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Sample records for holothuria scabra collected

  1. Two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yanghua; Xu, Qiangzhi; La, Mingping; Zhang, Hongwei

    2009-12-01

    Two new triterpene glycosides, scabraside A (1) and B (2), and a structurally known compound (3), were isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Holothuriidae) collected from the South China Sea. Structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit the same common structural features, i. e., the presence of 12- and 17-hydroxy groups in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone with a 9(11)-ene bond, but are different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. The glycosides 1 and 2 had significant in vitro cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  2. The timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria scabra on the Kenyan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiga, N. A.; Kawaka, J. A.; Ndirangu, S.

    2009-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is a widely distributed and economically important species that has been harvested in Kenya for decades. No previous studies have been carried out on the reproduction of this species in Kenya. Standard gonad index methods were used to analyze reproductive patterns of individuals collected monthly in 1998-1999, 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. Morphological characteristics, gonad tubule lengths and fecundity were also measured. Mean monthly gonad indices were significantly correlated between males and females indicating synchronous gonad development between the sexes. Gonad indices showed a biannual pattern that was consistent in all three years with a minor spawning event occurring between August and September and a major spawning event between November and December. The pattern of gonad growth showed significant variability between years and between months. Temporal changes in gonad growth correlated significantly with gonad tubule length and absolute fecundity. Monthly gonad indices also correlated significantly with monthly measurements of air temperature and light suggesting a possible role for both factors in timing gametogenesis and spawning. There was a shift in sex ratio from unity in the 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 samples to significantly more males in the 2006-2007 samples, as well as a significant reduction in mean sizes (body wall weight) and reproductive output (gonad index) which suggests that the reproductive success of this species is potentially negatively affected by fishing.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  4. Destruction of a Holothuria scabra population by overfishing at Abu Rhamada Island in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mohamed Hamza

    2005-10-01

    Populations of Holothuria scabra at Abu Rhamada Island were investigated during 52 months, from July 1999 to October 2003. During the first 23 months (July, 1999-May, 2001) the Island had a robust population with a tri-modal size frequency distribution curve, very high densities (85.7-95.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), high abundance (3362-3110 individuals) and biomass (46.7-34.3 kg/100 m2). Also, during this period most individuals were at depths between 4 and 6m and no individuals were recorded deeper than 15m. The population declined after harvesting began (June, 2001) and by March, 2002 the size frequency distribution showed a bimodal pattern with an obvious decrease in abundance of large individuals. There was also a slight reduction in densities (73.2-60.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (2292-1682 individuals) and biomass (21.6-11.3 kg/100 m2), and a marked shift towards deeper waters. Overfishing reached its maximum during the final 19 months of the study, and by October, 2003, density (30.7-0.4 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (802-10 individuals) and biomass (6.9-0.1 kg/100 m2) were all greatly reduced. The size frequency distribution of the population became unimodal, large animals disappeared and no recruits were seen. During this period, individuals were found at very deep depths (30 to >40 m). The study also showed that sandy substrate was the preferred habitat for H. scabra, accommodating the largest number of individuals. The population of H. scabra at Abu Rhamada Island was found to spawn biannually from 1999 to 2001, then only once during 2002 when high fishing pressure occurred, and ceased completely in 2003. The sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1 before fishing begun, but shifted to an increasing male bias reaching 93% males by January 2003. None of the small animals remaining after January, 2003 could be sexed. Size at sexual maturity decreased from prefishing (185 mm for females and 160 mm for

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Holothuria scabra from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, F; Ehsanpor, M; Afkhami, M; Mokhlesi, A; Khazaali, A; Montazeri, S

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds of the gonad, respiration tree, and body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra collected from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol and water-methanol mixtures. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The activity was determined using the disc diffusion test. Cytotoxic activities of the extracts were determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed the existence of an antifungal activity of all extracts against A. niger with MIC ranging from 3 to 9μg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was found in respiration tree (methanol) with an inhibition zone of about 50mm against A. niger at 18μg/mL extract concentration. Cytotoxic activity was obtained for methanolic extracts only. Methanol extract of the gonads showed the highest cytotoxic effect (LC50=50.5μg/mL) continuing with RT methanol extract (LC50=70μg/mL). PMID:24054089

  6. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role.

  7. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  8. Scabraside D Extracted from Holothuria scabra Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts in Mice.

    PubMed

    Assawasuparerk, Kanjana; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Nobsathian, Saksit; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Wittayachumnankul, Boonsirm

    2016-01-01

    Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside extract from sea cucumber Holothulia scabra, shows various biological activities, but effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cells have not previously been reported. In the present study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D against human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) both in vitro and for tumor growth inhibition in vivo using a xenograft model in nude mice. Scabraside D (12.5-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased the viability and the migration of the HuCCA cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.8 ± 0.05 μg/mL at 24 h. It induced signs of apoptotic cells, including shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhetic nuclei and DNA fragmentation on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, by quantitative real-time PCR, scabraside D effectively decreased Bcl-2 while increasing Bax and Caspase-3 gene expression levels suggesting that the scabraside D could induce apoptosis in HuCCA cells. In vivo study demonstrated that scabraside D (1 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days) significantly reduced growth of the HuCCA xenografts without adverse effects on the nude mice. Conclusively, scabraside D induced apoptosis in HuCCA cells and reduced the growth of HuCCA xenographs model. Therefore, scabraside D may have potential as a new therapeutic agent for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26925636

  9. A novel sulfated holostane glycoside from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Yi, Yang-Hua; Liu, Bao-Shu; Pan, Min-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2010-07-01

    A new sulfated holostane glycoside, leucospilotaside B (1), together with the two related structurally known compounds holothurin B(2) (2) and holothurin B (3), was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota collected from the South China Sea. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectral analysis (1H-, 13C-, and 2D-NMR, ESI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS) and chemical methods. The compounds 1-3 possess the same disaccharide moiety, but were different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines, HL-60, MOLT-4, A-549, and BEL-7402.

  10. Two new iridoids from roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Zhang, W D; Gu, Z B; Zhang, C; Su, J; Xu, X K

    2006-07-20

    Two new iridoids 1,3-dimethyloxy-7-hydroxymethyl-4-(3-methyl-butyryloxymethyl)-1-hydrocyclopenta-4,7-diene[c]pyran-6-one (1) and 1,3-dimethyloxy-7-hydroxymethyl-4-methyloxymethyl-1-hydrocyclopenta-4,7-diene[c]pyran-6-one (2) were isolated from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on HRESIMS, EIMS, IR, UV, 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY correlations, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  11. Polyhydroxy cyclohexanols from a Dendrodochium sp. fungus associated with the sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis Selenka.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Xiao; Sun, Peng; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Tang, Hua; Liu, Baoshu; Gerwick, William H; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wen

    2014-05-23

    Four cyclohexanol analogues, dendrodochols A-D (1-4), were isolated from a Dendrodochium sp. fungus associated with the sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis Selenka collected from the South China Sea. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations were assigned using a solution TDDFT/ECD calculation approach and the modified Mosher's method. In an in vitro bioassay, these compounds exhibited no growth inhibition activity against the A549 and MG63 cell lines. Dendrodochols 1 and 3 exhibited modest antifungal activity against Candida strains, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton rubrum, whereas 2 and 4 showed no activity against the tested strains.

  12. Cytotoxic iridoids from the roots of Patrinia scabra.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Di, Lei; Gao, Wen-Chao; Wang, Kai-Jin; Zu, Ling-Bo

    2012-10-26

    Six new iridoid glucosides, patriridosides D-I (1-6), and one new iridoid, scabrol A (7), along with 12 known non-glycosidic and glycosidic iridoids (8-19), have been isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Patrinia scabra. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and gastric carcinoma MNK-45 cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. Compounds 1, 4-6, 8, and 18 showed cytotoxic activities against the MNK-45 cell line with respective IC₅₀ values of 15.6, 8.7, 9.4, 30.9, 23.8, and 11.2 μM, while only compound 10 showed cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line, with an IC₅₀ value of 24.5 μM.

  13. Gentiana scabra Reduces SR-A Expression and Oxidized-LDL Uptake in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Pang-Yen; Lian, Chen-Hao; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lai, Jenn-Haung; Ho, Ling-Jun; Yang, Shih-Ping; Cheng, Shu-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Background Macrophages can imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors to become foam cells, which is critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Mounting evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory nature of Chinese herbs have the capacity to halt the complex mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. This study examined the effects of Chinese herbs on foam cell formation. Methods Chinese herbs were obtained from the Sun Ten pharmaceutic company. Using oxidized LDL (OxLDL) uptake and a cell toxicity assay, we screened more than 30 types of Chinese herbs. Western blotting was used to determine expressions of scavenger receptors (SRs) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. Results We found that Gentiana scabra reduced oxidized LDL uptake effectively in THP-1 macrophages (p < 0.05 vs. OxLDL treated control). Moreover, treatment with Gentiana scabra in THP-1 macrophages resulted in decreased expression of scavenger receptor- A (SR-A) (p < 0.05 vs. control). Molecular investigation revealed that Gentiana scabra inhibited SR-A protein expression, possibly by regulating ERK signaling pathways (p < 0.05 vs. control). Conclusions By regulating SR-A expression, Gentiana scabra reduced oxidized LDL uptake in human macrophages. These results support the potential use of Gentiana scabra in treating atherosclerosis. PMID:27471359

  14. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  15. Bioactive triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscocinerea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Yu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2006-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active n-BuOH extract of the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscocinerea resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, fuscocinerosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), along with two known glycosides, pervicoside C (4) and holothurin A (5), as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. Compounds 1-5 possess the same tetrasaccharide moiety, 3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-4-O-sodiumsulfato-beta-D-xylopyranosyl, linked to C-3 of holostane triterpene aglycones that differ in their side chains and 17-substituents. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral studies as well as chemical evidence. All the glycosides showed in vitro cytotoxicity against two human tumor cell lines. PMID:17067169

  16. Holothuria (Selenkothuria) parvispinea n. sp. (Echinodermata, Hololthuroidea, Holothuriidae) with key to the sub-genus Selenkothuria.

    PubMed

    Massin, Claude

    2013-01-30

    Description of a new species from Australia, belonging to the subgenus Selenkothuria (Holothuria, Aspidochirotida). A dichotomous key of the thirteen valid species included in the subgenus is also given. The species H. perrieri Thandar, 1977 and H. spinea Cherbonnier, 1988 are considered as non valid.

  17. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6-8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  18. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  19. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  20. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  1. Evaluation of lignans from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra for their potential antimetastatic effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Haskó, János; Krizbai, István A; Wilhelm, Imola; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Fazakas, Csilla; Molnár, Judit; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2014-12-26

    Two new arylbenzofuran-type neolignans, 1"-dehydroegonol 3"-methyl ether (1) and egonol 3"-methyl ether (2), and four known lignan derivatives, namely, helioxanthin (3), (7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (4), heliobuphthalmin (5), and 7-acetoxyhinokinin (6), were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of the methanol extract of the fresh roots of Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. These six compounds were evaluated in vitro in terms of their ability to inhibit the various steps involved in brain tumor metastasis formation. Compounds 3 and 4 inhibited the migration of both melanoma and brain endothelial cells, and 3 also reduced the adhesion of melanoma cells to the brain endothelium. Furthermore, 3 and 4 additionally enhanced the barrier function of the blood-brain barrier and the expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 at the junctions of the endothelial cells. These findings suggest that 3 and 4 may have the potential to interfere with different steps of brain metastasis formation and to enhance the barrier function of cerebral endothelial cells.

  2. Structure and cytotoxicity of a new lanostane-type triterpene glycoside from the sea cucumber Holothuria hilla.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng; Zou, Zheng-Rong; Wu, Hou-Ming

    2006-11-01

    A new triterpene glycoside, hillaside C (1), was isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria hilla Lesson, which is found in the South China Sea, and its structure has been elucidated by spectral analysis (ESI-MS and NMR) and chemical transformations. Four known compounds, holothuria A, thymine, uracil, and cholesterol, were also obtained. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against eight human tumor cell lines (A-549, MCF-7, IA9, CAKI-1, PC-3, KB, KB-VIN, and HCT-8) with IC50 values in the range of 0.15-3.20 microg/ml.

  3. Two new neolignans from Patrinia scabra with potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MNK-45 cells.

    PubMed

    Di, Lei; Yan, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ling-Yu; Ma, Wei; Wang, Kai-Jin; Li, Ning

    2013-10-01

    Two new neolignans, patrineolignan A (1) and patrineolignan B (2), together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the 90 % aqueous EtOH extract of the roots of Patrinia scabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. The two new neolignans were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxic properties against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line and gastric carcinoma MNK-45 cell line using the microculture tetrazolium assay, and both 1 and 2 exhibited strongly cytotoxic activity against the two tumor cell lines. PMID:23737105

  4. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA

  5. Phylogeography of the Atlanto-Mediterranean sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata: the combined effects of historical processes and current oceanographical pattern.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, G H; González-Wangüemert, M; Marcos, C; Pérez-Ruzafa, A

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the genetic structure of populations of the widely distributed sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata Grube, 1840, and investigated the effects of marine barriers to gene flow and historical processes. Several potential genetic breaks were considered, which would separate the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, the isolated Macaronesian Islands from the other locations analysed, and the Western Mediterranean and Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). We analysed mitochondrial 16S and COI gene sequences from 177 individuals from four Atlantic locations and four Mediterranean locations. Haplotype diversity was high (H=0.9307 for 16S and 0.9203 for COI), and the haplotypes were closely related (π=0.0058 for 16S and 0.0071 for COI). The lowest genetic diversities were found in the Aegean Sea population. Our results showed that the COI gene was more variable and more useful for the detection of population structure than the 16S gene. The distribution of mtDNA haplotypes, the pairwise F(ST) values and the results of exact tests and amova revealed: (i) a significant genetic break between the population in the Aegean Sea and those in the other locations, as supported by both mitochondrial genes, and (ii) weak differentiation of the Canary and Azores Islands from the other populations; however, the populations from the Macaronesian Islands, Algarve and West Mediterranean could be considered to be a panmictic metapopulation. Isolation by distance was not identified in H. (H.) mammata. Historical events behind the observed findings, together with the current oceanographic patterns, were proposed and discussed as the main factors that determine the population structure and genetic signature of H. (H.) mammata.

  6. Molecular systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic and a molecular clock for the diversification of the Holothuriidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, Giomar Helena; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-11-01

    This work investigates the systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic in the light of a wider molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Holothuriidae, and it also provides a time-scale for the family diversification using mitochondrial markers and the molecular clock hypothesis. The subgenera Holothuria and Roweothuria are retrieved as paraphyletic. At least four separate lineages, with quite different time frameworks were identified. There are at least three species with an apparent long evolutionary history, H. forskali, H. sanctori and H. impatiens and six species belonging to Holothuria, Roweothuria and Vaneyothuria, which have diverged relatively recently.

  7. Diet of Littoraria scabra, while vertically migrating on mangrove trees: Gut content, fatty acid, and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Andrea C.

    2008-09-01

    The snail, Littoraria scabra, is a dominant grazer on tropical mangrove trees, and may play an important role in the food web dynamics of these ecosystems. Its daily vertical migration to avoid tidal submersion results in exposure to varying food types and abundances. A comprehensive diet analysis - gut contents, fatty acid profiles, and stable isotopes ( δ15N and δ13C) - was conducted on snails migrating along mangrove trees and snails maintained in non-tidal mesocosms at Nananu-i-ra, Fiji Islands. In addition, fatty acid profiles and stable isotope signatures were obtained from surface scrapings of mangrove roots, trunks, branches, and leaves. Results from this multi-technique study indicate that L. scabra is mainly a generalist herbivore, which easily shifts diets depending on food availability, and which also has the ability to ingest and assimilate zooplankton. Ingestion of greater quantities of diverse foods (i.e., microalgae, foliose/corticated macrophytes, filamentous algae, mangrove tissues, zooplankton) takes place in the bottom areas of mangrove trees (roots and trunks) during low tides, while top areas (branches and leaves) provide limited food resources for snails feeding during high tides. However, snails preferentially assimilate microalgae and bacteria, regardless of their feeding habitat (different areas within mangrove trees and non-tidal mesocosms). The daily vertical movements of this snail result in variable feeding times, ingestion of different food types and amounts, and different assimilations. These findings also suggest that organic matter derived from mangrove tissues may not be readily transferred to higher trophic levels through this grazing pathway.

  8. Population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda; Harpacticoida) in exploited mass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudy, R.; Guerin, J. P.

    Three cultures of Tisbe holothuriae in 101 tanks were harvested each 7 or 10 to 12 days at a rate of 50%. The most frequently harvested culture showed the highest yield. At lower exploitation rates a higher rate of sea water renewal resulted in a higher production. In the cultures, variations in sex ratio, ovigerous rate, and number of eggs per sac contributed to a stabilization of the egg production. More frequent harvesting favoured the ovigerous rate and a higher renewal rate of the medium resulted in more eggs per sac. The growth rate of the population was estimated from calculated values for birth rate and death rate, and this estimate was compared with the observed growth rate. The quality of the sea water medium in mass cultures was investigated and discussed in its effects on population dynamics.

  9. RGD-containing peptides inhibit intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Serrano, Arelys; García-Arrarás, José E

    2004-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima is an echinoderm capable of regenerating its viscera. Previous studies from our group have shown a striking remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during intestinal regeneration. To study the role of the ECM during regeneration, we have focused on the RGD sequences present in many ECM molecules. Regenerating animals were treated with an RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide that competes with the interaction between RGD sequence and cellular integrins. Saline and RGES (Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser) peptide injections were done as controls. The size of the regenerating intestine was determined, and the regenerating structures were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of collagen and fibronectin, as well as for muscle and other cells. The results show a delay in intestinal regeneration in animals injected with the RGDS peptide, suggesting that the ECM-integrin interaction plays an important function in the regenerative process.

  10. Structure, absolute configuration, and conformational study of 12-membered macrolides from the fungus Dendrodochium sp. associated with the sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis Selenka.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Xu, Dong-Xiao; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Li, Tie-Jun; Schulz, Barbara; Zhang, Wen

    2013-07-19

    Dendrodolides A-M (1-13), 13 new 12-membered macrolides, were isolated from Dendrodochium sp., a fungus associated with the sea cucumber Holothuria nobilis Selenka, which was collected from the South China Sea. The structures of the dendrodolides were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The absolute configurations were assigned using the modified Mosher method, exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD), electronic solution and solid-state circular dichroism (ECD) supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) ECD calculations, and X-ray analysis. A detailed conformational analysis of the 13 derivatives indicated that the conformation of the flexible macrolide ring plays a decisive role in their chiroptical properties. Thus, it is highly recommended to apply advanced levels of theory and to avoid simple comparison of ECD spectra to determine the absolute configurations of these derivatives. In an in vitro bioassay, compounds 1-5, 7-9, 11, and 12 exhibited different levels of growth inhibitory activity against SMMC-7721 and HCT116 cells. This is the first report of 12-membered macrolides from the fungus of the genus Dendrodochium . The coisolation of four pairs of epimers is extremely interesting and indicates the complexity of β-ketoreductase stereospecificity in the biosynthesis of enigmatic iterative fungal polyketides.

  11. Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like shape for oxygen evolution reaction with enhanced catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chunde; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Weilai; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like wire shape has been achieved via a facile and moderate hydrothermal process at 120 °C for 1 h from the reaction of nickel nitrate and chloroplatinic acid in alkaline solution in the presence of ethanediamine and hydrazine hydrate. The holothuria-like alloyed NiPt wires are Ni-rich in composition (Ni23.6Pt) and uniform in diameter with many tiny tips outstretched from the wires surface. The holothuria-like wires are assembled from granular subunits with the assistance of capping molecular of ethanediamine and the wires display an improved oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activity.

  12. Spatial distribution patterns and movements of Holothuria arguinensis in the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegenthaler, Andjin; Cánovas, Fernando; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Holothurian populations are under pressure worldwide because of increasing demand for beche-de-mer, mainly for Asian consumption. Importations to this area from new temperate fishing grounds provide economic opportunities but also raise concerns regarding future over-exploitation. Studies on the habitat preferences and movements of sea cucumbers are important for the management of sea cucumber stocks and sizing of no-take zones, but information on the ecology and behavior of temperate sea cucumbers is scarce. This study describes the small-scale distribution and movement patterns of Holothuria arguinensis in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa national park (Portugal). Mark/recapture studies were performed to record their movements over time on different habitats (sand and seagrass). H. arguinensis preferred seagrass habitats and did not show a size or life stage-related spatial segregation. Its density was 563 ind. ha- 1 and mean movement speed was 10 m per day. Movement speed did not differ between habitats and the direction of movement was offshore during the day and shoreward during the night. Median home range size was 35 m2 and overlap among home ranges was 84%. H. arguinensis' high abundance, close association with seagrass and easy catchability in the intertidal zone, indicate the importance of including intertidal lagoons in future studies on temperate sea cucumber ecology since those systems might require different management strategies than fully submerged habitats.

  13. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  14. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan. PMID:26572451

  15. Extracellular matrix remodeling and metalloproteinase involvement during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, José L; Rosa, Rey; Ruiz, Dorcas L; García-Arrarás, José E

    2002-10-01

    The sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima, has the capacity to regenerate its internal organs. Intestinal regeneration is accomplished by the thickening of the mesenteric border and the invasion of this thickening by mucosal epithelium from the esophagus and the cloaca. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling has been associated with morphogenetic events during embryonic development and regeneration. We have used immunohistochemical techniques against ECM components to show that differential changes occur in the ECM during early regeneration. Labeling of fibrous collagenous components and muscle-related laminin disappear from the regenerating intestine and mesentery, while fibronectin labeling and 4G7 (an echinoderm ECM component) are continuously present. Western blots confirm a decrease in fibrous collagen content during the first 2 weeks of regeneration. We have also identified five 1,10-phenanthroline-sensitive bands in collagen gelatin zymographs. The gelatinolytic activities of these bands are enhanced during early stages of regeneration, suggesting that the metalloprotease activity is associated with ECM remodeling. Inhibition of MMPs in vivo with 1,10-phenanthroline, p-aminobenzoyl-Gly-Pro-D-Leu-D-Ala hydroxamate or N-CBZ-Pro-Leu-Gly hydroxamate produces a reversible inhibition of intestinal regeneration and ECM remodeling. Our results show that significant changes in ECM content occur during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber and that the onset of these changes is correlated to the proteolytic activities of MMPs.

  16. Neuroanatomy of the tube feet and tentacles in Holothuria glaberrima (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Abreu-Arbelo, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are a key group in understanding the evolution of the nervous system in the Metazoa. Remarkably, little is known about echinoderm neurobiology. The echinoderm podia, which are unique echinoderm modifications and comprise structures responsible for locomotion and feeding, have been largely neglected in nervous system studies. Here, we have applied immunohistological approaches using different neuronal markers to describe the neuroanatomy of the holothurian podia and its relation to the muscular component. We show, using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867), the direct innervation of the podia by the ectoneural component of the nervous system, as well as the existence of a connection between the nervous system components in the main nerves, the muscle, and the connective tissue. These findings confirm the ectoneural origin of the tube feet’s main nervous system and demonstrate its neuroanatomic complexity. We also show the presence of fibers and neurons within the tube feet mesothelium and connective tissue. The study of these simple structures will help us elucidate the echinoderms’ neuromuscular circuit and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:20461218

  17. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  18. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  19. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  20. Instantaneous adhesion of Cuvierian tubules in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali.

    PubMed

    Demeuldre, Mélanie; Chinh Ngo, Thi; Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leclère, Philippe; Flammang, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The peculiar Cuvierian tubules of sea cucumbers function as a defense mechanism. They thwart attacks by creating a sticky network composed of elongated tubules within which the potential predator is entangled in a matter of seconds and thus immobilized. Cuvierian tubules are typical instantaneous adhesive organs in which tissue integrity is destroyed during the release of the adhesive secretion. However, very little information is available about this adhesion process. The adhesive epithelium-the mesothelium-and the sticky material it produces were studied in the species Holothuria forskali using different microscopy techniques (light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy). The mesothelium consists of two cell types-peritoneocytes and granular cells-organized in superimposed layers. In tubules before expulsion, peritoneocytes form an outer protective cell layer preventing adhesion when not needed. After expulsion, the elongation process removes this protective layer and allows granular cells to unfold and to become exposed at the tubule surface. At this stage, Cuvierian tubules are still not sticky. Upon contact with a surface, however, granular cells release their granule contents. Once released, this material changes in aspect, swells, and spreads readily on any type of substrate where it forms a thin homogeneous layer. After tubule peeling, this layer remains on the surface but is often contaminated with collagen fibers. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated the adhesive layer to be made up of globular nanostructures measuring about 70 nm in diameter and to be more adhesive than the collagen fibers left on it. The morphological organization of Cuvierian tubules therefore allows contact-dependent deposition of an adhesive material presenting a high affinity for various surfaces. It is certainly an adaptive advantage for a defense organ to be able to entangle different types of predators.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  2. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  3. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  4. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  5. Holothuria grisea agglutinin (HGA): the first invertebrate lectin with anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Moura, Raniere da M; Aragão, Karoline S; de Melo, Arthur A; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Osório, César B H; Luz, Patricia B; de Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Dos Santos, Elizeu A; de Alencar, Nylane M N; Cavada, Benildo S

    2013-12-01

    Holothuria grisea agglutinin (HGA) is a dimeric lectin of molecular mass 228 kDa by gel filtration with monomers of 105 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lectin is highly thermostable as it retains full activity for 1 h at 70 °C. Unlike other lectins purified from marine invertebrates, the hemagglutination activity of HGA does not require any divalent metal ions. The affinity analysis of HGA showed that only mucin was able to inhibit the hemagglutinating activity. HGA administered intravenously was tested in classical models of nociception and inflammation. HGA was able to inhibit neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan. This inhibitory effect was 68% at a dose of 1 mg/kg. In acetic acid-induced writhing tests, a significant antinociceptive effect was observed by treatment with HGA (0.1; 1 or 10 mg/kg) reducing constrictions by 27, 90 and 84%, respectively. In formalin tests, HGA at a dose of 10 mg/kg showed antinociceptive effect only in the inflammatory phase (phase 2). Nevertheless, in hot-plate tests, HGA did not show any nociceptive effect. In rota-rod and open-field tests, HGA did not alter the animals' behavior. The treatment with HGA 10 mg/kg presented diminished myeloperoxidase activity activity (81.6% inhibition) and raised the circulating levels of NO by 50.4% when compared with the carrageenan group. HGA has demonstrated the ability to modulate the inflammatory response in models of inflammation in vivo. HGA is the first marine invertebrate lectin that showed an anti-inflammatory effect. This finding opens a new perspective on the potential of lectins from the marine environment. PMID:22943744

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0: 1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC 50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  7. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  8. Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Nicolussi, Simon; Rau, Mark; Lorántfy, László; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    The discovery of the interaction of plant-derived N-alkylamides (NAAs) and the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the existence of a plant endogenous N-acylethanolamine signaling system have led to the re-evaluation of this group of compounds. Herein, the isolation of seven NAAs and the assessment of their effects on major protein targets in the ECS network are reported. Four NAAs, octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (2), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (3), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (4), were identified from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. Compounds 2-4 are new natural products, while 1 was isolated for the first time from this species. The previously described macamides, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (5), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (6), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (7), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). N-Methylbutylamide 4 and N-benzylamide 7 showed submicromolar and selective binding affinities for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Ki values of 0.31 and 0.48 μM, respectively). Notably, compound 7 also exhibited weak fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (IC50 = 4 μM) and a potent inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake (IC50 = 0.67 μM) that was stronger than the inhibition obtained with the controls OMDM-2 and UCM707. The pronounced ECS polypharmacology of compound 7 highlights the potential involvement of the arachidonoyl-mimicking 9Z,12Z double-bond system in the linoleoyl group for the overall cannabimimetic action of NAAs. This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root. PMID:24972328

  9. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  10. First report of the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of Holothuria arguinensis, a new resource for aquaculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roggatz, Christina C; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Pereira, Hugo; Rodrigues, Maria João; da Silva, Manuela Moreira; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2016-09-01

    This work reports for the first time the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of the edible sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis from the North-eastern Atlantic. H. arguinensis has high levels of protein, with the amino acids profile dominated by alanine, glycine and proline and low lysine/arginine ratios. Its carbohydrate and energetic contents are also low as well as the total lipid levels, although its lipid profile is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, H. arguinensis has high levels of calcium. The water and ethanol extracts show ability to scavenge free radicals and to chelate copper and iron ions. Our results indicate that H. arguinensis has a balanced nutritional quality suitable for human consumption. In addition, it contains compounds with antioxidant potential; thus its intake can contribute for a healthy and well-balanced diet.

  11. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Malgorzata; Schloßmacher, Ute; McKenzie, J. Douglas; Müller, Werner E. G.; Schröder, Heinz C.

    2011-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules) are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract. PMID:22013488

  13. Protective and curative effects of the sea cucumber Holothuria atra extract against DMBA-induced hepatorenal diseases in rats.

    PubMed

    Dakrory, Ahmed I; Fahmy, Sohair R; Soliman, Amel M; Mohamed, Ayman S; Amer, Sayed A M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  14. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dakrory, Ahmed I.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Soliman, Amel M.; Mohamed, Ayman S.; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  15. HGA-2, a novel galactoside-binding lectin from the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea binds to bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Arthur Alves; Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; de Melo Silva, Winnie; Moura, Raniere da Mata; Silva, Giselle Cristina; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; de Sousa Saboya, Jefferson Pablo; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2014-03-01

    A novel lectin, HGA-2, was isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea. The protein was isolated by a single chromatographic step using a column of Guar Gum as affinity. HGA-2 showed an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa and 34 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions, respectively. The hemagglutinating activity was specific for rabbit erythrocytes, showing no activity for human blood A, B and O. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by carbohydrates containing galactose, with higher affinity for GalNAc and glycoprotein porcine stomach mucin (PSM). HGA-2 was stable at pH 6-10, significantly declining at pH 5 and a temperature of 40°C, with its activity being abolished at 100 °C. The HGA-2 protein was found to be Ca(2+)-dependent; it was highly toxic against Artemia nauplii and able to recognize and agglutinate cells of Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of HGA-2 strongly suggest that HGA-2 is a member of the C-type lectin family. PMID:24393613

  16. Assessment of trace metal contamination in the sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa) and sediments from the Dardanelles Strait (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Turk Culha, Saniye; Dereli, Hakkı; Karaduman, Fatma Rabia; Culha, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Fe) in Holothuria tubuosa (Gmelin, 1788) belonging to Echinoderm species and in sediments that they live at three different stations (Gelibolu, Umur Bey/Lapseki, and Dardanos) on Dardanelles Strait between April 2013 and March 2014. The mean trace metal concentrations determined in H. tubulosa and sediment were as follows: Cd 0.18 mg/kg, Cu 2.43 mg/kg, Pb 2.09 mg/kg, Ni 14.58 mg/kg, Zn 16.86 mg/kg, and Fe 73.46 mg/kg and Cd 0.70 mg/kg, Cu 5.03 mg/kg, Pb 14.57 mg/kg, Ni 27.15 mg/kg, Zn 54.52 mg/kg, and Fe 3779.9 mg/kg, respectively. It was detected that the statistical difference between trace metals determined seasonally in muscle tissue of H. tubulosa was significant (p > 0.05). As a result of the study, it was detected that H. tubulosa is a bioindicator species in determining Ni trace metal in sediment. The results were compared to the limit values of National and International Food Safety, and it was detected that Cd and Ni concentrations measured in sediment were above LEL of Ni and Cd concentrations according to Sediment Quality Guidelines.

  17. In vitro decondensation of the sperm chromatin in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) not affecting proteolysis of basic nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    del Valle, Luis J

    2005-06-01

    Sea urchin and sea star oocyte extracts contain proteolytic activities that are active against sperm basic nuclear proteins (SNBP). This SNBP degradation has been related to the decondensation of sperm chromatin as a possible model to male pronuclei formation. We have studied the presence of this proteolytic activity in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) and its possible relationship with sperm nuclei decondensation. The mature oocyte extracts from H. tubulosa contain a proteolytic activity to SNBP located in the macromolecular fraction of the egg-jelly layer. SNBP degradation occurred both on sperm nuclei and on purified SNBP, histones being more easily degraded than protein Ø(o) (sperm-specific protein). SNBP degradation was found to be dependent on concentration, incubation time, presence of Ca(2+), pH, and this activity could be a serine-proteinase. Thermal denaturalization of the oocyte extracts (80 degrees C, 10-15 min) inactivates its proteolytic activity on SNBP but does not affect sperm nuclei decondensation. These results would suggest that sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a mechanism different from SNBP degradation. Thus, the sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a thermostable factor(s) and the removal of linker SNBP (H1 and protein Ø(o)) will be a first condition in the process of sperm chromatin remodeling. PMID:16026541

  18. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali: conformation, selectin binding, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-10-10

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: → 3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1 → 4) [FucαX(1 → 3)]GlcAβ(1 →, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-10

    The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain. Compared to fish and shrimp A2Ms, the histidine residue from the catalytical regions is well conserved in HaA2M. HaA2M mRNA was predominantly expressed in coelomocytes and, to a lesser extent, in the body wall, intestine and respiratory tree. A2M activity was detected in the coelomic fluids of H. atra. The mRNA expression and activity levels were investigated in the major immune tissues and coelomic fluids of H. atra after challenge with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)]. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of HaA2M resulted in a significant reduction of HaA2M gene transcript level (86%). RNAi-mediated silencing of HaA2M gene significantly decreased the A2M activity (38%) and increased the number of viable bacteria (2.8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra. PMID:27033585

  20. Assessment of trace metal contamination in the sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa) and sediments from the Dardanelles Strait (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Turk Culha, Saniye; Dereli, Hakkı; Karaduman, Fatma Rabia; Culha, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Fe) in Holothuria tubuosa (Gmelin, 1788) belonging to Echinoderm species and in sediments that they live at three different stations (Gelibolu, Umur Bey/Lapseki, and Dardanos) on Dardanelles Strait between April 2013 and March 2014. The mean trace metal concentrations determined in H. tubulosa and sediment were as follows: Cd 0.18 mg/kg, Cu 2.43 mg/kg, Pb 2.09 mg/kg, Ni 14.58 mg/kg, Zn 16.86 mg/kg, and Fe 73.46 mg/kg and Cd 0.70 mg/kg, Cu 5.03 mg/kg, Pb 14.57 mg/kg, Ni 27.15 mg/kg, Zn 54.52 mg/kg, and Fe 3779.9 mg/kg, respectively. It was detected that the statistical difference between trace metals determined seasonally in muscle tissue of H. tubulosa was significant (p > 0.05). As a result of the study, it was detected that H. tubulosa is a bioindicator species in determining Ni trace metal in sediment. The results were compared to the limit values of National and International Food Safety, and it was detected that Cd and Ni concentrations measured in sediment were above LEL of Ni and Cd concentrations according to Sediment Quality Guidelines. PMID:26931662

  1. Tensilin-like stiffening protein from Holothuria leucospilota does not induce the stiffest state of catch connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Nishida, Naoto; Motobayashi, Yumiko; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2006-05-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable connective tissue that exhibits large changes in mechanical properties. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. We purified a similar protein, H-tensilin, from Holothuria leucospilota, which belongs to a different family to C. frondosa. H-tensilin appeared as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa on SDS-PAGE. No sugar chain was detected. Tryptic fragments of the protein had homology to known tensilin. H-tensilin aggregated isolated collagen fibrils in vitro in a buffer containing 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl with or without 10 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). The activity of H-tensilin was quantitatively studied by dynamic mechanical tests on the isolated dermis. H-tensilin increased stiffness of the dermis in the soft state, induced by Ca(2+)-free artificial seawater, to a level comparable to that of the standard state, which was the state found in the dermis rested in artificial seawater with normal ionic condition. H-tensilin decreased the energy dissipation ratio of the soft dermis to a level comparable to that of the standard state. When H-tensilin was applied on the dermis in the standard state, it did not alter stiffness nor dissipation ratio. The subsequent application of artificial seawater in which the potassium concentration was raised to 100 mmol l(-1) increased stiffness by one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that H-tensilin is involved in the changes from the soft state to the standard state and that some stiffening factors other than tensilin are necessary for the changes from the standard to the stiff state.

  2. Acidic mucopolysaccharide from Holothuria leucospilota has antitumor effect by inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor cell invasion in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Yin; Xu, Bo; Wu, Jiaming; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ming; Zheng, Shizhong; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Changbin; Chen, Lei; Lei, Na

    2009-08-01

    Acidic mucopolysaccharide from Holothuria Leucospilota (HS) may affect some steps in metastasis cascade. In vitro, HS inhibited the growth of B16F10 cells and proliferation of VEGF-induced HUVEC dose-dependently compared to the control, VEGF-induced capillary-like tube networks and the numbers of migratory and invasive cells were significantly inhibited by HS in a dose-dependent manner under the cytotoxic doses. Additionally, VEGF-induced vessel sprouting of rat aortic ring was also inhibited by HS. It also has been demonstrated that the invasive ability of B16F10 melanoma cells through the Matrigel-embedded Boyden chamber was suppressed by 0.5 muM HS. The protein level secreted by B16F10 cells of MMP-2,-9 and VEGF were decreased by HS treatment. In vivo, a tumor growth inhibition study was carried out using mice bearing B16F10 cells model of metastasis, no matter experimental or spontaneous, showed that HS at 5.2, 11.6 and 26 mg/kg (weight of mice) could markedly decreased the metastatic tumors in mouse lung in a dose-dependent manner. In CAM assay and Matrigel plug assay in vivo, HS (50 microg/egg and 100 microg/egg) inhibited new blood vessel formation on the growing chick chorioallantoic membrane, and HS (5.2 and 26 mg/kg body weight) reduced the vessel density in Matrigel plugs implanted in mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HS has antimetastasic properties possibly via its antiangiogenesis induced by downregulation of VEGF and suppression of invasive ability of cancer cells mediated by downregulation of MMP-2, -9 and their activities.

  3. Antiseptic effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) against multi-organ failure induced by sepsis: Molecular and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    SAAD, DALIA Y.; BAIOMY, AHMED A.; MANSOUR, AHMED A.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and severe sepsis patients can develop acute lung and liver injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra methanolic body wall extract (HaE), as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against induced sepsis in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) rat model. In total, 30 males albino rats were divided into three groups (n=10 each) as follows: Sham (Sh), which was used as negative control; sepsis (Se), which was used as a positive control and was subjected to CLP surgery; and Ho, which was subjected to CLP and fed with 200 mg/kg (body weight) of HaE, once daily for 7 days. Subsequently, the expression of various genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction, while liver and lung tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Caspase-3 was significantly reduced in liver and lung tissues in the Ho group, while the expression levels of Gsta2, Cat and Sod1 genes were slightly reduced in the Ho group, when compared with the Se group. In addition, expression levels of tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, liver interleukin (IL)1b and lung IL1a were reduced in the Ho group compared with the Se group. Furthermore, histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of the Se group, including congestion of hepatoportal blood vessel and focal hepatic necrosis, while lung tissues showed marked edema, hemorrhage and alveolar septal thickening. The Ho group showed apparent normal hepatic parenchyma and slight interstitial pneumonia. Immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3 in liver and lung tissues showed no expression in the Sh group, strong expression in the Se group and moderate expression in the Ho group. In conclusion, HaE demonstrated beneficial effect against induced sepsis, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. PMID:27347042

  4. Apoptosis inducing capacity of Holothuria arenicola in CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Afzali, Mahbubeh; Nikdel, Najme; Mostafapour, Asma; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber is one of the classes of echinoderms, which is considered as a health marine product and possess various biological characteristics with therapeutic application. The present investigation attempted to evaluate the potential of anti-cancer Persian Gulf sea cucumber species Holothuria arenicola (H. arenicola) aqueous extract on mice colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The CT26 carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of extract in 24 and 48 hr, and then its anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay and morphological observations. The apoptotic effect was examined by fluorescence microscopy (DNA fragmentation assay), Flow cytometry, caspase-3 and -9 colorimetric assays. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of sea cucumber extract on CT26 tumor cells transplanted in BALB/c mice was also investigated. Results: The results showed that the water extract of sea cucumber revealed remarkable anti-proliferative effect on CT26 tumor cells with IC50= 31 µg/ml with recruitment of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in vitro. In addition, the colon tumor volume in treated groups remarkably reduced in homozygous mice. Histopathological examination elucidated that sea cucumber extract attenuated tumor size and volume along with apoptosis characteristics. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed that sea cucumber extract induced intrinsic apoptosis in vivo through suppression of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion: Our data confirmed this notion that sea cucumber administrates anti-cancer effect that can be used as complementary in preclinical experiments, so further characterization are recommended for detection sea cucumber metabolites and clinical application. PMID:27279978

  5. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-10

    The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain. Compared to fish and shrimp A2Ms, the histidine residue from the catalytical regions is well conserved in HaA2M. HaA2M mRNA was predominantly expressed in coelomocytes and, to a lesser extent, in the body wall, intestine and respiratory tree. A2M activity was detected in the coelomic fluids of H. atra. The mRNA expression and activity levels were investigated in the major immune tissues and coelomic fluids of H. atra after challenge with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)]. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of HaA2M resulted in a significant reduction of HaA2M gene transcript level (86%). RNAi-mediated silencing of HaA2M gene significantly decreased the A2M activity (38%) and increased the number of viable bacteria (2.8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra.

  6. The effects of body temperature and mass on the postprandial metabolic responses of the African egg-eating snakes Dasypeltis scabra and Dasypeltis inornata.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sara; McConnachie, Suzanne; Secor, Stephen; Perrin, Mike

    2013-06-01

    African egg-eating snakes (Dasypeltis) feed only on freshly laid bird eggs which they perforate within their esophagus before swallowing the liquid contents and regurgitating the empty shell. Compared to a snake's typical intact meal, the liquid diet of Dasypeltis would expectedly generate a more moderate postprandial metabolic response and specific dynamic action (SDA). Free-ranging Dasypeltis feed over a range of ambient temperatures and thereby experience predicted temperature-dependent shifts in the duration and magnitude of their postprandial metabolic response. Such shifts would undoubtedly be shared among different species and age classes of Dasypeltis. To examine these expectations, we measured pre- and postprandial metabolic rates of adult Dasypeltis inornata and adult and neonate Dasypeltis scabra in response to liquid egg meals weighing 20% of snake body mass at 20, 25, 27, 30, and 32 °C. With an increase in body temperature, postprandial metabolic profiles of neonate and adult snakes became narrower and shorter in duration. Specific dynamic action varied among temperature treatments, increasing from 20 to 32 °C. Standard metabolic rate, postprandial peak metabolic rate, and SDA scaled with mass exponents that typically did not differ from 1.0. As expected, Dasypeltis digesting a liquid egg diet experienced a more modest postprandial response and SDA, expending on average only 10.6% of the meal's energy on the breakdown, absorption, and assimilation of the egg meal, whereas other colubrids consuming intact rodent or fish meals expend on average 16.3% of the meal's energy on digestion and assimilation. Actively foraging and feeding throughout the avian egg laying season enable Dasypeltis to survive when eggs are not available. The adaptive suite of traits that enable Dasypeltis to consume eggs of large relative size and ingest only the liquid contents may also be joined by physiological adaptations specific to their liquid diet and extended bouts of

  7. Maintaining the line of defense: regeneration of Cuvierian tubules in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    VandenSpiegel, D; Jangoux, M; Flammang, P

    2000-02-01

    When irritated, individuals of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali expel a few Cuvierian tubules which lengthen, instantly become sticky, and rapidly immobilize most organisms with which they come into contact. After expulsion, the lost tubules are readily regenerated. When only a few tubules have been expelled, there is often a latent period before the regeneration starts. In contrast, when many tubules have been expelled, the regenerative process starts immediately but proceeds in successive waves of 10 to 30 tubules that begin to regenerate at 10-day intervals. However, in all cases, the complete regeneration of a given tubule takes about 5 weeks and may be divided into three successive phases: an initial repair phase including the overall 48-h post-autotomy period, a true regenerative phase taking about 4 weeks to complete, and a growth phase of about one more week. Initial regeneration events occur by epimorphosis, cell proliferation being essential to the regenerative process, whereas late events occur mainly by morphallaxis, with migration of the newly differentiated cells. The mesothelium is the tissue layer in which cell proliferation is the most precocious and the most important, involving both peritoneocytes and undifferentiated cells (which seem to be dedifferentiated peritoneocytes). As regeneration proceeds, the percentage of undifferentiated cells regularly decreases in parallel with the differentiation of granular (adhesive-secreting) cells and myocytes. The myocytes then separate off from the mesothelium and migrate within the connective tissue layer. Three types of pseudopodial cells follow one another in the tubule connective tissue during regeneration. Type 1 cells have all the characteristics of echinoderm phagocytes and may have a fibroblastic function, cleaning the connective tissue compartment before new collagen synthesis starts. Type 2 cells are rather undifferentiated and divide actively. The presence of type 3 cells is closely

  8. Baseline of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediment and sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) in the northern parts of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Khazaali, Aida; Kunzmann, Andreas; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the surface sediments and in the sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) from around six Islands in the northern parts of Persian Gulf. The ranges of the average concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments, H. leucospilota and S. hermanni were 10.33-186.16ngg(-1) dw, 12.49-505.44ngg(-1) dw and 8.08-389.39ngg(-1) dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the western parts of Persian Gulf. International sedimentary quality guidelines (TEL-PEL) indicated a low probability of harmful effects to benthic organisms. PAH source identification showed that the PAHs in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. PMID:27216041

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  10. Gene flow and population history in high dispersal marine invertebrates: mitochondrial DNA analysis of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) populations from the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Uthicke, S; Benzie, J A H

    2003-10-01

    The sea cucumber, Holothuria nobilis, has a long-lived planktotrophic larvae, and previous allozyme surveys have suggested that high dispersal is realized. In contrast, recent ecological studies indicate that dispersal is low. To reconcile these data, and to investigate the evolution of this Indo-Pacific species, we screened geographical variation in 559 bp of a mitochondrial gene (COI) in 360 samples from the Australasian region and La Réunion. Sequences from La Réunion differed by > 7% from others and may constitute another species. Haplotype diversity in other samples was high (0.942, SD = 0.007), but haplotypes were closely related (mean nucleotide diversity: 0.0075, SD = 0.0041). AMOVA, pairwise FST values and exact tests did not detect significant population structure. Nested clade analysis showed that one of two main clades was over-represented in west Australia, whereas the other was more common in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Isolation-by-distance was identified as the main determinant of population structure at several clade levels. Contiguous range expansion was inferred for evolutionary older clade levels and this may correspond to a late Pleistocene (88 000-193 000 years ago) population expansion inferred from haplotype mismatch distributions. Thus, the population genetic structures detected are likely to be formed prior to the last ice age, with some indications for high dispersal on shorter time scales. PMID:12969467

  11. Transcriptional analysis of VEGF-D and TGFβ genes in MCF7 cells exposed to saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber)

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine natural products contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties that have revealed crucial properties in the treatment of some diseases. Some of these compounds have recently received considerable attention for drug discovery. In this study we examined the anti-angiogenic effect of saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber) through evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) expression in a breast cancer cell line. Methods: To investigate the effect of SCS on VEGF-D and TGF-β expression in breast cancer cells, the cells were treated with various concentrations of sample. After 48 h the viability of the cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining, and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression was were evaluated by real time-PCR. Results: Our results revealed that SCS can suppress cell viability and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Sea cucumber saponin at a concentration of 12 μg/ml inhibited VEGF-D and TGFβ expression more than 90% compared with controls. Conclusion: Findings suggest that SCS could inhibit tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26989747

  12. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in Holothuria polii (Delle Chiaje 1823) across a coastal lagoon-open sea environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Coastal lagoons represent habitats with widely heterogeneous environmental conditions, particularly as regards salinity and temperature, which fluctuate in both space and time. These characteristics suggest that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in coastal lagoon and open-coast environments. This study investigates the genetic structure of Holothuria polii at a micro-geographic scale across the Mar Menor coastal lagoon and nearby marine areas, estimating the mitochondrial DNA variation in two gene fragments, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA (16S). Dataset of mitochondrial sequences was also used to test the influence of environmental differences between coastal lagoon and marine waters on population genetic structure. All sampled locations exhibited high levels of haplotype diversity and low values of nucleotide diversity. Both genes showed contrasting signals of genetic differentiation (non-significant differences using COI and slight differences using 16S, which could due to different mutation rates or to differential number of exclusive haplotypes. We detected an excess of recent mutations and exclusive haplotypes, which can be generated as a result of population growth. However, selective processes can be also acting on the gene markers used; highly significant generalized additive models have been obtained considering genetic data from 16S gene and independent variables such as temperature and salinity.

  13. Calbindin-D32k Is Localized to a Subpopulation of Neurons in the Nervous System of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; García-Rivera, Enrique M.; González, Carlos I.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates. PMID:22412907

  14. Calbindin-D32k is localized to a subpopulation of neurons in the nervous system of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; García-Rivera, Enrique M; González, Carlos I; García-Arrarás, José E

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates.

  15. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  16. Hemagglutinating/Hemolytic activities in extracts of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast and isolation of two lectins from the marine sponge Cliona varians and the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea.

    PubMed

    Moura, Raniere M; Melo, Arthur A; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Rodrigues, Cícera R F; Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria S; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S; Sampaio, Alexandre H

    2015-01-01

    Twenty species of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast were screened for hemagglutinating/hemolytic activity. In at least twelve tested species, hemagglutinating activity was different for different blood types, suggesting the presence of lectins. Extracts from four species showed hemolytic activity. Two new lectins were purified from the marine sponge Cliona varians (CvL-2) and sea cucumber Holothuria grisea (HGL). CvL-2 was able to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by galactosides. The hemagglutinating activity was optimal in pH neutral and temperatures below 70 °C. CvL-2 is a trimeric protein with subunits of 175 kDa. On the other hand, HGL showed both hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity in human and rabbit erythrocytes, but hemolysis could be inhibited by osmotic protection, and agglutination was inhibited by mucin. HGL was stable in pH values ranging from 4 to 10 and temperatures up to 90 °C. In electrophoresis and gel filtration, HGL was a monomeric protein with 15 kDa. CvL-2 and HGL showed different levels of toxicity to Artemia naplii. CvL-2 showed LC50 of 850.1 μg/mL, whereas HGL showed LC50 of 9.5 µg/mL. PMID:25993359

  17. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  18. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  19. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  20. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Challenge and Radial Organ Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chuang; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuqiang; Tian, Meilin; Jiao, Wenqian; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) structurally resembles mRNA but cannot be translated into protein. Although the systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs have been increasingly reported in model species, information concerning non-model species is still lacking. Here, we report the first systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in two sea cucumber species: (1) Apostichopus japonicus during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and in heathy tissues and (2) Holothuria glaberrima during radial organ complex regeneration, using RNA-seq datasets and bioinformatics analysis. We identified A. japonicus and H. glaberrima lncRNAs that were differentially expressed during LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration, respectively. Notably, the predicted lncRNA-microRNA-gene trinities revealed that, in addition to targeting protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs might also target lncRNAs, thereby participating in a potential novel layer of regulatory interactions among non-coding RNA classes in echinoderms. Furthermore, the constructed coding-non-coding network implied the potential involvement of lncRNA-gene interactions during the regulation of several important genes (e.g., Toll-like receptor 1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm pave the way for similar studies and future genetic, genomic, and evolutionary research in non-model species. PMID:27392411

  1. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Challenge and Radial Organ Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chuang; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuqiang; Tian, Meilin; Jiao, Wenqian; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) structurally resembles mRNA but cannot be translated into protein. Although the systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs have been increasingly reported in model species, information concerning non-model species is still lacking. Here, we report the first systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in two sea cucumber species: (1) Apostichopus japonicus during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and in heathy tissues and (2) Holothuria glaberrima during radial organ complex regeneration, using RNA-seq datasets and bioinformatics analysis. We identified A. japonicus and H. glaberrima lncRNAs that were differentially expressed during LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration, respectively. Notably, the predicted lncRNA-microRNA-gene trinities revealed that, in addition to targeting protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs might also target lncRNAs, thereby participating in a potential novel layer of regulatory interactions among non-coding RNA classes in echinoderms. Furthermore, the constructed coding-non-coding network implied the potential involvement of lncRNA-gene interactions during the regulation of several important genes (e.g., Toll-like receptor 1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm pave the way for similar studies and future genetic, genomic, and evolutionary research in non-model species.

  2. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  3. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  4. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  5. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  6. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  7. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  8. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  9. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  11. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  12. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  13. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program…

  14. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  15. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15–385 kg−1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  16. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  17. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  18. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, John S.

    This document outlines the collection development policies for the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC). It details the clientele the collection is intended to serve, the scope and boundary of the collection, the methods employed to identify and acquire resources for the collection, the selection and…

  19. On some sea cucumbers from Ghana (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) with descriptions of a new genus and one new species.

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Mjobo, Sifiso

    2014-12-22

    This paper reports on some sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) in the collections of the NHMUK, taken off the coast of Ghana. Most result from collections around Accra during the years 1949-52. A couple of other species are included. Altogether six species are here reported, viz. Holothuria (Holothuria) dakarensis Panning, 1939; Holothuria (Semperothuria) imitans Ludwig, 1875; Holothuria (Vaneyothuria) lentiginosa lentiginosa (von Marenzeller,1893); Stereoderma congoana (Heding, 1935); Ocnus cruciformis Thandar n. sp. and Leptopentacta cabindaensis (Cherbonnier, 1949) herein transferred to a new genus Cherbocnus Thandar erected for this purpose. Another West African species, Cladodactyla monodi Cherbonnier, 1950 is referred to Stereoderma. All cucumariids are West African forms whereas the holothuriids are shared with the North-West Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  1. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  2. What Is a Collection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hur-Li

    2000-01-01

    Examines traditional conceptions of a library collection, and reveals four major presumptions associated with collections: tangibility, ownership, a user community, and an integrated retrieval mechanism. Explores challenges posed by media, and proposes an expanded concept of collection that considers the perspectives of both user and collection…

  3. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  4. Collection Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuby, Mary

    Undertaken to provide data on the current status of collection development in selected academic libraries, this study also analyzed the structure of the collection development function at Chicago Academic Library Council (CALC) institutions and outlined a formal collection development policy for Chicago State University's Douglas Library.…

  5. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  6. Profiling a Periodicals Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolgiano, Christina E.; King, Mary Kathryn

    1978-01-01

    Libraries need solid information upon which to base collection development decisions. Specific evaluative methods for determining scope, access, and usefullness are described. Approaches used for data collection include analysis of interlibrary loan requests, comparison with major bibliographies, and analysis of accessibility through available…

  7. Collecting Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…

  8. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Mary

    In this document the collection goals of the William Paterson New Jersey State College library are enumerated and the policies and procedures of the library regarding the selection and acquisition of different types of materials are summarized. Following a short introduction to the function of collection development policies is a general statement…

  9. Children's Collective Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Jackie; And Others

    This children's collective manual describes a training program for parents and teachers of preschool children which is designed to encourage cooperative, community-oriented styles of group interaction in black preschool children. Developed by the Children's Collective of the Coordinated Child Care Council of South Los Angeles, the program is based…

  10. Debt collection project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    In October 1979 the Office of Management and Budget initiated a review of debt collection within the Federal Government. A DOE Debt Collection Project Team was established, and seven activites were selected for review. These were Albuquerque Operations Office; Bonneville Power Administration; Chicago Operations and Regional Office; Naval Petroleum Reserves, California; Oak Ridge Operations Office; Washington Financial Services Division; and Western Area Power Administration. The team visited each of these activities to collect data on the size, age, and types of receivables managed and procedures for billing, aging, and handling overdue accounts. Various deficiencies were found to exist at several of the DOE entities that are not consistent with good management practices in the performance of their debt collection functions. Also, the Debt Collection Project Team identified a wide variation in the procedures followed by DOE activities in the management of accounts receivable, and a wide variation in the effectiveness of the debt management functions. 1 figure, 17 tables. (RWR)

  11. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  12. The Rhoton Collection.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Jeffrey; Khan, Nickalus; Couldwell, William; Robertson, Jon

    2016-08-01

    The Rhoton Collection is an archive of Dr. Al Rhoton Jr.'s anatomical images and video lectures, as well as an anatomical reference. In an effort to maximize the educational impact of these teaching materials, web-based technologies are used to dynamically format this material for a variety of devices ranging from cellular phones to projectors. Surgical cases are cross-referenced to further enhance the usefulness of this collection, which is available at http://rhoton.ineurodb.org. The features of the Rhoton Collection website are described in this article. PMID:27319307

  13. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  14. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  15. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  16. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  17. Sparse matrix test collections

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, I.

    1996-12-31

    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  18. A Survey of Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of computational components, complex, distributed systems of interacting agents are becoming ubiquitous. Such systems, where each agent aims to optimize its own performance, but where there is a well-defined set of system-level performance criteria, are called collectives. The fundamental problem in analyzing/designing such systems is in determining how the combined actions of self-interested agents leads to 'coordinated' behavior on a iarge scale. Examples of artificial systems which exhibit such behavior include packet routing across a data network, control of an array of communication satellites, coordination of multiple deployables, and dynamic job scheduling across a distributed computer grid. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, economies, and the organelles within a living cell. No current scientific discipline provides a thorough understanding of the relation between the structure of collectives and how well they meet their overall performance criteria. Although still very young, research on collectives has resulted in successes both in understanding and designing such systems. It is eqected that as it matures and draws upon other disciplines related to collectives, this field will greatly expand the range of computationally addressable tasks. Moreover, in addition to drawing on them, such a fully developed field of collective intelligence may provide insight into already established scientific fields, such as mechanism design, economics, game theory, and population biology. This chapter provides a survey to the emerging science of collectives.

  19. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  20. Flexible human collective wisdom.

    PubMed

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2015-12-01

    Group decisions typically outperform individual decisions. But how do groups combine their individual decisions to reach their collective decisions? Previous studies conceptualize collective decision making using static combination rules, be it a majority-voting rule or a weighted-averaging rule. Unknown is whether groups adapt their combination rules to changing information environments. We implemented a novel paradigm for which information obeyed a mixture of distributions, such that the optimal Bayesian rule is nonlinear and often follows minority opinions, while the majority rule leads to suboptimal but above chance performance. Using perceptual (Experiment 1) and cognitive (Experiment 2) signal-detection tasks, we switched the information environment halfway through the experiments to a mixture of distributions without informing participants. Groups gradually abandoned the majority rule to follow any minority opinion advocating signal presence with high confidence. Furthermore, groups with greater ability to abandon the majority rule achieved higher collective-decision accuracies. It is important to note that this abandonment was not triggered by performance loss for the majority rule relative to the first half of the experiment. Our results propose a new theory of human collective decision making: Humans make inferences about how information is distributed across individuals and time, and dynamically alter their joint decision algorithms to enhance the benefits of collective wisdom.

  1. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  2. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leon, Amanda; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Tsontos, Vardis; Shie, Chung-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use. Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer.

  3. Heat collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Ramlow, B.L.; Steele, R.R.

    1982-04-06

    A heat collection system is disclosed which is capable of collecting heat from an animal husbandry enclosures such as a dairy barn, and transferring the heat into a home. Animal husbandry enclosures, such as dairy barns, tend to have excess heat, even in winter, the excess heat normally being wasted. The heat is collected by a pair of evaporators located in the dairy barn, with the evaporators being oversized to limit the amount of cooling taking place in the barn. Fluid from the evaporators is compressed by compressors after which it passes through a condenser from which heat may be extracted into the home. Pressure regulating valves are provided to insure that the compressors are not overloaded and to insure that a maximum heating effect is achieved. A thermostatically controlled fan is provided to drive air across the condenser so that heat is introduced into the home.

  4. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  5. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  6. Materials and Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinseth, Lois

    1978-01-01

    This discussion of collection development considers (1) special problems as they relate to specific types of institutions--nursing, long term residential, psychiatric and developmental; (2) acquisition; (3) organization--classification, cataloging, and physical arrangement; (4) use--circulation, special methods, and the role of librarians; and (5)…

  7. The Fall Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeman, Barry A.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for collecting objects on the school grounds or in the surrounding neighborhood. Objects include feathers/fur, leaves, galls, seeds, shells, spiderwebs, and litter. Also presents procedures for making impressions of bark, leaves, fossils, flora, and shadows. All activities can be adopted for students in kindergarten through grade…

  8. Universities and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Donald C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to David Cameron's "More than an Academic Question" and to the review by Barbara Anderson disagreeing with Cameron's suggestion that democratization and decentralization were a mistake, and arguing for collective bargaining. The paper counters Cameron's support of the continuation of mandatory retirement with reference to the United…

  9. Surface reference data collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of remote sensing must define relationships between image data and conditions at corresponding points on the ground. Unfortunately, many published remote sensing reports focus on image processing techniques with little detail regarding the methods used for collecting ground truth data....

  10. Television's New Humane Collectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Robert L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes "Taxi,""Barney Miller,""Lou Grant," and "M*A*S*H" in terms of three fantasy themes: the realization of significant others, the alliance in action, and membership into personhood. From these themes emerges a rhetorical vision of the new humane collectivity. (PD)

  11. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  12. Deterritorializing Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne; Walsh, Susan; Byers, Michele; Rajiva, Mythili

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new move in the methodological practice of collective biography, by provoking a shift beyond any remnant attachment to the speaking/writing subject towards her dispersal and displacement via textual interventions that stress multivocality. These include the use of photographs, drama, and various genres of writing. Using a…

  13. Collection Maintenance and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sherry

    This resource guide provides information about the range of activities that can be implemented to maintain and improve the condition of research collections to ensure that they remain usable as long as possible. After an introduction that describes the major activities and a review of an investigation process that gives an overview of good…

  14. Collection Development Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.

    This collection development policy paper incorporates guidelines contributed by all university academic departments, as well as by members of the Library Learning Center professional staff. An alphabetical index provides access to major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth of…

  15. Collecting My Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, William G.

    A broad range of educational issues is treated in this collection of 120 short essays, written from the perspective of the author's 40 years in the education field. Section titles include: Teachers and Teaching; Episodes in the History of Education; Flights of Fancy; Defending the Schools; War and Peace; A Few Questions and Fewer Answers; and…

  16. Collections Define Cataloging's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    The role of catalogers within academic libraries is evolving to meet new demands and cultivating a broader understanding of cataloging--one that focuses on collections, not the catalog, and applies cataloger expertise across metadata activities. Working collaboratively as never before, catalogers are reinventing their place within the library.

  17. Collective network routing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  18. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the information collection...

  19. Collecting Passion with a Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Kay E.

    1986-01-01

    Explores collecting of children's books and discusses the motivations of collectors, various levels of collecting, bibliographic tools, sources of books, collection patterns, facsimiles, and cataloging. Lists of selected bibliographic tools and selected rare book dealers are included. (EM)

  20. Collecting rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

  1. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning. PMID:27620080

  2. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Ramapriyan, H.; Leon, A.; Tsontos, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use.Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Science themes can be: Specific applications (uses) of the data, e.g., landslide prediction Geophysical events (e.g., Hurricane Sandy) A specific science research problem Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer. Eligible resources include anything accessible via URL: data files: data file URLs data subsets: OPeNDAP, webification or Web Coverage Service URLs data visualizations: Web Map Service data search results: OpenSearch Atom response custom analysis workflows: e.g., Giovanni analysis URL

  3. 77 FR 71640 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection... a revised information collection from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork... before February 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments on the collection of information to William...

  4. 76 FR 74812 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request... information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, will...

  5. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  6. Collective uncertainty entanglement test.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Horodecki, Paweł; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2011-10-01

    For a given pure state of a composite quantum system we analyze the product of its projections onto a set of locally orthogonal separable pure states. We derive a bound for this product analogous to the entropic uncertainty relations. For bipartite systems the bound is saturated for maximally entangled states and it allows us to construct a family of entanglement measures, we shall call collectibility. As these quantities are experimentally accessible, the approach advocated contributes to the task of experimental quantification of quantum entanglement, while for a three-qubit system it is capable to identify the genuine three-party entanglement.

  7. Collective Uncertainty Entanglement Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Horodecki, Paweł; Życzkowski, Karol

    2011-10-01

    For a given pure state of a composite quantum system we analyze the product of its projections onto a set of locally orthogonal separable pure states. We derive a bound for this product analogous to the entropic uncertainty relations. For bipartite systems the bound is saturated for maximally entangled states and it allows us to construct a family of entanglement measures, we shall call collectibility. As these quantities are experimentally accessible, the approach advocated contributes to the task of experimental quantification of quantum entanglement, while for a three-qubit system it is capable to identify the genuine three-party entanglement.

  8. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  9. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  10. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  11. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  12. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  13. 78 FR 70577 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Requested, New Collection: Uniform Crime Reporting Data Collection Instrument Pretesting and Burden... of the form/collection: Uniform Crime Reporting Data Collection Instrument Pretesting and Burden... have in reporting crime data to the FBI. The Paperwork Reduction Act only allows for nine...

  14. 78 FR 28848 - Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS....

  15. Waste collection subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Practical ways were explored of improving waste compaction and of providing rapid turnaround between flights at essentially no cost for the space shuttle waste collection subsystem commode. Because of the possible application of a fully developed shuttle commode to the space station, means of providing waste treatment without overboard venting were also considered. Three basic schemes for compaction and rapid turnaround, each fully capable of meeting the objectives, were explored in sufficient depth to bring out the characteristic advantages and disadvantages of each. Tradeoff comparisons were very close between leading contenders and efforts were made to refine the design concepts sufficiently to justify a selection. The concept selected makes use of a sealed canister containing wastes that have been forcibly compacted, which is removable in flight. No selection was made between three superior non-venting treatment methods owing to the need for experimental evaluations of the processes involved. A system requirements definition document has been prepared to define the task for a test embodiment of the selected concept.

  16. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  17. The ARL Special Collections Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Joe A.; Panitch, Judith M.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) activities regarding special collections. Highlights include local and collaborative approaches; budget pressures; access to special collections; digitization programs; recruiting qualified staff; results of a survey of ARL special collections; and the need for ongoing statistics for special…

  18. Houston Cole Library Collection Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Abbot, Ed.; McAbee, Sonja L., Ed.

    This document reports on an assessment of the Jacksonville State University's Houston Cole Library collection that employed a variety of methodologies and tools, including list-checking, direct collection examination, shelflist measurement and analysis, WLN (Washington Library Network) conspectus sheets, analysis of OCLC/AMIGOS Collection Analysis…

  19. 75 FR 42662 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... FCCS. 65 FR 70390 (Nov. 20, 2000). Overview of Proposed Regulatory Changes This proposed regulation... to PBGC by various individuals, PBGC-13, Debt Collection. See 65 FR 25397 (May 1, 2000). Subpart A... promote aggressive debt collection, using for each debt all available and appropriate collection...

  20. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  1. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  2. Physician collective bargaining.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Anthony Hunter

    2009-11-01

    Current antitrust enforcement policy unduly restricts physician collaboration, especially among small physician practices. Among other matters, current enforcement policy has hindered the ability of physicians to implement efficient healthcare delivery innovations, such as the acquisition and implementation of health information technology (HIT). Furthermore, the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice have unevenly enforced the antitrust laws, thereby fostering an increasingly severe imbalance in the healthcare market in which dominant health insurers enjoy the benefit of largely unfettered consolidation at the cost of both consumers and providers. This article traces the history of antitrust enforcement in healthcare, describe the current marketplace, and suggest the problems that must be addressed to restore balance to the healthcare market and help to ensure an innovative and efficient healthcare system capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. Specifically, the writer explains how innovative physician collaborations have been improperly stifled by the policies of the federal antitrust enforcement agencies, and recommend that these policies be relaxed to permit physicians more latitude to bargain collectively with health insurers in conjunction with procompetitive clinical integration efforts. The article also explains how the unbridled consolidation of the health insurance industry has resulted in higher premiums to consumers and lower compensation to physicians, and recommends that further consolidation be prohibited. Finally, the writer discusses how health insurers with market power are improperly undermining the physician-patient relationship, and recommend federal antitrust enforcement agencies take appropriate steps to protect patients and their physicians from this anticompetitive conduct. The article also suggests such steps will require changes in three areas: (1) health insurers must be prohibited from engaging in anticompetitive

  3. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  4. 77 FR 6573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  5. Collective behavior of inanimate boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2010-05-01

    We propose an inanimate system composed of camphor boats in an annular water channel in order to understand the collective motions. The boats move on the water surface spontaneously and interact with one another through the concentration of the camphor molecules on the water. We observed several modes of collective motion, e.g., behaviors analogous to traffic flow or an ant trail. Our system provides a convenient experimental setup for the investigation of a variety of collective motions.

  6. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  7. Current Collection from Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra (Editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (Editor); Stone, Nobie H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

  8. On the psychodynamics of collecting.

    PubMed

    Subkowski, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The urge to collect is a ubiquitous phenomenon which has anthropological, sociobiological and individual psychodynamic roots, but occurs far more frequently among men than women. The author examines the reasons for this gender difference and defines systematic collecting to distinguish it from addictive, obsessive and messy collecting, and from related phenomena such as perversion. The mode of collecting and choice of object are important indicators as to the unconscious psychodynamics of a collector and offer opportunity to describe his structural level. Collecting ranges across a broad spectrum, from an ego-syntonic integrated mode, i.e. sublimation, to a neurotic defence against pre-oedipal or oedipal traumas and conflicts. Alongside this drive-theoretical approach, object and Kleinian theory are also applied to the understanding of collecting. Collecting represents a specific form of object relating and way of handling primary loss trauma, which is different from addiction, compulsion, or perversion. Under certain circumstances collecting can also result in a successful Gestalt or way of life. The paper concludes with a case study showing how collecting develops from a pre-oedipal to a more integrated oedipal mode during the course of the analysis, which is reflected in changes in the transference. PMID:16581582

  9. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  10. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  11. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  12. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  13. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  14. Understanding collective agency in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina; Jordan, Isabella; Wiesemann, Claudia; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Bioethicists tend to focus on the individual as the relevant moral subject. Yet, in highly complex and socially differentiated healthcare systems a number of social groups, each committed to a common cause, are involved in medical decisions and sometimes even try to influence bioethical discourses according to their own agenda. We argue that the significance of these collective actors is unjustifiably neglected in bioethics. The growing influence of collective actors in the fields of biopolitics and bioethics leads us to pursue the question as to how collective moral claims can be characterized and justified. We pay particular attention to elaborating the circumstances under which collective actors can claim 'collective agency.' Specifically, we develop four normative-practical criteria for collective agency in order to determine the conditions that must be given to reasonably speak of 'collective autonomy'. For this purpose, we analyze patient organizations and families, which represent two quite different kinds of groups and can both be conceived as collective actors of high relevance for bioethical practice. Finally, we discuss some practical implications and explain why the existence of a shared practice of trust is of immediate normative relevance in this respect. PMID:26948497

  15. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  16. Collective Bargaining: Implications for Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Kenneth P.; Lozier, G. Gregory

    The recent advance of collective bargaining into higher education is such that many colleges and universities may anticipate several changes of potentially major proportions in their decisionmaking patterns. One feature of collective bargaining is the discontent on the part of many faculties to rely on informal or noncodified procedures in matters…

  17. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  18. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  19. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2011-08-16

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  20. Ways to maximize effective collections.

    PubMed

    Spears, Tracy L

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices across the country face a variety of collection challenges, especially when considering the condition of today's economy. It is now more important than ever for a practice to establish proactive collection procedures and learn the keys to minimizing collection problems. This starts with educating patients about your payment terms prior to appointments and educating your staff to be aware of early warning signs when an account could become a problem. Taking steps that lead to quick resolution, while retaining patients, is a vital component to increased cash flow and fewer aging accounts in receivables. Careful review of your practice's policies on billing and collections can lead to a greater knowledge on how healthy the practice really is. This article provides key strategies that will help streamline your billing and collections process and recover money owed to you while maintaining those ever so important patient relationships.

  1. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  2. Leadership, collective personality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, David A; Jones, Lisa M

    2005-05-01

    By viewing behavior regularities at the individual and collective level as functionally isomorphic, a referent-shift compositional model for the Big 5 personality dimensions is developed. On the basis of this compositional model, a common measure of Big 5 personality at the individual level is applied to the collective as a whole. Within this framework, it is also hypothesized that leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) would predict collective personality and that collective personality would be significantly related to collective performance. The results supported these hypotheses using a sample of franchised units. On the basis of recent research at the individual level, several interactions among the various personality dimensions were hypothesized and supported. Implications are discussed. PMID:15910146

  3. 75 FR 18551 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... (prepared and adopted at the Eighteenth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting as Recommendation XVIII-1). Because this Antarctic Treaty System document satisfies the environmental protection information... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Antarctic emergency response plan...

  4. 77 FR 6859 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... The regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or...

  5. 77 FR 46527 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... April 30, 2012, MSPB sought public comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d). See 77 FR 25501... describes the nature of the information collection and its estimated burden and cost. DATE: Submit...

  6. 78 FR 68908 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity... Service Data Collection). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: The information collection is to... opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under...

  7. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  8. Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birden, Susan

    The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case study draws…

  9. 76 FR 23850 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Approval of a Revision in Information Collection(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ..., or a region. A 60-day Federal Register notice was published on February 15, 2011 (76 FR 8804). Since... 60-day Federal Register notice was published on February 15, 2011 (76 FR 8804). Since the publication... Collection(s); Comments Requested: National Infrastructure Investments Grant Program or ``TIGER...

  10. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  11. 78 FR 2693 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget... Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attention Department of Justice Desk... collection of information are encouraged. Your comments should address one or more of the following...

  12. 78 FR 64012 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with... or more of the following four points: --Evaluate whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, including...

  13. Growing Mathematical Understanding through Collective Image Making, Collective Image Having, and Collective Property Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In the research reported in this paper, we develop a theoretical perspective to describe and account for the growth of collective mathematical understanding. We discuss collective processes in mathematics, drawing in particular on theoretical work in the domains of improvisational jazz and theatre. Using examples of data from a study of elementary…

  14. Pacific area data collection stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of environmental data collection systems at several remotely located sites in islands in the Pacific Ocean is summarized. The effort was designed to enhance the ability to collect hydrological information. The data collection station consists of a data acquisition system for handling data, a transmitter for uplinking information to the GOES-W geostationary satellite, and a variety of environmental sensors for data accumulation. Each system was assembled, tested, and deployed on designated islands. The concept of using microprocessors for handling data at remote sites and relaying it via a satellite link is a cost effective approach. Such systems require high reliability and proven performance in the field.

  15. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  16. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as part of its...

  17. Student Employees and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    Union organizing activities, protection of state and federal labor laws, and the division of students into a separate collective bargaining unit are discussed; and the use of separate units is discouraged. Journal availabilty: University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506.) (MSE)

  18. Collective Bargaining Laws in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Kenneth H.

    1975-01-01

    This author discusses the five elements in the pattern of emerging education legislation. As more states develop laws governing collective bargaining, they will look to the states that have blazed the way, as outlined here. (Editor)

  19. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  20. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  1. Curvature Interaction in Collective Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Richard

    2012-12-01

    For the Riemannian space, built from the collective coordinates used within nuclear models, an additional interaction with the metric is investigated, using the collective equivalent to Einstein's curvature scalar. The coupling strength is determined using a fit with the AME2003 ground state masses. An extended finite-range droplet model including curvature is introduced, which generates significant improvements for light nuclei and nuclei in the trans-fermium region.

  2. Neurodynamical model of collective brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1992-01-01

    A dynamical system which mimics collective purposeful activities of a set of units of intelligence is introduced and discussed. A global control of the unit activities is replaced by the probabilistic correlations between them. These correlations are learned during a long term period of performing collective tasks, and are stored in the synaptic interconnections. The model is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations with terminal attractors and repellers, and does not contain any man-made digital devices.

  3. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  4. Remote application for spectral collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Shelli R.; Steele, R. J.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Firpi, Alexer H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the area of collecting field spectral data using a spectrometer, it is common to have the instrument over the material of interest. In certain instances it is beneficial to have the ability to remotely control the spectrometer. While several systems have the ability to use a form of connectivity to capture the measurement it is essential to have the ability to control the settings. Additionally, capturing reference information (metadata) about the setup, system configuration, collection, location, atmospheric conditions, and sample information is necessary for future analysis leading towards material discrimination and identification. This has the potential to lead to cumbersome field collection and a lack of necessary information for post processing and analysis. The method presented in this paper describes a capability to merge all parts of spectral collection from logging reference information to initial analysis as well as importing information into a web-hosted spectral database. This allows the simplification of collecting, processing, analyzing and storing field spectra for future analysis and comparisons. This concept is developed for field collection of thermal data using the Designs and Prototypes (D&P) Hand Portable FT-IR Spectrometer (Model 102). The remote control of the spectrometer is done with a customized Android application allowing the ability to capture reference information, process the collected data from radiance to emissivity using a temperature emissivity separation algorithm and store the data into a custom web-based service. The presented system of systems allows field collected spectra to be used for various applications by spectral analysts in the future.

  5. Collective Quartics from Simple Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This article classifies Little Higgs models that have collective quartic couplings. There are two classes of collective quartics: Special Cosets and Special Quartics. After taking into account dangerous singlets, the smallest Special Coset models are SU(5)/SO(5) and SU(6)/Sp(6). The smallest Special Quartic model is SU(5)/SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and has not previously been considered as a candidate Little Higgs model.

  6. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  7. Culture collections over the world.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection

  8. Culture collections over the world.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection

  9. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cillik, Ivan; Prochaska, Jan

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE-Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for different operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of

  10. Innovation in the collective brain.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-03-19

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality--languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time.

  11. Innovation in the collective brain.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-03-19

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality--languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time. PMID:26926282

  12. Collective couplings: Rectification and supertransmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Gernot; Giusteri, Giulio Giuseppe; Celardo, Giuseppe Luca

    2016-09-01

    We investigate heat transport between two thermal reservoirs that are coupled via a large spin composed of N identical two-level systems. One coupling implements the dissipative Dicke superradiance. The other coupling is locally of the pure-dephasing type and requires to go beyond the standard weak-coupling limit by employing a Bogoliubov mapping in the corresponding reservoir. After the mapping, the large spin is coupled to a collective mode with the original pure-dephasing interaction, but the collective mode is dissipatively coupled to the residual oscillators. Treating the large spin and the collective mode as the system, a standard master equation approach is now able to capture the energy transfer between the two reservoirs. Assuming fast relaxation of the collective mode, we derive a coarse-grained rate equation for the large spin only and discuss how the original Dicke superradiance is affected by the presence of the additional reservoir. Our main finding is a cooperatively enhanced rectification effect due to the interplay of supertransmittant heat currents (scaling quadratically with N ) and the asymmetric coupling to both reservoirs. For large N , the system can thus significantly amplify current asymmetries under bias reversal, functioning as a heat diode. We also briefly discuss the case when the couplings of the collective spin are locally dissipative, showing that the heat-diode effect is still present.

  13. Distributed resource management: garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, N.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in designing high-performance distributed symbolic-processing computers. These architectures have special needs for resource management and dynamic reclamation of unused memory cells and objects. The memory management or garbage-collection aspects of these architectures are studied. Also introduced is a synchronous distributed algorithm for garbage collection. A special data structure is defined to handle the distributed nature of the problem. The author formally expresses the algorithm and shows the results of a synchronous garbage-collection simulation and its effect on the interconnection-network message to traffic. He presents an asynchronous distributed garbage collection to handle the resource management for a system that does not require a global synchronization mechanism. The distributed data structure is modified to include the asynchronous aspects of the algorithm. This method is extended to a multiple-mutator scheme, and the problem of having several processors share portion of a cyclical graph is discussed. Two models for the analytical study of the garbage-collection algorithms discussed are provided.

  14. Collection Development: Great Finds for Your Collectibles Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Margarete

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews 41 books and periodicals about antiques and collectibles such as glassware, porcelain, dolls, buttons, ceramics, folk arts, furniture, jewelry, rugs, textiles, and woodenware. Books are arranged in the following topic areas: price guides; general surveys; out-of-print titles; trends; conservation and restoration; dealers; and…

  15. Faire preuve d'intelligence collective (To Display Collective Intelligence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laferriere, Therese

    2000-01-01

    The need for lifelong learning is increasing as humanity transforms the planet into a global village. The growing number of people using the electronic infrastructure is creating new practices in which learning and work are intertwined. Professional educators must build the collective intelligence required for a knowledge-based society, and in…

  16. Learning the Collection: A New Librarian's Experience in Collection Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The author is a reference and instruction librarian at Iowa State University with collection development and liaison responsibilities for chemistry, biochemistry, entomology, and natural resource ecology. She recently came to librarianship with an education and three years' experience in biochemistry and biotechnology. During the last four years…

  17. Collective Design of an E-Textbook: Teachers' Collective Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine; Pepin, Birgit; Sabra, Hussein; Trouche, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated design processes in teacher collectives, which have been made possible by new "digital" opportunities: platforms, discussion lists, etc. The object of our study is the French Sésamath teacher association and its design of a grade 10 e-textbook, more precisely the design of the "functions" chapter.…

  18. 76 FR 57801 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C....

  19. 76 FR 33026 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C....

  20. Collective cognition in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Couzin, Iain D

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable collective action of organisms such as swarming ants, schooling fish and flocking birds has long captivated the attention of artists, naturalists, philosophers and scientists. Despite a long history of scientific investigation, only now are we beginning to decipher the relationship between individuals and group-level properties. This interdisciplinary effort is beginning to reveal the underlying principles of collective decision-making in animal groups, demonstrating how social interactions, individual state, environmental modification and processes of informational amplification and decay can all play a part in tuning adaptive response. It is proposed that important commonalities exist with the understanding of neuronal processes and that much could be learned by considering collective animal behavior in the framework of cognitive science. PMID:19058992

  1. Collectibility for mixed quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Horodecki, Paweł; Życzkowski, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Bounds analogous to entropic uncertainty relations allow one to design practical tests to detect quantum entanglement by a collective measurement performed on several copies of the state analyzed. This approach, initially worked out for pure states only [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.150502 107, 150502 (2011)], is extended here for mixed quantum states. We define collectibility for any mixed states of a multipartite system. Deriving bounds for collectibility for positive partially transposed states of given purity provides insight into the structure of entangled quantum states. In the case of two qubits the application of complementary measurements and coincidence based detections leads to a test of entanglement of pseudopure states.

  2. Collective effects in ciliar arrays.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Peter; Ryskin, Andrey

    2006-12-08

    Collective effects in one-dimensional ciliar arrays are studied analytically and numerically. A new phase oscillator description for ciliar motion is introduced which depends only on a single parameter. It allows the systematic study of hydrodynamic interactions between cilia exhibiting arbitrary beating patterns. It is shown that if the hydrodynamic interactions do not alter the beating pattern of the cilia no synchronization of ciliar motion occurs. This is in particular the case in arrays with low ciliar densities. But hydrodynamic interactions can lead to formation of a collective (metachronal) wave which is stable for periodic boundary conditions. In finite arrays free boundaries destroy this collective motion. The dispersion relation for metachronal waves is found to be non-universal, i.e., to depend crucially on the microscopic details of the ciliar beating pattern.

  3. Collective effects in ciliar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Peter; Ryskin, Andrey

    2006-12-01

    Collective effects in one-dimensional ciliar arrays are studied analytically and numerically. A new phase oscillator description for ciliar motion is introduced which depends only on a single parameter. It allows the systematic study of hydrodynamic interactions between cilia exhibiting arbitrary beating patterns. It is shown that if the hydrodynamic interactions do not alter the beating pattern of the cilia no synchronization of ciliar motion occurs. This is in particular the case in arrays with low ciliar densities. But hydrodynamic interactions can lead to formation of a collective (metachronal) wave which is stable for periodic boundary conditions. In finite arrays free boundaries destroy this collective motion. The dispersion relation for metachronal waves is found to be non-universal, i.e., to depend crucially on the microscopic details of the ciliar beating pattern.

  4. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  5. Shimpent mobility accountability collection (SMAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.E.; Hamberger, C.R.; Moerchen, M.F.; Maddigan, R.J.; Lester, P.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    SMAC{sup 4} is the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) information system that collects, stores, and analyzes information on all unclassified shipments to and from DOE facilities. SMAC is operated for and under the direction of DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) Transportation Management Division (TMD). Currently, SMAC serves DOE Headquarters, Operations offices, Field Offices, and 64 field locations. The system provides data and analysis services to DOE and its contractors, transportation managers, and specialists. It is used to collect data from the sources of transportation activities, screen the data to ensure their quality, train personnel who collect and report the data, analyze data elements, help users conduct their own analyses, and develop and present reports on DOE`s transportation activities to DOE and contractor management.

  6. Controlling Collective Behaviors of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We study the collective dynamics of a population of Dictyostelium cells, focusing on how single cell dynamics influence, and give rise to, the behavior of the aggregate. Through analysis of quantitative single cell experiments, we develop a simple model of the single cell response to time-dependent pulses of the extracellular signaling molecule cAMP, characterized by a particular type of excitable system. We then use this model to study collective multicellular dynamics mediated by diffusion coupling. We first consider the mean-field case where we find an intriguing ``dynamical quorum sensing'' transition in which all cells simultaneously transition from quiescent to oscillating across the phase boundary. Then we include spatial dynamics and study pattern formation, both with and without the cells capable of chemotactic response to signal gradients. Finally, we highlight how modification of single cells can alter the collective dynamics.

  7. 75 FR 16484 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... respond to a collection of information; search data sources; complete and review the collection of... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government Citizen Engagement Ratings, Rankings, and Flagging; Information Collection; OMB Control No....

  8. 75 FR 8995 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection, Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Requested ACTION: 30-day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New collection; InfraGard Knowledge... information collection: New collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: InfraGard...

  9. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    PubMed

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  10. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  11. Improved multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, I.A.; Stallard, R.P.; Woodward, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the results of an investigation of existing multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms and introduces two new algorithms which significantly improve some aspects of the performance of their predecessors. The two algorithms arise from different starting assumptions. One considers the case where the algorithm will terminate successfully whatever list structure is being processed and assumes that the extra data space should be minimised. The other seeks a very fast garbage collection time for list structures that do not contain loops. Results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms. 7 references.

  12. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  13. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  14. The Process Manager Collective Library

    2009-02-26

    The PMGR_COLLECTIVE library provides an interface that MPI implemenataions may call to initialize ranks in a scalable way. It was developed to reduce the startup time MPI appkications, however, other tools such as debugger infrastructures have also found use cases for it. When first developed, it reduced the startup time from 15 minutes to 10 seconds on as 8192-node cluster.

  15. Information Epidemics and Science Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabah, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of scientific literature growth focuses on implications for library collection development. Information epidemics, or dramatic points of growth, are examined in "Physics Abstracts"; a case study from the superconductivity literature is presented; and the distribution between the growth of journal articles, conference papers, and other…

  16. Collective effects and beam decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; Chao, A.

    1993-04-01

    The effect of collective forces due to an impedance on the decoherence process in an accelerator is studied. A general formalism is developed that allows treatment of different types of impedances. We show that increase of the imaginary impedance causes a slowing down of the decoherence. For the real impedance, our theory demonstrates transition from Landau-damped oscillations to instability.

  17. The power of collective ambition.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Truelove, Emily

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, some companies have not just weathered the economic storm: They've emerged stronger than ever. How did such players as Four Seasons, Sephora, and Standard Chartered Bank defy conventional logic? Instead of pursuing a single ambition, such as profits, employees defined a collective ambition. As a result, those organizations deepened their engagement with employees and other stakeholders and became sustainably profitable. Purpose, a company's reason for existence, is the central element of collective ambition. The other elements--vision, targets and milestones, strategic and operational priorities, brand promise, core values, and leader behaviors--must be aligned to serve the company's purpose. Articulating the elements of collective ambition can give everyone in the organization a better sense of the company's purpose and how they can contribute to it. Purpose does not have to be about saving the world; providing excellent entertainment or banking services is just as meaningful a purpose as improving health care in emerging economies--as long as it is an authentic representation of why the company exists. To shape and then achieve a collective ambition, companies must strengthen their organizational glue (the collaborative engagement that creates a unified culture) and grease (the disciplined execution that enterprisewide change initiatives require).

  18. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  19. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  20. 77 FR 38278 - Collection Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... propulsion. Currently, EIA collects data on electric battery-powered vehicles with the code ``EVC BP''. EIA would like to add the code ``EVC PH'' to differentiate between PHEVs and AFVs that are powered exclusively by battery. EIA would continue to use the code ``EVC BP'' to identify vehicles that are...

  1. Composite collective decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  2. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms.

  3. Collective Bargaining in Ontario, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Asher; Badgley, Susan

    This report highlights negotiations and trends occurring in the major collective bargaining in the province of Ontario, Canada in 1972. Bargaining during the year was centered primarily on non-manufacturing industries and in the public sector. Major issues negotiated were wages, improved working conditions, job security, and length of work week.…

  4. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  5. Integrating the Curricula: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    In response to the search for ways to create forms of schooling that are more holistic and natural, and more integrated and interwoven, this collection of articles pulls together elements of the multifaceted concept of curriculum integration. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the reasons and rationale for moving toward more holistic…

  6. 75 FR 68203 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... by PBGC from another agency (for example, when a PBGC employee owes a student loan debt to the United... FCCS. 65 FR 70390 (Nov. 20, 2000). On July 22, 2010 (at 75 FR 42662), PBGC published a proposed rule to... individuals, PBGC-13, Debt Collection. See 75 FR 37842 (June 30, 2010). Subpart A--4903.1 to 4903.4 Subpart...

  7. The Multiage Classroom: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    Noting that the recent call for holistic models of schooling dictates a thorough investigation of more natural groupings of students, this collection of articles reviews available literature on multiage, nongraded, continuous progress classrooms. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the overriding concerns and the pros and cons of such…

  8. The Mosque Project: Collective Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the author's fifth-graders about Islam through art was a challenge. Remembering a colleague's "Collective Architecture" project, he reworked the concept using mosque architecture as the basis for a new project. The goal was to introduce Islam and its basic tenets using the visual arts, with the hope of enhancing cultural tolerance and…

  9. Biological Collections: Chasing the Ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kamenski, P. A.; Sazonov, A. E.; Fedyanin, A. A.; Sadovnichy, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an analysis of existing biological collections in Russia and abroad set up in the framework of the project “Scientific Basis of the National Biobank –Depository of Living Systems” by M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University [1]. PMID:27437135

  10. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  11. The power of collective ambition.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Truelove, Emily

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, some companies have not just weathered the economic storm: They've emerged stronger than ever. How did such players as Four Seasons, Sephora, and Standard Chartered Bank defy conventional logic? Instead of pursuing a single ambition, such as profits, employees defined a collective ambition. As a result, those organizations deepened their engagement with employees and other stakeholders and became sustainably profitable. Purpose, a company's reason for existence, is the central element of collective ambition. The other elements--vision, targets and milestones, strategic and operational priorities, brand promise, core values, and leader behaviors--must be aligned to serve the company's purpose. Articulating the elements of collective ambition can give everyone in the organization a better sense of the company's purpose and how they can contribute to it. Purpose does not have to be about saving the world; providing excellent entertainment or banking services is just as meaningful a purpose as improving health care in emerging economies--as long as it is an authentic representation of why the company exists. To shape and then achieve a collective ambition, companies must strengthen their organizational glue (the collaborative engagement that creates a unified culture) and grease (the disciplined execution that enterprisewide change initiatives require). PMID:22250354

  12. Collecting Disability Data from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony; Georgeson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and national trial of a methodology for collecting disability data directly from parents, enabling schools and local authorities to meet their obligations under the "Disability Discrimination Act" (DDA; 2005) to promote equality of opportunity for all children. It illustrates the complexities around…

  13. Collection Development and Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the ethical dilemmas of library collection development through three specific examples related to scholarly communication, including the ongoing effort by publishers to use licensing contracts to abolish interlibrary loans for information in electronic format. Considers information needs of clients versus optimizing public access to…

  14. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  15. 76 FR 17331 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Register at 75 FR 68956. This final rule adopts, without change, that interim final rule that set... removing 12 CFR part 1704 that was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 68956 on November 10, 2010... RIN 2590-AA15 Debt Collection AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency; Office of Federal...

  16. COLLECTION OF UNDISTURBED SURFACE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Resource Council identified the need for a capability to collect undisturbed surface sediments. Surface sediments are an important source for most exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls via direct uptake from water in contact with sediments. An innovative sedi...

  17. Further Observations on Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grede, John F.

    This 1976 document discusses the growth and impact of collective bargaining on higher education, based on examples from the City Colleges of Chicago (Illinois). The paper provides background information on the growth of unions in higher education, highlights the differing perceptions of unions, describes the components of a union contract, and…

  18. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  19. Records Inventory Data Collection Software

    1995-03-01

    DATALINK was created to provide an easy to use data collection program for records management software products. It provides several useful tools for capturing and validating record index data in the field. It also allows users to easily create a comma delimited, ASCII text file for data export into most records management software products.

  20. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  1. Final Observations on Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grede, John F.

    This document recounts the events, from the administration's point of view, leading to the inception of collective bargaining between the City Colleges of Chicago and the Cook County College Teachers Union in 1967. In this account, Chancellor Shabat recalls the critical closing moments of the negotiations during the spring of 1967. For some time…

  2. Automated microorganism Sample Collection Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, L. S.; Graham, M. D.; Umbreit, W.

    1969-01-01

    Modified Gelman Sampler obtains representative sample of microorganism population. Proposed Sample Collection Module is based on direct inoculation of selected solid growth media encased in a cartridge at all times except during inoculation. Cartridge can be handled with no danger of contamination to sample or operator.

  3. Classroom Collections and Reading Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith

    This study examined the reading habits of 301 fourth-grade pupils in Israel. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the type of school library and the pupils' reading habits over the long range. The hypothesis was that pupils who have a central library in their school together with classroom collections read more than pupils…

  4. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  5. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  6. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  7. 76 FR 72446 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) invites the general public and Federal agencies to comment on the renewal of the Standard Form 425, Federal Financial Report and the SF-425A, Federal Financial Report Attachment (collectively known as ``the FFR''). The FFR is used in reporting financial information under grants......

  8. 17 CFR 204.75 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection services. 204.75... DEBT COLLECTION Miscellaneous: Credit Bureau Reporting, Collection Services § 204.75 Collection services. Section 13 of the Debt Collection Act (31 U.S.C. 3718) authorizes agencies to enter...

  9. 75 FR 14455 - Agency Information Collection Activities: E-Verify Data Collection Survey; New Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: E-Verify Data Collection Survey; New Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information... Collection: New information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: E-Verify Data Collection (3)...

  10. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... involves the use of genome-wide analyses to identify genes with altered expression or activation as a... variations associated with the ADEs reported. If this project identifies definite genotype...

  11. Collective beating of artificial microcilia.

    PubMed

    Coq, Naïs; Bricard, Antoine; Delapierre, Francois-Damien; Malaquin, Laurent; du Roure, Olivia; Fermigier, Marc; Bartolo, Denis

    2011-07-01

    We combine technical, experimental, and theoretical efforts to investigate the collective dynamics of artificial microcilia in a viscous fluid. We take advantage of soft lithography and colloidal self-assembly to devise microcarpets made of hundreds of slender magnetic rods. This novel experimental setup is used to investigate the dynamics of extended cilia arrays driven by a precessing magnetic field. Whereas the dynamics of an isolated cilium is a rigid body rotation, collective beating results in a symmetry breaking of the precession patterns. The trajectories of the cilia are anisotropic and experience a significant structural evolution as the actuation frequency increases. We present a minimal model to account for our experimental findings and demonstrate how the global geometry of the array imposes the shape of the trajectories via long-range hydrodynamic interactions. PMID:21797546

  12. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  13. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  14. Optimality, reduction and collective motion

    PubMed Central

    Justh, Eric W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The planar self-steering particle model of agents in a collective gives rise to dynamics on the N-fold direct product of SE(2), the rigid motion group in the plane. Assuming a connected, undirected graph of interaction between agents, we pose a family of symmetric optimal control problems with a coupling parameter capturing the strength of interactions. The Hamiltonian system associated with the necessary conditions for optimality is reducible to a Lie–Poisson dynamical system possessing interesting structure. In particular, the strong coupling limit reveals additional (hidden) symmetry, beyond the manifest one used in reduction: this enables explicit integration of the dynamics, and demonstrates the presence of a ‘master clock’ that governs all agents to steer identically. For finite coupling strength, we show that special solutions exist with steering controls proportional across the collective. These results suggest that optimality principles may provide a framework for understanding imitative behaviours observed in certain animal aggregations. PMID:27547087

  15. Collectivity of {sup 98}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, C.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Pissulla, T.; Moeller, O.

    2009-01-28

    The N = 52 nucleus {sup 98}Pd was investigated at the Cologne TANDEM accelerator both with the Cologne plunger using the recoil distance Doppler-shift method (RDDS) and with the Cologne HORUS spectrometer for a {gamma}{gamma} angular correlation experiment. For the first time lifetimes of yrast states and highly excited low-spin states were measured in {sup 98}Pd and the low-spin level scheme was extended. From our data we were able to interpret {sup 98}Pd as a nucleus that exhibits some collective features, but is obviously much less collective than the neighboring N = 52 isotones {sup 94}Mo and {sup 96}Ru due to its closeness to doubly-magic {sup 100}Sn.

  16. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  17. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  18. 77 FR 37907 - Information Collection; Service Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a currently approved information collection... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of functions of the Federal...

  19. 75 FR 5638 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of information collection... September 30, 2012, for the following information collection request (ICR): OMB Control No....

  20. 77 FR 43080 - Information Collection; Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Payments. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information...

  1. 75 FR 81650 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Open Letter to...), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following...

  2. 75 FR 27005 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., but information may also be collected by mail or fax. III. Data Title: NASA acquisition process... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (10-049). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The...

  3. 76 FR 9820 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: . ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and.../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub....

  4. 77 FR 20616 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  5. 75 FR 3941 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... respondents, including automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  6. 78 FR 5450 - Information Collection; Prompt Payment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... and approve an extension to a previously approved information collection requirement concerning prompt... Information Collection 9000- 0102, Prompt Payment, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  7. 78 FR 26656 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check Inquiry and Pre-Screening Qualifications Certification ACTION... existing collection of information. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police Check Inquiry and...

  8. 78 FR 12792 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Application for Restoration of Explosives Privileges ACTION: 30-Day Notice... currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Restoration of...

  9. 77 FR 43366 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary Magazine Questionnaire for Agencies/ Entities Who Store Explosives... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Voluntary Magazine Questionnaire for Agencies/Entities...

  10. 76 FR 4376 - Office of Justice Programs; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection, Requirements Data Collection Application for the Juvenile... Data Collection Application for the Juvenile Accountability. Incentive Block Grants Program. (3)...

  11. Electrospray Collection of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziekan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A report describes ElectroSpray Ionization based Electrostatic Precipitation (ESIEP) for collecting lunar dust particles. While some HEPA filtration processes may remove a higher fraction (>99.9 percent) of the particles, the high efficiency may not be appropriate from an overall system standpoint, especially in light of the relatively large power requirement that such systems demand. The new electrospray particle capture technology is described as a variant of electrostatic precipitation that eliminates the current drawbacks of electrostatic precipitation. The new approach replaces corona prone field with a mist of highly charged micro-droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) as the mechanism by which incoming particles are attracted and captured. In electrospray, a miniscule flow rate (microliters/minute) of liquid (typically water and a small amount of salt to enhance conductivity) is fed from the tip of a needle held at a high voltage potential relative to an opposite counter electrode. At sufficient field strength, a sharp liquid meniscus forms , which emits a jet of highly charged droplets that drift through the surrounding gas and are collected on the walls of a conductive tube. Particles in the gas have a high probability of contact with the droplets either by adhering to the droplets or otherwise acquiring a high level of charge, causing them to be captured on the collecting electrode as well. The spray acts as a filtration material that is continuously introduced and removed from the gas flow, and thus can never become clogged.

  12. Introducing the Atmospheric Visualization Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, C. M.; Andrew, K.; Mace, G. G.; McCollum, T.; Gobble, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Visualization Collection is a digital library collection, a section in the NSF's National Science Digital Library. The collection has two essential components. The first is an archive of images based on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The second is a collection of educational material based on atmospheric science concepts that use these data images. The data image archive focuses on the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which has the largest collection of ground-based remote-sensing atmospheric instruments. Our visualization tools are automated to create the data images for both archival and real-time uses. ARM instrument mentors and ARM scientist as well as other scientists involved in campaigns at the ARM SGP site review our visualization work for scientific quality. While the archive of weather images was initially created for scientists, collaboration with teachers has identified many of the barriers to educational use. This revealed the need for more educationally friendly interfaces into our weather images and the need for greater documentation. One of the results is our geophysical focus area interface, allowing teachers and students to access these data images. The visualization tools used to produce these data images are available through an open source repository. Testing with undergraduate students has demonstrated the usability of these tools with data from the ARM Archive for class projects. While the task of reviewing and improving user interfaces continues, we have reached a stage where educators and students can easily access our atmospheric data images. An initial set of peer reviewed lesson plans based on these data images has been the basis for workshops to introduce teachers to the AVC. To further involve these teachers a Lesson Plan Sandbox. The Lesson Plan Sandbox allows teachers to submit their lesson plans to share with others, to review lesson plans submitted by other teachers, and to add

  13. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... performance standards for alluvial valley floors. This information will be used to enable the...

  14. 78 FR 34676 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments are clearly understood, and the impact of collection requirements...

  15. Collective sensing and collective responses in quorum-sensing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Popat, R.; Cornforth, D. M.; McNally, L.; Brown, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria often face fluctuating environments, and in response many species have evolved complex decision-making mechanisms to match their behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Some environmental cues provide direct and reliable information (such as nutrient concentrations) and can be responded to individually. Other environmental parameters are harder to infer and require a collective mechanism of sensing. In addition, some environmental challenges are best faced by a group of cells rather than an individual. In this review, we discuss how bacteria sense and overcome environmental challenges as a group using collective mechanisms of sensing, known as ‘quorum sensing’ (QS). QS is characterized by the release and detection of small molecules, potentially allowing individuals to infer environmental parameters such as density and mass transfer. While a great deal of the molecular mechanisms of QS have been described, there is still controversy over its functional role. We discuss what QS senses and how, what it controls and why, and how social dilemmas shape its evolution. Finally, there is a growing focus on the use of QS inhibitors as antibacterial chemotherapy. We discuss the claim that such a strategy could overcome the evolution of resistance. By linking existing theoretical approaches to data, we hope this review will spur greater collaboration between experimental and theoretical researchers. PMID:25505130

  16. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  17. 76 FR 68787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Collection; Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review... approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (3) Agency...

  18. 74 FR 28068 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-06-12

    ... Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-day notice of information Collection Under Review: National Youth Gang... collection. 2. Title of the Form/Collection: National Youth Gang Survey. 3. Agency form number, if any,...

  19. 76 FR 71568 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... technology to minimize the information collection burden. 1. Type of Information Collection Request: New collection (request for new OMB control number); Title of Information Collection: Nursing Home Quality Improvement Questionnaire; Use: The information obtained via the Nursing Home Quality...

  20. 78 FR 31965 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...-0113. Type of Information Collection: Revision of a currently approved information collection. FEMA... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency OMB No. 1660-0113] Agency Information Collection...

  1. 78 FR 13057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism... to review and approve a previously approved information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any of the...

  2. 78 FR 73211 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... title of the information collection: NRC Nuclear Education Grantee Survey. 2. Current OMB approval... use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology? The public may... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 14020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... of information technology. Emergency Shortages Data Collection System--Section 903(d)(2) of the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Emergency Shortages Data Collection System AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  4. 78 FR 71704 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recording, Reporting and Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recording, Reporting and Data Collection Requirements--Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and...: Title of Information Collection: Recording, Reporting, and Data Collection--Student and Exchange...

  5. 76 FR 6782 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information Collection Request for Superfund Site Evaluation and Hazard Ranking System AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR...

  6. 75 FR 25852 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... information; search data sources; complete and review the collection of information; and transmit or otherwise... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Stormwater Management Including... announces an Information Collection Request (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and...

  7. 76 FR 16778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... collection project: ``Questionnaire and Data Collection Testing, Evaluation, and Research for the Agency for... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Proposed Project Questionnaire and Data Collection Testing, Evaluation, and Research... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection...

  8. 76 FR 31988 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: COPS Police and...) Type of Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: COPS Police...

  9. 77 FR 63340 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FEL Out-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: FEL Out-of-Business Records ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice... Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: FEL Out-of-Business Records....

  10. 77 FR 16076 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request... public notice that the agency proposes to request use of a new information collection. This information collection is a questionnaire designed to identify potential grant recipients that have limited...

  11. 78 FR 40729 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Washington... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery Abstract: The...

  12. 77 FR 47119 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Collective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...; Collective Investment Funds Conversion Transactions Prohibited Transaction Class Exemption ACTION: Notice...) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Collective Investment Funds Conversion Transactions...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Collective Investment Funds Conversion Transactions Prohibited Transaction...

  13. 76 FR 24057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; ARCOS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; ARCOS Transaction Reporting DEA...), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information collection request... Department of Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: DEA Form 333. Office of Diversion Control,...

  14. Collective modes in neural networks.

    PubMed

    Parikh, J C; Satyan, V; Pratap, R

    1989-02-01

    A theoretical model, based on response of a neural network to an external stimulus, was constructed to determine its collective modes. It is suggested that the waves observed in EEG records reflect the cooperative electrical activity of a large number of neurons. Further, an actual EEG time series was analyzed to deduce two dynamic parameters, dimension d of phase space of the neural system and the minimum number of variables nc necessary to describe the EEG pattern. We find d = 6.2 and nc = 11. PMID:2722419

  15. The neurobiology of collective action

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Barraza, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action (CA) that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for CA. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly CA. PMID:24311995

  16. [Facilitating scientific data collection systems].

    PubMed

    Kunnamo, Ilkka; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Niemi, Anu; Nyberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electronic information systems continuously accumulate huge amounts of quantitative information related to the functioning of primary health care and utilizable in the monitoring of the population's health status, correct allocation of resources and in many types of research. A centralized data bank can function as a general practice research network, the members collecting data both for their own studies and for studies carried out by others. In Finland a computer-assisted "virtual health check" involving the whole population was carried out in Sipoo in 2009.

  17. Collective organization in aerotactic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.

    Some bacteria exhibit interesting behavior in the presence of an oxygen concentration. They perform an aerotactic motion along the gradient until they reach their optimal oxygen concentration. But they often organize collectively by forming dense regions, called 'bands', that travel towards the oxygen source. We have developed a model of swimmers with stochastic interaction rules moving in proximity of an air bubble. We perform molecular dynamics simulations and also solve advection-diffusion equations that reproduce the aerotactic behavior of mono-flagellated, facultative anaerobic bacteria. If the oxygen concentration in the system sinks locally below a threshold value, the formation of a migrating aerotactic band toward the bubble can be observed.

  18. 78 FR 21387 - Agency Information Collection Activities: E-Verify Program Data Collections. New Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: E-Verify Program Data Collections. New Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The...: New information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: E-Verify Program Data Collections....

  19. 77 FR 39261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notice of Appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals From a Decision of a DHS Officer ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under... Collection: Revision of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Notice of...

  20. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  1. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  2. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  3. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  4. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  5. 77 FR 44602 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Labor Relations collection....

  6. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB...

  7. H. W. Wilson "Nonbook Materials Core Collection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    The "Nonbook Materials Core Collection" is one of H. W. Wilson's new subscription-based electronic core collection development databases. It is a new addition to the five-volume core collection series formerly known as the "Standard Catalog Series." Other titles in this series have long been staples of collection development resources for both…

  8. 76 FR 44580 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Procurement Collection,...

  9. 75 FR 70044 - Proposed Information Collection Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Information Collection Renewal ACTION: 30-day notice of submission of information collection for approval from... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests an extension,...

  10. Coordinating Collection Development: The RLG Conspectus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwinn, Nancy E.; Mosher, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes collection evaluation tool available to Research Libraries Group (RLG) institutions which provides overview, arranged by subject, of existing collection strengths and future collecting intensities of RLG members. Antecedents of the tool and an online version are discussed. Seven references, definitions of collecting levels, and language…

  11. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  12. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... assigned clearance number 1029-0049. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  13. 43 CFR 29.14 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FUND § 29.14 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 43 CFR 29.9... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information collection. 29.14 Section 29... approval No. 1084-0026. The information being collected is the information required to substantiate...

  14. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  15. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  16. 30 CFR 850.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 850.10 Section 850.10... FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements... assigned clearance number 1029-0080. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  17. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  18. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... assigned clearance number 1029-0049. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  19. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists only of expenditures on information collection activities that would be incurred by persons in the normal... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 707.10 Section...

  20. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  1. 30 CFR 877.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 877.10 Section 877.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.10 Information collection. The information collection...) under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0055. This information is being collected...

  2. 25 CFR 46.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information collection. 46.3 Section 46.3 Indians BUREAU... § 46.3 Information collection. Information collection requirements contained in this part have been... 1076-0120. This information is being collected to assess the need for adult education programs....

  3. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists only of expenditures on information collection activities that would be incurred by persons in the normal... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 707.10 Section...

  4. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information collection. 13.2 Section 13.2 Indians BUREAU... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement.... and assigned clearance number 1076-0112. The information is being collected when federally...

  5. 30 CFR 850.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 850.10 Section 850.10... FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements... assigned clearance number 1029-0080. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  6. 30 CFR 877.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 877.10 Section 877.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.10 Information collection. The information collection...) under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0055. This information is being collected...

  7. 50 CFR 36.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information collection. 36.3 Section 36.3... Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in this part have been approved by.... The collected information will assist the Service in administering these programs and,...

  8. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  9. 7 CFR 3430.61 - Debt collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... circumstances, are subject to the Department's debt collection procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 3, and... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt collection. 3430.61 Section 3430.61 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.61 Debt collection. The collection of debts owed to CSREES by...

  10. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  11. 7 CFR 633.14 - Debt collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.14 Debt collection. Any debts arising under this program are governed with respect to their collection by the Federal Claims Collection Act of 1966 (31 U.S... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Debt collection. 633.14 Section 633.14...

  12. 77 FR 64376 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    .... 13702(b) and 49 CFR part 1312 (water carrier tariffs). The relevant information collections are... on the following information collections: Collection Number 1 Title: Recordations (Rail and Water... destroyed 60 years after the last filing. Collection Number 2 Title: Water Carrier Tariffs OMB...

  13. 7 CFR 633.14 - Debt collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.14 Debt collection. Any debts arising under this program are governed with respect to their collection by the Federal Claims Collection Act of 1966 (31 U.S... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Debt collection. 633.14 Section 633.14...

  14. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  15. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  16. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  17. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  18. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  19. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  20. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  1. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  2. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  3. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  4. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  5. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  6. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  7. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  8. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  9. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  10. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  11. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  12. 75 FR 81243 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... plans, schools have a need to collect information from students and parents in seven primary areas: (1... collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d... the DoDEA Community Strategic Plan, individual schools have a need to collect data from student(s)...

  13. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  14. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  15. Dust collection on serviceable satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A., III

    1986-01-01

    One rationale for the Space Shuttle program which was dramatically realized during the repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is the efficiency of in-orbit satellite servicing. An unexpected benefit of this repair mission was the return of parts of the Solar Max satellite which had been exposed for four years to the space environment. Studies conducted on these parts have yielded valuable data on the micrometeorite flux and composition at shuttle altitudes during this time period. The scientific results from studies of the cosmic dust component of the observed particle impacts are not yet complete but it is clear from the preliminary data available that such studies will be a valuable adjunct to the studies of cosmic dust particles collected in the atmosphere. The success of the initial studies of particles collected during repairs of the SMM spacecraft on a surface not specifically designed as a particle collector nor retrieved in a manner intended to minimize or eliminate local contamination raises the possibility that even more interesting results might be obtained if serviceable satellites were initially designed with these objectives in mind. All designs for modern satellites utilize some form of thermal blanket material in order to minimize thermal stresses inside the spacecraft. It is proposed that all future satellites be designed with standardized removeable sections of thermal blanket material which could be replaced during on-orbit servicing and returned to earth for detailed study.

  16. On the collective curvature radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Ya. N.; Philippov, A. A.; Beskin, V. S.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study one possible mechanism of pulsar radio emission (i.e. with the collective curvature radiation of the relativistic particle stream moving along the curved magnetospheric magnetic field lines). We show that an electromagnetic wave that contains one cylindrical harmonic exp {isφ} cannot be radiated by the curvature radiation mechanism, which corresponds to the radiation of a charged particle moving along curved magnetic field lines. The point is that a particle in a vacuum radiates the triplex of harmonics (s, s± 1) in which the polarization of the emitted wave changes from one point to another on a circle of constant radius, while for one s-harmonic the polarization remains constant. So, for the collective curvature radiation, the wave polarization is very important and cannot be fixed a priori. For this reason, the polarization of real unstable waves must be determined directly from the solution of wave equations for the media. Its electromagnetic properties should be described by the dielectric permittivity tensor ?, which contains information on the reaction on all possible types of radiation.

  17. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  18. Selective altruism in collective games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, Dario A.; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We study the emergence of altruistic behaviour in collective games. In particular, we take into account Toral's version of collective Parrondo's paradoxical games, in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and selfish ones, and see how they interact and how their capital evolves. More in detail, we analyse the positive effects of altruistic behaviour, but we also point out how selfish players take advantage of that situation. The general result is that altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because selfish players get richer while altruistic ones get poorer. We also consider a smarter way of being altruistic, based on reputation, called "selective altruism", which prevents selfish players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not selfishness, to be encouraged and stabilized. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the population of both altruistic and selfish players as a function of time for different initial conditions and network topologies adopted.

  19. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  20. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  1. Experiment S012: Micrometeorite collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemenway, C. L.; Hallgren, D. S.; Coon, R. E.; Bourdillon, L. A.; Hotchin, J.; Lorenz, P.

    1971-01-01

    The micrometeorite activity in a near-earth environment and the effect of the environment on microorganisms were studied by exposure of polished metal and plastic surfaces to the environment outside the Gemini spacecraft. Preliminary results are summarized as follows: (1) The cumulative influx rate in the size ranges from 10 to the minus 15th power to 10 to the minus 14th power gram was approximately 2 particles/ sq m/sec, as determined on the Gemini 12 mission; (2) The cumulative influx rate in the same mass range, as determined by the data from the Gemini 9 mission was almost 200 particles/ sq m/sec; and (3) The large particle cumulative influx rate was about 3 x 0.00001 particle/ sq m/sec, with a mass of the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gram. No living organisms could be found on the sterile collecting surfaces after recovery and handling.

  2. Collective excitations of supersymmetric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-02-15

    Collective excitations of N=1 supersymmetric electromagnetic plasma are studied. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasma, which is assumed to be ultrarelativistic, is under consideration. The dispersion equations of photon, photino, electron, and selectron modes are written down and the self-energies, which enter the equations, are computed in the hard loop approximation. The self-energies are discussed in the context of effective action which is also given. The photon modes and electron ones appear to be the same as in the usual ultrarelativistic plasma of electrons, positrons, and photons. The photino modes coincide with the electron ones and the selectron modes are as of a free relativistic massive particle.

  3. Control of collective network chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemakers, Alexandre; Barreto, Ernest; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; So, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of "reduced" ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.

  4. MAD data collection - current trends.

    SciTech Connect

    Dementieva, I.; Evans, G.; Joachimiak, A.; Sanishvili, R.; Walsh, M. A.

    1999-09-20

    The multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction, or MAD, method of determining protein structure is becoming routine in protein crystallography. An increase in the number of tuneable synchrotrons beamlines coupled with the widespread availability position-sensitive X-ray detectors based on charged-coupled devices and having fast readout raised MAD structure determination to a new and exciting level. Ultra-fast MAD data collection is now possible. Recognition of the value of selenium for phasing protein structures and improvement of methods for incorporating selenium into proteins in the form of selenomethionine have attracted greater interest in the MAD method. Recent developments in crystallographic software are complimenting the above advances, paving the way for rapid protein structure determination. An overview of a typical MAD experiment is described here, with emphasis on the rates and quality of data acquisition now achievable at beamlines developed at third-generation synchrotrons sources.

  5. Real time psychrometric data collection

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events.

  6. Control of collective network chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Wagemakers, Alexandre Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2014-06-01

    Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of “reduced” ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.

  7. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  8. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  9. Collective dynamics during cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    In order to correctly divide, cells have to move all their chromosomes at the center, a process known as congression. This task is performed by the combined action of molecular motors and randomly growing and shrinking microtubules. Chromosomes are captured by growing microtubules and transported by motors using the same microtubules as tracks. Coherent motion occurs as a result of a large collection of random and deterministic dynamical events. Understanding this process is important since a failure in chromosome segregation can lead to chromosomal instability one of the hallmarks of cancer. We describe this complex process in a three dimensional computational model involving thousands of microtubules. The results show that coherent and robust chromosome congression can only happen if the total number of microtubules is neither too small, nor too large. Our results allow for a coherent interpretation a variety of biological factors already associated in the past with chromosomal instability and related pathological conditions.

  10. Collective motion in animal groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  11. 78 FR 37529 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection AGENCY... Rights Data Collection. OMB Control Number: 1870--NEW. Type of Review: A new information collection... 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing a new information collection. DATES:...

  12. 78 FR 18576 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection Instrument... information collection requirements and provide the requested data in the desired format. ED is soliciting... collection instrument will be used to collect specific information/performance data for analysis of...

  13. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in Correctional... approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor...

  14. 77 FR 52059 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Revision of a Previously Approved Collection; Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Information Collection Activities; Revision of a Previously Approved Collection; Comments Requested; COPS... Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of...: Extension of a previously approved collection; comments requested. (2) Title of the Form/Collection:...

  15. 76 FR 20661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Contractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... able to respond to a collection of information; search data sources; complete and review the collection... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Contractor... Information Collection Request (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  16. 76 FR 44582 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Community Right...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... collection of information; search data sources; complete and review the collection of information; and... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Community Right-to... Information Collection Request (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  17. 78 FR 40175 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs... Collection: Proposed new collection; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led... information to determine the national prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait...

  18. 75 FR 18885 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: Police check... Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police Check... information is necessary to permit ATF to complete and/or initiate a police check inquiry consisting...

  19. 76 FR 61739 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request for Information Collection; Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Information Collection Activities; Comment Request for Information Collection; Information Collection Plan for... with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance... regarding this proposed collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden to the...

  20. 78 FR 36563 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Single Family Premium... use: The Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) allows the lenders to remit...

  1. 77 FR 22346 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Leased/Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Leased/Charter Flight Personnel... Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Leased/Charter Flight Personnel Expedited... to be completed by people applying to become contract flight crew members. It is required so...

  2. Collective motion from local attraction.

    PubMed

    Strömbom, Daniel

    2011-08-21

    Many animal groups, for example schools of fish or flocks of birds, exhibit complex dynamic patterns while moving cohesively in the same direction. These flocking patterns have been studied using self-propelled particle models, most of which assume that collective motion arises from individuals aligning with their neighbours. Here, we propose a self-propelled particle model in which the only social force between individuals is attraction. We show that this model generates three different phases: swarms, undirected mills and moving aligned groups. By studying our model in the zero noise limit, we show how these phases depend on the relative strength of attraction and individual inertia. Moreover, by restricting the field of vision of the individuals and increasing the degree of noise in the system, we find that the groups generate both directed mills and three dynamically moving, 'rotating chain' structures. A rich diversity of patterns is generated by social attraction alone, which may provide insight into the dynamics of natural flocks. PMID:21620861

  3. Collective dynamics of social annotation.

    PubMed

    Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Baldassarri, Andrea; Schehr, Gregory; Loreto, Vittorio

    2009-06-30

    The enormous increase of popularity and use of the worldwide web has led in the recent years to important changes in the ways people communicate. An interesting example of this fact is provided by the now very popular social annotation systems, through which users annotate resources (such as web pages or digital photographs) with keywords known as "tags." Understanding the rich emergent structures resulting from the uncoordinated actions of users calls for an interdisciplinary effort. In particular concepts borrowed from statistical physics, such as random walks (RWs), and complex networks theory, can effectively contribute to the mathematical modeling of social annotation systems. Here, we show that the process of social annotation can be seen as a collective but uncoordinated exploration of an underlying semantic space, pictured as a graph, through a series of RWs. This modeling framework reproduces several aspects, thus far unexplained, of social annotation, among which are the peculiar growth of the size of the vocabulary used by the community and its complex network structure that represents an externalization of semantic structures grounded in cognition and that are typically hard to access. PMID:19506244

  4. Collective motion from local attraction.

    PubMed

    Strömbom, Daniel

    2011-08-21

    Many animal groups, for example schools of fish or flocks of birds, exhibit complex dynamic patterns while moving cohesively in the same direction. These flocking patterns have been studied using self-propelled particle models, most of which assume that collective motion arises from individuals aligning with their neighbours. Here, we propose a self-propelled particle model in which the only social force between individuals is attraction. We show that this model generates three different phases: swarms, undirected mills and moving aligned groups. By studying our model in the zero noise limit, we show how these phases depend on the relative strength of attraction and individual inertia. Moreover, by restricting the field of vision of the individuals and increasing the degree of noise in the system, we find that the groups generate both directed mills and three dynamically moving, 'rotating chain' structures. A rich diversity of patterns is generated by social attraction alone, which may provide insight into the dynamics of natural flocks.

  5. Collective decisions among bacterial viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Richard; Mileyko, Yuriy; Voit, Eberhard; Weitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    For many temperate bacteriophages, the decision of whether to kill hosts or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of infection. In this talk, I present a quantitative model of gene regulatory dynamics to describe how phages make collective decisions within host cells. Unlike most previous studies, the copy number of viral genomes is treated as a variable. In the absence of feedback loops, viral mRNA transcription is expected to be proportional to the viral copy number. However, when there are nonlinear feedback loops in viral gene regulation, our model shows that gene expression patterns are sensitive to changes in viral copy number and there can be a domain of copy number where the system becomes bistable. Hence, the viral copy number is a key control parameter determining host cell fates. This suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and can make alternative decisions as a bet-hedging strategy. Finally, I present a stochastic version of viral gene regulation and discuss speed-accuracy trade-offs in the context of cell fate determination by viruses.

  6. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  7. 76 FR 6471 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection --Extension Without Change: Local Union Report (EEO-3). SUMMARY: In... will be posted without change, including any personal information you provide. Copies of...

  8. 77 FR 65548 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... revision to the previously approved EEO-5 under the PRA's emergency processing procedures. 77 FR 39238... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Extension Without Change: Elementary-Secondary Staff Information...

  9. 76 FR 6470 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Request For An Extension Without Change: State and Local Government Information Report (EEO-4). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Equal...

  10. 78 FR 11175 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Revised: Demographic Information on Applicants for Federal Employment... (Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB No. 3046-0046) to include disability status data. DATES:...

  11. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  12. 76 FR 6470 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Extension Without Change: Elementary-Secondary Staff Information Report (EEO-5). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Equal...

  13. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Locatable Minerals AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part 228, subpart A. DATES: Comments must be... entry to the building. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tony Ferguson, Director, Minerals and...

  14. 78 FR 64482 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...: Defense Acquisition University, Student Information System (SIS); OMB Control Number 0704- TBD. Needs and... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Acquisition University, DoD..., the Defense Acquisition University announces a proposed public information collection and seeks...

  15. 75 FR 38088 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Acquisition University, Student Information System (SIS); OMB Control Number 0704- TBD. Needs and Uses: The... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Acquisition University, DOD..., the Defense Acquisition University announces a proposed public information collection and seeks...

  16. 77 FR 16022 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Program. The information to be collected from Partner plants includes: background data, including contact...: background data, including contact information, information on primary energy consumption and energy saving... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office...

  17. 75 FR 63206 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... use of information technology to more Government processes via the Internet. III. Data Title... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  18. 77 FR 39518 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... information necessary for effective property management, NASA obtains summary data annually from the official... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Notice: (12-036). ] ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 75702 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... intended to provide students with career exploration under the mentorship of a Kennedy Space Center (KSC... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  20. 78 FR 34408 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... responsible for selecting astronauts for the various United States Space Exploration programs. In evaluating... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  1. 75 FR 62433 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... intended to provide students with career exploration under the mentorship of a Kennedy Space Center (KSC... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  2. 75 FR 3503 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: U.S. Securities... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the existing collection of... Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (``NRSRO'') has written policies and procedures...

  3. 78 FR 39293 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-day Notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  4. 78 FR 39292 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-day Notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  5. 75 FR 15431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ] ACTION: 60-Day... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  6. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  7. 75 FR 54189 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  8. 77 FR 77048 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... this information is not collected. Affected Public: College students who apply to join Air Force ROTC... Collection Respondents are college students desiring to join the Air Force ROTC program. AFROTC Form...

  9. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  10. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  11. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  12. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  13. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  14. 77 FR 46750 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... information collection, EIA-882T, ``Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research.'' The proposed collection will utilize qualitative and quantitative methodologies to pretest...: Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research; (3) Type of Request:...

  15. 76 FR 32992 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g.,...

  16. Beverage Cans Used for Sediment Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studlick, Joseph R. J.; Trautman, Timothy A.

    1979-01-01

    Beverage cans are well suited for sediment collection and storage containers. Advantages include being free, readily available, and the correct size for many samples. Instruction for selection, preparation, and use of cans in sediment collection and storage is provided. (RE)

  17. 75 FR 65670 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  18. 75 FR 63206 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  19. 75 FR 65670 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  20. 75 FR 65669 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  1. 75 FR 63207 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  2. 75 FR 65669 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  3. 75 FR 65673 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  4. 75 FR 66800 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  5. 75 FR 65671 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  6. 75 FR 65672 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  7. 75 FR 61777 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  8. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  9. 75 FR 63208 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  10. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  11. 77 FR 69505 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  12. 75 FR 53349 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  13. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The... Administration. In such contracts, the National Endowment for the Humanities will retain the authority to...

  14. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The... Administration. In such contracts, the National Endowment for the Humanities will retain the authority to...

  15. 76 FR 29720 - Information Collection: Volunteer Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA... an extension of a currently approved information collection associated with the Volunteer Programs... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management...

  16. 30 CFR 887.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.10 Information collection. In... 887 and assigned it control number 1029-0107. This information is being collected to support State...

  17. 78 FR 61397 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  18. 78 FR 61397 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. ] SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  19. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The... Administration. In such contracts, the National Endowment for the Humanities will retain the authority to...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The... Administration. In such contracts, the National Endowment for the Humanities will retain the authority to...

  1. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The... Administration. In such contracts, the National Endowment for the Humanities will retain the authority to...

  2. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  3. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  4. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  5. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  6. 25 CFR 122.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assistance grants. The information collected in § 122.9 provides summary review for program evaluation and program planning. Response to the information collections is required to obtain a benefit in...

  7. Collective memory: conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Wertsch, James V; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    In order to outline the conceptual landscape that frames discussions of collective memory, three oppositions are proposed: collective memory versus collective remembering; history versus collective memory; and individual memory versus collective remembering. From this perspective collective remembering is viewed as an active process that often involves contention and contestation among people rather than a static body of knowledge that they possess. Collective remembering is also viewed as privileging identity formation and contestation over the sort of objective representation of the past that is the aspiration of formal historical analysis. And finally, while collective remembering involves individual minds, it also suggests something more in the form of socially situated individuals, a claim that can usefully be formulated in terms of how members of a groups share a common set of cultural tools (e.g., narrative forms) and similar content.

  8. Collection of Human Wastes on Long Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. C.; Lewis, T. A.; Brose, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    Report evaluates and compares three alternative approaches to hygienic containment of human wastes. Three practical means of waste collection: filter-bag collection with compaction by fan suction, canister collection with compaction by force applied to compaction cups or disks, and sleeve collection with compaction by rollers and winding on reel. Potentially useful in airplanes, buses, boats, trains, and campers and temporary toilets for construction sites and outdoor gatherings.

  9. Does Your Front Desk Staff Maximize Collections?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Donna

    2015-01-01

    As collections become more difficult, practices need to use the front desk to help collect payments from patients when they are face to face. Training staff and giving them the tools to ask for money allows them to collect efficiently. Improve your collections by involving your front desk employees. Educate your patients to allow them to come to their visits prepared. It will save the practice time and money. PMID:26399028

  10. Does Your Front Desk Staff Maximize Collections?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Donna

    2015-01-01

    As collections become more difficult, practices need to use the front desk to help collect payments from patients when they are face to face. Training staff and giving them the tools to ask for money allows them to collect efficiently. Improve your collections by involving your front desk employees. Educate your patients to allow them to come to their visits prepared. It will save the practice time and money.

  11. 75 FR 81257 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... public comment on a proposed collection of information that DOE is developing for submission to the... invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  12. 78 FR 52215 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  13. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... reinstate and extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The information collection request, Historic Preservation for Energy Efficiency...

  14. 78 FR 14519 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of... OMB for clearance, a proposal for collection of information pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The collection would be used to develop information that will enable DOE to measure the...

  15. 78 FR 32692 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-062). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National... proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  16. 78 FR 18675 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... Budget (OMB) for approval of the information collections required under 49 U.S.C. 11301 and 49 CFR 1177... were received. The relevant information ] collections are described in more detail below. For...

  17. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  18. 77 FR 65374 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of... comments SUMMARY: The Department of Energy invites public comment on a proposed collection of information... Reduction Act of 1995. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information...

  19. 76 FR 4736 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  20. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control...

  1. 75 FR 11871 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for... Energy (DOE) invites public comment on a proposed emergency collection of information that DOE is... invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  2. 75 FR 52779 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Notice: (10-095). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National... proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  3. 78 FR 14520 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information...) Review and Comment. SUMMARY: The EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB under the.... DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must be received on or before April...

  4. 77 FR 39690 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of... OMB for clearance, a proposal for collection of information pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of... vehicles. Information collected would allow DOE to provide respondents with an objective assessment...

  5. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of...

  6. 78 FR 4875 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  7. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. ] ACTION: Agency information collection activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  8. 75 FR 14435 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for... Energy (DOE) invites public comment on a proposed emergency collection of information that DOE is... invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  9. 77 FR 21090 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S...) invites public comment on a proposed collection of information that DOE is developing for submission to... are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the...

  10. 78 FR 74169 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  11. 78 FR 34675 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-064). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National... proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  12. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report,...

  13. 78 FR 48910 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-083). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National... proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  14. 76 FR 13398 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of.... SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) invites public comment on a proposed collection of information to... approval of this information collection; they also will become a matter of public record. Information...

  15. 76 FR 63289 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... extend for three years, an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...

  16. 78 FR 74171 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  17. 75 FR 81664 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C....

  18. 75 FR 66185 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline... Information Collection Requests (ICR) abstracted below will be forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comments. The ICRs describe the nature of the information collections...

  19. 75 FR 14436 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for... Energy (DOE) invites public comment on a proposed emergency collection of information that DOE is... invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  20. 78 FR 19695 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ] ACTION: Notice and request for comments... extend for three years an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended collection of information is necessary for the...