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Sample records for home road heater

  1. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  2. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  4. The Road Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  5. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  6. Sources of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in New Zealand homes: findings from a community randomized controlled trial of heater substitutions.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, J; Pierse, N; Wickens, K; Crane, J; Nicholls, S; Shields, D; Boulic, M; Viggers, H; Baker, M; Woodward, A; Howden-Chapman, P

    2008-12-01

    Houses in New Zealand have inadequate space heating and a third of households use unflued gas heaters. As part of a large community intervention trial to improve space heating, we replaced ineffective heaters with more effective, non-polluting heaters. This paper assesses the contribution of heating and household factors to indoor NO2 in almost 350 homes and reports on the reduction in NO2 levels due to heater replacement. Homes using unflued gas heaters had more than three times the level of NO2 in living rooms [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.83-3.96, P < 0.001] than homes without unflued gas heaters, whereas homes using gas stove-tops had significantly elevated living room NO2 levels (GMR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.93, P = 0.02). Homes with heat pumps, flued gas heating, or enclosed wood burners had significantly lower levels of NO2 in living areas and bedrooms. In homes that used unflued gas heaters as their main form of heating at baseline, the intervention was associated with a two-third (67%) reduction in NO2 levels in living rooms, when compared with homes that continued to use unflued gas heaters. Reducing the use of unflued gas heating would substantially lower NO2 exposure in New Zealand homes. Understanding the factors influencing indoor NO2 levels is critical for the assessment and control of indoor air pollution. This study found that homes that used unflued gas combustion appliances for heating and cooking had higher NO2 levels compared with homes where other fuels were used. These findings require institutional incentives to increase the use of more effective, less polluting fuels, particularly in the home environment.

  7. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)).

  8. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  9. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  10. Roads influence movement and home ranges of a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore, the bobcat, in an urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon A; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Alonso, Robert S.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Roads in urbanized areas can impact carnivore populations by constraining their movements and increasing mortality. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are felids capable of living in urban environments, but are sensitive to habitat fragmentation and, thus, useful indicators of landscape connectivity; in particular, bobcat habitat selection, movement, and mortality may be affected by roads. We analyzed movement patterns of 52 bobcats in southern California in three study sites and investigated: (1) how bobcats responded to two types of roads within their home ranges; (2) how they placed their home ranges with respect to roads within the study area; and (3) whether male and female bobcats differed in their behavioral responses to roads. Within home ranges, primary and secondary roads did not influence movements, but bobcats more frequently crossed secondary roads when road densities were higher within their home ranges, thus increasing mortality risk. However, road densities within each study site were several times higher than road densities within home ranges, suggesting bobcats selected against roaded areas in home-range placement. Male home ranges bordering roads were smaller than home ranges for other males, but male home ranges containing roads were larger than those without roads. Male bobcats also were more likely to cross roads than females, potentially reflecting larger male home range sizes. Our results suggest roads have important impacts on urban bobcats, with stronger effects on males than females, and continued efforts to mitigate the effects of roads on carnivores and other fragmentation-sensitive species would help promote connectivity conservation in urban systems.

  11. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  12. Development of an advanced solar augmented water heater (for single family home applications)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunes, H.; Morrison, D.; Dewinter, F.

    1982-06-01

    A program was undertaken to design, construct and test two advanced prototype solar augmented gas water heaters. Computer analyses and experimental work were used to optimize components and characterize performance. The resulting design includes a solar preheat tank, a gas-fired backup tank, the collector loop pump and all operating controls contained in a single cylindrical package. The backup tank is positioned above the solar preheat tank. The connection between the solar and backup tanks is effectively a thermal diode which restricts heat transfer from the backup to the solar tank but allows the backup tank to become an integral part of solar storage whenever the solar tank temperature surpasses the backup tank set point temperature. Solar heat is supplied through a jacketed tank drainback system.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  14. Tips for Energy Savers In and Around the Home, On the Road, In the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    The pamphlet provides tips for the consumer on how to save energy and dollars in and around the home; on the road in traveling for work, shopping, or leisure; and in the marketplace while buying a car, home, or appliance. (Author)

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Shore Road Project - Old Greenwich, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Old Greenwich, CT, that scored HERS 40 without PV and HERS 27 with PV. This 4,100 ft2 custom home has 13-inch ICF basement walls and 11-inch ICF above-grade walls with a closed-cell spray foam-insulated roof deck, and a continuously running ERV. The house has a dual-fuel heat pump, an instantaneous condensing water heater, and 4.5-kW solar shingles.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  17. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  18. Infants With Technology Dependence: Facilitating the Road to Home.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Jennifer D; Jnah, Amy J; Newberry, Desi M; Hubbard, Carol A; Roberston, Tracey

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of premature infants with complex medical needs, dependent upon medical technology at discharge, is on the rise in the United States. Preparing the family for the hospital-to-home transition can be challenging due to the complex medical and emotional needs of the vulnerable infant and the volume of subspecialty services and equipment required. Relevant articles from PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHLFINDINGS/RESULTS:: There is an increasing incidence of technology dependent infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units in the United States. Transition from hospital to home requires lengthy preparation, multidisciplinary-open communication, and family centered care. Early assimilation of the parents into the ongoing care of their infant, the provision of comprehendible parental education by neonatal nurses and other members of the healthcare team, the provision of adequate rooming-in experiences prior to discharge, and the collaborative coordination of outpatient community services are crucial elements of the discharge process. Neonatal nurses possess population-specific education, training, commitment, and expertise that make them the ideal experts to implement and evaluate a discharge planning framework, in collaboration with the medical team and the family. Methods to prevent readmission and ensure successful discharge from hospital to home is indicated. Standardization of a discharge process of infants of technology dependence combining medical team, family, outpatient coordinators, and primary care providers.

  19. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  20. Estimation of the social costs of home injury: a comparison with estimates for road injury.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Guria, Jagadish; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Home injury is thought to constitute a major health burden in most developed countries. However, efforts to address this burden have been hampered by reluctance from outside agencies to interfere with the home environment of individuals, even if it benefits the occupant's safety. This paper outlines cost-benefit evaluation methods established in the transport safety domain applied to home safety to estimate the social cost of unintentional home injury in New Zealand. Estimates of costs imposed on society by home injury can provide an important motivator for initiating research and programmes to reduce home injury risk. Data sources used included mortality data, hospitalisation data and data on minor injuries that required medical treatment, but not hospital admission. We estimated that unintentional home injuries in New Zealand impose an annual social cost of about $NZ 13 billion (about $US 9 billion), which is about 3.5 times the annual social cost of road injury. These estimates provide a rational evidence base for decisions on housing-focused safety regulation or interventions that always carry some cost, and therefore need to be weighed against the benefits of injuries potentially prevented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, B P; Naeher, L; Jankun, T; Balenger, K; Holford, T R; Toth, C; Sullivan, J; Wolfson, J M; Koutrakis, P

    1999-03-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with

  2. Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, B P; Naeher, L; Jankun, T; Balenger, K; Holford, T R; Toth, C; Sullivan, J; Wolfson, J M; Koutrakis, P

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with

  3. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Skylab derived Heating System offers computerized control with an innovative voice synthesizer that literally allows the control unit to talk to the system user. It reports time of day, outside temperature and system temperature, and asks questions as to how the user wants the system programmed. Master Module collects energy from the Sun and either transfers it directly to the home water heater or stores it until needed.

  4. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  5. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  6. To Duct or Not to Duct: Evaluating the Space Conditioning Impacts of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Peeks, B.; Sullivan, Greg; Shaffer, Scott

    2014-08-22

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) are a promising technology for substantially reducing water heating-related energy use in the residential sector. However, concerns have been raised regarding the impact of HPWHs on space conditioning energy when installed in conditioned space, primarily in northern climates. For example, the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA’s) Northern Climate HPWH Specification, which describes the characteristics a HPWH must have to be incentivized in cold climates in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), requires exhaust ducting for their Tier II-specified products and both supply and exhaust ducting for the Tier III-specified product (NEEA 2013). However, these concerns and installation recommendations are based on modeling and comparative field data are not available to verify modeled performance. This study examines the overall performance and operation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in conditioned space in the matched pair of PNNL Lab Homes with no ducting, exhaust ducting, and full ducting (supply and exhaust) and explores the interactions between the HPWH and the home’s heating/cooling system. The data collected in this field evaluation suggest that previous modeling may not completely characterize the complex interactions of HPWHs, HVAC systems, and ducting. This report discusses the impact on space conditioning and water heater energy use of configuring an HPWH with exhaust only ducting or full ducting, as compared to an unducted HPWH. Additional cost analysis is necessary to assess the cost effectiveness of ducting and to make formal recommendations regarding appropriate installation of HPWHs in more varied scenarios.

  7. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  8. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  9. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  10. 73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FANFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FAN-FORCED HOT AIR HEATER; TO SOUTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  11. Water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, J.R.

    1981-04-28

    To prevent the accumulation of scale and other solid particles in its bottom portion, this water heater incorporates a specially designed agitator assembly that is cheaper and simpler to use than electrostatic, electronic, or chemical devices. A ring-shaped tube positioned at the bottom of the tank close to the side wall is connected to a second tube that extends toward the tank's center. Openings and venturi fittings on the two tubes cause the water to flow into to the tank horizontally and centrally upward, creating a stirring action at the tank bottom.

  12. 53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, CONCRETE, BRICK, AND SPRING AIR CONDITIONER BASE, BAY 31-32/4 SOUTH, TO WEST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  14. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  15. 40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER FOR STATION 135 AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 135. CONTROL PANEL FOR THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. CONTROL PANEL FOR THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 134. THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHEAST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHEAST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Short, Kathy G.

    2012-01-01

    The myth of home is what distinguishes children's literature from adult novels (Wolf 1990). Nodelman and Reimer ("The Pleasures of Children's Literature," 2003) write that while "the home/away/home pattern is the most common story line in children's literature, adult fiction that deals with young people who leave home usually ends…

  19. Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Short, Kathy G.

    2012-01-01

    The myth of home is what distinguishes children's literature from adult novels (Wolf 1990). Nodelman and Reimer ("The Pleasures of Children's Literature," 2003) write that while "the home/away/home pattern is the most common story line in children's literature, adult fiction that deals with young people who leave home usually ends…

  20. Extremophiles in Household Water Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilpiszeski, R.; House, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    A significant fraction of Earth's microbial diversity comes from species living in extreme environments, but natural extreme environments can be difficult to access. Manmade systems like household water heaters serve as an effective proxy for thermophilic environments that are otherwise difficult to sample directly. As such, we are investigating the biogeography, taxonomic distribution, and evolution of thermophiles growing in domestic water heaters. Citizen scientists collected hot tap water culture- and filter- samples from 101 homes across the United States. We recovered a single species of thermophilic heterotroph from culture samples inoculated from water heaters across the United States, Thermus scotoductus. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted to better understand the distribution and evolution of this single species. We have also sequenced hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene from whole-community filter samples to identify the broad diversity and distribution of microbial cells captured from each water heater. These results shed light on the processes that shape thermophilic populations and genomes at a spatial resolution that is difficult to access in naturally occurring extreme ecosystems.

  1. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  2. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  3. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  4. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  5. Impact of kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Hanoune, B; Carteret, M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the use of kerosene space heaters as additional or principal heat source has been increasing, because these heaters allow a continuous control on the energy cost. These devices are unvented, and all combustion products are released into the room where the heaters are operated. The indoor air quality of seven private homes using wick-type or electronic injection-type kerosene space heaters was investigated. Concentrations of CO, CO2, NOx, formaldehyde and particulate matter (0.02-10 μm) were measured, using time-resolved instruments when available. All heaters tested are significant sources of submicron particles, NOx and CO2. The average NO2 and CO2 concentrations are determined by the duration of use of the kerosene heaters. These results stress the need to regulate the use of unvented combustion appliances to decrease the exposure of people to air contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Road traffic injury mortality and its mechanisms in India: nationally representative mortality survey of 1.1 million homes

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Marvin; Malhotra, Ajai; Thakur, J S; Sheth, Jay K; Nathens, Avery B; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jha, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and describe the mechanism of road traffic injury (RTI) deaths in India. Design We conducted a nationally representative mortality survey where at least two physicians coded each non-medical field staff's verbal autopsy reports. RTI mechanism data were extracted from the narrative section of these reports. Setting 1.1 million homes in India. Participants Over 122 000 deaths at all ages from 2001 to 2003. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-specific and sex-specific mortality rates, place and timing of death, modes of transportation and injuries sustained. Results The 2299 RTI deaths in the survey correspond to an estimated 183 600 RTI deaths or about 2% of all deaths in 2005 nationally, of which 65% occurred in men between the ages 15 and 59 years. The age-adjusted mortality rate was greater in men than in women, in urban than in rural areas, and was notably higher than that estimated from the national police records. Pedestrians (68 000), motorcyclists (36 000) and other vulnerable road users (20 000) constituted 68% of RTI deaths (124 000) nationally. Among the study sample, the majority of all RTI deaths occurred at the scene of collision (1005/1733, 58%), within minutes of collision (883/1596, 55%), and/or involved a head injury (691/1124, 62%). Compared to non-pedestrian RTI deaths, about 55 000 (81%) of pedestrian deaths were associated with less education and living in poorer neighbourhoods. Conclusions In India, RTIs cause a substantial number of deaths, particularly among pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. Interventions to prevent collisions and reduce injuries might address over half of the RTI deaths. Improved prehospital transport and hospital trauma care might address just over a third of the RTI deaths. PMID:23959748

  7. Nonpowered Instant Water Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-94/028 __ NONPOWERED INSTANT WATER HEATER 00= By Eric C. Guyer Yankee Scientific, Inc. Medfield, MA 02052 August 1994...Instant water Heater Contract _ _._AUTHOR(S)_DAAK60-93-C-0022 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric C. Guyer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlinited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) The

  8. Explosives tester with heater

    DOEpatents

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  9. Improving Heat Pump Water Heater Effeciency by Avoiding Electric Resistance Heater Use

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Parkison, April E.; Nutaro, James J.

    2014-09-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are a promising technology that can decrease the domestic hot water energy consumption over an electric resistance storage water heater by up to 50%. Heat pump water heaters are really two water heaters in one; they can heat water by using a heat pump or by using electric resistance elements. During large water draw events the HPWHs will use the resistance elements that decrease the overall efficiency of the units. ORNL proposed and tested an advanced control algorithm that anticipates the large water draw events and appropriately sets-up the temperature of the tank water using only the heat pump. With sufficient energy stored in the tank at the elevated temperature, the large water draw is provided for and electric resistance use is avoided. Simulations using a validated heat pump water heater model, and measured water draw data from 25 homes, show average yearly energy savings of 9% for the advanced control algorithm. If the advanced control algorithm perfectly predicts the large water draw events then the savings increase to 19%. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of predictability of water draw patterns in some homes, or the water draw forecasting algorithm could be improved.

  10. The disturbance by road traffic noise of the sleep of young male adults as recorded in the home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Akselsson, K. R.

    1987-05-01

    Primary effects of road traffic noise on sleep, as derived from EEG, EOG, and EMG, were studied for seven young males (aged 21-27) in their homes along roads with heavy traffic during the night. A more quiet experimental condition was obtained by mounting sound-insulating material in the window openings, thus reducing the interiors noise level by an average of 8 dB(A). The present investigation shows that the subjects had not become completely habituated to the noise, although they had lived at least a year at their residences. The noise reduction caused an earlier onset and a prolonged duration of slow was sleep. No effects on REM sleep were seen. The subjective sleep quality was significantly correlated to the noise dose. The equivalent sound pressure level ( L eq) did not give the most adequate noise dose description. Better characterizations of the noise exposure were found in the number of car per night producing maximum sound pressure levels exceeding 50 or 55 dB(A) in the bedroom. Arousal reactions of type "body movements" and "changes towards lighter sleep" were induced by the noise of car passage but the percentage of cars inducing an effect was only <2% and <0·2% for the two types of reactions, respectively. The number of spontaneous body movements and sleep stage changes per night showed an increase during the more quiet nights as compared to the noisy nights. The sensitivity to arousal reactions was significantly lower in the present field study than the in the laboratory experiments. A description of the continuous sleep process by a few distinct "sleep stages" is too crude a tool for the detection of the rather subtle changes in the sleeping pattern caused by noise. In the present study an increased sensitivity in the analysis was obtained by dividing stage 2 into three substages.

  11. EPRI studies Legionella in electric water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Home electric water heaters were found not to be a major risk factor for Legionnaires` disease in a 2-year study conducted recently in Ohio. EPRI has published the final report of the project, and a scientific paper on the study will soon appear in a major medical journal. The research was sponsored by EPRI`s Environmental and Health Sciences business Unit and the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with cofunding from the Canadian Electrical Association.

  12. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  13. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  14. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOEpatents

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  15. Air-Activated Ration Heaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    regulated. After use, the product of the heating reaction is zinc oxide, an inert chemical used in many different products such as sunscreen , creams...low cost, easy-to-use chemical heater called the Flameless Ration Heater (FRH). The FRH consists of a magnesium/iron mixture sealed in a waterproof...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 1. HEATER DESIGN There is a narrow operating temperature range for chemical heaters for this specific

  16. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  17. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  18. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  19. Pulse combustion space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Pavlik, C.M.; Moon, L.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a pulse combustion space heater for heating air in a space to be temperature conditioned. It comprises: a cabinet having exterior walls providing a cabinet volume for enclosing and supporting the heater, interior housing means located within the cabinet volume including walls providing a substantially closed heat transfer chamber having inlet and outlet openings through which air to be heated is circulated and a chamber volume substantially smaller than the cabinet volume, pulse combustion burner means including an assembly of closely spaced elongate burner elements operably connected in a fluid-tight manner for pulse combustion of a combustible gaseous mixture and discharge of combustion products to the atmosphere. The burner elements having exterior heat transfer surface located within the heat transfer chamber for transfer of combustion heat to air contacting the heat transfer surfaces, and blower means for circulating air from the space through the heat transfer chamber.

  20. Generic Verification Protocol for Determination of Emissions from Cleaner Outdoor Wood-Fired Hydronic Heaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by cleaner outdoor wood-fired hydronic heaters. Outdoor wood-burning units provide heat and hot water for homes and other b...

  1. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  2. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  3. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  4. Water heater control module

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  6. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  7. Nonpowered instant water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, Eric C.

    1994-08-01

    The technical feasibility of a nonpowered instantaneous water heater based on the use of a condensing steam ejector pump has been established by test of a commercially available ejector. Using steam at approximately 25 PSIG pressure, it has been demonstrated that water can be simultaneously heated and pumped to pressures up to two times the steam pressure. The overall system concept is that of a lightweight, portable heater package that is fired with a constant-run, manually-controlled burner. The concept can accommodate the operation of a constant-run burner with only intermittent water delivery, as in a kitchen use, by recirculation of heated water back to the supply tank/barrel. With outlet water pressure greater than the inlet steam pressure, the unit can incorporate automatic feed of makeup water to the steam generator. The system concept can be implemented in a range of outputs. At 100,000 Btu/hr burner output and 50% efficiency, system capability would be at about 0.8 GPM continuously with a 100 deg F temperature rise, 1.5 GPM continuously with about a 50 deg rise, or 1.5 GPM intermittently at 100 F rise and 50%/50% on-off delivery duty cycle.

  8. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOEpatents

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Tankless Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center specialists aided Space, Energy, Time Saving (SETS) Systems, Inc. in working out the problems they encountered with their new electronic "tankless" water heater. The flow switch design suffered intermittent problems. Hiring several testing and engineering firms produced only graphs, printouts, and a large expense, but no solutions. Then through the Kennedy Space Center/State of Florida Technology Outreach Program, SETS was referred to Michael Brooks, a 21-year space program veteran and flowmeter expert. Run throughout Florida to provide technical service to businesses at no cost, the program applies scientific and engineering expertise originally developed for space applications to the Florida business community. Brooks discovered several key problems, resulting in a new design that turned out to be simpler, yielding a 63 percent reduction in labor and material costs over the old design.

  12. Dynamic heater for display elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmlow, Brian P.; Bishop, Gary D.; Steffensmeier, Martin J.; Sampica, James D.; Skarohlid, Mark C.

    1997-07-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) deliver optimal performance when the entire display surface is isothermal and at a controllable temperature. This condition creates uniform electro-optical properties within the liquid crystal layer. This paper describes a dynamic, multicontact heater system that actively compensates for uneven heat loads, thereby creating the desired isothermal condition. The heater system includes a uniform resistive sheet, with multiple electrical contacts around the perimeter. A switch network connects each heater contact to a power supply, ground potential, or a high impedance. A microprocessor monitors the display temperature, and detects non-uniformity, and selectively applies heat to cold areas of the display. The dynamic heater system employs a variety of heating patterns to create the desired isothermal condition.Heating patterns vary in duration, power applied, and location on the display face. The microprocessor control loop can also detect and isolate faulty drive elements, and compensate for non- uniformity in the heater itself. The heater prevents stress- induced delaminations, mechanical distortions, and stress- induced birefringence in optical components. Test results indicate that a dynamic heater can be beneficial in the thermal design of LCD products.

  13. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  14. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  15. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  16. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... overturning of the vehicle in which it is mounted. (4) Heaters permitting air contamination. Any heater taking... contamination of the air so conveyed by exhaust or engine compartment gases. (5) Solid fuel heaters except wood... all hot water and steam heater systems shall be specifically designed and constructed for that...

  17. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  18. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  19. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  20. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  1. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  2. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  3. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  4. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  5. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  6. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  7. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  8. [Habermas' and Giddens' modernization theories applied to homes for the aged and to somatic nursing homes. The long road toward greater equivalence between residents and staff].

    PubMed

    Belderok, J J

    1997-12-01

    The situation in homes for the elderly and nursing homes is for the residents both alarming and tragic. Recent Dutch legislation supports the movement towards more self-determination and autonomy for the residents. The staff are dedicated to making the living situation as good as possible for the residents. Nevertheless many publications describe how the dependence and helplessness of the residents stil continue. In this paper this helplessness is placed within the broader framework of modern society by application of Habermas' theory of communicative action and Giddens' structuration theory. Both theories show that the key to improve dependent making structures should be sought principally in the behaviour of both staff and residents. Habermas offers a perspective to more equivalent communicative action between residents and staff. Giddens draws attention to the knowledgeability of residents, with which they should be able to interact on an equal basis with professionals. This presupposes much dedication of both staff and residents.

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  11. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  12. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  13. Tips for Energy Savers In and Around the Home, On the Road, In the Marketplace. Don't Be Fuelish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents simple suggestions for energy conservation. Sections include: (1) In and around the home; (2) Using the family car; and (3) In the marketplace. The suggestions given are mostly common sense tips like dressing appropriately for either hot or cold weather, use electrical appliances and lights sparingly and at off-peak times,…

  14. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  15. Arc heater capabilities at AEDC

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.D.; Bruce, W.E. III

    1995-12-31

    The USAF/Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), located near Tullahoma, Tennessee, has a wide range of arc heater capabilities. Test facilities include a 25-MW segmented arc heater (H1) and a 40-MW Huels-type arc heater (HR). These facilities operate at pressures up to 12 MPa (120 atm) and exhaust to atmosphere, providing low Mach number flows (M < 3.5). The HR arc heater is also used as the driver for the arc-heated wind tunnel (H2) which has a test cabin 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and is provided with a subatmospheric exhaust to accommodate higher Mach number flows (M = 4 to 8) and flow fields up to a diameter of 0.6 meters (24 in.). A new larger scale 60-MW segmented arc heater (H3), which is in the final year of a six year development effort at AEDC, will significantly increase the size and performance of the existing facilities. The H3 heater has been demonstrated at chamber pressures up to 10.3 MPa (103 atm) and a power of 58 MW. AEDC has a wide range of plant utilities available for arc facility operations and development, including a 60-MW direct-current power supply, a 27 MPA (4,000 psi) high-pressure air supply capable of flow rates up to 9 kg/sec (20 lbm/sec), and cooling water systems which provide up to 190 kg/sec (3,000 gpm) at a minimum pressure of 7 MPa (1,000 psi). A state-of-the-art analytical capability has also been developed over the past 10 years at AEDC to better understand arc heater performance and behavior. Developers of large-scale commercial plasma systems have an opportunity to utilize the facilities and experience available at AEDC.

  16. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, R. P.

    1982-03-01

    In the period between March 1979 and January 1980, 85 prototype heat pump water heaters were installed in single-family residences. Each system was monitored for a period of one year and total program monitoring was concluded at the end of December 1980. The field demonstration provided a total of 643 unit-months of usable operational data which showed an average OOP of 1.93, or an average 48% operating savings compared to resistance water heating. Average operating conditions were 73 gallons of 140 F water consumed each day with an average inlet water temperature of 71 F. Despite a high initial failure rate for the prototypes, which resulted in a protracted debugging period, consumer reaction to the system was extremely positive. The data suggests that the HPWH would save the average consumer in the test program 2917 kWh per year. Measurable impacts on heating/cooling systems were detected in only 8% of the test homes.

  17. Note: Coaxial-heater hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Huseyin; Kokal, Ugur; Turan, Nazli; Celik, Murat

    2017-06-01

    The design and tests of a LaB6 hollow cathode with a novel heater are presented. In the new design, the heater wire is completely encapsulated around the cathode tube and a coaxial return electrode, thereby eliminating hot spots on the heater wire due to the free hanging regions. Since the new heater confines the Joule heating to the region of interest, where the LaB6 emitter is placed, the heater terminals are further secured from overheating. The cathode with the presented heater design has been successfully tested and is able to deliver currents in the 0.5-15 A range.

  18. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  19. Understanding the Residential Wood Heater Rules

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the components of the current wood heater new source performance standards (NSPS) and proposed updates to the NSPS including which types of heaters are covered under the rules and the benefits.

  20. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  1. Sealed-in-quartz resistance heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Electric resistance quartz heater operates at 1,400 F without developing excessively hot spots that can fail prematurely. Since resistance element is sealed in quartz, heater can be used in hostile environments. Sealed construction also keeps heater from contaminating heated object.

  2. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  3. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  4. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  5. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Kacin Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Kacin Homes, an energy-efficient home builder in cold climate using airtight envelope, efficient lighting, and tankless water heater. Evaluates cost impacts.

  6. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  7. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  8. High reliability cathode heaters for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A number of space missions were proposed which utilize 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thrusters and also require a large number of thruster restarts. A test program was carried out to determine thermal cycle life of several different cathode heater designs. Plasma/flame sprayed heaters and swaged type heaters were tested. Four of the five plasma/flame sprayed heaters tested failed in a comparatively short time. Four tantalum swaged heaters that were brazed to the tantalum cathode tube were successfully tested and met the goals that were set at the start of the test.

  9. High reliability cathode heaters for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A number of space missions have been proposed which will utilize 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thrusters and also will require a large number of thruster restarts. A test program was carried out to determine thermal cycle life of several different cathode heater designs. Plasma/flame sprayed heaters and swaged type heaters were tested. Four of the five plasma/flame sprayed heaters tested failed in a comparatively short time. Four tantalum swaged heaters that were brazed to the tantalum cathode tube were successfully tested and met the goals that were set at the start of the test.

  10. FFTF reactor immersion heaters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Romrell, D.M.

    1994-08-26

    This specification establishes requirements for design, testing, and quality assurance for electric heaters that will be used to maintain primary Sodium temperature in the Fast Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The Test Specification (WHC-SD-FF-SDS-003) has been revised to Rev. 1. This change modifies the fabrication of approximately 25 feet of the subject heater using ceramic insulators over the heater lead wire rather than compressed magnesium oxide. Also, 304 or 316 stainless steel can be used for the heater sheath. This change should simplify fabrication and improve the heater operational reliability.

  11. Preparation of large-area double-walled carbon nanotube films and application as film heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi Ping; Wang, Jian Nong

    2009-11-01

    Large-area (larger than 30×30 cm 2) double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) films are prepared and application as a heating element for film heaters is demonstrated. A high heating efficiency is observed. Measurements indicate that the use of the DWCNT film heater would save energy consumption up to 20-30% when compared with a commercial film-like metal-based heater. Morphological analysis reveals that the special surface structure, appropriate electric and high thermal conductivities of the film formed by the network of entangled nanotube bundles may lead to the high heating performance. Considering large-area, shape flexibility, negligible weight and easy manipulation, the film exhibits promising potential applications as a film heater for thermal control in aircrafts, medical equipment, home appliances and other industrial fields at low temperature (below 400 °C).

  12. Heater Development, Fabrication, and Testing: Analysis of Fabricated Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Dickens, R. E.; Farmer, J. T.; Davis, J. D.; Adams, M. R.; Martin, J. J.; Webster, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal simulators (highly designed heater elements) developed at the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fission in a variety of reactor concepts. When inserted into the reactor geometry, the purpose of the thermal simulators is to deliver thermal power to the test article in the same fashion as if nuclear fuel were present. Considerable effort has been expended to mimic heat from fission as closely as possible. To accurately represent the fuel, the simulators should be capable of matching the overall properties of the nuclear fuel rather than simply matching the fuel temperatures. This includes matching thermal stresses in the pin, pin conductivities, total core power, and core power profile (axial and radial). This Technical Memorandum discusses the historical development of the thermal simulators used in nonnuclear testing at the EFF-TF and provides a basis for the development of the current series of thermal simulators. The status of current heater fabrication and testing is assessed, providing data and analyses for both successes and failures experienced in the heater development and testing program.

  13. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  14. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    PubMed

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  15. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  16. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  17. Still too hot: Examination of water temperature and water heater characteristics 24 years after manufacturers adopt voluntary temperature setting

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Wendy C.; McDonald, Eileen; Frattaroli, Shannon; Zhu, Jeffrey; Perry, Elise C.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although water heater manufacturers adopted a voluntary standard in the 1980’s to pre-set thermostats on new water heaters to 120°F, tap water scald burns cause an estimated 1,500 hospital admissions and 100 deaths per year in the United States. This study reports on water temperatures in 976 urban homes and identifies water heater and household characteristics associated with having safe temperatures. Methods The temperature of the hot water, type and size of water heater, date of manufacture and the setting of the temperature gauge were recorded. Demographic data including number of people living in the home and home ownership were also recorded. Results Hot water temperature was unsafe in 41% of homes. Homeowners were more likely to have safer hot water temperature (≤ 120°F) than renters (63% vs. 54%; p<0.01). For 11% of gas water heaters, the water temperature was ≥ 130°F, although the gauge was set at less than 75% of its maximum setting. In a multivariate logistic regression, electric water heaters were more likely to have safe hot water temperatures than gas water heaters (OR=4.99; p<0.01). Water heaters with more gallons per person in the household were more likely to be at or below the recommended 120°F. Conclusions Our results suggest that hot water temperatures remain dangerously high for a substantial proportion of urban homes despite the adoption of voluntary standards to preset temperature settings by manufacturers. This research highlights the need for improved prevention strategies such as installing thermostatic mixing valves to ensure a safer temperature. PMID:23514986

  18. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  19. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  20. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Brady; Michael Patrick , Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno , Vitek; John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  1. Quality control of radiant heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Daniel A.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Quintela, María Á.; López-Higuera, José M.

    2005-09-01

    Based on infrared thermography, a non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) procedure is proposed for defects assessment on radiant heaters. Under a short electrical excitation, an infrared camera captures the cooling process of the heaters. Breaking the thermographic images down not only makes easiest the location of defects but it also allows their classification. Several kinds of defects have been taken into account: lack of supporting brackets; defects originated by a deficiency in the heating material; those from an excess of heating material; and those parts of the heating elements which are in wrong contact (non-contact or semi-buried) with the substrate. Each kind of analyzed defect has a different thermal history after the electrical excitation because of its nature. By means of computer vision techniques, the defects can be spatially located. The "chain code" was employed to follow the pattern of the heating element and so concentrate the analysis in points belonging to the pattern. A good agreement with analysis made under human's criteria is achieved. However, using infrared cameras and processing the data with computer vision algorithms allows controlling in-site the quality of the product without any subjectivity. So, the heaters manufacturing industry could come along with the implementation of this automatic detection procedure. Experimental results that validate the proposed method will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  3. Solar air heaters and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  4. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  5. Results of testing unvented kerosene heaters in a house: gas emissions, surface temperatures and fuel consumption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, S.G.; Tom, B.L.; Babcock, A.J.; Mehkeri, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to concerns about the safety of unvented kerosene heaters, Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada (CCAC) funded the Consumers' Association of Canada (CAC) to carry out a study under the guidance of Scientific and Laboratory Services Division of CCAC to investigate kerosene heater performance in areas such as stability, surface temperatures and emission levels of combustion products. The CAC study monitored the levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) emitted by twelve heaters in a controlled environment chamber. A few additional tests were carried out in a home located in Greely, Ontario with two of these heaters. The levels of the combustion gases were found to be markedly lower than those measured during chamber tests. A second in-house study was initiated by CCAC to expand upon the house tests done by CAC. During this study more unvented kerosene heaters were tested and gas concentrations were measured in rooms remote from the one in which the heater was located. Four radiant and four convective type kerosene heaters were tested including the two previously studied in the home in greely as well as two others from the CAC study.

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE...

  8. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Gas D1 Appendix D1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY...

  9. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Gas D1 Appendix D1 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Gas Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Instantaneous—Gas Range Information...

  14. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  15. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

  16. Air heater leakage: worse than you think

    SciTech Connect

    Guffre, J.

    2006-04-15

    Every good engineer knows that you cannot control what you cannot measure. In the case of rotary regenerative air heaters, many plants fail to limit the negative impact of heater leakage because they use measurement procedures and/or devices that fail to take into account its indirect effects. For a 500 MW coal-fired plant the heat energy that air heaters capture and recycle amounts to about 60% of that existing in the boiler, equivalent to 1.5 Btu per hour. This article explains the importance of accurately measuring leakage levels and the need to use modern seals to make heaters air-tight. 4 figs.

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  18. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  20. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  1. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  2. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  3. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in which the engine exhaust gases are conducted into or through any space occupied by persons or any heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  4. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  5. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  6. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  7. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  8. Heater for Combustible-Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed heater for pressurizing hydrogen, oxygen, or another combustible liquid or gas sealed in immersion cup in pressurized tank. Firmly supported in finned cup, coiled rod transfers heat through liquid metal to gas tank. Heater assembly welded or bolted to tank flange.

  9. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Garbett Homes, Herriman, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    As the first net zero-energy production home certified in Utah, this house incorporates two 94% efficient tankless water heaters and two roof-mounted solar panels that preheat the home's water supply. This home won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  10. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  11. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  12. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle.

    PubMed

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  13. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  14. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  15. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  16. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of this chapter, as applicable. (b) Controls. Fired thermal fluid heaters must have a low fluid level...

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  18. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable provisions of §§ 23.1182 through 23.1191 and 23.1203: (1) The region surrounding the heater, if... heater in case of leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings... passage that surrounds the combustion chamber. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air...

  19. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  20. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  1. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  2. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  3. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  4. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  5. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  6. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  7. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  8. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  9. Implementation of a self-controlling heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Temperature control of radiation sensors, targets, and other critical components is a common requirement in modern scientific instruments. Conventional control systems use a heater and a temperature sensor mounted on the body to be controlled. For proportional control, the sensor provides feedback to circuitry which drives the heater with an amount of power proportional to the temperature error. It is impractical or undesirable to mount both a heater and a sensor on certain components such as ultra-small parts or thin filaments. In principle, a variable current through the element is used for heating, and the change in voltage drop due to the element's temperature coefficient is separated and used to monitor or control its own temperature. Since there are no thermal propagation delays between heater and sensor, such control systems are exceptionally stable.

  10. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  11. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  12. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  13. Note: Improved wire-wound heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  14. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  15. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  16. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  17. JPS heater and sensor lightning qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover Lightning Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated lightning discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case lightning discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.

  18. JPS heater and sensor lightning qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-10-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover Lightning Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated lightning discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case lightning discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.

  19. Intelligent annunciator for solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The solar water heater has advantages of low cost, no pollution, safety, energy conservation and is very suitable for users in rural area. But many now used solar water heater has no alarm device resulting water and resource wasting because of forgetting to turn off the valve after water sailing upstream. To overcome this defect, an intelligent annunciator for solar water heater installed at the end of the return pipe is presented and designed in order to remind the user. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of automatic and manual sailing upstream are compared concluding that manual sailing upstream is more trustiness. Then an annunciator for solar water heater is studied and ameliorated. Its principle, parameters index and functions are introduced. The annunciator uses CD4069 chip as the core circuit with very little assistant circuit. It can provide sound and light alarm at the same time. This annunciator for solar water heater water is very simple in production, low cost, the use of safe and convenient. The annunciator is applicable to all solar power products, including various types of early installation of solar power water heaters and water tanks without changing their structures. It can meet family and industrial environmental applications.

  20. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  1. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep them out of reach of children.Preventing hot water burns in your homeTest the water temperature before you or your children get into the ... the faucet handles during a bath.Set the temperature on your water heater ... or vaporizers. If you use hot-steam vaporizers, keep them out of the reach ...

  2. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  3. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  4. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  5. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  6. D0 Cryo CC Heater Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-16

    Nine pairs of heaters are installed in the bottom of the CC pressure vessel.The physical layout is shown in the CC internal development drawing, D0 dwg. 3740.510-ME-255523. Electrically the heater system is a delta configuration. Electrical details are found on D0 dwg. 3740.515EC-273761. The feedthrough connectors for power to the heaters are located in the instrumentation box. Connector positions are found on D0 dwg.3740.515-EC-273760. Original sketches for the above named drawings are included in this document. The heaters and wiring were cleaned various times prior to and after installation with ethyl a1chohol. At various stages in the installation hi-pot and continuity tests were successfully accomplished to verify the integrity of the system. The fmal hi-pot numbers are included in the documentation. The heaters and wiring are kept separated from thermometry and purity cell wiring by SS sheetmetal barriers. The fabrication, testing and installation was completed by M. Hentges and his crew from AD/Cryo.

  7. Hollow cathode heater development for the Space Station plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1993-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater design. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Three heaters have been tested to date using direct current power supplies. Performance testing was conducted to determine input current and power requirements for achieving activation and ignition temperatures, single unit operational repeatability, and unit-to-unit operational repeatability. Comparisons of performance testing data at the ignition input current level for the three heaters show the unit-to-unit repeatability of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be within 3.5 W and 44 degrees C, respectively. Cyclic testing was then conducted to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Two additional heaters were subsequently fabricated and have completed 3178 cycles to date in an on-going test.

  8. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  9. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  10. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  11. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  12. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  13. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  14. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  16. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  17. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  18. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  19. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  20. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  1. Development of a Prototype Military Field Space Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    shaped piece of metal was cut out, and the bottom was pulled together and welded. The resulting contour is shown by the dotted lines in Figure 3...ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Triple-stage burner and position of flame at various firing rates 9 2. Triple-stage heater, prototype 1 10 3. Bottom ...of burner bottom temperature for M1941 and prototype 16 1 heater 6. Prototype 1 heater unlevel performance 18 7. Triple-stage heater prototype 2

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859 Section 23.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions...

  3. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859 Section 29.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion...

  4. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859 Section 25.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion...

  5. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by a...

  6. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by a...

  7. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by a...

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by a...

  9. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters...

  10. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  16. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...

  18. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...

  19. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...

  20. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through 25.1191 and §§ 25.1195 through 25.1203; (1) The region surrounding the heater, if this region... leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  1. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  2. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not...

  3. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  4. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  5. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  6. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  7. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  8. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  9. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  10. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  11. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... machinery is remote from the motor and controller disconnect device, a sign must be fixed to the enclosure... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers...

  12. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... failure of the fuel lines. (5) Operating controls to be protected. On every bus designed to transport more.... (7) Electrical apparatus. Every heater employing any electrical apparatus shall be equipped with electrical conductors, switches, connectors, and other electrical parts of ample current-carrying capacity to...

  14. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  15. A programmable heater control circuit for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. D.; Owen, J. W.; Smith, D. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control is accomplished for many components through use of multilayer insulation systems, electrical heaters, and radiator systems. The heaters are commanded to maintain component temperatures within design specifications. The programmable heater control circuit (PHCC) was designed to obtain an effective and efficient means of spacecraft thermal control. The hybrid circuit provides use of control instrumentation as temperature data, available to the spacecraft central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft's mission, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring. The hybrid integrated circuit has a temperature sensing and conditioning circuit, a microprocessor, and a heater power and control circuit. The device is miniature and housed in a volume which allows physical integration with the component to be controlled. Applications might include alternate battery-powered logic-circuit configurations. A prototype unit with appropriate physical and functional interfaces was procured for testing. The physical functionality and the feasibility of fabrication of the hybrid integrated circuit were successfully verified. The remaining work to develop a flight-qualified device includes fabrication and testing of a Mil-certified part. An option for completing the PHCC flight qualification testing is to enter into a joint venture with industry.

  16. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  17. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  18. 14 CFR 29.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 29.833 Section 29.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations §...

  19. 14 CFR 27.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 27.833 Section 27.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations §...

  20. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  2. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: The Imery Group — Proud Green Home, Serenbe, GA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The first certified Zero Energy Ready Home in Georgia was honored in the Custom Builder category of the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The 2,811-ft2, two-story custom home has 2x6 advanced framed walls filled with R-20 of open-cell spray foam, plus an R-6.6 insulated coated OSB sheathing. Also included is electronic monitoring equipment that tracks the PV, solar thermal water heater, ERV, mini-split heat pump with three indoor heads, solar water heater, and LED and CFL lighting.

  4. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  5. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  6. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  7. Single-heater test final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  8. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  9. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  10. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  11. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  12. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOEpatents

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  13. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOEpatents

    Pehl, Richard H.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

  14. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  15. Enthalpy probe for arc heater flow diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Craig M.; Moody, Henry L.; Mitchell, James D.; Horn, Dennis D.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes accomplishments made in the research and development of a dual sonic nozzle enthalpy probe for arc heater flow diagnostics. The primary concern and focus for the study presented herein, was the fabrication of an internally cooled structure that can survive a steady-state dwell in a severe heating environment. This structure is the housing and thermal protection system for the instrumentation necessary to measure gas enthalpy. The structure was constructed from photochemical etched metal foils that were laminated and diffusion bonded to form a controlled porosity housing with high internal cooling effectiveness. Selected prototypes were successfully tested to evaluate structural and heat extraction capabilities. Structural integrity at coolant pressures exceeding 3000 psi was demonstrated. An arc heater test evaluation was conducted in a Mach 2.8 flow with a stagnation pressure and enthalpy of 14 atm and 4500 Btu/lb, respectively. The probe survived the arc heater test, both in a sweep mode and an 0.83 second dwell in the flow, with no evidence of over-heating. These demonstrations have resulted in further development of the structure into a fully instrumented enthalpy probe.

  16. Heater Validation for the NEXT-C Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.; Mackey, Jonathan Ar.

    2017-01-01

    Swaged cathode heaters whose design was successfully demonstrated under a prior flight project are to be provided by the NASA Glenn Research Center for the NEXT-C ion thruster being fabricated by Aerojet Rocketdyne. Extensive requalification activities were performed to validate process controls that had to be re-established or revised because systemic changes prevented reuse of the past approaches. A development batch of heaters was successfully fabricated based on the new process controls. Acceptance and cyclic life testing of multiple discharge and neutralizer sized heaters extracted from the development batch was initiated in August, 2016, with the last heater completing testing in April, 2017. Cyclic life testing results substantially exceeded the NEXT-C thruster requirement as well as all past experience for GRC fabricated units. The heaters demonstrated ultimate cyclic life capability of 19050 to 33500 cycles. A qualification batch of heaters is now being fabricated using the finalized process controls. A set of six heaters will be acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance to the behavior observed with the development heaters. The heaters for flight use will be then be provided to the contractor. This paper summarizes the fabrication process control activities and the acceptance and life testing of the development heater units.

  17. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: S&A Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with IBACOS to design urban infill HERS-51 homes with compact duct layout in conditioned space, foam insulated precast concrete foundations, high-efficiency HVAC, and tankless water heaters

  19. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  20. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.; DeRossi, Raymond S.; Mullins, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  1. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.; DeRossi, R.S.; Mullins, L.E.

    1991-12-31

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a probe assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  2. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherka, Kenneth L.

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold-region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaskan installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radio-isotopic heaters for freeze-up protection of water storage tanks and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  3. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  4. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  5. 88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. TRANSPIRATION COOLING OF A CONSTRICTED ELECTRIC-ARC HEATER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARC HEATERS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), (*EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, COOLING), HEAT TRANSFER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ENTHALPY, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

  7. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  8. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  9. Arc heater manifold evaluation. Final report, August 1993-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.D.; Bruce, W.E.; Felderman, E.J.; Beitel, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    Arc heaters are required to provide the high pressure and temperature test conditions necessary to meet critical testing needs for propulsion, materials, and structures. Two configurations can produce the high power arc heater capability required: a single large arc or a multi-arc configuration based on manifolding a number of smaller heaters into a common plenum. Such multi-arc configurations can be a convenient route to high-power heaters (on the order of 200-300 MW), but at the cost of reduced performance because of additional wall cooling losses. A multi-arc configuration may be an effective way to improve flow uniformity of both enthalpy and pressure. The mixing of effluents of separate arc heaters in a single plenum may dampen flow-field fluctuations because oscillations in the individual arc units will probably be totally independent. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of manifolding arc heaters into a single plenum on flow quality and heater efficiency. A reduction in enthalpy of approximately 7 percent was attributed to the manifold. The reduction in enthalpy is caused by the additional wall losses in the manifold. Fluctuations in the flow were slightly better for the multi-arc configuration (compared to a single heater), primarily because of smaller fluctuations in the pressure. Heat flux fluctutations for the multi-arc system were nearly the same as for a single-arc heater.

  10. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  11. The road most travelled: the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries in England

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both road safety campaigns and epidemiological research into social differences in road traffic injury risk often assume that road traffic injuries occur close to home. While previous work has examined distance from home to site of collision for child pedestrians in local areas, less is known about the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries from other modes. This study explores the distribution of the distance between home residence and collision site (crash distance) by mode of transport, geographic area, and social characteristics in England. Methods Using 10 years of road casualty data collected by the police, we examined the distribution of crash distance by age, sex, injury severity, area deprivation, urban/rural status, year, day of week, and, in London only, ethnic group. Results 54% of pedestrians, 39% of cyclists, 17% of powered two-wheeler riders and 16% of car occupants were injured within 1 km of home. 82% of pedestrians, 83% of cyclists, 54% of powered two-wheeler and 53% of car occupants were injured within 5 km of home. We found some social and geographic differences in crash distance: for all transport modes injuries tended to occur closer to home in more deprived or urban areas; younger and older pedestrians and cyclists were also injured closer to home. Crash distance appears to have increased over time for pedestrian, cyclist and car occupant injuries, but has decreased over time for powered two-wheeler injuries. Conclusions Injuries from all travel modes tend to occur quite close to home, supporting assumptions made in epidemiological and road safety education literature. However, the trend for increasing crash distance and the social differences identified may have methodological implications for future epidemiological studies on social differences in injury risk. PMID:23738624

  12. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, Ronald M.; Abbott, Stephan L.; Miller, Phillip E.; Shaffer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  14. Single-Heater, Three-Zone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shauback, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature profile shaped with help of thermal barriers. Proposed furnace for use in experiments on growth of crystals of highly pure material in ampoule provides three temperature zones, yet contains only one heat-pipe liner and one heater and operates with only one controller. Three temperature zones established as thermal resistances of wicks and noncondensible gas reduces flows of heat into channel containing ampoule. Motion of ampoule along channel causes gradients of temperature to move along specimen in ampoule. Variety of three-zone temperature profiles in furnace created by changing thermal resistances of zones and injecting noncondensible gas at appropriate point. Furnace used for variety of experiments.

  15. Single-Heater, Three-Zone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shauback, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature profile shaped with help of thermal barriers. Proposed furnace for use in experiments on growth of crystals of highly pure material in ampoule provides three temperature zones, yet contains only one heat-pipe liner and one heater and operates with only one controller. Three temperature zones established as thermal resistances of wicks and noncondensible gas reduces flows of heat into channel containing ampoule. Motion of ampoule along channel causes gradients of temperature to move along specimen in ampoule. Variety of three-zone temperature profiles in furnace created by changing thermal resistances of zones and injecting noncondensible gas at appropriate point. Furnace used for variety of experiments.

  16. Performance of a matrix air heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, M. S.; Bansal, N. K.; Singh, D.; Bharadwaj, S. S.

    1982-10-01

    This communication presents a study of a porous flat plate solar air heater. An earlier theory used to analyze such a system has been modified by using: (1) appropriate boundary conditions and also (2) by considering the realistic case of different air and matrix temperatures. Numerical calculations have been performed to bring out the difference between the earlier theory and the present theory. The results of the present theory are found to be in excellent agreement with the measurements of an experiment. The yearly performance of the system has also been evaluated for Delhi-type climates.

  17. Status of Hollow Cathode Heater Development for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Heater tests included testing of the heater unit alone and plasma contactor and ion thruster testing. To date, eight heaters have been or are being processed through heater unit testing, two through plasma contactor testing and three through ion thruster testing, all using direct current power supplies. Comparisons of data from heater unit performance tests before cyclic testing, plasma contactor tests, and ion thruster tests at the ignition input current level show the average deviation of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be +/-0.9 W and +/- 21 C, respectively. Heater unit testing included cyclic testing to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Four additional heaters successfully completed 6300, 6300, 700, and 700 cycles. Heater unit testing is currently ongoing for three heaters which have to date accumulated greater than 7250, greater than 5500, and greater than 5500 cycles, respectively.

  18. Association of Mechanical Ventilation and Flue Use in Heaters With Asthma Symptoms in Japanese Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sapporo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Shi; Araki, Atsuko; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Ait Bamai, Yu; Tajima, Shuji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of fuel heaters is associated with childhood asthma. However, no studies have evaluated the associations of flue use and mechanical ventilation (ventilation) with asthma symptoms in schoolchildren. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated schoolchildren in grades 1 through 6 (age 6–12 years) in Sapporo, Japan. From November 2008 through January 2009, parents completed questionnaires regarding their home environment and their children’s asthma symptoms. Results In total, 4445 (69.5%) parents of 6393 children returned the questionnaire. After excluding incomplete responses, data on 3874 children (60.6%) were analyzed. The prevalence of current asthma symptoms and ever asthma symptoms were 12.8% and 30.9%, respectively. As compared with electric heaters, current asthma symptoms was associated with use of flued heaters without ventilation (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.03–2.64) and unflued heaters with ventilation (OR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09–2.95) or without ventilation (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.31–3.85). Regardless of dampness, unflued heaters were significantly associated with current asthma symptoms in the presence and absence of ventilation. Conclusions Use of unflued heaters was associated with current asthma symptoms, regardless of dampness. In particular, the prevalence of current asthma symptoms was higher in the absence of ventilation than in the presence of ventilation. Ever asthma symptoms was only associated with use of unflued heaters without ventilation. Consequently, use of fuel heaters, especially those that have no flue or ventilation, deserves attention, as their use might be associated with childhood asthma symptoms. PMID:24747197

  19. PAL-XFEL laser heater commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JaeHyun; Han, Jang-Hui; Lee, Sojeong; Hong, Juho; Kim, Chul Hoon; Min, Chang Ki; Ko, In Soo

    2017-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) require electron beams with a peak current of several kA and a transverse emittance below 1 mm mrad. The uncorrelated energy spread of the beam should be as small as 0.01% of the beam energy. A photoinjector generates an electron beam satisfying the requirements, however the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam is too small, about one keV. A beam with such a low uncorrelated energy spread may suffer from the longitudinal microbunching instability when the beam is accelerated and compressed through a linear accelerator. A laser heater system in the injector minimizes the microbunching instability growth by controlling the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the PAL-XFEL laser heater system and the commissioning result. The laser heating effects depending on the undulator gap, infrared laser pulse energy and laser beam size are studied. Experimental studies on the laser heating depending on the relative spatial position between the infrared laser and electron beam are discussed in detail.

  20. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.

  1. Control surface mirror with local heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Vladimir V.; Kulagina, V.; Lutinskaya, Marina; Leonov, Yury

    1994-09-01

    The majority of wavefront disturbances of space reflector and space telescopes are due to external thermal fields variations and the optical surface deformations. Two principal methods of disturbances compensation exist: a thermostabilization by temperature gradients decreasing and the mirror surface active thermodeformation. This can be accomplished only by some thermal methods: either by temperature gradients elimination or by keeping some given temperature field. The latter method is carried out by a system of heaters and sensors located on mirror elements /1,2/. Thermal deformation correction of distortions of optical and structural elements surface is possible, too, in accordance with control system responses. A thermo-optical compensation system (TOCS) consists of individual control units which contain heaters and sensors fixed to respective mirror elements as well as electronic measurement and control units (MCU) interfaced to them Fig. 1. The MCU are made constructively of unified printed circuit boards which can be functionally divided into various zones for interfacing of input/output, memory and supply circuits.

  2. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  3. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  4. Wilderness Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughmiller, Campbell

    The benefits of outdoor camping for disturbed boys whose difficulties require treatment outside the home are described. The variety of emotional handicaps handled by group technique and direct experience with natural surroundings at Camp Woodland Springs outside of Dallas, Texas, and the reactions of the boys participating in this residential…

  5. View from western bridge portal along entrance road, softball fields ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from western bridge portal along entrance road, softball fields to right and hospital complex in distance - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  6. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a...

  7. Improved Controllers For Heaters In Toxic-Gas Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wishard, James; Lamb, James; Fortier, Edward; Velasquez, Hugo; Waltman, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Commercial electronic proportional controllers installed in place of mechanical power controllers for electric heaters in toxic-gas combustors at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Designed to maintain temperature of heater at preset value by turning power fully on or fully off when temperature falls below or rises above that value, respectively. Solid-state power controllers overcome deficiencies of mechanical power controllers.

  8. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  9. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  10. 89. ARAIII. Petrochem oilfired gas heater installed in reactor building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. ARA-III. Petro-chem oil-fired gas heater installed in reactor building (ARA-608). View is at floor level. Shows hand rails around heater pit and top of pit extending upwards through ceiling. January 20, 1959. Ineel photo no. 59-321. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Infrared transparent graphene heater for silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Schall, Daniel; Mohsin, Muhammad; Sagade, Abhay A; Otto, Martin; Chmielak, Bartos; Suckow, Stephan; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2016-04-18

    Thermo-optical tuning of the refractive index is one of the pivotal operations performed in integrated silicon photonic circuits for thermal stabilization, compensation of fabrication tolerances, and implementation of photonic operations. Currently, heaters based on metal wires provide the temperature control in the silicon waveguide. The strong interaction of metal and light, however, necessitates a certain gap between the heater and the photonic structure to avoid significant transmission loss. Here we present a graphene heater that overcomes this constraint and enables an energy efficient tuning of the refractive index. We achieve a tuning power as low as 22 mW per free spectral range and fast response time of 3 µs, outperforming metal based waveguide heaters. Simulations support the experimental results and suggest that for graphene heaters the spacing to the silicon can be further reduced yielding the best possible energy efficiency and operation speed.

  12. Toxic organic pollutants from kerosene space heaters in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate qualitatively the emission of toxic organic pollutants from an unventilated conventional kerosene space heater commonly used in Iran. A brand new common convective kerosene space heater, the "Aladdin," was used for this study. The well-tuned convective heater was operated in a 2.6-m(3) test chamber and then the emission was tested for organic pollutants. The emission was collected on Teflon-impregnated glass-fiber filters and XAD-2 resin and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was found that in addition to the ordinary pollutant gases, the heater emits aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the related nitrated compounds, phthalates, naphthalenes, and some other toxic organic compounds. However, it was found that the heater did not emit fluoranthene, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, and higher-molecular-weight alkylbenzenes, which could have resulted from the combustion of some other types of kerosene.

  13. Car seat heaters: a potential hazard for burns.

    PubMed

    Maguiña, Pirko; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2003-01-01

    Car seat heaters have gained popularity in America and worldwide. They offer comfort by heating the sitting surface to a soothing temperature. Several cases of heating-element malfunction resulted in burn injuries and have triggered recalls of thousands of cars by the manufacturers. We present a case of a 48-year-old patient with long-standing paraplegia who sustained third-degree burns on his buttock during the initial drive of a new car with seat heaters. Car seat heaters can cause severe burns. Patients with decreased sensation or immobility are at increased risk and should not use car seat heaters. This case illustrates the need for design modifications and consumer education regarding the risks associated with car seat heaters.

  14. Note: Improved heater design for high-temperature hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M. S.; Gallimore, A. D.; Goebel, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved heater design for thermionic cathodes using a rhenium filament encased in a boron nitride ceramic sleeve. This heater is relatively simple to fabricate, yet has been successfully used to reliably and repeatably light a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathode based on a previously published design without noticeable filament degradation over hundreds of hours of operation. The high decomposition temperature of boron nitride (2800 C for inert environments) and melting point for rhenium (3180 C) make this heater especially attractive for use with LaB6, which may require operating temperatures upwards of 1700 C. While boron nitride decomposes in air above 1000 C, the heater was used only at vacuum with an inert gas discharge, and no degradation was observed. Limitations of current state of the art cathode heaters are also discussed and compared with the rhenium-boron nitride combination.

  15. Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-10-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.

  16. Carbon monoxide hazards in rural Alaskan homes.

    PubMed

    Howell, J; Keiffer, M P; Berger, L R

    1997-01-01

    Alaska has the highest age-adjusted death rate from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in the nation. We conducted a study in five villages to determine carbon monoxide levels and sources. Nearly 10% (10/105) of the homes had elevated levels. Improperly vented propane Paloma water heaters were most commonly responsible and produced the highest levels of carbon monoxide. Other sources were leaking pipes from wood stoves and stoves that had been left on for several hours. We recommend that Paloma water heaters not be used where freezing temperatures create a risk for carbon monoxide poisoning, fires, and explosion. Safety education campaigns should note the risks of Paloma water heaters and defective stove pipes, and the need for increased kitchen ventilation during prolonged cooking. Medical workers need to be informed of the prevalence of carbon monoxide exposures. Homeowners can install carbon monoxide detectors, although expense and false alarms remain barriers to their use.

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Caldwell and Johnson — Church Community and Housing Corporation, Charlestown, RI

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home garnered an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, for its highly insulated construction, minisplit heat pump and water heater, and triple pane windows.

  18. Soft electrothermal actuators using silver nanowire heaters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shanshan; Cui, Jianxun; Cui, Zheng; Zhu, Yong

    2017-03-17

    Low-voltage and extremely flexible electrothermal bimorph actuators were fabricated in a simple, efficient and scalable process. The bimorph actuators were made of flexible silver nanowire (AgNW) based heaters, which exhibited a fast heating rate of 18 °C s(-1) and stable heating performance with large bending. The actuators offered the largest bending angle (720°) or curvature (2.6 cm(-1)) at a very low actuation voltage (0.2 V sq(-1) or 4.5 V) among all types of bimorph actuators that have been reported to date. The actuators can be designed and fabricated in different configurations that can achieve complex patterns and shapes upon actuation. Two applications of this type of soft actuators were demonstrated towards biomimetic robotics - a crawling robot that can walk spontaneously on ratchet surfaces and a soft gripper that is capable of manipulating lightweight and delicate objects.

  19. Fluid bed solids heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Preuit, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    A solids heater which operates at up to 2000 F was designed, fabricated, installed and operated through checkout at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center at Morgantown, West Virginia. The system, designated the 2000 F Fluid Bed Solids Heater (FBSH) uses a fluidized bed to heat limestone to 600 F and aluminium oxide or silicon carbide to 2000 F and discharges heated solids upon demand. The FBSH with added valve handling and pressurization equipment is known as the Valve Hot Solids Test Unit and is intended for use by the US Department of Energy for testing of valves for severe service applications in coal conversion and utilization processes. The FBSH as designed and supplied by Combustion Power Company includes process equipment, controls, the enclosing building and other associated equipment. In the 600 F range of operation it can circulate limestone through two valve test trains simultaneously on a continuous basis. Only one valve test train is used for 2000 F solids and operation in that range is also continuous. Limestone, crushed to minus 5/16 size, is heated, discharged, and recycled at a maximum average rate of 250 lb/min while aluminum oxide or silicon carbide, No. 8 grit, is circulated at rates up to 167 lb/min. The FBSH control system is designed for automatic operation, and capability is included for external computerized data acquisition and/or supervisory control. An operating and maintenance manual and as-built drawings have been submitted. This report describes the FBSH equipment, its design basis, and its operation. It has been prepared and submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number DIAC05-77ET10499.

  20. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-01

    DOE is developing a new generation of radioisotope-fueled 1-watt heaters, for initial use on NASA's upcoming Galileo and International Solar-Polar Missions. Each heater must contain passive safety provisions to ensure fuel retention under all credible accident conditions. Initial design reviews raised some concern about the accuracy of the predicted peak reenetry temperature, and about the adequacy of the safety margin under certain unlikely - but not impossible-reentry modes. Of particular concern was the possile release of the accumulated helium inventory from the fuel during the reentry heat pulse, and the potential effect of enhanced heat conduction due to helium buildup in gaps. The latter problem had not been addressed in previous studies. Fairchild carried out a large number of reentry thermal analyses to resolve the analytical uncertainties, and proposed design changes to reduce the thermal coupling between the aeroshell and the fuel capsule. For the computed reentry temperature history of the modified design, the rate of helium buildup in the gaps was analyzed. The analysis accounted for temperature-dependent helium diffusion through the fuel pellet and for leakage to space through the permeable aeroshell. It showed that most of the helium inventory leaves the fuel during reentry, but that it never reaches a continuum pressure in the gaps, and therefore has no significant thermal effect. Under these conditions, the Fairchild-modified design provides ample safety margin against clad failure, even for very unlikely reenty trajectories. The modified design was successfully vibration-tested and was subsequently adopted by the project. Cross Reference CID #8517. There are two copies in the file.

  1. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  2. Implementation of heaters on thermally actuated spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D.; Bokaie, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents general insight into the design and implementation of heaters as used in actuating mechanisms for spacecraft. Problems and considerations that were encountered during development of the Deep Space Probe and Science Experiment (DSPSE) solar array release mechanism are discussed. Obstacles included large expected fluctuations in ambient temperature, variations in voltage supply levels outgassing concerns, heater circuit design, materials selection, and power control options. Successful resolution of these issues helped to establish a methodology which can be applied to many of the heater design challenges found in thermally actuated mechanisms.

  3. Thermally driven self-healing using copper nanofiber heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Wook; Jo, Hong Seok; Yoon, Sam S.; Yarin, Alexander L.

    2017-07-01

    Nano-textured transparent heaters made of copper nanofibers (CuNFs) are used to facilitate accelerated self-healing of bromobutyl rubber (BIIR). The heater and BIIR layer are separately deposited on each side of a transparent flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. A pre-notched crack on the BIIR layer was bridged due to heating facilitated by CuNFs. In the corrosion test, a cracked BIIR layer covered a steel substrate. An accelerated self-healing of the crack due to the transparent copper nanofiber heater facilitated an anti-corrosion protective effect of the BIIR layer.

  4. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  5. Enhanced electrothermal pumping with thin film resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of thin film heaters to enhance electrothermal pumping in microfluidic systems. Thin film heating electrothermal pumping is more efficient than Joule heating alone. Numerical simulations of an asymmetric electrode array are performed to demonstrate the advantages of incorporating thin film heaters. This specific simulation shows that thin film heater electrothermal pumping provides approximately two and one-half times more volumetric flow than Joule heating alone for the same input power to both systems. In addition, external heating allows for electrothermal pumping to be applicable to low conductivity media.

  6. Substrate heater for the growth of epitaxial silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Matthew; Varhue, Walter; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark

    1999-03-01

    The single wafer processing of epitaxial Si films requires that special attention be paid to the design of the substrate heater assembly. This document describes the evolution and testing of an in situ heater used to deposit epitaxial Si films at temperatures as high as 700 °C. One problem encountered was the production of excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation which contributed to the desorption of water vapor from the vacuum chamber walls during the in situ cleaning process. A second problem involved the formation of a molybdenum containing film that poisoned epitaxial growth. A final proven in situ heater design is presented which avoids these problems.

  7. Design and Implementation of the MSL Cruise Propulsion Tank Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krylo, Robert; Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Cucullu, Gordon; Watkins, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and the implementation of the heaters for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The pressurized tanks store hydrazine that freezes at 2 C, this means that heaters are required to keep the hydrazine and the helium at 36 C for the trip to Mars. Using the TMG software the heat loss was analyzed, and a thermal model simulates a half full tank which yielded a 13W heating requirement for each hemisphere. Views of the design, and the heater are included.

  8. Thermal conduction from microcantilever heaters in partial vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungchul; Wright, Tanya L.; Abel, Mark R.; Sunden, Erik O.; Marchenkov, Alexei; Graham, Samuel; King, William P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the thermal and electrical characteristics of a heated microcantilever in air and helium over a wide range of pressures. The cantilever heater size modulates thermal conductance between the cantilever and its gaseous surroundings; and the Knudsen number, Kn characterizes this thermal conductance. When Kn <1, thermal transport from the cantilever heater depends on gas pressure, and when Kn >1, thermal transport from the cantilever heater remains constant. This measurement of thermal conductance around Kn =1 could aid the design and analysis of Pirani sensors and other microscale thermal sensors and actuators.

  9. Olympia home: uses less energy all winter than most homes use in a month

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A new Victorian-style home in Olympia, Washington uses conventional building materials to achieve additional insulation with a continuous vapor-barrier envelope that enables the house to use waste energy from building appliances and occupants. Window sizing and placement adds to the building's efficiency. Monthly electric bills for the Peckham home average $21, and annual wood expenses for the wood stove used for supplemental heating are about $130. The super-insulated home cost about $1800 extra to build the double-stud R-29 walls, R-45 ceiling, and R-19 floor. A simple air-to-air heat exchanger provides ventilation and maintains air quality. The solar water heater requires electric heater backup only when there is frost.

  10. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... amendments to DOE's test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters... heating equipment test procedures as applied to vented hearth heaters, and coverage of electric...

  11. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... process to develop a uniform efficiency descriptor and accompanying test method for residential water heaters and commercial water heaters. This test procedure rulemaking is intended to fulfill...

  12. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false On-site burning in space heaters. 279... burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a) The heater burns only used oil that the owner or operator generates or used oil received...

  13. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false On-site burning in space heaters. 279... burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a) The heater burns only used oil that the owner or operator generates or used oil received...

  14. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-site burning in space heaters. 279... burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a) The heater burns only used oil that the owner or operator generates or used oil received...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Are any boilers or process heaters not..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed...

  20. Tunable DFB lasers integrated with Ti thin film heaters fabricated with a simple procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Can; Liang, Song; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Tunable DFB lasers integrated with thin film heaters fabricated with a novel procedure are presented. Ti and Au layers are deposited successively in a single sputter run and act as both p electrodes of the lasers and contact pads of the heaters. Au above the heater strips is selectively removed, leaving Ti alone as the heater material. With the procedure, no separate step for the deposition of heater material is needed, which simplifies the integration of thin film heaters with lasers greatly. A large heater resistance and thus a high tuning efficiency can be obtained at the same time.

  1. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-12-07

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters.

  2. Thermometry of a high temperature high speed micro heater.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Slovin, G; Paramesh, J; Schlesinger, T E; Bain, J A

    2016-02-01

    A high temperature high-speed tungsten micro heater was fabricated and tested for application in phase change switches to indirectly heat and transform phase change material. Time domain transmissometry was used to measure heater temperature transients for given electrical inputs. Finite element modeling results on heater temperature transients show a good consistency between experiments and simulations with 0.2% mismatch in the best case and 13.1% in the worst case. The heater described in this work can reliably reach 1664 K at a rate of 1.67 × 10(10) K/s and quench to room temperature with a thermal RC time constant (time for T to fall by a factor of e) of less than 40 ns.

  3. Nichrome micro-heaters as actuators for microfluidic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geca, M.; Lizak, T.; Kociubiński, A.; Borecki, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    MEMS actuators are currently widely used in the industry. Micro-heaters, being a prime example, attracted much attention in recent years due to their good operating parameters and low cost fabrication process. This paper focuses on a design and development of a micro-heater to be used as an actuator in a multiparametric capillary sensor. The micro-heater is an evolution of a previous design and uses a 200nm-thick thin film of 80/20 NiCr alloy as a heating layer. The paper presents results of fabrication and testing of the micro-heater, including temperature distribution and resistance changes during the heating cycle. Additionally, is presented a PWM based control system providing the stability of power and temperature distribution.

  4. Stability of electric heaters in the boiling heat transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer from electrically heated wires and composite heaters was studied in the three boiling regimes; nucleate, transition, and film. The electrical input to the heaters was controlled by the heater temperature through the use of feedback control techniques. Particular attention was paid to the transition region of the boiling curve where the slope is negative and operation is unstable without proper control. Boiling curves produced by an x-ray plotter are presented for gold-plated tungsten wires and also for platinum wires. Stability conditions and transfer functions were developed for a complete composite heater system. Steady-state operation in the transition region of the boiling curve clearly demonstrates that there are two separate transition curves depending on whether the temperature is increasing or decreasing.

  5. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  6. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters. PMID:26639760

  7. 48. BOILER HOUSE, DOORS IN FRONT OF STEAM TUBES, HEATERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. BOILER HOUSE, DOORS IN FRONT OF STEAM TUBES, HEATERS, AND MUD DRUMS (SEE DRAWING No. 11 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  8. 3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in northwest corner - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  9. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  10. Thermal performance of a new solar air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tiris, C.; Ozbalta, N.; Tiris, M.; Dincer, I.

    1995-05-01

    A solar air heater, part of a food drying system using solar energy as a renewable energy source for heat, was developed and tested for several agricultural products (i.e., sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers, chili peppers). Drying processes were conducted in the chamber with forced natural air heated partly by solar energy. Solar air heater performances were discussed along with estimates of energy efficiency of the system. The obtained results indicate that the present system is efficiency and effective.

  11. Reliability-Based Life Assessment of Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Halford, Gary R.; Korovaichuk, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA's deep-space missions require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 yr. The structurally critical heater head of the high-efficiency Stirling power convertor has undergone extensive computational analysis of operating temperatures, stresses, and creep resistance of the thin-walled Inconel 718 bill of material. A preliminary assessment of the effect of uncertainties in the material behavior was also performed. Creep failure resistance of the thin-walled heater head could show variation due to small deviations in the manufactured thickness and in uncertainties in operating temperature and pressure. Durability prediction and reliability of the heater head are affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to include the effects of these uncertainties in predicting the probability of survival of the heater head under mission loads. Furthermore, it may be possible for the heater head to experience rare incidences of small temperature excursions of short duration. These rare incidences would affect the creep strain rate and, therefore, the life. This paper addresses the effects of such rare incidences on the reliability. In addition, the sensitivities of variables affecting the reliability are quantified, and guidelines developed to improve the reliability are outlined. Heater head reliability is being quantified with data from NASA Glenn Research Center's accelerated benchmark testing program.

  12. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  13. TOUGH2 model of the G-tunnel heater test

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Eaton, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment designed to observe water migration under non-isothermal conditions in welded tuff was performed in 1980 in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member in the U12g tunnel (G-tunnel) at Rainier Mesa. Significant amounts of water were observed to migrate towards a heated hole bored into the welded tuff. The water migration was attributed to vapor phase diffusion, but other processes such as gravity driven flow were not considered and may have contributed significantly to the observed water migration. The modeling studies presented here address processes of water migration near heated regions in partially saturated tuff. The multiphase, non-isothermal numerical code TOUGH2 was used to model the G-Tunnel heater experiment. The numerical simulation consisted of 10 days of heating at 1000 W. Temperatures, liquid saturations, gas pressures, gas and liquid velocities, and vapor mass fractions were recorded to determine the processes affecting water migration. Results of the simulation indicated that water migration near heated tuffaceous rock involves a combination of processes. Gas-phase advection and diffusion transported water vapor that was evaporated near the heater toward outer regions. Water vapor condensed in cooler regions away from the heater, increasing the saturations. As liquid water accumulated in the heater borehole, capillary suction pulled some of the liquid toward the drier heated region while gravity drained some of the liquid away from the heater. In natural systems, high permeability fractures could mimic the role of the heater hole.

  14. Thermo-Electron Ballistic Coolers or Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic heat-transfer devices of a proposed type would exploit some of the quantum-wire-like, pseudo-superconducting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes or, optionally, room-temperature-superconducting polymers (RTSPs). The devices are denoted thermo-electron ballistic (TEB) coolers or heaters because one of the properties that they exploit is the totally or nearly ballistic (dissipation or scattering free) transport of electrons. This property is observed in RTSPs and carbon nanotubes that are free of material and geometric defects, except under conditions in which oscillatory electron motions become coupled with vibrations of the nanotubes. Another relevant property is the high number density of electrons passing through carbon nanotubes -- sufficient to sustain electron current densities as large as 100 MA/square cm. The combination of ballistic motion and large current density should make it possible for TEB devices to operate at low applied potentials while pumping heat at rates several orders of magnitude greater than those of thermoelectric devices. It may also enable them to operate with efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the proposed TEB devices are expected to operate over a wider temperature range

  15. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-12-31

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  16. Homes away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurel D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the construction of a variety of inexpensive, escape-proof, and safe insect homes--each complete with window, ventilation screen, and cover--so students can observe firsthand the intriguing world of insects. (PR)

  17. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in British homes using unflued heating or cooking appliances.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, K J

    1985-08-01

    Measurements of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) were made in three kitchens, two with gas cookers and one all electric, and two living rooms, one heated by a portable butane heater and the other by a paraffin stove. The measurements were taken whilst the homes were in normal use and the occupants kept a diary of when specific appliances were used. Measurements of NO2 were made simultaneously by chemiluminescence and by diffusion tubes. The accuracy of the diffusion tube measurements relative to the chemiluminescent standard was estimated as +/- 10% and the precision less than or equal to 300 ppb. hr. Results from diffusion tubes were used to indicate the distribution of NO2 throughout other rooms in the house. At the all electric house the CO and NO2 concentrations were very similar to the expected outdoor levels. In all the other houses NO2 levels exceeded typical outdoor concentrations measured in Central London and in the paraffin heated house and one gas cooking house median CO concentrations exceeded these measured at the curbside of a very busy road in Central London. The living room concentrations of NO2 where the paraffin heater was in use were elevated for long periods. Analysis of the decay of pollutant concentration in one kitchen yielded an effective deposition velocity for NO2 of 3 X 10(-5) m s-1. The magnitude of the CO and NO2 concentrations measured in this survey confirms that indoor air pollution should be taken into account when assessing overall public exposure to air pollution.

  1. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  2. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed the construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), which is a development of 20 very efficient homes in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The homes feature R-40 walls, triple-pane windows, R-50 attic insulation, and airtight construction. All homes also have photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. Auxiliary water heating is provided by tankless gas water heaters. With the SDHW systems, RDI hoped to eliminate most of the need for gas for water heating and get the homes closer to zero energy.

  3. Home Modifications

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Home HomeFit ? (AARP) (PDF) Back to top Financial Assistance Minor improvements and repairs can cost between $ ... Learn more by visiting https://www.ncoa.org/economic-security/home-equity/ . Search for additional resources in ...

  4. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  5. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Converter Heater Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  6. Filament heater current modulation for increased filament lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.; Williams, H.E. III

    1996-06-01

    The surface conversion H-minus ion source employs two 60 mil tungsten filaments which are approximately 17 centimeters in length. These filaments are heated to approximately 2,800 degrees centigrade by 95--100 amperes of DC heater current. The arc is struck at a 120 hertz rate, for 800 microseconds and is generally run at 30 amperes peak current. Although sputtering is considered a contributing factor in the demise of the filament, evaporation is of greater concern. If the peak arc current can be maintained with less average heater current, the filament evaporation rate for this arc current will diminish. In the vacuum of an ion source, the authors expect the filaments to retain much of their heat throughout a 1 millisecond (12% duty) loss of heater current. A circuit to eliminate 100 ampere heater currents from filaments during the arc pulse was developed. The magnetic field due to the 100 ampere current tends to hold electrons to the filament, decreasing the arc current. By eliminating this magnetic field, the arc should be more efficient, allowing the filaments to run at a lower average heater current. This should extend the filament lifetime. The circuit development and preliminary filament results are discussed.

  7. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  8. Topside sounders as mobile ionospheric heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that satellite-borne RF sounders can act as mobile ionospheric heaters in addition to performing topside sounding. The main objective of topside sounding is to use sounder-generated electromagnetic (em) waves to obtain ionospheric topside vertical electron-density (N(sub e) profiles. These profiles are obtained from mathematical inversions of the frequency vs. delay-time ionospheric reflection traces. In addition to these em reflection traces, a number of narrowband intense signals are observed starting at zero delay times after the transmitted pulses. Some of these signals, termed plasma resonances, appear at characteristic frequencies of the ambient medium such as at the electron cyclotron frequency f(sub ce), the harmonics nf(sub ce), the electron plasma frequency f(sub pe) and the upper-hybrid frequency f(sub uh), where (f(sub uh))(exp 2) = (f(sub ce))(exp 2) + (f(sub pe))(exp 2) . These signals have been attributed to the oblique echoes of sounder-generated electrostatic (es) waves. These resonances provide accurate in situ f(sub pe) and f(sub ce) values which, in turn, lead to accurate N(sub e) and [B] values where B is the ambient magnetic field. Resonances are also observed between the nf(sub ce) harmonics both above and below f(sub uh). The former, known as the Qn plasma resonances, are mainly attributed to the matching of the wave group velocity of sounder-generated (Bernstein-mode) es waves to the satellite velocity. The frequency spectrum of these waves in the magnetosphere can be used to detect non-Maxwellian electron velocity-distributions. In addition, these resonances also exhibit components that appear to be the result of plasma emissions stimulated by the sounder pulses. The plasma resonances observed between the nf(sub ce) harmonics and below f(sub uh), known as the Dn plasma resonances, are entirely attributed to such sounder-stimulated plasma emissions. There are other sounder-stimulated plasma phenomena that also fall into

  9. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  10. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.

    1985-01-01

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  11. CFD Simulation of SDHW Storage Tank with and Without Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Mainak

    2012-07-01

    2D-Single Phase heat and fluid flow analysis of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) storage tank has been carried out by using CFD tools, ICEM for modelling & meshing and FLUENT for analysis. The tank fluid is in static mode. Heat diffusion and convective heat loss from the tank without heater and with the involvement of additional heater is studied. After heating water gets lighter and moves upward in the tank and cold denser water remains at the bottom of the tank. The movement of the water particles are also analysed to find the effect on heat transfer and heat loss. Time transient analysis is focused on for a constant fixed temperature of water inside the tank and the heat drop is captured. Investigation gives guidelines how long the water temperature can be maintain warmer within the tank while the tank is uninsulated. If it is required to maintain temperature constant then the involvement of heater can be useful in what extend.

  12. Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. A.; Pradipta, R.; Burton, L. M.; Labno, A.; Lee, M. C.; Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C.; Kuo, S. P.; Burke, W. J.; Mabius, D.; See, B. Z.

    2010-12-01

    We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced E×B drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

  13. Individual Spatial Responses towards Roads: Implications for Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Clara; Sousa, Joana; Ascensão, Fernando; Matos, Hugo; Leitão, Inês; Pinheiro, Paula; Costa, Monica; Bernardo, João; Reto, Dyana; Lourenço, Rui; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. Most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. However, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated how individuals respond in their spatial behavior toward a highway and its traffic intensity by radio-tracking two common species particularly vulnerable to road mortality (barn owl Tyto alba and stone marten Martes foina). We addressed the following questions: 1) how highways affected home-range location and size in the immediate vicinity of these structures, 2) which road-related features influenced habitat selection, 3) what was the role of different road-related features on movement properties, and 4) which characteristics were associated with crossing events and road-kills. The main findings were: 1) if there was available habitat, barn owls and stone martens may not avoid highways and may even include highways within their home-ranges; 2) both species avoided using areas near the highway when traffic was high, but tended to move toward the highway when streams were in close proximity and where verges offered suitable habitat; and 3) barn owls tended to cross above-grade highway sections while stone martens tended to avoid crossing at leveled highway sections. Conclusions Mortality may be the main road-mediated mechanism that affects barn owl and stone marten populations. Fine-scale movements strongly indicated that a decrease in road mortality risk can be realized by reducing sources of attraction, and by increasing road permeability through measures that promote safe crossings. PMID:22970143

  14. DOE ZERH Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, The Adaptation Home, Geneva, IL

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  15. Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.

    2017-02-01

    Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.

  16. Effects of roads on habitat quality for bears in the southern Appalachians: A long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gravel roads, not paved roads, had the largest negative effect on habitat quality for a population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) that lived in a protected area, where vehicle collision was a relatively minimal source of mortality. We also evaluated whether road use by bears differed by sex or age and whether annual variation in hard mast productivity affected the way bears used areas near roads. In addition, we tested previous findings regarding the spatial extent to which roads affected bear behavior negatively. Using summer and fall home ranges for 118 black bears living in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in western North Carolina during 1981-2001, we estimated both home-range-scale (2nd-order) and within-home-range-scale (3rd-order) selection for areas within 250, 500, 800, and 1,600 m of paved and gravel roads. All bears avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads during summer and fall for 2nd-order selection and during summer for 3rd-order selection. During fall, only adult females avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads for 3rd-order selection. We found a positive relationship between use of roads by adults and annual variability in hard mast productivity. Overall, bears avoided areas within 800 m of gravel roads. Future research should determine whether avoidance of gravel roads by bears affects bear survival. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. Process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater for an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater of an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly, comprising scanning a swaged heater with a thermal imaging radiometer to measure a temperature distribution of the heater; raising the current in a power supply to increase the temperature of the swaged heater; and measuring the swaged heater temperature using the radiometer, whereupon the temperature distribution along the length of the heater shall be less than plus or minus 5 degrees C.

  18. Diesel-Fired Self-Pumping Water Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) 7he object of this project was to study the feasibility of p[umping and heating water by sustained ocillatory vaporization and...TECHNICAL REPORT A_ NATICKITR-94/025 DIESEL-FIRED SELF-PUMPING WATER HEATER <N NO By Joseph Gertsmann Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. Newton, MA...FUNDING NUMBERS Disel.Fired Self.Pumping Water Heater Coitract __AK60-93-C-O035 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph Gertsmann 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  19. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Toffoli, Valeria; Carrato, Sergio; Lee, Dongkyu; Jeon, Sangmin; Lazzarino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Point-of-Use Water Heaters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-15

    AD-AG91 843 , JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORP DENVER CO RESEARCH AND OEV--ETC F/6 13/1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF POINT-OF-USE WATER HEATERS.(U) OCT AG P B...POINT-OF-USE WATER HEATERS P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER KEN-CARYL RANCH, DENVER, COLORADO 80217 15...literature survey was conducted by Ms. Suzanne D.A. Graham who is on the Corporate Information Center staff of the Johns - Manville Research & Development

  1. Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

  2. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    PubMed

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7499 - What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards § 63.7499... heaters are large solid fuel, limited use solid fuel, small solid fuel, large liquid fuel, limited use...

  4. Evaluation of Cathode Heater Assembly for 42 GHz, 200 kW Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Singh, Udaybir; Khatun, Hasina; Kumar, Nitin; Alaria, M. K.; Raju, R. S.; Jain, P. K.; Sinha, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the evaluation of cathode-heater assembly of magnetron injection gun (MIG) for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron is presented. The cathode-heater assembly is purchased from M/S SEMICON.The cathode-heater assembly is experimentally studied in three different conditions; in a belljar system, during vacuum processing of MIG and during MIG testing to ensure the required rise of cathode surface temperature for pre-set heater power.

  5. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-11-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km(2)), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km(2)), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km(2)), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality.

  6. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  8. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  9. Heater improves cold-temperature capacity of silver-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. H., Jr.; Jackson, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight heaters are included in 14-cell package to provide 14-Vdc. Each heater is 11-ohm self-adhesive strip placed across broad face of each pair of cells. They are installed before cells are wired. Heaters are in series and are connected through pair of redundant thermostats.

  10. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and manholes...

  11. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and manholes...

  12. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and manholes...

  13. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and manholes...

  14. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and manholes...

  15. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, William P.; Buescher, Tom

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  16. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.23 On-site burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a... household do-it-yourself used oil generators; (b) The heater is designed to have a maximum capacity of not...

  17. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.23 On-site burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a... household do-it-yourself used oil generators; (b) The heater is designed to have a maximum capacity of not...

  18. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall switch off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating. (c...

  19. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall switch off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating. (c...

  20. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall switch off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating. (c...

  1. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall switch off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating. (c...

  2. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  3. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION AND USAGE OF UNVENTED KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the market penetration of unvented kerosene space heaters (UKSHs) in the residential sector, The study was aimed at gathering baseline information to help assess the magnitude and potential severity of a problem involving emissions from unve...

  5. Electrothermal pumping with interdigitated electrodes and resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J; Green, Nicolas G

    2015-08-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used in electrokinetic lab-on-a-chip devices for dielectrophoretic trapping and characterization of suspended particles, as well as the production of field-induced fluid flow via AC electroosomosis and electrothermal mechanisms. However, the optimum design for dielectrophoresis, that if symmetrical electrodes, cannot induce bulk electrohydrodynamic pumping. In addition, the mechanism of intrinsic electrothermal pumping is affected by the properties of the fluid, with thermal fields being generated by Joule Heating. This work demonstrates the incorporation of an underlying thin film heater, electrically isolated from the interdigitated electrodes by an insulator layer, to enhance bulk electrothermal pumping. The use of integrated heaters allows the thermal field generation to be controlled independently of the electric field. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the importance of geometrical arrangement of the heater with respect to the interdigitated electrodes, as well as electrode size, spacing, and arrangement. The optimization of such a system is a careful balance between electrokinetics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. The heater location and electrode spacing influence the rate of electrothermal pumping significantly more than electrode width and insulator layer thickness. This demonstration will aid in the development of microfluidic electrokinetic systems that want to utilize the advantages associated with electrothermal pumping while simultaneously applying other lab-on-a-chip electrokinetics like dielectrophoresis.

  6. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  7. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  9. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  10. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... surrounding equipment or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a... exhausts; and (2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any...

  11. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... surrounding equipment or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a... exhausts; and (2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any...

  12. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or... or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment...) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition....

  13. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or... or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment...) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition....

  14. 12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON BACK WALL, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN SOLID DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. 11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO BACK BEDROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

    1995-09-01

    Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

  17. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  18. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  19. LOW EMISSION AND HIGH EFFICIENCY RESIDENTIAL PELLET-FIRED HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of air emissions testing and efficiency testing on new commercially available under-feed and top-feed residential heaters burning hardwood- and softwood-based pellets. The results were compared with data from earlier models. Reductions in air emissions w...

  20. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  1. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  4. NORTH PORTAL - WATER HEATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY #5008

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Blackstone

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water in the Change House Facility and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2).

  5. Computer model of catalytic combustion/Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L.; Tong, H.

    1981-01-01

    The basic Acurex HET code was modified to analyze specific problems for Stirling engine heater head applications. Specifically, the code can model: an adiabatic catalytic monolith reactor, an externally cooled catalytic cylindrical reactor/flat plate reactor, a coannular tube radiatively cooled reactor, and a monolithic reactor radiating to upstream and downstream heat exchangers.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION AND USAGE OF UNVENTED KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the market penetration of unvented kerosene space heaters (UKSHs) in the residential sector, The study was aimed at gathering baseline information to help assess the magnitude and potential severity of a problem involving emissions from unve...

  7. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  8. Feedwater heater performance evaluation using the heat exchanger workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, K.M.; Singh, G.P.; Tsou, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    A Heat Exchanger Workstation (HEW) has been developed to monitor the condition of heat exchanging equipment power plants. HEW enables engineers to analyze thermal performance and failure events for power plant feedwater heaters. The software provides tools for heat balance calculation and performance analysis. It also contains an expert system that enables performance enhancement. The Operation and Maintenance (O&M) reference module on CD-ROM for HEW will be available by the end of 1995. Future developments of HEW would result in Condenser Expert System (CONES) and Balance of Plant Expert System (BOPES). HEW consists of five tightly integrated applications: A Database system for heat exchanger data storage, a Diagrammer system for creating plant heat exchanger schematics and data display, a Performance Analyst system for analyzing and predicting heat exchanger performance, a Performance Advisor expert system for expertise on improving heat exchanger performance and a Water Calculator system for computing properties of steam and water. In this paper an analysis of a feedwater heater which has been off-line is used to demonstrate how HEW can analyze the performance of the feedwater heater train and provide an economic justification for either replacing or repairing the feedwater heater.

  9. HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO OPENING AT THE HEAD OF THE 12" MILL. PUSHER (ELECTRICALLY OPERATED) MOVES BILLETS INTO READY POSITION FOR 12" MILL. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. Thermally tunable resonator using directly integrated metallic heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruobing; Li, Xinbai; Deng, Qingzhong; Michel, Jurgen; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-08-01

    A thermally tunable half-disk resonator (HDR) with directly-integrated metallic heater is presented. The proposed resonator is based on the structure of HDR, which allows direct electrical contacts in HDR region without causing extra loss. The metallic heater is designed to be directly integrated on the silicon devices, and single-mode operation can be retained simultaneously. Metallic heater deposited on inner side of the ring, which cannot realize before because of weakened light confinement resulting in substantial leakage and loss, guides most heat power to the waveguide. This thermal localization enhances tuning efficiency. The simulation result shows a wavelength shift of 0.855 nm under ultralow driving voltage of 0.02V, corresponding to high thermal tuning efficiency of 2.831 nm/mW. The structure possesses both the advantages of high thermal tuning efficiency and low resistance, hence requiring smaller voltage and energy to drive, desirable for optical interconnects applications. Moreover, the proposed structure also eliminates the need to use doped silicon slab for electrical contacts, as widely used in conventional directly integrated heaters. Undoped strip waveguide in HDR enables higher Q-factor and improves optical performance.

  11. LOW EMISSION AND HIGH EFFICIENCY RESIDENTIAL PELLET-FIRED HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of air emissions testing and efficiency testing on new commercially available under-feed and top-feed residential heaters burning hardwood- and softwood-based pellets. The results were compared with data from earlier models. Reductions in air emissions w...

  12. Reentry thermal testing of light-weight radioisotope heater units

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Starzynski, J.S.

    1982-03-01

    Two Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHU) were exposed to thermal ramps simulating atmospheric reentry. The helium release rates were measured during each test and modeled after simple diffusion theory. The reentry pulses did not result in swelling of the claddings or degradation of fuel pellets.

  13. NORTH PORTAL-WATER HEATER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING #5006

    SciTech Connect

    R. Blackstone

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2).

  14. Severe burns due to biofuel heater injury: A case series.

    PubMed

    Heald, Alicia; Muller, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Biofuel heaters are a new form of flame heating for indoor and outdoor use. Fuelled by methylated spirits, they are simple structures with few safety features, and can be associated with severe burn. We report five cases of severe burns in adults that occurred when refilling these heaters. We undertook a retrospective audit of all adults presenting to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) with a biofuel heater-related burn between 20 and 30th June 2014. Five patients required admission for management of their burns. Three were admitted to ICU for greater than 3 weeks, and remained inpatients for up to 78 days. Two did not require ICU and were managed in the burns unit. Average total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 24.7%, and patients went to theatre up to seven times for debridement and skin grafting. Average length of stay was 41.8 days. Biofuel heaters are easily accessible yet there is no Australian Standard to ensure they are safe or perform in the way they were intended. As such, people using them are at undue risk of severe burn, even when following the operating instructions. These products should be removed from the market to prevent further harm and potential mortality. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS...

  16. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design...

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Healthy Efficient Homes - Spirit Lake, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Spirit Lake, Iowa, that scored HERS 41 without PV and HERS 28 with PV. This 3,048 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls filled with 1.5 inches closed-cell spray foam, a vented attic with spray foam-sealed top plates and blown fiberglass over the ceiling deck. R-23 basement walls are ICF plus two 2-inch layers of EPS. The house also has a mini-split heat pump, fresh air fan intake, and a solar hot water heater.

  18. Precise Heater Controller with rf-Biased Josephson Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Colin J.; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; Duncan, R. V.

    2003-01-01

    Paramagnetic susceptibility thermometers used in fundamental physics experiments are capable of measuring temperature changes with a precision of a part in 2 x 10(exp 10). However, heater controllers are only able to control open-loop power dissipation to about a part in 10(exp 5). We used an array of rf-biased Josephson junctions to precisely control the electrical power dissipation in a heater resistor mounted on a thermally isolated cryogenic platform. Theoretically, this method is capable of controlling the electrical power dissipation to better than a part in 10(exp 12). However, this level has not yet been demonstrated experimentally. The experiment consists of a liquid helium cell that also functions as a high-resolution PdMn thermometer, with a heater resistor mounted on it. The cell is thermally connected to a temperature-controlled cooling stage via a weak thermal link. The heater resistor is electrically connected to the array of Josephson junctions using superconducting wire. An rf-biased array of capacitively shunted Josephson junctions drives the voltage across the heater. The quantized voltage across the resistor is Vn = nf(h/2e), where h is Planck's constant, f is the array biasing frequency, e is the charge of an electron, and n is the integer quantum state of the Josephson array. This results in an electrical power dissipation on the cell of Pn = (Vn)(sup 2/R), where R is the heater resistance. The change of the quantum state of the array changes the power dissipated in the heater, which in turn, results in the change of the cell temperature. This temperature change is compared to the expected values based on the known thermal standoff resistance of the cell from the cooling stage. We will present our initial experimental results and discuss future improvements. This work has been funded by the Fundamental Physics Discipline of the Microgravity Science Office of NASA, and supported by a no-cost equipment loan from Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  20. Future Roads Near Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a stream. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  1. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  2. Heating Facilities: Klamath County Road Department Shops, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-30

    Maywood Industries is presently utilizing 118/sup 0/F water pumped from a geothermal well about 1500 feet deep. The Klamath County Road complex presently heats about 13,000 square feet of space using electric and natural gas heaters. It is planned to increase the total heated area to nearly 24,000 square feet. This study is based on eliminating the existing electrical and natural gas heaters and heating the entire 24,000 square feet geothermally. It was found to be practical and economically feasible to heat the road department shop complex geothermally. Capital cost is estimated to be $170,000. Annual energy savings for the enlarged facility would be 56,720 KWH of electricity and 36,924 therms of natural gas, with a first year value of $18,175. This savings, less operating costs, when applied with escalation considerations over a period of twenty years, result in a present worth of $382,385 when discounted at 8%. Thus, with 8% bonds financing of this project is economically attractive. (MHR)

  3. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  4. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provides access to a housing cluster. (b) IRR housing street means a public road on the IRR System that provides access to adjacent homes within a housing cluster. (c) Housing cluster means three or...

  5. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provides access to a housing cluster. (b) IRR housing street means a public road on the IRR System that provides access to adjacent homes within a housing cluster. (c) Housing cluster means three or...

  6. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provides access to a housing cluster. (b) IRR housing street means a public road on the IRR System that provides access to adjacent homes within a housing cluster. (c) Housing cluster means three or...

  7. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provides access to a housing cluster. (b) IRR housing street means a public road on the IRR System that provides access to adjacent homes within a housing cluster. (c) Housing cluster means three or...

  8. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provides access to a housing cluster. (b) IRR housing street means a public road on the IRR System that provides access to adjacent homes within a housing cluster. (c) Housing cluster means three or...

  9. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  10. Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most nursing homes have nursing aides and skilled nurses on hand 24 hours a day. Some nursing ... speech and occupational therapy. There might be a nurses' station on each floor. Other nursing homes try ...

  11. Development of micro-heaters with optimized temperature compensation design for gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyu-Sik; Roh, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Dae-Sung; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    One of the key components of a chemical gas sensor is a MEMS micro-heater. Micro-heaters are used in both semiconductor gas sensors and NDIR gas sensors; however they each require different heat dissipation characteristics. For the semiconductor gas sensors, a uniform temperature is required over a wide area of the heater. On the other hand, for the NDIR gas sensor, the micro-heater needs high levels of infrared radiation in order to increase sensitivity. In this study, a novel design of a poly-Si micro-heater is proposed to improve the uniformity of heat dissipation on the heating plate. Temperature uniformity of the micro-heater is achieved by compensating for the variation in power consumption around the perimeter of the heater. With the power compensated design, the uniform heating area is increased by 2.5 times and the average temperature goes up by 40 °C. Therefore, this power compensated micro-heater design is suitable for a semiconductor gas sensor. Meanwhile, the poly-Si micro-heater without compensation shows a higher level of infrared radiation under equal power consumption conditions. This indicates that the micro-heater without compensation is more suitable for a NDIR gas sensor. Furthermore, the micro-heater shows a short response time of less than 20 ms, indicating a very high efficiency of pulse driving.

  12. Development of Micro-Heaters with Optimized Temperature Compensation Design for Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyu-Sik; Roh, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Dae-Sung; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    One of the key components of a chemical gas sensor is a MEMS micro-heater. Micro-heaters are used in both semiconductor gas sensors and NDIR gas sensors; however they each require different heat dissipation characteristics. For the semiconductor gas sensors, a uniform temperature is required over a wide area of the heater. On the other hand, for the NDIR gas sensor, the micro-heater needs high levels of infrared radiation in order to increase sensitivity. In this study, a novel design of a poly-Si micro-heater is proposed to improve the uniformity of heat dissipation on the heating plate. Temperature uniformity of the micro-heater is achieved by compensating for the variation in power consumption around the perimeter of the heater. With the power compensated design, the uniform heating area is increased by 2.5 times and the average temperature goes up by 40 °C. Therefore, this power compensated micro-heater design is suitable for a semiconductor gas sensor. Meanwhile, the poly-Si micro-heater without compensation shows a higher level of infrared radiation under equal power consumption conditions. This indicates that the micro-heater without compensation is more suitable for a NDIR gas sensor. Furthermore, the micro-heater shows a short response time of less than 20ms, indicating a very high efficiency of pulse driving. PMID:22163756

  13. Experimental Investigation of Nucleate Boiling on a Thermal Capacitive Heater Under Variable Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Herbert, Stefan; Sielaff, Axel; Slomski, Elena Maja; Stephan, Peter; Oechsner, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    In the present work the behavior of single vapor bubbles of FC-72, generated on a thermal capacitive heater element, has been investigated during microgravity. A newly developed heater design allows temperature measurements by highspeed infrared thermography on the backside of the heater surface at a distance of approx. 800 nm from the fluid/heater-interface. The employed heater was manufactured by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) of a chromium based layer for better emissivity (Slomski et al., Mater Sci Technol 41:161-165, 2010) and a pure chromium heating layer supplying the energy required for bubble generation and sustainment by electrical heating. The thermal diffusivity of the employed Calcium Flouride (CaF) heater substrate is comparable to the thermal diffusivity of stainless steel, which makes this heater design very close to technical applications. The acquired transient temperature fields of the heater surface allow numerical determination of the local heat flux from the heater surface to the fluid. A local temperature drop and high heat fluxes have been observed in the vicinity of the 3-phase contact line. This effect has already been reported by former publications for thin stainless steel foil heaters (Stephan and Hammer, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 30:119-125, 1994; Wagner et al., Int J Heat Mass Transfer 42:875-883, 2006) and is also confirmed for heaters with significantly higher thermal capacities.

  14. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  15. Investigation and analysis on a cellular heat pipe flat solar heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. T.; Hu, Y. C.; Hong, R. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    A new cellular heat pipe flat solar energy collector is introduced, and the thermal performance of the new solar heater comprised by water heat pipe or acetone heat pipe is tested. The results are compared with the performance of the evacuated glass tube solar heater. It is found that: the heat loss coefficient of the cellular heat pipe flat solar heater is 54% less than that of the evacuated glass tube solar heater, while the daily average efficiency of solar absorbency is 15% higher, when the water temperature of heating is lower than 65°C. In conclusion, the thermal performance of such new solar heater is better than that of evacuated glass tube solar heater or ordinary flat solar heater, both of which are still popular in China. This new solar energy application promises to be a prosperous technology.

  16. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  17. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  18. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  19. Future Road Density

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  20. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  1. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  2. Should Fermi Have Secured his Water Heater Against Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. M.; Diggory, M.; Gomez, E.; Salaree, A.; Schmid, M.; Saloor, N.; Stein, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    A common student response to quantitative questions in science with no obvious answer is "I have no idea." Often these questions can be addressed by Fermi estimation, in which an apparently difficult-to-estimate quantity for which one has little intuitive sense can be sensibly estimated by combining order of magnitude estimates of easier-to-estimate quantities. Although this approach is most commonly used for numerical estimates, it can also be applied to issues combining both science and policy. Either application involves dividing an issue into tractable components and addressing them separately. To learn this method, our natural hazard policy seminar considered a statement by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency that homeowners should secure water heaters to prevent them from being damaged by earthquakes. We divided this question into subtopics, researched each, and discussed them weekly to reach a synthesis. We used a simple model to estimate the net benefit, the difference between the expected value of damage and the cost of securing a water heater. This benefit is positive, indicating that securing is worthwhile, only if the probability of damage during the heater's life is relatively large, approximately 1 - 10%. To assess whether the actual probability is likely to be this high, we assume that major water heater damage is likely only for shaking with MMI intensity VIII ("heavy furniture overturned") or greater. Intensity data for the past 200 years of Illinois earthquakes show that this level was reached only in the very southernmost part of the state for the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. As expected, the highest known shaking generally decreases northward toward Chicago. This history is consistent with the fact that we find no known cases of earthquake-toppled water heaters in Illinois. We compared the rate of return on securing a water heater in Chicago to buying a lottery ticket when the jackpot is large, and found that the latter would be a

  3. An Active Heater Control Concept to Meet IXO Type Mirror Module Thermal-Structural Distortion Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Flight mirror assemblies (FMAs) of large telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), have very stringent thermal-structural distortion requirements. The spatial temperature gradient requirement within a FMA could be as small as 0.05 C. Con ventionally, heaters and thermistors are attached to the stray light baffle (SLB), and centralized heater controllers (i.e., heater controller boards located in a large electronics box) are used. Due to the large number of heater harnesses, accommodating and routing them is extremely difficult. The total harness length/mass is very large. This innovation uses a thermally conductive pre-collimator to accommodate heaters and a distributed heater controller approach. It minimizes the harness length and mass, and reduces the problem of routing and accommodating them. Heaters and thermistors are attached to a short (4.67 cm) aluminum portion of the pre-collimator, which is thermally coupled to the SLB. Heaters, which have a very small heater power density, and thermistors are attached to the exterior of all the mirror module walls. The major portion (23.4 cm) of the pre-collimator for the middle and outer modules is made of thin, non-conductive material. It minimizes the view factors from the FMA and heated portion of the precollimator to space. It also minimizes heat conduction from one end of the FMA to the other. Small and multi-channel heater controllers, which have adjustable set points and internal redundancy, are used. They are mounted to the mechanical support structure members adjacent to each module. The IXO FMA, which is 3.3 m in diameter, is an example of a large telescope. If the heater controller boards are centralized, routing and accommodating heater harnesses is extremely difficult. This innovation has the following advantages. It minimizes the length/mass of the heater harness between the heater controllers and heater circuits. It reduces the problem of routing and accommodating the harness on the

  4. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jehan M; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants' road crossing behaviors. Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together with modification of the traffic environment (such as

  5. Analysis of electric and magnetic fields leaking from induction heaters.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Rubino, N; Vanni, R

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation on electric and magnetic fields leaking from inductive (magnetic) heaters that are used for thermal processing of high-power electron tubes and lasers in an industrial plant. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields were done using both commercially available and laboratory-developed instrumentation. Isotropic H-field sensors were developed to allow quantitative evaluation of high-intensity magnetic fields. Ten induction heaters with nominal A.C. power ranging from 2.5 kW to 15 kW and operating at frequencies between 300 kHz and 790 kHz were surveyed. Electric field strengths up to 8 kV/m and magnetic field strengths up to 20 A/m were measured.

  6. Influences of subcooling on burnout of horizontal cylindrical heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Elkassabgi, Y.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1988-05-01

    The peak pool boiling heat flux is observed on horizontal cylindrical heaters in acetone, Freon-113, methanol, and isopropanol over ranges of subcooling from zero to 130C. Photographs, and the data themselves, revealed that there are three distinct burnout mechanisms at different levels of subcooling. Three interpretive models provide the basis for accurate correlations of the present data, and data from the literature, in each of the three regimes. Burnout is dictated by condensation on the walls of the vapor jets and columns at low subcooling. In the intermediate regime, burnout is limited by natural convection, which becomes very effective as vapor near the heater reduces boundary layer resistance. Burnout in the high-subcooling regime is independent of the level of subcooling, and is limited by the process of molecular effusion.

  7. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  8. Self-excited pressure pulsations in ethanol under heater subcooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A. A.; Tairov, E. A.; Spiryaev, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of investigation of high-intensity cooling of high-temperature metal heater by subcooled ethanol flow. The experiments have proved the presence of self-excited pressure pulsations with amplitude of 1.15 MPa, arising in ethanol. Expanding real signals of the sensors by the Hilbert-Huang transform has resulted in the intrinsic mode functions. Analysis of these functions and the high-speed video shooting results allows identifying the basic frequencies and mechanisms of pressure oscillations. Comparison of the results with the data of film cooling and bubble boiling on the cooled heater has shown that maximum values of non-stationary heat-transfer coefficients for the self-excited oscillations and for the bubble boiling are the same.

  9. On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsoe heater facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, R. ); Stubbe, P. )

    1991-11-01

    Using amplitude modulation derived from repetitive pulses of varying duty cycle with the Tromsoe heater facility, the authors determine the ratio of the heating to cooling time constants of ELF currents generated in the D-region. This ratio is found to decrease from 1.03 {plus minus} 0.07 at 510 Hz to 0.28 {plus minus} 0.03 at 6,010 kHz. These results, which were obtained using an effective radiated power of 240 MW, suggest that future heater facilities designed to optimize ELF radiation efficiency using the technique of beam painting' will have to operate at considerably higher power levels than the Tromsoe facility if any practical advantages are to be gained.

  10. ELF radiation from the Tromsoe super heater facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, R.; Stubbe, P. )

    1991-06-01

    Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggested that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m{sup 2} in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m{sup 2}.

  11. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the annular flow helium heater design

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted Core Support Performance Test (CSPT) by use of an existing facility, Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL), as part of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) application program. A major objective of the CSPT is to study accelerated corrosion of the core graphite support structure in helium at reactor conditions. Concentration of impurities will be adjusted so that a 6-month test represents the 30-year reactor life. Thermal hydraulic and structural integrity of the graphite specimen, among other things, will be studied at high pressure of 7.24 MPa (1050 psi) and high temperature of 1000/sup 0/C (1832/sup 0/F) in a test vessel. To achieve the required high temperature at the test section, a heater bundle has to be specially designed and properly manufactured. This report presents performance characteristics of the heater that were determined from an analysis based on this design.

  12. Pool boiling on a large horizontal flat resistance heater

    SciTech Connect

    Reguillot, F.; Witte, L.; Lienhard, J.; Poniewski, M. Kielce University of Technology, )

    1992-08-01

    Results are presented of experiments on n-pentane/Freon-113 system, carried out to investigate the film-transition boiling region where liquid-solid contacts contribute significantly to the local heat flux, using a large flat horizontal resistance heater mounted on a ceramic insulating substrate. After steady film boiling was reached, the heat flux was decreased and recorded simultaneously with the temperature measured by thermocouples attached to the lower side of the heater surface. It is shown that the observed data on the quasi-linear film boiling regime are better represented by Berenson's (1960) correlation than by Klimenko's (1981) correlation. Burnout values measured for Freon-113 compared reasonably well to available correlations for the flat plate geometry. 10 refs.

  13. Diesel-fired self-pumping water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsmann, Joseph

    1994-07-01

    The object of this project was to study the feasibility of pumping and heating water by sustained oscillatory vaporization and condensation in a fired heat exchanger. Portable field liquid fueled water heaters would facilitate heating water for sanitation, personal hygiene, food service, laundry, equipment maintenance, and decontamination presently available only from larger, less portable, motorized pumping units. The technical tasks consisted of: development of an analytical model, operation of proof-of-principal prototypes, and determination of the thermal and mechanical relationships to evaluate operating range and control characteristics. Four successive pump models were analyzed and tested. The final analytical model gave reasonable agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the actual pumping effect was an order of magnitude lower than originally anticipated. It was concluded that a thermally-activated self pumping water heater based on the proposed principle is not feasible.

  14. Fabrication of light weight radioisotope heater unit hardware components

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is planned to be used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cassini Mission, to provide localized thermal energy as strategic locations on the spacecraft. These one watt heater units will support the operation of many on-board instruments that require a specific temperature range to function properly. The system incorporates a fuel pellet encapsulated in a vented metallic clad fabricated from platinum-30{percent} rhodium (Pt-30{percent}Rh) tubing, sheet and foil materials. To complete the package, the clad assemblies are placed inside a combination of graphite components. This report describes the techniques employed by Mound related to the fabrication and sub assembly processes of the LWRHU clad hardware components. Included are details concerning configuration control systems, material procurement and certification, hardware fabrication specifics, and special processes that are utilized. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Convective polymerase chain reaction around micro immersion heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Martin; Braun, Dieter

    2005-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed in the thermal convection created by a micro immersion heater. Instead of repetitive heating and cooling, the temperature gradient induces thermal convection which drives the reaction liquid between hot and cold parts of the chamber. The convection triggers DNA amplification as the DNA melts into two single strands in the hot region and replicates with the use of proteins into twice the amount in the cold region. The constant heater is simply dipped into the reaction solution. Compared to previous experiments, we demonstrate that convective PCR is possible in a robotically accessible open vessel. Our approach compares well with fast PCR cyclers and replicates DNA 500 000 fold within 20minutes. We reduce the necessary components for PCR to cheap, single-use components and therefore increasing the prospects of bringing PCR to point of care applications—even in third world countries.

  16. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  17. Stirling Engine External Heat System Design with Heat Pipe Heater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    STIRLING ENGINE EXTERNAL HEAT SYSTEM DESIGN WITH HEAT PIPE HEATER Benjamin Ziph Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. 2841 Boardwalk Ann Arbor, MI 48104...ffleat System Design with * 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Tfed M. Godett and Benjamin Zinh1 * 13& TYPE OF REPORT 13b.* TIME COVERED 14.DT7FRPR Y. o.Dy 5...antd identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. E!yternal heating system , Stirling engine, Stirling cycle, heat pipes, ~ 10 1 hea-t ex.changers

  18. In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J.K.; Hadley, G.R.; Waymire, D.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment operated in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff in U12g-tunnel (G-Tunnel) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The experiment was located approximately 400 m below the surface and 200 m above the water table in nearly saturated rock. The experiment was designed to provide an initial assessment of the thermally induced behavior of the potentially large volumes of water ({similar_to}25 vol % in this case) available in saturated or nearly saturated tuffaceous rocks. Instruments in the water collection cavities, including water depth gages, pH probes, humidity gages, and pressure transducers measured some properties of the collected water. Other holes in the array were instrumented to measure temperature profiles, thermally induced stress, and one provided a test bed for a continuously operating laser interferometer for measuring thermally induced rock displacements. Initial analysis of the water generation rate data in the heater hole, assuming a one-dimensional evaporation front/vapor diffusion model, provided good qualitative agreement. The results of chemical analyses of water samples supports the notion of mass transport by vapor diffusion in the heater hole but not in the water migration holes. Rock temperatures in the heater hole exceeded 240{sup 0}C. The stress meters measured maximum radial and circumferential thermal stresses of 8.62 and 4.83 MPa respectively - approximately 40% of the pretest predicted values. The experiment with the laser interferometer was a failure. The results of the water migration experiment indicate that the pore water in these rocks was highly mobile, probably by a vapor diffusion/condensation process.

  19. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  20. Permeability of Candidate Stirling Heater Head Materials Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Marc R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are evaluating high-temperature materials for Stirling heater heads for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems that would help to increase the system efficiency to 30 to 35 percent and the system specific power to 8 to 10+ W/kg. Ceramic materials could make it possible for the convertor hot-end temperature to be increased to 1050 to 1200 C, in comparison to the current 650 C with an Inconel 718 heater head. A hermetically sealed Stirling heater head must retain a constant internal pressure of nearly 400-psi helium (He) throughout its useful life (120,000 hr) at the design operating temperature. Therefore, He permeability was measured for eight potential materials and compared with the permeability of the current heater head material, Inconel 718. The eight materials included silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon dioxide (SiO2), both sintered and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3), two types of melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composites, and a carbon/SiC composite (C/SiC). Glenn submitted samples of each material to Porous Materials, Inc., Ithaca, New York, for permeability analysis. At room temperature and 30-psi He, four materials--Si3N4, Al2O3, SiO2, and sintered SiC--demonstrated lower permeability than Inconel 718. The CVD SiC and all the composite materials were significantly more permeable to He than the baseline material.

  1. Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    03-01-2007 Final1 10-09-2003 - 10-09-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ba. CONTRACT NUMBER Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP N00014-03-1... HAARP to optically measure fine structure in the ionosphere and to study airglow sources. In the presence of aurora and a strong blanketing E layer... HAARP was modulated at intervals of several seconds. For several cycles, small bright airglow spots were observed whenever HAARP was on. These spots

  2. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, M.C.; Thomas, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O&M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of {open_quotes}insurance{close_quotes} plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  3. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  4. Microscale Heaters Detailed Boiling Behavior in Normal Gravity and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. Conducting tests in microgravity, as well as lunar and Martian gravity, makes it possible to assess the effect of the density difference between the vapor and liquid phases on the overall boiling process and to assess the relative magnitude of these effects in comparison to other "forces" and phenomena, such as surface tension forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The microscale heater developed under a NASA Glenn Research Center grant serves as a unique tool to probe the fundamental mechanisms associated with pool boiling. An experimental package was designed and built by the University of Maryland and tested on the NASA Johnson Space Center KC-135 experimental aircraft and a NASA WFF Terrier Orion Sounding Rocket under NASA Grants NAG3-2228 and NCC3-783. A square array of 96 microscale heaters was constructed and installed into a special boiling chamber. A fluorinert, FC-72, was used as the test fluid. A variety of tests were conducted at different pressures, heater wall temperatures, bulk fluid temperatures, and gravity levels.

  5. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  6. A novel polyimide based micro heater with high temperature uniformity

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Shifeng; Wang, Shuyu; Lu, Ming; ...

    2017-02-06

    MEMS based micro heaters are a key component in micro bio-calorimetry, nondispersive infrared gas sensors, semiconductor gas sensors and microfluidic actuators. A micro heater with a uniform temperature distribution in the heating area and short response time is desirable in ultrasensitive temperature-dependent measurements. In this study, we propose a novel micro heater design to reach a uniform temperature in a large heating area by optimizing the heating power density distribution in the heating area. A polyimide membrane is utilized as the substrate to reduce the thermal mass and heat loss which allows for fast thermal response as well as amore » simplified fabrication process. A gold and titanium heating element is fabricated on the flexible polyimide substrate using the standard MEMS technique. The temperature distribution in the heating area for a certain power input is measured by an IR camera, and is consistent with FEA simulation results. Finally, this design can achieve fast response and uniform temperature distribution, which is quite suitable for the programmable heating such as impulse and step driving.« less

  7. Performance Analysis and Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Resistive Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Marcoux, Pierre; Perrault, Michel; Abbott, Richard C.; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-08-01

    Many processes and systems require hot surfaces. These are usually heated using electrical elements located in their vicinity. However, this solution is subject to intrinsic limitations associated with heating element geometry and physical location. Thermally spraying electrical elements directly on surfaces can overcome these limitations by tailoring the geometry of the heating element to the application. Moreover, the element heat transfer is maximized by minimizing the distance between the heater and the surface to be heated. This article is aimed at modeling and characterizing resistive heaters sprayed on metallic substrates. Heaters were fabricated by using a plasma-sprayed alumina dielectric insulator and a wire flame-sprayed iron-based alloy resistive element. Samples were energized and kept at a constant temperature of 425 °C for up to 4 months. SEM cross-sectional observations revealed the formation of cracks at very specific locations in the alumina layer after thermal use. Finite-element modeling shows that these cracks originate from high local thermal stresses and can be predicted according to the considered geometry. The simulation model was refined using experimental parameters obtained by several techniques such as emissivity and time-dependent temperature profile (infra-red camera), resistivity (four-probe technique), thermal diffusivity (laser flash method), and mechanical properties (micro and nanoindentation). The influence of the alumina thickness and the substrate material on crack formation was evaluated.

  8. Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

    1999-03-01

    This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

  9. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Treesearch

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  10. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  11. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Marion; Dekeyser, Dominique; Richert, Jean Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Vazquez-Prada, Diego; Lacazedieu, Annie

    2015-04-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron,Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with tourists, students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  12. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Marion; Richert, Jean-Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Lacazedieu, Annie; Dekeyser, Dominique; Vazquez-Prada, Diego

    2014-05-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron, Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with our students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Southeast Volusia Habitat for Humanity, Edgewater, FL

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This home garnered an award in the Affordable Builder category of the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, and features 2x4 walls with fiberglass batt inside plus R-3 rigid foam on the exterior, ENERGY STAR lighting, appliances, and ceiling fans, a solar water heater, an energy recovery ventilation, and a high efficiency heat pump.

  14. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  15. Road rage and collision involvement.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  16. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  17. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  1. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  2. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  3. Home front.

    PubMed

    2001-04-04

    Ninety-year-old Ivy Tabberer protested against the closure of her care home at the Houses of Parliament last week. She was joined by fellow residents in the Havering Action Against Home Closures group and three generations of her family. Ms Tabberer is pictured with daughter Doreen Walpole (left), granddaughter Annette (far right) and great granddaughter Shereen (middle). 'If all the homes close,' said Ms Tabberer, 'where are we going to stay?'

  4. Four Bed Molecular Sieve - Exploration (4BMS-X) Virtual Heater Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. Gregory; Peters, Warren T.; Thomas, John T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    A 4BMS-X (Four Bed Molecular Sieve - Exploration) design and heater optimization study for CO2 sorbent beds in proposed exploration system architectures is presented. The primary objectives of the study are to reduce heater power and thermal gradients within the CO2 sorbent beds while minimizing channeling effects. Some of the notable changes from the ISS (International Space Station) CDRA (Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly) to the proposed exploration system architecture include cylindrical beds, alternate sorbents and an improved heater core. Results from both 2D and 3D sorbent bed thermal models with integrated heaters are presented. The 2D sorbent bed models are used to optimize heater power and fin geometry while the 3D models address end effects in the beds for more realistic thermal gradient and heater power predictions.

  5. Design and characterization of microscale heater structures for test die and sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.A.; Bowman, D.; Filter, W.; Mitchell, R.; Perry, J.

    1998-05-01

    The authors describe a class of microscale heaters fabricated with CMOS processes on silicon wafers. These heaters were designed to produce localized high temperatures above 400 C for test and sensor applications. The temperature levels produced for various input powers and the thermal profiles surrounding the heater for packaged and wafer-level heater structures were studied to guide the placement of microelectronics integrated with the heater structures on the same die. To show the performance of the design, they present resistance sensor measurements, IR temperature profiles, and results from a 3D thermal model of the die. This effort demonstrates that it is possible to successfully operate both a microscale heater and microcircuits on the same die.

  6. Sleep disturbances from road traffic noise: A comparison between laboratory and field settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skånberg, A.; Öhrström, E.

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in the effects of noise on sleep between studies performed in the laboratory and in field settings with equal road traffic noise exposure. Fourteen subjects, living along a street with a relatively high load of road traffic and with bedroom windows facing the street, slept four nights at home and four nights in a sleep laboratory, where they were exposed to played back "home road traffic noise". Effects on sleep were evaluated by questionnaires and wrist-actigraphy. No significant differences in sleep quality were found between home and laboratory conditions on variables assessed either by questionnaires or wrist-actigraphy. It was concluded that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate the effects of road traffic noise on sleep, provided that sleep is studied with the same methods and that a homelike environment is created in the laboratory.

  7. Parental beliefs about supervising children when crossing roads and cycling.

    PubMed

    Soole, David W; Lennon, Alexia; Haworth, Narelle

    2011-03-01

    Pedestrian and cyclist injuries are significant public health issues, together accounting for 11-30% of road deaths in highly motorised countries. Children are particularly at risk. In Australia in 2009 11.4% of pedestrian deaths and 6.4% of cyclist deaths comprised children aged 0-16 years. Parental attitudes and level of supervision are important to children's road safety. Results from a telephone survey with parents of children 5-9 years (N = 147) are reported. Questions addressed beliefs about preventability of injury, appropriate ages for children to cross the road or cycle independently and the frequency of holding 5-9 year old children's hands while crossing the road. Results suggest that parents believe most injuries are preventable and that they personally can act to improve their own safety in the home, on the road, at work, as well as in or on the water. Most parents (68%) indicated children should be 10 years or older before crossing the road or cycling independently. Parents were more likely to report holding younger children's hands (5-6 years) when crossing the road and less likely to do so for 7- to 9-year olds. There was a small effect of child gender, with parents more likely to hold a boy's hand than that of a girl.

  8. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  9. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  10. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified as either a primary road or an ancillary road. (2) A primary road is any road which is— (i) Used... is any road not classified as a primary road. (b) Performance standards. Each road shall be located...; (5) Protecting the natural drainage patterns by installing dikes or cross drains as necessary to...

  11. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified as either a primary road or an ancillary road. (2) A primary road is any road which is— (i) Used... is any road not classified as a primary road (b) Performance standards. Each road shall be located...; (5) Protecting the natural drainage patterns by installing dikes or cross drains as necessary to...

  12. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies on the origin of the blue marlin heater cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tullis, A; Block, B A

    1997-12-01

    The superior rectus muscle fibers of marlins, swordfish, sailfish and spearfish are modified for heat production at the expense of contractile ability. Although 'heater cells' are a muscle derivative (Block, 1986, 1991), the myoblast origin and developmental pathway of these thermogenic cells is unknown. To gain insight into heater cell origins, we characterized blue marlin superior rectus muscle and its heater tissue derivative with histochemical and immunological techniques. We specifically employed myosin ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase histochemical assays, and myosin heavy chain immunohistochemistry. Results revealed that marlin superior rectus muscles contain at least six distinct fiber types, and suggested the presence of both twitch and tonic fibers. Immunological results indicate that myosin is present within the thermogenic cells but not in myofibrillar lattices. The antibodies that recognized myosin in heater cells also labeled myosin in the twitch fibers of swimming muscle. In contrast, antibodies that labeled histologically defined tonic fibers did not label heater cells. These results suggest that heater cells and twitch fibers express the same myosin isoform, and establish a phenotypic connection between heater cells and twitch fibers. This conclusion is discussed in the context of the muscle-to-heater trajectory and the muscle fiber-type origin of heater cells.

  13. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  14. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve engine performance. The Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer simulation was used for this investigation. Results for the heater-bypass concept showed no significant improvement in the indicated thermal efficiency for the P-40 Stirling engine operating at full-power and part-power conditions. Optimizing the heater tube length produced a small increase in the indicated thermal efficiency with the heater-bypass concept.

  15. Controlling the self-folding of a polymer sheet using a local heater: the effect of the polymer-heater interface.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianxun; Yao, Shanshan; Huang, Qijin; Adams, John G M; Zhu, Yong

    2017-05-31

    Self-folding of a pre-strained shape memory polymer (SMP) sheet was demonstrated using local joule heating. Folding is caused by shrinkage variation across the thickness of the SMP sheet. The folding direction can be controlled by the interfacial interaction between the heater and the SMP sheet. When the heater is placed on the SMP sheet with no constraint (weak interface), the SMP sheet folds toward the heater. Temperature gradient across the SMP thickness gives rise to the shrinkage variation. By contrast, when the heater is fixed to the SMP sheet (strong interface), the SMP sheet can fold away from the heater. In this case shrinkage variation is dictated by the constraining effect of the heater. In either mode, 180 degrees folding can be achieved. The folding angle can be controlled by varying the heater width and folding time. This method is simple and can be used to fold structures with sharp angles in a sequential manner. A variety of structures were folded as demonstrations, including digital numbers 0-9, a cube, a boat, and a crane.

  16. Home Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... also available to help with home assessment. Assistive Technology to improve home safety can also be an option. For example, necklace or wrist radio devices that allow the older person to call for help. There ... technologies can provide help in administering and tracking medications, ...

  17. Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, William M.; And Others

    Cases that address the issue of home schooling are summarized in this report. Organized chronologically, each case description includes quoted material from the court ruling. Issues involve parent actions regarding compulsory student enrollment, parent qualifications for home teaching, student certification, church-state separation, constitutional…

  18. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  19. Home retrofitting for energy conservation and solar considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    A manual which explains both the key concepts behind the need for and the home energy efficiency improvement is reviewed. A comprehensive picture of how home energy use is effected by the inhabitants and by the structure itself is presented. The manual explains: looking at energy, how the heat transfer occurs between houses and humans, energy audits and how to use them, energy conservation actions to do now to reduce energy use. Schemes to reduce infiltration, how to increase insulation, and what to do with windows and doors, heating and heat distribution systems, and water heaters are included. Solar energy options are explained, as well as financing and tax credits.

  20. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Savannah Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-15

    The Savannah Housing Department is leading sustainable and affordable housing development in Georgia. It partnered with Southface Energy Institute, a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team, to seek cost-effective solutions for increasing the energy efficiency of the Savannah Housing Department’s standard single-family home plans in the Savannah Gardens Community. Based on engineering, cost, and constructability analyses, the combined research team chose to pilot two technologies to evaluate efficiency and comfort impacts for homeowners: a heat-pump water heater in an encapsulated attic and an insulated exterior wall sheathing.