned to serve the company's purpose. Articulating the elements of collective ambition can give everyone in the organization a better sense of the company's purpose and how they can contribute to it. Purpose does not have to be about saving the world; providing excellent entertainment or banking services is just as meaningful a purpose as improving health care in emerging economies--as long as it is an authentic representation of why the company exists. To shape and then achieve a collective ambition, companies must strengthen their organizational glue (the collaborative engagement that creates a unified culture) and grease (the disciplined execution that enterprisewide change initiatives require).

  10. Directory of Historical Curriculum Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL. Education and Behavioral Sciences Section.

    For years librarians discarded historical curriculum collections because they were not current, and because the libraries did not have adequate space to store them. Therefore, records of trends in subject content taught to generations of children and young people from kindergarten through grade 12 were unwittingly destroyed. In response to this…

  11. Biological Collections: Chasing the Ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kamenski, P. A.; Sazonov, A. E.; Fedyanin, A. A.; Sadovnichy, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an analysis of existing biological collections in Russia and abroad set up in the framework of the project “Scientific Basis of the National Biobank –Depository of Living Systems” by M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University [1]. PMID:27437135

  12. Collective Computation of Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    Sciences, Beijing ABSTRACT Computational neuroscience is a new branch of neuroscience originating from current research on the theory of computer...scientists working in artificial intelligence engineering and neuroscience . The paper introduces the collective computational properties of model neural...vision research. On this basis, the authors analyzed the significance of the Hopfield model. Key phrases: Computational Neuroscience , Neural Network, Model

  13. Integrating the Curricula: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    In response to the search for ways to create forms of schooling that are more holistic and natural, and more integrated and interwoven, this collection of articles pulls together elements of the multifaceted concept of curriculum integration. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the reasons and rationale for moving toward more holistic…

  14. College Governance and Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Donald

    1972-01-01

    Collective bargaining provides the basis for the first really effective instrument of faculty power and participation in the decision-making process, because for the first time, faculty is able through its bargaining agent at the bargaining table to come to grips with the real decision-making authority of the university. (Author)

  15. Information Epidemics and Science Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabah, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of scientific literature growth focuses on implications for library collection development. Information epidemics, or dramatic points of growth, are examined in "Physics Abstracts"; a case study from the superconductivity literature is presented; and the distribution between the growth of journal articles, conference papers,…

  16. Coalition Building to Build Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Anne Page

    1994-01-01

    Describes a collection development project to assess the African American materials in the Georgia State University library from an interdisciplinary point of view that grew into a continuing strategy of collaboration. Highlights include bibliography checking; individual and group initiatives; local library cooperation; and budgetary support.…

  17. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  18. Collecting Disability Data from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony; Georgeson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and national trial of a methodology for collecting disability data directly from parents, enabling schools and local authorities to meet their obligations under the "Disability Discrimination Act" (DDA; 2005) to promote equality of opportunity for all children. It illustrates the complexities around…

  19. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  20. Collective Labor Supply with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Richard; Chiappori, Pierre-Andre; Meghir, Costas

    2005-01-01

    We extend the collective model of household behavior to allow for the existence of public consumption. We show how this model allows the analysis of welfare consequences of policies aimed at changing the distribution of power within the household. Our setting provides a conceptual framework for addressing issues linked to the "targeting" of…

  1. COLLECTION OF UNDISTURBED SURFACE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Resource Council identified the need for a capability to collect undisturbed surface sediments. Surface sediments are an important source for most exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls via direct uptake from water in contact with sediments. An innovative sedi...

  2. The Mosque Project: Collective Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the author's fifth-graders about Islam through art was a challenge. Remembering a colleague's "Collective Architecture" project, he reworked the concept using mosque architecture as the basis for a new project. The goal was to introduce Islam and its basic tenets using the visual arts, with the hope of enhancing cultural tolerance and…

  3. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  4. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  5. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  6. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  7. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  8. Professional Employees and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The status of professional employees at colleges and their role within the unionized workplace are considered in two articles. In "The Position of Professional Employees," Eliot Freidson discusses findings of a study on professionals and implications for college collective bargaining. Attention is directed to the validity of the position…

  9. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  10. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  11. Integrating Sensor-Collected Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    community, thus creating a backlog for translators and image interpreters and resulting in massive amounts of collected data that are never reviewed...for these fast platforms. Advanced antenna concepts (e.g. Multiple Input, Multiple Output ( MIMO )) are being explored for this purpose, but...MILSATCOM Military Satellite Communications MIMO Multiple Input, Multiple Output MOA Memorandum of Agreement MOU Memorandum of Understanding MUOS

  12. Evaluating a Corporate Library Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucia

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the corporate library at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (Ohio) to determine the usefulness of the collection to library users within the corporation. Uses two evaluation methods: (1) analysis of interlibrary loan records and acquisitions statistics; and (2) evaluation of citations and bibliographies. Seven tables present…

  13. Electronic Collections and Wired Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona; MacEwan, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Examines how faculty at the Pennsylvania State University use electronic resources in planning for their own and their students' research, individual learning, and classroom activities. Also discusses related issues: electronic collections, copyrights, pricing and licensing, faculty computing skills, and the advantages of electronic resources in a…

  14. Composite collective decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  15. An Intelligence Collection Management Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    classification of inteligence collection requirements in terms of. the a-.- metnodo"c, .ev--e in Chaster Five. 116 APPgENDIX A A METHOD OF RANKING...of Artificial Intelligence Tools and Technigues to!TN’X n~l is n rs aa~emfft-.3-ufnyva: ’A TZ Ashby W. Ecss. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York

  16. Report Literature: Selecting versus Collecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Wilda B.; Amir, Michlean J.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the Applied Physics Laboratory Library was conducted with the view of changing the current collection policy and establishing guidelines for selection. The evaluation included defining the purpose, using a microfiche ordering system, screening items received, guidelines for weeding, microfiche vs paper copy, costs, and…

  17. The Multiage Classroom: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    Noting that the recent call for holistic models of schooling dictates a thorough investigation of more natural groupings of students, this collection of articles reviews available literature on multiage, nongraded, continuous progress classrooms. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the overriding concerns and the pros and cons of such…

  18. Reconstruction and Applications of Collective Storylines from Web Photo Collections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    pictures of the gun in semantic memory , which are sampled from ImageNet [Deng et al., 2009]. Second, the episodic memory is an autobiograph - ical record of... memory frozen in time. The starting point of this thesis is to view fast growing Web image collections as the socially ag- gregated pictorial records of...accepted nomen- clature of human and social memory studies [Halbwachs, 1992; Tulving, 1972]. We illustrate three important types of memories in the image

  19. 75 FR 80079 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Collection NASA will utilize a web-base on-line form to collect this information. Approximately 65 per cent of the responses will be collected electronically. III. Data Title: AST-Technology Utilization. OMB... collection of information on respondents, including automated collection techniques or the use of other...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection. 1177.5 Section 1177.5 Public Welfare... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive action to collect debts and reduce delinquencies. Collection efforts shall include sending to the...

  1. 40 CFR 13.8 - Collection rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection rule. 13.8 Section 13.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.8 Collection rule. (a) The Administrator takes action to collect all debts owed the United...

  2. 5 CFR 1215.25 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection. 1215.25 Section 1215.25... Collection § 1215.25 Collection. (a) The MSPB will take aggressive action to collect debts and reduce delinquencies. Collection efforts shall include sending to the debtor's last known address a total of...

  3. 76 FR 40932 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Attn: DOJ Desk Officer. The best way to... of the study, concept mapping will be used to create a visual representation of the ways...

  4. 77 FR 43080 - Information Collection; Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Payments. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information...

  5. 78 FR 5450 - Information Collection; Prompt Payment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... and approve an extension to a previously approved information collection requirement concerning prompt... Information Collection 9000- 0102, Prompt Payment, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  6. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments.... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities:...

  7. 78 FR 72065 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of Defense Education... Act of 1995, the Department of Defense Education Activity announces a proposed public information... collection on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms...

  8. 76 FR 9820 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: . ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and.../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub....

  9. 77 FR 34415 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: U.S. Securities... Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the existing collection of information... et seq.) (``Exchange Act''). The Commission plans to submit this existing collection of...

  10. 77 FR 40345 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Information about the... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of...) for clearance a proposal for collection of information under the provisions of the Paperwork...

  11. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  12. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  13. Collectivity of {sup 98}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, C.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Pissulla, T.; Moeller, O.

    2009-01-28

    The N = 52 nucleus {sup 98}Pd was investigated at the Cologne TANDEM accelerator both with the Cologne plunger using the recoil distance Doppler-shift method (RDDS) and with the Cologne HORUS spectrometer for a {gamma}{gamma} angular correlation experiment. For the first time lifetimes of yrast states and highly excited low-spin states were measured in {sup 98}Pd and the low-spin level scheme was extended. From our data we were able to interpret {sup 98}Pd as a nucleus that exhibits some collective features, but is obviously much less collective than the neighboring N = 52 isotones {sup 94}Mo and {sup 96}Ru due to its closeness to doubly-magic {sup 100}Sn.

  14. Collective behavior in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal'Maso Peron, T. K.; Rodrigues, F. A.

    2011-11-01

    The financial market is an example of a complex system characterized by a highly intricate organization and the emergence of collective behavior. In this paper, this emergent dynamics in the financial market is quantified by using concepts of network synchronization. We consider networks constructed by the correlation matrix of asset returns and study the time evolution of the phase coherence among stock prices. It is verified that during a financial crisis a synchronous state emerges in the system, defining the market's direction. Furthermore, the paper proposes a statistical regression model able to identify the topological features that mostly influence such an emergence. The coefficients of the proposed model indicate that the average shortest path length is the measurement most related to network synchronization. Therefore, during an economic crisis, the stock prices present a similar evolution, which tends to shorten the distances between stocks indicating a collective dynamics.

  15. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  16. Optimality, reduction and collective motion

    PubMed Central

    Justh, Eric W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The planar self-steering particle model of agents in a collective gives rise to dynamics on the N-fold direct product of SE(2), the rigid motion group in the plane. Assuming a connected, undirected graph of interaction between agents, we pose a family of symmetric optimal control problems with a coupling parameter capturing the strength of interactions. The Hamiltonian system associated with the necessary conditions for optimality is reducible to a Lie–Poisson dynamical system possessing interesting structure. In particular, the strong coupling limit reveals additional (hidden) symmetry, beyond the manifest one used in reduction: this enables explicit integration of the dynamics, and demonstrates the presence of a ‘master clock’ that governs all agents to steer identically. For finite coupling strength, we show that special solutions exist with steering controls proportional across the collective. These results suggest that optimality principles may provide a framework for understanding imitative behaviours observed in certain animal aggregations. PMID:27547087

  17. 78 FR 76859 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Prevent All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form ACTION: 60-Day... a currently approved collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: Prevent All...

  18. Team and Collective Performance Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    missions with specific as well as general questions. Relationships between the indices have been analyzed by means of structural equation modeling [21... equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language’. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1993. [17] Berggren, P. (2000). ‘Situational awareness...2004. TEAM AND COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT RTO-TR-HFM-121-Part-II 7 - 15 [16] Jöreskog, K.G. and Sörbom, D. ‘LISREL8: Structural

  19. Individual and Collective Protection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    food use sites: “as an additive during the manufacturing process of synthetic and non-woven textile materials used in aquarium filters, vacuum bags...development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end...mature Triosyn Super HEPA filter material . A manufacturing process to incorporate Triosyn particles to glass fiber HEPA was developed to produce a

  20. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  1. A Theory of Collective Induction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-23

    case binomial theorem for two alternatives (correct and incorrect) to the general case multinomial theorem for three or more alternatives. They also...conviction or acquital. An important exception is the four verdict categories, first-degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter, and not guilty, of...hypotheses will occur only if all members propose different hypotheses. In this case the probability of a I I I I I INIW Collective Induction 12 new

  2. Current collection in a magnetoplasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laframboise, Jim G.; Sonmor, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a survey of a very incomplete subject, current collection in a magnetoplasma. The best-developed and simplest theories for current collection are steady-state collisionless theories, and these must be understood before departures from them can be analyzed usefully. Thus, the authors begin with a review of them. The authors include some recent numerical results which indicate that steady-state collisionless Laplace-limit currents remain substantially below the Parker-Murphy (1967) canonical upper bound out to very large electrode potentials, and approach it as a limit only very slowly if at all. Attempts to correct this theory for space-charge effects lead to potential disturbances which extend to infinite distance along the electrode's magnetic shadow, unless collisional effects are also taken into account. However, even a small amount of relative plasma drift motion, such as that involved in a typical rocket experiment, can change this conclusion fundamentally. It is widely believed that time-averaged current collection may be increased by effects of plasma turbulence, and the authors review the available evidence for and against this contention. Steady-state collisionless particle dynamics predicts the existence of a toroidal region of trapped orbits which surrounds the electrode. Light emissions from this region have been photographed, indicating that collisional ionization may also occur there, and this, and/or scattering by collisions or possibly turbulent fluctuations in this region, may also increase current collection by the electrode. The authors also discuss effects on particle motions near the electrode, associated with breakdown of magnetic insulation in the region of large electric fields near it.

  3. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  4. Electrospray Collection of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziekan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A report describes ElectroSpray Ionization based Electrostatic Precipitation (ESIEP) for collecting lunar dust particles. While some HEPA filtration processes may remove a higher fraction (>99.9 percent) of the particles, the high efficiency may not be appropriate from an overall system standpoint, especially in light of the relatively large power requirement that such systems demand. The new electrospray particle capture technology is described as a variant of electrostatic precipitation that eliminates the current drawbacks of electrostatic precipitation. The new approach replaces corona prone field with a mist of highly charged micro-droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) as the mechanism by which incoming particles are attracted and captured. In electrospray, a miniscule flow rate (microliters/minute) of liquid (typically water and a small amount of salt to enhance conductivity) is fed from the tip of a needle held at a high voltage potential relative to an opposite counter electrode. At sufficient field strength, a sharp liquid meniscus forms , which emits a jet of highly charged droplets that drift through the surrounding gas and are collected on the walls of a conductive tube. Particles in the gas have a high probability of contact with the droplets either by adhering to the droplets or otherwise acquiring a high level of charge, causing them to be captured on the collecting electrode as well. The spray acts as a filtration material that is continuously introduced and removed from the gas flow, and thus can never become clogged.

  5. 78 FR 72069 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... information collection on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other... submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower,...

  6. 78 FR 25323 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC 20549-0213. Extension: Rules... collection of information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques...

  7. Introducing the Atmospheric Visualization Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, C. M.; Andrew, K.; Mace, G. G.; McCollum, T.; Gobble, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Visualization Collection is a digital library collection, a section in the NSF's National Science Digital Library. The collection has two essential components. The first is an archive of images based on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The second is a collection of educational material based on atmospheric science concepts that use these data images. The data image archive focuses on the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which has the largest collection of ground-based remote-sensing atmospheric instruments. Our visualization tools are automated to create the data images for both archival and real-time uses. ARM instrument mentors and ARM scientist as well as other scientists involved in campaigns at the ARM SGP site review our visualization work for scientific quality. While the archive of weather images was initially created for scientists, collaboration with teachers has identified many of the barriers to educational use. This revealed the need for more educationally friendly interfaces into our weather images and the need for greater documentation. One of the results is our geophysical focus area interface, allowing teachers and students to access these data images. The visualization tools used to produce these data images are available through an open source repository. Testing with undergraduate students has demonstrated the usability of these tools with data from the ARM Archive for class projects. While the task of reviewing and improving user interfaces continues, we have reached a stage where educators and students can easily access our atmospheric data images. An initial set of peer reviewed lesson plans based on these data images has been the basis for workshops to introduce teachers to the AVC. To further involve these teachers a Lesson Plan Sandbox. The Lesson Plan Sandbox allows teachers to submit their lesson plans to share with others, to review lesson plans submitted by other teachers, and to add

  8. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  9. 78 FR 13057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism... to review and approve a previously approved information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any of the...

  10. 77 FR 6123 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... collection; Title of Information Collection: Fee-for-Service Recovery Audit Prepayment Review Demonstration... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, HHS. In...

  11. 78 FR 7858 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools. AGENCY... collection tools should be directed to R. Joseph Durbala, Internal Revenue Service, room 6129, 1111... information collection tools, reporting, and record-keeping requirements: (1) Title: Determination of...

  12. 78 FR 9453 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools AGENCY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the collection tools should be directed... INFORMATION: Currently, the IRS is seeking comments concerning the following information collection...

  13. 75 FR 36637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements for... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act... concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of an...

  14. 78 FR 9394 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... technology to minimize the information collection burden. 1. Type of Information Collection Request: New... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities... aspect of this collection of information, including any of the following subjects: (1) The necessity...

  15. 76 FR 31988 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: COPS Police and...) Type of Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: COPS Police...

  16. 78 FR 16536 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Stress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Stress Resiliency Study... new collection; comments requested. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Stress Resiliency...

  17. 76 FR 11444 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request. SUMMARY: The EIA is...

  18. 75 FR 11890 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... technology to minimize the information collection burden. 1. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities... aspect of this collection of information, including any of the following subjects: (1) The necessity...

  19. 75 FR 25852 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., the ICR announced today consists of multiple questionnaire instruments designed to collect information... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Stormwater Management Including... announces an Information Collection Request (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and...

  20. 75 FR 7475 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information, processing and maintaining... Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information Collection Request for... document announces that EPA is planning to submit a request to update an existing approved...

  1. 77 FR 6128 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Nursing Research (NINR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted a Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on...

  2. 78 FR 44097 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Submission to OMB for Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... and Approval for Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery; Public Comment Request... reference the title of the collection, ``Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... proposed information collection activity provides a means to garner qualitative customer and...

  3. 76 FR 13673 - National Endowment for the Arts; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... Iyengar, Director, Research & Analysis, National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  4. 76 FR 80406 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application for... ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information collection request to the...

  5. 75 FR 6708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review:...

  6. Werther's collection of medical moulages.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Hansel, Gesina; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Fioranelli, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    Moulages are individualized wax models that were very popular as teaching aids in medicine during the 19(th) and until the first half of the 20(th) century. After a period of decline, moulages have become a subject of interest again in more recent times since they represent unique artifacts of art, craftsmanship, and medical history. Werther's collection at Dresden-Friedrichstadt Hospital was one of the most important in Dresden-the capital of Saxony-during the period before World War II. Some relicts have survived and have been restored.

  7. The neurobiology of collective action

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Barraza, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action (CA) that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for CA. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly CA. PMID:24311995

  8. Collective superlubricity of graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Merel M.; de Wijn, Astrid S.; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    We investigate solid lubrication of graphene and graphene flakes using atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. We find that graphene flakes yield lower friction than graphene as a result of a collective mechanism that emerges from the independent behaviour of the flakes. By freezing out different degrees of freedom of the flakes, we are able to attribute the low friction to non-simultaneous slipping of the individual flakes. We also compare the results of the atomistic simulations to those of a simplified two-dimensional model and find that the behaviour of the latter is strongly dependent on parameters, which emerge naturally from the atomistic simulations.

  9. Collective superlubricity of graphene flakes.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Merel M; de Wijn, Astrid S; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-04-06

    We investigate solid lubrication of graphene and graphene flakes using atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. We find that graphene flakes yield lower friction than graphene as a result of a collective mechanism that emerges from the independent behaviour of the flakes. By freezing out different degrees of freedom of the flakes, we are able to attribute the low friction to non-simultaneous slipping of the individual flakes. We also compare the results of the atomistic simulations to those of a simplified two-dimensional model and find that the behaviour of the latter is strongly dependent on parameters, which emerge naturally from the atomistic simulations.

  10. Collective organization in aerotactic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.

    Some bacteria exhibit interesting behavior in the presence of an oxygen concentration. They perform an aerotactic motion along the gradient until they reach their optimal oxygen concentration. But they often organize collectively by forming dense regions, called 'bands', that travel towards the oxygen source. We have developed a model of swimmers with stochastic interaction rules moving in proximity of an air bubble. We perform molecular dynamics simulations and also solve advection-diffusion equations that reproduce the aerotactic behavior of mono-flagellated, facultative anaerobic bacteria. If the oxygen concentration in the system sinks locally below a threshold value, the formation of a migrating aerotactic band toward the bubble can be observed.

  11. 76 FR 14072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Teen Dating... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Teen Dating Relationships: Opportunities...

  12. 75 FR 38091 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Control Number 1910-5126. The proposed collection will collect information on the status of grantee... Program; (3) Type of Review: Renewal; (4) Purpose: To collect information on the status of grantee... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office...

  13. 75 FR 38091 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Program, OMB Control Number 1910-5127. The proposed collection will collect information on the status of... collect information on the status of grantee activities, expenditures, and results, to ensure that program... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office...

  14. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... assigned clearance number 1029-0049. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  15. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  16. 30 CFR 850.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 850.10 Section 850.10... FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements... assigned clearance number 1029-0080. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  17. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  18. 30 CFR 877.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 877.10 Section 877.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.10 Information collection. The information collection...) under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0055. This information is being collected...

  19. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  20. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  1. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  2. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  3. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  4. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  5. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  6. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  7. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  8. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  9. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  10. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  11. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  12. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  13. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  14. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  15. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  16. The Professors and Collective Action: Which Kind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carl M.

    In discussing collective action in college and university government one must avoid making a sharply dichotomous choice: faculty senate versus collective bargaining. Rather, one must think in terms of a variety of governmental forms each of which may feature collectivity and/or bargaining. Faculty members employ collective bargaining methods for a…

  17. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  18. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB...

  19. 78 FR 3041 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Title and purpose of information collection: Evidence of Marital Relationship, Living with Requirements; OMB 3220-0021. To support... data collections. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed information collection is...

  20. H. W. Wilson "Nonbook Materials Core Collection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    The "Nonbook Materials Core Collection" is one of H. W. Wilson's new subscription-based electronic core collection development databases. It is a new addition to the five-volume core collection series formerly known as the "Standard Catalog Series." Other titles in this series have long been staples of collection development resources for both…

  1. 77 FR 44602 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Labor Relations collection. The... collection will assist the Department in evaluating the implementation of the contractors' work force collective bargaining agreements, and apprise the Department of significant labor-management developments...

  2. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  3. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  4. 22 CFR 309.11 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.11 Collection. Upon final determination of... procedures under a specific statute apply, Peace Corps shall collect the debt by one or more of the methods... accordance with 31 CFR 901.3. These may be funds under the control of Peace Corps or other Federal...

  5. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  6. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  7. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  8. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  9. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  10. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  11. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  12. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  13. 22 CFR 309.11 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.11 Collection. Upon final determination of... procedures under a specific statute apply, Peace Corps shall collect the debt by one or more of the methods... accordance with 31 CFR 901.3. These may be funds under the control of Peace Corps or other Federal...

  14. 29 CFR 100.616 - Payment collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment collection. 100.616 Section 100.616 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Debt Collection Procedures § 100.616 Payment collection. (a) The NLRB shall make every effort to collect a claim in...

  15. 49 CFR 232.21 - Information Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information Collection. 232.21 Section 232.21... EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES General § 232.21 Information Collection. (a) The information collection... information collection requirements are found in the following sections: §§ 229.27, 231.31, 232.1, 232.3,...

  16. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information... person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently...

  17. 38 CFR 14.619 - Collection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection action. 14.619..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Claims for Cost of Medical Care and Services § 14.619 Collection... collect, compromise, suspend, or terminate collection activity on any such claim as is authorized...

  18. 45 CFR 30.10 - Collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection activities. 30.10 Section 30.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Standards for the Administrative Collection of Debts § 30.10 Collection activities. (a) General rule. The Secretary...

  19. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... sections 510(b)(5) and 515(b)(10)(F) of the Act which provide the information collection requirements...

  20. 30 CFR 795.4 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 795.4 Section 795.4... collection. The collections of information contained in part 795 have been approved by the Office of... completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or...

  1. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of...

  2. 30 CFR 778.8 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 778.8 Section 778.8....8 Information collection. The collections of information contained in part 778 have been approved by... not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information...

  3. 29 CFR 20.84 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collections. 20.84 Section 20.84 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Salary Offset § 20.84 Collections. (a) Whenever feasible, and... 15 percent of disposable pay for an officially established pay interval, collection must be made...

  4. 32 CFR 204.6 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collections. 204.6 Section 204.6 National... USER FEES § 204.6 Collections. (a) Collections of fees will be made in advance or simultaneously with..., and managing cash and debt collections. (b) Unless a statute provides otherwise, user fee...

  5. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection services. 1177.10 Section 1177.10... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The Endowment may contract for collection services to recover outstanding debts. The Endowment may...

  6. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  7. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  8. Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2002-12-01

    Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

  9. Sample collection, biobanking, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahsman, Maurice J; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A A; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pharmacokinetic studies require sampling of biofluids from neonates and children. Limitations on sampling frequency and sample volume complicate the design of these studies. In addition, strict guidelines, designed to guarantee patient safety, are in place. This chapter describes the practical implications of sample collection and their storage, with special focus on the selection of the appropriate type of biofluid and withdrawal technique. In addition, we describe appropriate measures for storage of these specimens, for example, in the context of biobanking, and the requirements on drug assay methods that they pose. Pharmacokinetic studies in children are possible, but they require careful selection of an appropriate sampling method, specimen volume, and assay method. The checklist provided could help prospective researchers with the design of an appropriate study protocol and infrastructure.

  10. Collective dynamics during cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    In order to correctly divide, cells have to move all their chromosomes at the center, a process known as congression. This task is performed by the combined action of molecular motors and randomly growing and shrinking microtubules. Chromosomes are captured by growing microtubules and transported by motors using the same microtubules as tracks. Coherent motion occurs as a result of a large collection of random and deterministic dynamical events. Understanding this process is important since a failure in chromosome segregation can lead to chromosomal instability one of the hallmarks of cancer. We describe this complex process in a three dimensional computational model involving thousands of microtubules. The results show that coherent and robust chromosome congression can only happen if the total number of microtubules is neither too small, nor too large. Our results allow for a coherent interpretation a variety of biological factors already associated in the past with chromosomal instability and related pathological conditions.

  11. Control of collective network chaos.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Alexandre; Barreto, Ernest; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; So, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of "reduced" ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.

  12. Control of collective network chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemakers, Alexandre; Barreto, Ernest; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; So, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of "reduced" ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.

  13. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  14. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  15. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  16. Collective Infectious Units in Viruses.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael

    2017-03-03

    Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell-cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks. Collective infectious units may contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity, and could have implications for the evolution of social-like virus-virus interactions. These may include various forms of cooperation such as immunity evasion, genetic complementation, division of labor, and relaxation of fitness trade-offs, but also noncooperative interactions such as negative dominance and interference, potentially leading to conflict.

  17. 78 FR 39296 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) the use of automated collection... this process includes the time for the organization to collect and input the necessary information... Identifier: CMS-10486] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

  18. 78 FR 36565 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting... Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information Regarding Race and Ethnic Data. OMB... quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) Ways to minimize the burden...

  19. 78 FR 77439 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Part 41, Relating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... information to be collected; and Minimize the burden of collection of information on those who are to respond... utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Part 41,...

  20. 78 FR 66070 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Tribal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Tribal Requests for Accelerated Exercise of Jurisdiction Under Section 204(a) of the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, as Amended ACTION... Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Request for Accelerated Authority to...

  1. 76 FR 64377 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Alien's Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Alien's Change of Address Forms... Collection: Revision of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Alien's Change of... any decisions in an alien's case. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and the amount...

  2. EEMUA -- A collective users viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, B.

    1999-07-01

    Following the discovery that the souring of various process streams by hydrogen sulfide can cause cracking in carbon steel, the work to identify the mechanisms has steadily increased. There have been many published reports by a range of interested parties, both academic and industrial based which attempt to identify and quantity these mechanisms. These have been eagerly seized upon by the users to try and improve working life, and some significant steps forward have been made, e.g. low sulphur steel and control of weld hardness. However, the proposed practices are only as good as the service life they provide. In order to further this cause, the Engineering Equipment and Material Users Association was formed. It was formed from the Oil Companies Material Association (OCMA) and the Engineering Equipment and Material Users Association (EEMUA) with the intention of pooling practical experience from its members to provide best advice data. In this way the continual recommended practice and field experience feed back approach can produce useful information. As the problem of H{sub 2}S cracking is world wide and its members are also employees of world wide operating companies, the experience is far and wide. This also includes data exchange with other organizations such as API, NACE, EFC etc.. In this way the collection and assessment of data and user experience is maximized.

  3. Negotiating Collective and Individual Agency

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Essén, Birgitta; Sariola, Salla; Iyengar, Sharad; Soni, Sunita; Klingberg Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The societal changes in India and the available variety of reproductive health services call for evidence to inform health systems how to satisfy young women’s reproductive health needs. Inspired by Foucault’s power idiom and Bandura’s agency framework, we explore young women’s opportunities to practice reproductive agency in the context of collective social expectations. We carried out in-depth interviews with 19 young women in rural Rajasthan. Our findings highlight how changes in notions of agency across generations enable young women’s reproductive intentions and desires, and call for effective means of reproductive control. However, the taboo around sex without the intention to reproduce made contraceptive use unfeasible. Instead, abortions were the preferred method for reproductive control. In conclusion, safe abortion is key, along with the need to address the taboo around sex to enable use of “modern” contraception. This approach could prevent unintended pregnancies and expand young women’s agency. PMID:26531879

  4. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  5. Collective complexes--total perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alho, Päivi Marjaana

    2006-11-01

    A much greater part of our identity than we generally believe is collectively determined. Awareness of the causal link between identity, its connected values and the influence exerted by these values on perception is therefore crucial. In the implicit personality model of Peabody and Goldberg (1989), the apparent wide variety of human characteristics is broken down into three broad dimensions: general evaluation, impulse control and assertiveness. My hypothesis is that the regulation of impulses can be equated with the Jungian concept of the mother and father complexes, and assertiveness with the relation between individualism and collectivism. I have utilized Montgomery's perspective theory and Jung's concepts of the union of opposites, the complex and the shadow in order to provide an alternative interpretation of the implicit personality model. According to my interpretation, the traditional values of any culture can be read against these three dimensions. These values can be seen as the greatest treasure of a culture but, at the same time, they can also be devastating if they become complex-like.

  6. Collective decisions among bacterial viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Richard; Mileyko, Yuriy; Voit, Eberhard; Weitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    For many temperate bacteriophages, the decision of whether to kill hosts or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of infection. In this talk, I present a quantitative model of gene regulatory dynamics to describe how phages make collective decisions within host cells. Unlike most previous studies, the copy number of viral genomes is treated as a variable. In the absence of feedback loops, viral mRNA transcription is expected to be proportional to the viral copy number. However, when there are nonlinear feedback loops in viral gene regulation, our model shows that gene expression patterns are sensitive to changes in viral copy number and there can be a domain of copy number where the system becomes bistable. Hence, the viral copy number is a key control parameter determining host cell fates. This suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and can make alternative decisions as a bet-hedging strategy. Finally, I present a stochastic version of viral gene regulation and discuss speed-accuracy trade-offs in the context of cell fate determination by viruses.

  7. 76 FR 41302 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ..., sleeping, or doing leisure activities. In the United States, several existing Federal surveys collect..., such as sleeping and private activities, will never be selected. The module also will collect data...

  8. 75 FR 65670 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  9. 75 FR 65669 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  10. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  11. 75 FR 65672 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  12. 75 FR 63207 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  13. 75 FR 66800 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  14. 75 FR 65671 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  15. 75 FR 65669 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  16. 75 FR 65673 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  17. 75 FR 63208 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  18. 75 FR 63206 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  19. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  20. 75 FR 75702 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... intended to provide students with career exploration under the mentorship of a Kennedy Space Center...

  1. 77 FR 32136 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; comments requested; Notification to Fire Safety Authority of Storage of Explosive Materials... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information...

  2. 12 CFR 313.22 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 31 U.S.C. 3716 may be collected by administrative offset under common law, or any other applicable... government's right to collect the debt first accrued, except as otherwise provided by law. In...

  3. 75 FR 81257 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... information technology. DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must be received on or... Desk Officer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  4. 77 FR 75619 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    .... Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance and Research (CAEs) interested in applying for... Respondents to the scholarship information collection are applicants who provide academic records and... information collection are Principal Investigators at designated Centers of Academic Excellence...

  5. 76 FR 59741 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) Program.'' A copy of the proposed information collection...

  6. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  7. 77 FR 22316 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-Day notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  8. 75 FR 27005 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... collected by mail or fax. III. Data Title: NASA acquisition process, bids and proposals for contracts with... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Information collection is required to evaluate bids and proposals...

  9. 75 FR 27005 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Information collection is required to evaluate bids and proposals from..., but information may also be collected by mail or fax. III. Data Title: NASA acquisition...

  10. Type Culture Collections and Their Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial culture collections, also known as Biological Resource Centers, are primary suppliers of microbial cultures (germplasm) for medical, agricultural and biotechnological research and development. Many countries have one or more culture collections, which may specialize in certain microbial g...

  11. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  12. 78 FR 34408 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... responsible for selecting astronauts for the various United States Space Exploration programs. In evaluating... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  13. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  14. 77 FR 46750 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... information collection, EIA-882T, ``Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research.'' The proposed collection will utilize qualitative and quantitative methodologies to pretest...: Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research; (3) Type of Request:...

  15. 76 FR 73775 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Frequency of collection: On occasion. Title: Hazardous Materials Security Plans. OMB Control Number: 2137... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  16. 75 FR 5638 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of information collection... Number/Type of Packagings.'' This notice announces OMB approval and extension until January 31, 2013...

  17. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  18. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  19. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  20. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  1. Collection Development: A Summary of Workshop Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Norman

    1979-01-01

    Highlights from five workshop sessions held during the Preconference Institute on Collection Development in June 1977 focus on collection development policy statements, selection tools, budgeting, evaluation, and weeding. (MBR)

  2. 76 FR 71087 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD... revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish periodic summaries of proposed... information collection: Annual Earnings Questionnaire for Annuitants in Last Pre-Retirement...

  3. Beverage Cans Used for Sediment Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studlick, Joseph R. J.; Trautman, Timothy A.

    1979-01-01

    Beverage cans are well suited for sediment collection and storage containers. Advantages include being free, readily available, and the correct size for many samples. Instruction for selection, preparation, and use of cans in sediment collection and storage is provided. (RE)

  4. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  5. 78 FR 51169 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Administration Services (MOCAS), Computerized Accounts Payable System (CAPS), Integrated Accounts Payable... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service... 1995, the DFAS announces a proposed public information collection and seeks public comment on...

  6. 75 FR 8996 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Directorates and current NASA missions in Earth and Space Science, mathematics, chemistry, and physics. II... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  7. 75 FR 15431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-day notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  8. 76 FR 67128 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... tracking, and (4) consumer complaint referral programming. An approved set of collection questions and... only undertake a new collection under this generic clearance if the OMB does not object to the...

  9. 78 FR 61397 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  10. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  11. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  12. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  13. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  14. 75 FR 61777 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  15. Does Your Front Desk Staff Maximize Collections?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Donna

    2015-01-01

    As collections become more difficult, practices need to use the front desk to help collect payments from patients when they are face to face. Training staff and giving them the tools to ask for money allows them to collect efficiently. Improve your collections by involving your front desk employees. Educate your patients to allow them to come to their visits prepared. It will save the practice time and money.

  16. Collection of Human Wastes on Long Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. C.; Lewis, T. A.; Brose, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    Report evaluates and compares three alternative approaches to hygienic containment of human wastes. Three practical means of waste collection: filter-bag collection with compaction by fan suction, canister collection with compaction by force applied to compaction cups or disks, and sleeve collection with compaction by rollers and winding on reel. Potentially useful in airplanes, buses, boats, trains, and campers and temporary toilets for construction sites and outdoor gatherings.

  17. Documenting Collective Development in Online Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Chrystal; Silverman, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors explored the question of collective understanding in online mathematics education settings and presented a brief overview of traditional methods for documenting norms and collective mathematical practices. A method for documenting collective development was proposed that builds on existing methods and frameworks yet is…

  18. Navigating Change and Transformation in Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleszynski, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    For nearly two decades, librarians have been noting and writing about transformational change in collection development and subsequently predicting future directions for libraries in terms of building digital collections. This paradigm shift caused by the incorporation of more and more electronic resources into existing library collections and…

  19. 25 CFR 163.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information collection. 163.2 Section 163.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 163.2 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 25 CFR...

  20. 25 CFR 163.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Information collection. 163.2 Section 163.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 163.2 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 25 CFR...

  1. 25 CFR 163.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information collection. 163.2 Section 163.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 163.2 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 25 CFR...

  2. 25 CFR 163.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information collection. 163.2 Section 163.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 163.2 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 25 CFR...

  3. 25 CFR 163.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information collection. 163.2 Section 163.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 163.2 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 25 CFR...

  4. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  5. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  6. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  7. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  8. Collection Development/Acquisitions: Collaboration or Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Mercedes

    At the Daytona Beach Community College (DBCC) Library, collection development, selection, and acquisitions function as levels of a hierarchy. The highest level is collection development, which constitutes the planning function. Meetings are held annually to assess user needs, evaluate the present collection, discuss budget considerations, plan for…

  9. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  10. 30 CFR 780.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 780.10 Section 780.10... Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of this part and assigned clearance number...

  11. 30 CFR 886.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 886.10 Section 886.10... Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of part886, and Forms OSM-47, OSM-49, and...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.252 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 1206.252 Section 1206... Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.252 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in this subpart have been approved by the Office of...

  13. 30 CFR 746.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 746.10 Section 746.10... LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.10 Information collection. The information... U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0026. The information is being collected to...

  14. 30 CFR 778.8 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 778.8 Section 778.8... PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LEGAL, FINANCIAL, COMPLIANCE, AND RELATED INFORMATION § 778.8 Information collection. The collections of information contained in part 778 have been approved...

  15. 30 CFR 784.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 784.10 Section 784.10... Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of this part and assigned clearance number...

  16. 30 CFR 769.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 769.10 Section 769.10 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AREAS... Information collection. The information collection requirements in this part do not require approval of...

  17. 30 CFR 740.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 740.10 Section 740.10... § 740.10 Information collection. (a) In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of this part. The OMB...

  18. 30 CFR 717.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 717.10 Section 717.10... PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.10 Information collection. The Office of Management and Budget has determined that the information collection requirements contained...

  19. 30 CFR 816.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 816.10 Section 816.10... § 816.10 Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of this part and assigned...

  20. 30 CFR 1218.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 1218.10 Section 1218.10 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural... Provisions § 1218.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in this...

  1. 30 CFR 732.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 732.10 Section 732.10... DISAPPROVAL OF STATE PROGRAM SUBMISSIONS § 732.10 Information collection. The information collection... Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0024. The information is needed to...

  2. 30 CFR 1208.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 1208.3 Section 1208.3... Resources Revenue SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 1208.3 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in this part have been approved by OMB under 44 U.S.C. 3501...

  3. 30 CFR 817.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 817.10 Section 817.10... ACTIVITIES § 817.10 Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of this part and...

  4. 30 CFR 733.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 733.10 Section 733.10... § 733.10 Information collection. The information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 733.12(a)(2... number 1029-0025. The information required is needed by OSM to verify the allegations in a...

  5. 30 CFR 755.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 755.10 Section 755.10... LANDS PROGRAM TRIBAL-FEDERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENTS § 755.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in this part do not require approval from the Office...

  6. 30 CFR 779.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 779.10 Section 779.10... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 779.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 30 CFR 779.11,...

  7. 30 CFR 795.4 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 795.4 Section 795.4... OPERATOR ASSISTANCE PERMANENT REGULATORY PROGRAM-SMALL OPERATOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 795.4 Information collection. The collections of information contained in part 795 have been approved by the Office...

  8. 30 CFR 710.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 710.10 Section 710.10... PROGRAM REGULATIONS INITIAL REGULATORY PROGRAM § 710.10 Information collection. The collections of information contained in §§ 710.4, 710.11, and 710.12 have been approved by the Office of Management...

  9. 30 CFR 955.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 955.10 Section 955.10... FEDERAL PROGRAM STATES AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.10 Information collection. The information collection... assigned clearance number 1029-0083. This information is needed to meet the requirements of sections...

  10. 30 CFR 870.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 870.10 Section 870.10... § 870.10 Information collection. In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved the information collection requirements of part 870 and the OSM-1 Form...

  11. 30 CFR 716.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 716.10 Section 716.10... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.10 Information collection. The Office of Management and Budget has determined that the information collection requirements contained in 30 CFR...

  12. 30 CFR 774.9 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 774.9 Section 774.9... OTHER ACTIONS BASED ON OWNERSHIP, CONTROL, AND VIOLATION INFORMATION § 774.9 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 774 have been approved by the Office of...

  13. 30 CFR 875.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 875.10 Section 875.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION CERTIFICATION AND NONCOAL RECLAMATION § 875.10 Information collection. In... information collection requirements of part 875 and assigned it control number 1029-0103. This...

  14. 30 CFR 874.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 874.10 Section 874.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.10 Information collection. In... information collection requirements of part 874 and assigned it control number 1029-0113. This information...

  15. 30 CFR 715.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 715.10 Section 715.10... PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.10 Information collection. The information... U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0007. The information is being collected to meet...

  16. 30 CFR 783.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 783.10 Section 783.10... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 30 CFR 783.11,...

  17. 45 CFR 30.10 - Collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Standards for the Administrative Collection of Debts § 30.10 Collection activities. (a) General rule. The Secretary shall... based on a determination by the Secretary of the Treasury that exemption for a certain class of debt...

  18. 20 CFR 653.109 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data collection. 653.109 Section 653.109... SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.109 Data collection. State agencies shall: (a) Collect data on MSFWs, including data on the number (1) contacted through...

  19. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data collection. 51.365 Section 51.365....365 Data collection. Accurate data collection is essential to the management, evaluation, and enforcement of an I/M program. The program shall gather test data on individual vehicles, as well as...

  20. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 51.365 Section 51.365....365 Data collection. Accurate data collection is essential to the management, evaluation, and enforcement of an I/M program. The program shall gather test data on individual vehicles, as well as...

  1. 29 CFR 42.21 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data collection. 42.21 Section 42.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.21 Data collection. (a) For each protective statute, ESA, OSHA, and the Office of the Solicitor (SOL) shall regularly collect statistical data reflecting...

  2. 29 CFR 42.21 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 42.21 Section 42.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.21 Data collection. (a) For each protective statute, ESA, OSHA, and the Office of the Solicitor (SOL) shall regularly collect statistical data reflecting...

  3. 20 CFR 653.109 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Data collection. 653.109 Section 653.109... SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.109 Data collection. State agencies shall: (a) Collect data on MSFWs, including data on the number (1) contacted through...

  4. 20 CFR 653.109 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Data collection. 653.109 Section 653.109... SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.109 Data collection. State agencies shall: (a) Collect data on MSFWs, including data on the number (1) contacted through...

  5. 29 CFR 42.21 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Data collection. 42.21 Section 42.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.21 Data collection. (a) For each protective statute, ESA, OSHA, and the Office of the Solicitor (SOL) shall regularly collect statistical data reflecting...

  6. 29 CFR 42.21 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 42.21 Section 42.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.21 Data collection. (a) For each protective statute, ESA, OSHA, and the Office of the Solicitor (SOL) shall regularly collect statistical data reflecting...

  7. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data collection. 51.365 Section 51.365....365 Data collection. Accurate data collection is essential to the management, evaluation, and enforcement of an I/M program. The program shall gather test data on individual vehicles, as well as...

  8. 20 CFR 653.109 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Data collection. 653.109 Section 653.109... SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.109 Data collection. State agencies shall: (a) Collect data on MSFWs, including data on the number (1) contacted through...

  9. 20 CFR 653.109 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data collection. 653.109 Section 653.109... SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.109 Data collection. State agencies shall: (a) Collect data on MSFWs, including data on the number (1) contacted through...

  10. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 51.365 Section 51.365....365 Data collection. Accurate data collection is essential to the management, evaluation, and enforcement of an I/M program. The program shall gather test data on individual vehicles, as well as...

  11. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 51.365 Section 51.365....365 Data collection. Accurate data collection is essential to the management, evaluation, and enforcement of an I/M program. The program shall gather test data on individual vehicles, as well as...

  12. Special Collections Outside the Ivory Tower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of special collections materials focuses on independent research libraries. Topics include how collection development differs; who they serve; access to the collections, including digital access; and future challenges, especially the need for increased financial support, changes in scholarly communication, and the need for increased…

  13. Usefulness of descriptors in phenotyping germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large number of crop germplasm collections are maintained within the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). For each of these crop collections, Crop Germplasm committees (CGC), crop curators, and collection staff have established extensive lists of descriptors or phenotypic traits by which t...

  14. 75 FR 54189 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... complete a registration form to get on base, photo release form and medical form. II. Method of Collection... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of NASA, including whether... the burden (including hours and cost) of the proposed collection of information; (3) ways to...

  15. 75 FR 66185 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline... Information Collection Requests (ICR) abstracted below will be forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comments. The ICRs describe the nature of the information collections...

  16. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control...

  17. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... reinstate and extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The information collection request, Historic Preservation for Energy Efficiency...

  18. 76 FR 49460 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for... renew Information Collection Request Title: OE Recovery Act Financial Assistance Grants, OMB Control No...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  19. 75 FR 81664 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  20. 76 FR 28243 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....