Science.gov

Sample records for home weatherization measures

  1. Mobile home weatherization measures: A study of their effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Hancock, E.; Franconi, E.; Hanger, R.; Weiger, J.

    1988-12-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (DOE OBCS) in FY 1987 and 1988 to investigate cost effective ways to weatherize mobile homes constructed prior to the enactment of HUD Thermal Standards in 1976. In FY 1987 SERI studied the effectiveness of a variety of infiltration-reducing retrofits by monitoring 20 units in the field before, during, and after applications of air tightening measures. In FY 1988 we began studying measures intended to reduce envelope conduction losses. These measures included storm windows, insulated skirting, and wall, roof, and floor insulation. This part of the project resulted in the development of a short-term testing method for measuring the thermal impact of individual conduction-reducing retrofits.

  2. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  3. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  4. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  5. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  6. Low-E Storm Windows Gain Acceptance as a Home Weatherization Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2016-05-16

    This article for Home Energy Magazine describes work by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop low-emissivity storm windows as an energy efficiency-retrofit option for existing homes. The article describes the low-emissivity invisible silver metal coatings on the glass, which reflect heat back into the home in winter or back outside in summer and the benefits of low-e storm windows including insulation, air sealing, noise blocking, protection of antique windows, etc. The article also describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's efforts on behalf of DOE to overcome market barriers to adoption of the technology, including performance validation studies in the PNNL Lab Homes, cost effectiveness analysis, production of reports, brochures, how-to guides on low-e storm window installation for the Building America Solution Center, and a video posted on YouTube. PNNL's efforts were reviewed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF), which serves as the advisory board to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration. In late July 2015, the RTF approved the low-e storm window measure’s savings and specifications, a critical step in integrating low-e storm windows into energy-efficiency planning and utility weatherization and incentive programs. PNNL estimates that more than 90 million homes in the United States with single-pane or low-performing double-pane windows would benefit from the technology. Low-e storm windows are suitable not only for private residences but also for small commercial buildings, historic properties, and facilities that house residents, such as nursing homes, dormitories, and in-patient facilities. To further assist in the market transformation of low-e storm windows and other high-efficiency window attachments, DOE helped found the window Attachment Energy Rating Council (AERC) in 2015. AERC is an independent, public interest, non-profit organization whose mission is to rate, label

  7. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. 200,000 homes weatherized under the Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Zoi, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Today Vice President Biden announced that the Weatherization Assistance Program has weatherized 200,000 homes under the Recovery Act. We're taking your questions and comments right now on weatherization. Join in the conversation! *Facebook -- http://www.facebook.com/energygov *Twitter -- http://www.twitter.com/energy

  9. 200,000 homes weatherized under the Recovery Act

    ScienceCinema

    Zoi, Cathy

    2016-07-12

    Today Vice President Biden announced that the Weatherization Assistance Program has weatherized 200,000 homes under the Recovery Act. We're taking your questions and comments right now on weatherization. Join in the conversation! *Facebook -- http://www.facebook.com/energygov *Twitter -- http://www.twitter.com/energy

  10. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and health in homes undergoing weatherization.

    PubMed

    Francisco, P W; Jacobs, D E; Targos, L; Dixon, S L; Breysse, J; Rose, W; Cali, S

    2017-03-01

    Ventilation standards, health, and indoor air quality have not been adequately examined for residential weatherization. This randomized trial showed how ASHRAE 62-1989 (n=39 houses) and ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (n=42 houses) influenced ventilation rates, moisture balance, indoor air quality, and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. Average total airflow was nearly twice as high for ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (79 vs. 39 cfm). Volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide were all significantly reduced for the newer standard and first-floor radon was marginally lower, but for the older standard, only formaldehyde significantly decreased. Humidity in the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 group was only about half that of the ASHRAE 62-1989 group using the moisture balance metric. Radon was higher in the basement but lower on the first floor for ASHRAE 62.2-2010. Children in each group had fewer headaches, eczema, and skin allergies after weatherization and adults had improvements in psychological distress. Indoor air quality and health improve when weatherization is accompanied by an ASHRAE residential ventilation standard, and the 2010 ASHRAE standard has greater improvements in certain outcomes compared to the 1989 standard. Weatherization, home repair, and energy conservation projects should use the newer ASHRAE standard to improve indoor air quality and health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  12. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  13. Weatherizing the Homes of Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program Clients: A Programmatic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.

    2002-09-16

    The purpose of this project was to assess the relationships between two federal programs that support low income households, the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) and the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). The specific question addressed by this research is: what impact does weatherizing homes of LIHEAP recipients have on the level of need for LIHEAP assistance? The a priori expectation is that the level of need will decrease. If this is the case, then it can be argued that a non-energy benefit of WAP is the reduction in the level of need for LIHEAP assistance for households receiving weatherization assistance. The study area for this project was Boston, Massachusetts, which is representative of large northern urban areas. Additionally, Boston was chosen because one of its social service agencies, Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD), administers both WAP and LIHEAP programs. ABCD has a substantial client base of low-income households and was willing to cooperate in this study. In the State of Massachusetts, an income test is used to determine whether low-income households qualify for standard LIHEAP benefits. Benefits provided to eligible households are determined by a schedule that gauges benefit levels based on household income and number of members in the household. Additionally, households that consume large amounts of primary heating fuel can also qualify an additional high energy subsidy. It was expected that weatherization's biggest influence on the LIHEAP program would be in reducing the number of households qualifying for high energy subsidies. Data were collected for three groups of households that received both weatherization and LIHEAP assistance and for one control group that only received LIHEAP assistance. Table ES-1 indicates the sample sizes, weatherization dates, and winter time periods when changes in energy consumption and receipt of LIHEAP benefits could be expected to be observed. The reason why there is a lag

  14. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  15. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  16. Measuring fire weather and forest inflammability

    Treesearch

    H. T. Gisborne

    1936-01-01

    In the measurement of fire weather and forest inflammability, now practiced regularly at more than 90 forest stations in northern Idaho and western Montana, it is necessary to use many methods that are peculiar to this work. Some of these methods are familiar to meteorologists, but few foresters have had any appreciable training in meteorology. Others are of such,...

  17. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

  18. Texas Field Experiment Results: Performance of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Hot-Climate, Low-Income Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Goeltz, Rick; Ternes, Mark P; Berry, Linda G

    2008-04-01

    A field test involving 35 houses was performed in Texas between 2000 and 2003 to study the response of low-income homes in hot climates to weatherization performed as part of the U.S Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program and to investigate certain methods to improve weatherization performance. The study found that improved Program designs and the use of advanced energy audits resulted in better weatherization measures being installed (use of blower doors to guide the infiltration work, more frequent installation of attic insulation, and installation of wall insulation) in the study homes, improved space-heating savings performance compared to the Program as implemented in the hot climates in 1989, and more comfortable indoor temperatures. Two key policy dilemmas for Texas and other hot-climate states were highlighted by the study; namely, how to balance expenditures between installing cost-effective weatherization measures and performing health, safety, and repair items, and that health, safety, and repair items can have an adverse impact on energy savings, which further complicates the weatherization decision process. Several occupant and equipment-related behaviors were observed in the field test homes that help explain why audits may over predict energy consumptions and savings and why air-conditioning electricity savings are difficult to measure. Based on this study, it is recommended that states in hot climates be encouraged to select from an expanded list of measures using advanced audits or other techniques, and further studies examining the benefits obtained from air conditioner measures should be performed. In addition, guidelines should be developed for the hot-climate states on how to (a) balance the objectives of saving energy, improving health and safety, and addressing repair issues, and (b) select repair items.

  19. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Portal to New Jobs in Home Weatherization (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Expanding training opportunities in the weatherization of buildings will accelerate learning and provide a direct path for many Americans to find jobs in the clean energy field. The National Weatherization Training Portal (NWTP), which is now in the final stages of testing, features multi-media, interactive, self-paced training modules.

  20. Measures of Economic Impacts of Weather Extremes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley D.

    2003-09-01

    One of the primary driving forces behind weather research and development has been the losses caused by weather extremes. Unfortunately, available loss values have been more qualitative than quantitative. There has never been a concerted, organized effort to collect and quality control economic impact data for weather extremes. Numerous studies have been made, resulting in widely varying estimates of losses, and these have been limited by 1) an inability to access certain types of loss data; 2) a lack of attention to indirect, delayed impacts, including benefits; and 3) diverse and inconsistent sources of loss data. Numerous problems have resulted from the poor estimates of loss and lack of understanding of the data uncertainties. Federal relief payments for major events have escalated partly as a result of insufficient-data to detect and understand society's changing vulnerability to extremes. Controversies over relief payments for major damaging events have occurred as a result of imprecise loss estimates. The insurance industry suffered major storm-related losses in the 1990s because it lacked a database on weather-produced losses and was unable to anticipate time-shifting risks in setting rates. The absence of quality impact data has also led to questionable research priorities, and has generated incorrect perceptions in the public and media about the magnitude of impacts of events. The lack of precise loss values also limits adequate planning for future impacts, which is apt to lead to increased losses as society's vulnerability to extremes continues to increase. Recent pressures, including several major weather losses since 1988, and concern over the impacts of more extremes due to global warming, have led to better estimates of impacts. These pressures and government and insurance industry recognition of the need to better understand the ever-increasing costs have led to recent national assessments, calling for better impact data. The nation needs a

  1. The weather@home regional climate modelling project for Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Mitchell T.; Karoly, David J.; Rosier, Suzanne M.; Dean, Sam M.; King, Andrew D.; Massey, Neil R.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Jones, Richard G.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.

    2016-09-01

    A new climate modelling project has been developed for regional climate simulation and the attribution of weather and climate extremes over Australia and New Zealand. The project, known as weather@home Australia-New Zealand, uses public volunteers' home computers to run a moderate-resolution global atmospheric model with a nested regional model over the Australasian region. By harnessing the aggregated computing power of home computers, weather@home is able to generate an unprecedented number of simulations of possible weather under various climate scenarios. This combination of large ensemble sizes with high spatial resolution allows extreme events to be examined with well-constrained estimates of sampling uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the weather@home Australia-New Zealand project, including initial evaluation of the regional model performance. The model is seen to be capable of resolving many climate features that are important for the Australian and New Zealand regions, including the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on driving natural climate variability. To date, 75 model simulations of the historical climate have been successfully integrated over the period 1985-2014 in a time-slice manner. In addition, multi-thousand member ensembles have also been generated for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 under climate scenarios with and without the effect of human influences. All data generated by the project are freely available to the broader research community.

  2. Women's Energy Tool Kit: Home Heating, Cooling and Weatherization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byalin, Joan

    This book is the first in a series of Energy Tool Kits designed for women by Consumer Action Now, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy resources. Information is provided in 16 sections: introduction, home energy survey; caulking; weatherstripping (double-hung and sliding windows, and casement,…

  3. Effect of Weatherization Combined With Community Health Worker In-Home Education on Asthma Control

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Sherry; Gregory, Joel; Philby, Miriam; Jacobs, David E.; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the benefits of adding weatherization-plus-health interventions to an in-home, community health worker (CHW) education program on asthma control. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design to compare study group homes (n = 34) receiving CHW education and weatherization-plus-health structural interventions with historical comparison group homes (n = 68) receiving only education. Data were collected in King County, Washington, from October 2009 to September 2010. Results. Over the 1-year study period, the percentage of study group children with not-well-controlled or very poorly controlled asthma decreased more than the comparison group percentage (100% to 28.8% vs 100% to 51.6%; P = .04). Study group caregiver quality-of-life improvements exceeded comparison group improvements (P = .002) by 0.7 units, a clinically important difference. The decrease in study home asthma triggers (evidence of mold, water damage, pests, smoking) was marginally greater than the comparison group decrease (P = .089). Except for mouse allergen, the percentage of study group allergen floor dust samples at or above the detection limit decreased, although most reductions were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Combining weatherization and healthy home interventions (e.g., improved ventilation, moisture and mold reduction, carpet replacement, and plumbing repairs) with CHW asthma education significantly improves childhood asthma control. PMID:24228661

  4. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  5. weather@home 2: validation of an improved global-regional climate modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillod, Benoit P.; Jones, Richard G.; Bowery, Andy; Haustein, Karsten; Massey, Neil R.; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David C. H.; Wilson, Simon; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-05-01

    Extreme weather events can have large impacts on society and, in many regions, are expected to change in frequency and intensity with climate change. Owing to the relatively short observational record, climate models are useful tools as they allow for generation of a larger sample of extreme events, to attribute recent events to anthropogenic climate change, and to project changes in such events into the future. The modelling system known as weather@home, consisting of a global climate model (GCM) with a nested regional climate model (RCM) and driven by sea surface temperatures, allows one to generate a very large ensemble with the help of volunteer distributed computing. This is a key tool to understanding many aspects of extreme events. Here, a new version of the weather@home system (weather@home 2) with a higher-resolution RCM over Europe is documented and a broad validation of the climate is performed. The new model includes a more recent land-surface scheme in both GCM and RCM, where subgrid-scale land-surface heterogeneity is newly represented using tiles, and an increase in RCM resolution from 50 to 25 km. The GCM performs similarly to the previous version, with some improvements in the representation of mean climate. The European RCM temperature biases are overall reduced, in particular the warm bias over eastern Europe, but large biases remain. Precipitation is improved over the Alps in summer, with mixed changes in other regions and seasons. The model is shown to represent the main classes of regional extreme events reasonably well and shows a good sensitivity to its drivers. In particular, given the improvements in this version of the weather@home system, it is likely that more reliable statements can be made with regards to impact statements, especially at more localized scales.

  6. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6)…

  7. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  8. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  9. 45 CFR 96.83 - Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... weatherization and other energy-related home repair. 96.83 Section 96.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.83 Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair....

  10. 45 CFR 96.83 - Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... weatherization and other energy-related home repair. 96.83 Section 96.83 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.83 Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair....

  11. 45 CFR 96.83 - Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... weatherization and other energy-related home repair. 96.83 Section 96.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.83 Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair....

  12. 45 CFR 96.83 - Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... weatherization and other energy-related home repair. 96.83 Section 96.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.83 Increase in maximum amount that may be used for weatherization and other energy-related home repair....

  13. Influence of weather, rank, and home advantage on football outcomes in the Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weather, rank, and home advantage on international football match results and scores in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Football matches (n = 2008) in six GCC countries were analyzed. To determine the weather influence on the likelihood of favorable outcome and goal difference, generalized linear model with a logit link function and multiple regression analysis were performed. In the GCC region, home teams tend to have greater likelihood of a favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and higher goal difference (P < 0.001). Temperature difference was identified as a significant explanatory variable when used independently (P < 0.001) or after adjustment for home advantage and team ranking (P < 0.001). The likelihood of favorable outcome for GCC teams increases by 3% for every 1-unit increase in temperature difference. After inclusion of interaction with opposition, this advantage remains significant only when playing against non-GCC opponents. While home advantage increased the odds of favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and goal difference (P < 0.001) after inclusion of interaction term, the likelihood of favorable outcome for a GCC team decreased (P < 0.001) when playing against a stronger opponent. Finally, the temperature and wet bulb globe temperature approximation were found as better indicators of the effect of environmental conditions than absolute and relative humidity or heat index on match outcomes. In GCC region, higher temperature increased the likelihood of a favorable outcome when playing against non-GCC teams. However, international ranking should be considered because an opponent with a higher rank reduced, but did not eliminate, the likelihood of a favorable outcome.

  14. Measuring safety climate in elderly homes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Koon-Chuen; Chan, Charles C

    2012-02-01

    Provision of a valid and reliable safety climate dimension brings enormous benefits to the elderly home sector. The aim of the present study was to make use of the safety climate instrument developed by OSHC to measure the safety perceptions of employees in elderly homes such that the factor structure of the safety climate dimensions of elderly homes could be explored. In 2010, surveys by mustering on site method were administered in 27 elderly homes that had participated in the "Hong Kong Safe and Healthy Residential Care Home Accreditation Scheme" organized by the Occupational Safety and Health Council. Six hundred and fifty-one surveys were returned with a response rate of 54.3%. To examine the factor structure of safety climate dimensions in our study, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis method was conducted to identify the underlying factors. The results of the modified seven-factor's safety climate structure extracted from 35 items better reflected the safety climate dimensions of elderly homes. The Cronbach alpha range for this study (0.655 to 0.851) indicated good internal consistency among the seven-factor structure. Responses from managerial level, supervisory and professional level, and front-line staff were analyzed to come up with the suggestion on effective ways of improving the safety culture of elderly homes. The overall results showed that managers generally gave positive responses in the factors evaluated, such as "management commitment and concern to safety," "perception of work risks and some contributory influences," "safety communication and awareness," and "safe working attitude and participation." Supervisors / professionals, and frontline level staff on the other hand, have less positive responses. The result of the lowest score in the factors - "perception of safety rules and procedures" underlined the importance of the relevance and practicability of safety rules and procedures. The modified OSHC

  15. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  16. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  17. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  18. How does local weather predict red deer home range size at different temporal scales?

    PubMed

    Rivrud, Inger Maren; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2010-11-01

    1. There is a rapidly growing literature on how climate affects populations of vertebrates. For large herbivorous mammals, most attention has been paid to demographic responses to climate variation. Much less information is available regarding how climate affects animal behaviour, i.e. the climate mechanisms. Further, the appropriate measurement scale of climate variables remains debated. Here, we investigate how local climate variables determine home range sizes at four temporal scales using the Börger-method on GPS telemetry data from 47 female red deer Cervus elaphus L. in Norway. 2. If local climate operates directly on the immediate activity level of the animal, we predict home range sizes to show season-specific variation on short temporal scale (weekly-daily) related to temperature and precipitation. If local climate operate indirectly through plant growth, we rather predict variation in home range sizes to be apparent on longer time scales (biweekly-monthly), and during summer only. 3. At all time scales home range size was positively correlated with temperature during winter and negatively during summer, while the effect of precipitation was season- and scale-specific, except when accumulating as snow. Extensive snow cover decreased home range size, indicating direct effects of climate. 4. The effects of local climate was weaker at the shortest time scales (weekly-daily) compared to the longest time scales (monthly-biweekly), while the effects of day length on home range size was only apparent on the monthly and daily scale. At the longest time scales variation in local climate had a large effect on home range size. This is consistent with climatic variables operating indirectly through plant growth, but we cannot exclude a certain direct effect even at longer time scales. 5. We show how local climate-home range size correlations measured over different temporal scales can be used to infer direct and indirect climate mechanisms. Insight on the behavioural

  19. SMASSIR Measurements of Vesta Chips: Evidence for Weathering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Binzel, R. P.

    1997-07-01

    "Space weathering" has been proposed as a mechanism for causing the spectra of asteroids with ordinary chondrite compositions to become disguised by redder spectral slopes and suppressed spectral features as compared to laboratory measurements of ordinary chondrite meteorites. To gain insight into the question of weathering on basaltic asteroids, we have observed four Binzel and Xu (1993, Science 260, 186) Vesta-like objects in the near-infrared and compared their spectra to laboratory measurements of diogenitic material subjected to an experimental weathering process (Wasson et al., 1997, LPSC XXVIII, 1505). Our new telescopic data were obtained using the new "Asteroid Grism" system and NSFCAM detector developed by one of us (RPB) for use at the IRTF at Mauna Kea. These data are part of a near-infrared extension (SMASSIR) of the MIT Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic survey (SMASS). The combined data typically cover 0.4 to 1.7 microns. Our telescopic measurements show all four Vesta-like objects have distinctive basaltic spectra, but with significantly redder slopes than Vesta. Partially altered diogenite samples are also redder than Vesta, but are not as red as these Vesta-like objects. Interestingly, the laboratory spectrum of a more thoroughly altered diogenite is a very good match for Vesta's spectrum out to 1.5 microns and resembles a eucritic spectrum in this wavelength region. Past 1.5 microns, the altered diogenite spectrum is much redder than Vesta. This combination of observational and experimental data is consistent with a scenario where Vesta, instead of having a young surface age as discussed by Pieters and Binzel (1994, LPSC XXV, 1083), has a diogenitic surface that has been weathered severely to appear eucritic. The younger Vesta chips appear to have been affected by some process to appear redder than Vesta and the HEDs. This research is supported by NSF grant AST- 9530282.

  20. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  1. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  2. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  3. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  4. Weather model verification using Sodankylä mast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M.; Rontu, L.; Fortelius, C.; Aurela, M.; Poikonen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sodankylä, in the heart of Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ARC) in northern Finland, is an ideal site for atmospheric and environmental research in the boreal and sub-arctic zone. With temperatures ranging from -50 to +30 °C, it provides a challenging testing ground for numerical weather forecasting (NWP) models as well as weather forecasting in general. An extensive set of measurements has been carried out in Sodankylä for more than 100 years. In 2000, a 48 m high micrometeorological mast was erected in the area. In this article, the use of Sodankylä mast measurements in NWP model verification is described. Started in 2000 with NWP model HIRLAM and Sodankylä measurements, the verification system has now been expanded to include comparisons between 12 NWP models and seven measurement masts. A case study, comparing forecasted and observed radiation fluxes, is also presented. It was found that three different radiation schemes, applicable in NWP model HARMONIE-AROME, produced during cloudy days somewhat different downwelling long-wave radiation fluxes, which however did not change the overall cold bias of the predicted screen-level temperature.

  5. Weather model verification using Sodankylä mast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Markku; Rontu, Laura; Fortelius, Carl; Aurela, Mika; Poikonen, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Sodankylä, in the heart of Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ARC) in northern Finland, is an ideal site for atmospheric and environmental research in the boreal and sub-Arctic zone. With temperatures ranging from -50 to +30 °C, it provides a challenging testing ground for numerical weather forecasting (NWP) models as well as weather forecasting in general. An extensive set of measurements has been carried out in Sodankylä for more than 100 years. In 2000, a 48 m-high micrometeorological mast was erected in the area. In this article, the use of Sodankylä mast measurements in NWP model verification is described. Starting in 2000, with the NWP model HIRLAM and Sodankylä measurements, the verification system has now been expanded to include comparisons between 12 NWP models and seven measurement masts, distributed across Europe. A case study, comparing forecasted and observed radiation fluxes, is also presented. It was found that three different radiation schemes, applicable in NWP model HARMONIE-AROME, produced somewhat different downwelling longwave radiation fluxes during cloudy days, which however did not change the overall cold bias of the predicted screen-level temperature.

  6. Correct measures: home-made ORS.

    PubMed

    Matsitukwa, L; Pisacane, A

    1988-12-01

    Home-made oral rehydration salts solutions can be dangerous to infants if the mixture contains too much sugar or salt. The great variability of sugar and salt concentrations largely results from the use of different sized measuring instruments. This problem was analyzed further in 2 groups of mothers from Zimbabwe. Group A included 70 women attending 2 rural health clinics; Group B was comprised of 50 women living on remote farms. Almost all of the mothers in both groups were aware of the national policy for preparing the rehydration solution, which is to add 6 level teaspoons of sugar and half a level teaspoon of salt to 750 ml of water. Mothers in Group A were shown 7 teaspoons and asked to select a spoon similar to the 1 they used at home; women in Group B used their own teaspoons, which were all alike and very flat. Mothers in Group A, who had to choose a spoon, prepared solutions with too much sugar and salt, while women in Group B produced concentrations closer to the standard values. 61% of mothers in Group A compared with only 12% of mothers in Group B prepared solutions containing over 90 mmol of sodium per liter. Women in both groups were then asked to measure sugar and salt using commonly available soft-drink bottle tops. This measure produced more consistent concentrations of sugar and salt, and only 11% of Group A mothers and 8% of Group B mothers prepared solutions containing too much sodium. Since the bottle top is widely available in rural Zimbabwe and gives reliable measurements, it should be considered as a standard device for preparing oral rehydration solution.

  7. What Is Nursing Home Quality and How Is It Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Ferguson, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this commentary, we examine nursing home quality and indicators that have been used to measure nursing home quality. Design and Methods: A brief review of the history of nursing home quality is presented that provides some context and insight into currently used quality indicators. Donabedian's structure, process, and outcome (SPO)…

  8. What Is Nursing Home Quality and How Is It Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Ferguson, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this commentary, we examine nursing home quality and indicators that have been used to measure nursing home quality. Design and Methods: A brief review of the history of nursing home quality is presented that provides some context and insight into currently used quality indicators. Donabedian's structure, process, and outcome (SPO)…

  9. Neither rain nor hail nor sleet nor snow: provider perspectives on the challenges of weather for home and community care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W; Yantzi, Nicole M; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2009-02-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the geographies of care and caregiving by examining the implications of weather for providing home and community care for children and older adults. Integrating research from two previous qualitative studies of formal and informal care provisioning in Ontario, Canada, the authors re-analyzed semi-structured interviews with 83 directors, managers, paid staff, volunteers and family members to examine the challenges they faced when providing care during the winter season. Similar to other settings where winter conditions like snow, ice and cold temperatures are commonplace, the studies were set within a health policy context in which there is not enough recognition of the difficulties of weather for coordinating, managing and providing care to disabled, injured, chronically ill and frail individuals. The re-analysis focused on how winter conditions translate into geographical, administrative, economic, operational, physical, social and psychological barriers within and across different 'scales of care'. The findings indicate that the problems posed by weather are crucial yet often underestimated aspects of home and community care provided by formal and informal caregivers. The analysis of weather-related challenges for care provisioning needs to be extended to other seasonal conditions (e.g., the challenges of delivering care in extreme heat), to the developing world and even to the burgeoning debates on the health implications of global environmental change.

  10. On the occurrence of rainstorm damage based on home insurance and weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkers, M. H.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2015-02-01

    Rainstorm damage caused by the malfunction of urban drainage systems and water intrusion due to defects in the building envelope can be considerable. Little research on this topic focused on the collection of damage data, the understanding of damage mechanisms and the deepening of data analysis methods. In this paper, the relative contribution of different failure mechanisms to the occurrence of rainstorm damage is investigated, as well as the extent to which these mechanisms relate to weather variables. For a case study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, a property level home insurance database of around 3100 water-related damage claims was analysed. The records include comprehensive transcripts of communication between insurer, insured and damage assessment experts, which allowed claims to be classified according to their actual damage cause. The results show that roof and wall leakage is the most frequent failure mechanism causing precipitation-related claims, followed by blocked roof gutters, melting snow and sewer flooding. Claims related to sewer flooding were less present in the data, but are associated with significantly larger claim sizes than claims in the majority class, i.e. roof and wall leakages. Rare events logistic regression analysis revealed that maximum rainfall intensity and rainfall volume are significant predictors for the occurrence probability of precipitation-related claims. Moreover, it was found that claims associated with rainfall intensities smaller than 7-8 mm in a 60-min window are mainly related to failure processes in the private domain, such as roof and wall leakages. For rainfall events that exceed the 7-8 mm h-1 threshold, the failure of systems in the public domain, such as sewer systems, start to contribute considerably to the overall occurrence probability of claims. The communication transcripts, however, lacked information to be conclusive about to which extent sewer-related claims were caused by overloading of sewer systems or

  11. On the occurrence of rainstorm damage based on home insurance and weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkers, M. H.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Rainstorm damage caused by malfunctioning of urban drainage systems and water intrusion due to defects in the building envelope can be considerable. Little research on this topic focused on the collection of damage data, the understanding of damage mechanisms and the deepening of data analysis methods. In this paper, the relative contribution of different failure mechanisms to the occurrence of rainstorm damage are investigated, as well as the extent to which these mechanisms relate to weather variables. For a case study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, a property level home insurance database of around 3100 water-related damage claims was analysed. Records include comprehensive transcripts of communication between insurer, insured and damage assessment experts, which allowed claims to be classified according to their actual damage cause. Results show that roof and wall leakage is the most frequent failure mechanism causing precipitation-related claims, followed by blocked roof gutters, melting snow and sewer flooding. Claims related to sewer flooding were less present in the data, but are associated with significantly larger claim sizes than claims in the majority class, i.e. roof and wall leakages. Rare events logistic regression analysis revealed that maximum rainfall intensity and rainfall volume are significant predictors for the occurrence probability of precipitation-related claims. Moreover, it was found that claims associated with rainfall intensities smaller than 7-8 mm in a 60 min window are mainly related to failures processes in the private domain, such as roof and wall leakages. For rainfall events that exceed the 7-8 mm h-1 threshold, failure of systems in the public domain, such as sewer systems, start to contribute considerably to the overall occurrence probability of claims. The communication transcripts, however, lacked information to be conclusive about to extent to which sewer-related claims were caused by overloading of sewer systems or failure

  12. Nursing Home Staff Turnover: Impact on Nursing Home Compare Quality Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John; Men, Aiju

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We used data from a large sample of nursing homes to examine the association between staff turnover and quality. Design and Methods: The staff turnover measures came from primary data collected from 2,840 nursing homes in 2004 (representing a 71% response rate). Data collection included measures for nurse aides, licensed practical nurses,…

  13. Nursing Home Staff Turnover: Impact on Nursing Home Compare Quality Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John; Men, Aiju

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We used data from a large sample of nursing homes to examine the association between staff turnover and quality. Design and Methods: The staff turnover measures came from primary data collected from 2,840 nursing homes in 2004 (representing a 71% response rate). Data collection included measures for nurse aides, licensed practical nurses,…

  14. Measuring home advantage in Spanish handball.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, Oscar; Saavedra García, Miguel; Fernández Romero, Juan José

    2012-02-01

    Since Pollard established the system for analysing home advantage in 1986, it has been demonstrated and quantified in various sports, including many team sports. This study aims to assess whether home advantage exists in handball, using a sample of more than 19,000 Spanish handball league games. Results of the games played at home and away, the sex of the players, and the levels of the competition were included as variables. In Spanish handball, there was a home advantage of 61%, which means, on average, the team playing at home wins 61% of points available. This value varies according to sex and according to competition level, increasing as competition level decreases and season rank improves.

  15. Computer assisted screening, correction, and analysis of historical weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, Dorian J.; Stahle, David W.

    2013-04-01

    A computer program, Historical Observation Tools (HOB Tools), has been developed to facilitate many of the calculations used by historical climatologists to develop instrumental and documentary temperature and precipitation datasets and makes them readily accessible to other researchers. The primitive methodology used by the early weather observers makes the application of standard techniques difficult. HOB Tools provides a step-by-step framework to visually and statistically assess, adjust, and reconstruct historical temperature and precipitation datasets. These routines include the ability to check for undocumented discontinuities, adjust temperature data for poor thermometer exposures and diurnal averaging, and assess and adjust daily precipitation data for undercount. This paper provides an overview of the Visual Basic.NET program and a demonstration of how it can assist in the development of extended temperature and precipitation datasets using modern and early instrumental measurements from the United States.

  16. Measuring End-of-Life Care Processes in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan; Norton, Sally A.; Quill, Timothy; Ladwig, Susan; Veazie, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop measures of end-of-life (EOL) care processes in nursing homes and to validate the instrument for measuring them. Design and Methods: A survey of directors of nursing was conducted in 608 eligible nursing homes in New York State. Responses were obtained from 313 (51.5% response rate) facilities.…

  17. A Home-Career Conflict Measure: Career Counseling Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipping, Lenore M.; Farmer, Helen S.

    1991-01-01

    Extended construct validity of Farmer's (1984) Home-Career-Conflict Measure (H-C) by exploring its relationship with measure of perceived sex role expectations of significant others. Single female college students (n=97) completed the H-C and the Attitudes toward Sex Roles scale. Findings indicated that significantly higher home-career conflict…

  18. Measuring End-of-Life Care Processes in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan; Norton, Sally A.; Quill, Timothy; Ladwig, Susan; Veazie, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop measures of end-of-life (EOL) care processes in nursing homes and to validate the instrument for measuring them. Design and Methods: A survey of directors of nursing was conducted in 608 eligible nursing homes in New York State. Responses were obtained from 313 (51.5% response rate) facilities.…

  19. No Matter the Weather, We'll Measure Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Margaret; Albert, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Weather is a topic that occurs many times in the standard course of study (NRC 1996) from elementary school through high school. The activity described in this article allows students to collect data on the questions that interest them about the weather, and learn from their peers about a range of other questions that were investigated. No matter…

  20. No Matter the Weather, We'll Measure Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Margaret; Albert, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Weather is a topic that occurs many times in the standard course of study (NRC 1996) from elementary school through high school. The activity described in this article allows students to collect data on the questions that interest them about the weather, and learn from their peers about a range of other questions that were investigated. No matter…

  1. Use of Clinical Health Information Technology in Nursing Homes: Nursing Home Characteristics and Quality Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli-Moraski, Carla

    2014-01-01

    This study compares quality measures among nursing homes that have adopted different levels of clinical health information technology (HIT) and examines the perceived barriers and benefits of the adoption of electronic health records as reported by Nursing Home Administrators and Directors of Nursing. A cross-sectional survey distributed online to…

  2. Orientation to Home Economics Occupations. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for a 6- to 9-week orientation to home economics occupations course for seventh grade students. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Overview, Human Care Cluster, Food and Nutrition, Home Service Cluster,…

  3. Lunar weather measurements at three Apollo sites 1969-1976

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Monique; O'Brien, Brian J.

    2013-11-01

    first lunar weather stations, matchbox-sized, 270 g Apollo Dust Detector Experiments about 100 cm above the surface of the Moon near Apollo 12, 14, and 15 landing sites, measured dust accretion, charged particle radiation, and temperature changes—three environmental factors proved during Apollo to affect technical systems deployed on the Moon. Degradation of seven horizontal solar cells was measured every lunar daytime from 1969 to 1976. The anomalously intense August 1972 solar particle event (SPE) degraded three covered cells by less than 1%, while two cells desensitized by intense preirradiation showed no measurable effects. Although independent studies estimated the long-term fluence bombarding the cells was less than half that of the August SPE, long-term gradual degradation of five covered cells (normalized to 2000 days) was an order of magnitude greater, between 4% and 10%. If the long-term effects were totally caused by dust, with articulated caveats including simulated (maria) Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1 dust particles with diameters 20 to 38 µm, this provides the first direct measured long-term net accretion of dust with an upper limit of order 100 µg cm-2 yr-1, equivalent to a layer 1 mm thick in 1000 years, but it may be significantly less. Two bare cells were abruptly degraded by 7% during the August SPE, however long-term they measured additional damage of 29% and 24%, indicating a long-neglected suite of low-energy radiation, posing risks for bare materials exposed on the surface of the Moon.

  4. Measuring Staff Turnover in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the levels of staff turnover reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of turnover used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff turnover is defined…

  5. Measuring Staff Turnover in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the levels of staff turnover reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of turnover used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff turnover is defined…

  6. Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Environmental satellites provide data on the earth and its space environment that are used for forecasting the weather, measuring variations in climate...that are used for weather forecasting , as well as climate monitoring, prediction, and research. Current satellites provide measurements of the...seasonal, annual, and decade-long changes in the earth’s temperature and ozone coverage. They are also used to observe and forecast space weather

  7. A New Measure of Home Exercise Benefits and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph; Traficante, Regina; Bock, Beth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To increase physical activity among college students, new approaches are needed including the exploration of home-based exercise. However, research related to potential facilitators and barriers to exercising at home is limited. Purpose: The goal of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measure that can assess predictors of…

  8. A New Measure of Home Exercise Benefits and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph; Traficante, Regina; Bock, Beth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To increase physical activity among college students, new approaches are needed including the exploration of home-based exercise. However, research related to potential facilitators and barriers to exercising at home is limited. Purpose: The goal of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measure that can assess predictors of…

  9. Measuring the Home Environments of Children in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Caldwell, Betty M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Mink, Iris T.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the Early Adolescent version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (EA-HOME) Inventory. Presents information on its usefulness with African Americans, Chinese Americans, European Americans, Mexican Americans, and Dominican Americans. Notes findings indicating high interobserver agreement, with…

  10. Extreme Daily Temperature and Precipitation in a Weather@home Superensemble for the Western United States: Model Performance and Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Mote, P.; Massey, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Making credible projections of future changes in extreme events has been challenging because it requires not only running climate models at high resolution to faithfully reproduce impact-relevant extreme events, but also ensemble sizes on the order of 10³ and greater to obtain reliable statistics on the intensity and frequency of extreme events. Due to sparsity of high-resolution data, most studies have used fitted analytical probability distributions to produce statistics for extreme events, which in itself has limitations and uncertainties. Here we present results of a superensemble of simulations generated by weather@home, a citizen science computing platform, where Western United States climate was simulated for the recent past (1985-2014) and future (2030-2059) using a coupled regional/global model (HadRM3P/HadAM3P) at 25-km resolution. The very large number of simulations permits the detection of robust spatial patterns of anthropogenically forced change, amidst the "noise" of natural variability, in extremes in daily temperature and precipitation. We investigate to what extent extreme events change in frequency and intensity, relative to changes in the means. Also, the physical mechanisms underlying such changes are explored. We also compare projected daily extreme temperature and precipitation from weather@home with those from regional/global coupled model parings from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), whereby statistics (e.g. 20-year, 50-year, etc., return values) are estimated from fitted extreme value distribution.

  11. Quantifying bone weathering stages using the average roughness parameter Ra measured from 3D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietti, Laura A.

    2016-09-01

    Bone surface texture is known to degrade in a predictable fashion due to subaerial exposure, and can thus act as a relative proxy for estimating temporal information from modern and ancient bone assemblages. To date, the majority of bone weathering data is collected on a categorical scale based on descriptive terms. While this qualitative classification of weathering data is well established, textural analyses of bone surfaces may provide means to quantify weathering stages but have yet to be tested. Here, I examined the suitability of textural analyses for bone weathering studies by first establishing bone surface regions most appropriate for weathering analyses. I then measured and compared the roughness texture of weathered bones at different stages. To establish regions of bone most suitable for textural analyses, Ra was measured from 3D scans of dorsal ribs of four adult ungulate taxa. Results indicate that the rib-shafts from unweathered ungulate skeletons were similar and are likely good candidates because differences in surface texture will not be due to differences in initial bone texture. To test if textural measurements could reliably characterize weathering stages, the average roughness values (Ra) were measured from weathered ungulate rib-shafts assigned to four descriptive weathering stages. Results from analyses indicate that the Ra was statistically distinct for each weathering stage and that roughness positively correlates with the degree of weathering. As such, results suggest that textural analyses may provide the means for quantifying bone-weathering stages. Using Ra and other quantifiable texture parameters may enable more reliable and comparative taphonomic analyses by reducing inter-observer variations and by providing numerical data more compatible for multivariate statistics.

  12. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2016-07-12

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  13. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERIZATION ON RESIDENTIAL RADON LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the effects of weatherization on residential radon levels. For this assessment, time-integrated radon measurements were taken for 30- to 45-day periods both before and after weatherization in 32 Retro-Tech homes, 28 advanced homes, and...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERIZATION ON RESIDENTIAL RADON LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the effects of weatherization on residential radon levels. For this assessment, time-integrated radon measurements were taken for 30- to 45-day periods both before and after weatherization in 32 Retro-Tech homes, 28 advanced homes, and...

  16. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  17. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  18. Weather Measurements around Your School. Mapping Variations in Temperature and Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity where students conduct a micrometeorological study in their neighborhood using temperature, humidity measurements, and mapping skills. Included are a discussion of surface weather observations, the experiment, and directions. (KR)

  19. Weather Measurements around Your School. Mapping Variations in Temperature and Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity where students conduct a micrometeorological study in their neighborhood using temperature, humidity measurements, and mapping skills. Included are a discussion of surface weather observations, the experiment, and directions. (KR)

  20. Manufactured Home Energy Audit user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA displays a colorful, graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. MHEA stands apart from other building energy analysis tools in many ways. Calculations incorporated into the computer code specifically address manufactured home heating and cooling load trends. The retrofit measures evaluated by MHEA are all applicable to manufactured homes. Help messages describe common manufactured home weatherization practices as well as provide hints on how to install retrofit measures. These and other features help make MHEA easy to use when evaluating energy consumption and the effects of weatherization retrofit measures for manufactured homes.

  1. Weathering the storm: challenges to nurses providing care to nursing home residents during hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Christensen, Janelle J; Thomas, Kali S

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the experience of 291 Florida nursing homes during the 2004 hurricane season. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors described and compared the challenges nurses encountered when evacuating residents with their experiences assisting residents of facilities that sheltered in place. The primary concerns for evacuating facilities were accessing appropriate evacuation sites for residents and having ambulance transportation contracts honored. The main issue for facilities that sheltered in place was the length of time it took for power to be restored. Barriers to maintaining resident health during disasters for those who evacuated or sheltered in place are identified.

  2. Outcome-Driven Thresholds for Home Blood Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Niiranen, Teemu J.; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Johansson, Jouni K.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Boggia, José; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sandoya, Edgardo; Stergiou, George S.; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M.; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of outcome-driven operational thresholds limits the clinical application of home blood pressure (BP) measurement. Our objective was to determine an outcome-driven reference frame for home BP measurement. We measured home and clinic BP in 6470 participants (mean age, 59.3 years; 56.9% women; 22.4% on antihypertensive treatment) recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n=2520); Montevideo, Uruguay (n=399); Tsurugaya, Japan (n=811); Didima, Greece (n=665); and nationwide in Finland (n=2075). In multivariable-adjusted analyses of individual subject data, we determined home BP thresholds, which yielded 10-year cardiovascular risks similar to those associated with stages 1 (120/80 mm Hg) and 2 (130/85 mm Hg) prehypertension, and stages 1 (140/90 mm Hg) and 2 (160/100 mm Hg) hypertension on clinic measurement. During 8.3 years of follow-up (median), 716 cardiovascular end points, 294 cardiovascular deaths, 393 strokes, and 336 cardiac events occurred in the whole cohort; in untreated participants these numbers were 414, 158, 225, and 194, respectively. In the whole cohort, outcome-driven systolic/diastolic thresholds for the home BP corresponding with stages 1 and 2 prehypertension and stages 1 and 2 hypertension were 121.4/77.7, 127.4/79.9, 133.4/82.2, and 145.4/86.8 mm Hg; in 5018 untreated participants, these thresholds were 118.5/76.9, 125.2/79.7, 131.9/82.4, and 145.3/87.9 mm Hg, respectively. Rounded thresholds for stages 1 and 2 prehypertension and stages 1 and 2 hypertension amounted to 120/75, 125/80, 130/85, and 145/90 mm Hg, respectively. Population-based outcome-driven thresholds for home BP are slightly lower than those currently proposed in hypertension guidelines. Our current findings could inform guidelines and help clinicians in diagnosing and managing patients. PMID:23129700

  3. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.; Yee, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  4. Patients' experiences and opinions of home blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rickerby, J; Woodward, J

    2003-07-01

    Regular measurement of the blood pressure (BP) is necessary to monitor the treatment of hypertension, and self-measurement is one technique of obtaining such measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of individuals who have carried out home BP measurement. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was used with 13 subjects. These were adults with hypertension who had previous experience of measuring their own BP, and were recruited to the study from one UK general medical practice. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data from the interviews have been analysed using phenomenological principles and identifying 'meaning units.' The findings suggest that participants were willing to carry out home measurements and several were pleased to have been asked to be more involved in their own management. All found the technique straightforward. Most noted marked variability in the day-to-day BP measurements. Several exhibited the 'white coat' phenomenon (spuriously raised BP in certain settings only). Some participants showed considerable know-ledge of hypertension and its consequences. They reported being aware of their own BP level and whether this was within acceptable limits. They also reported being willing to take further measurements, and to consider adjusting their treatment in the light of these measurements. Other participants showed less knowledge and enthusiasm, and considered the management of hypertension to be the doctor's job. The findings suggest that for some individuals home BP measurement is acceptable. They also help to explain why, for some individuals, it is not. Using the findings, a number of changes to current practice could be made, which might make home measurements more acceptable and easier to perform. As a result, a new proforma for use in everyday practice has been designed. The study shows that there is considerable scope for sharing BP measurement and management decisions in hypertension with

  5. Comparison of blood pressure measurements obtained in the home setting: analysis of the Health Measures at Home Study.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Tatiana; Gindi, Renee; Chen, Te-Ching; Galinsky, Adena; Miller, Ivey; Terry, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Automated blood pressure (BP) devices have been used in the home for self-management purposes and are increasingly being used in population-based research. Although these devices are convenient and affordable and may be used by inexperienced lay personnel, the potential impact of an examiner's skill level on the results needs to be evaluated quantitatively. The aim of this study was to compare BP measurements obtained in a home setting by personnel with healthcare experience with those obtained by personnel without healthcare experience. In addition, the percent agreement in high blood pressure (HBP) classification between the home BP measurement by the field interviewer (FI) and measurements obtained in a standardized environment was examined. The Health Measures at Home Study was a pilot study carried out among 128 adult participants recruited from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Health Measures at Home Study provided the opportunity to compare the BP values obtained with an automated device in a home setting by both experienced health technicians (HTs) with those obtained by FIs who had no healthcare experience. Differences between measurements obtained by the HT and measurements obtained by the FI were assessed using paired t-tests, Pearson's correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Percent agreement and κ-statistics were used to assess agreement in HBP classification between examiners in the home. Measurements obtained by the FI were also compared with those obtained in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mobile exam center (MEC) by a physician using percent agreement and κ-statistics. There was a high correlation in both systolic blood pressure (SBP; r=0.903) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; r=0.894) between measurements obtained by HTs and those obtained by FIs. The mean SBP and DBP obtained by the FIs (SBP, 119.0±14.4 mmHg; DBP, 71.9±9.8 mmHg) were significantly higher than the HT measurements (SBP, 117.0

  6. Measuring End-of-Life Care Processes in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Norton, Sally A.; Quill, Timothy; Ladwig, Susan; Veazie, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop measures of end-of-life (EOL) care processes in nursing homes and to validate the instrument for measuring them. Design and Methods: A survey of directors of nursing was conducted in 608 eligible nursing homes in New York State. Responses were obtained from 313 (51.5% response rate) facilities. Secondary data on structural characteristics of the nursing homes were obtained from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting System. Exploratory factor analyses and internal consistency reliability analyses were performed. Multivariate regression models with fixed and random effects were estimated. Results: Four EOL process domains were identified—assessment, delivery, communication and coordination of care among providers, and communication with residents and families. The scales measuring these EOL process domains demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency reliability and face, content, and construct validity. Facilities with more EOL quality assurance or monitoring mechanisms in place and greater emphasis on EOL staff education had better scores on EOL care processes of assessment, communication and coordination among providers, and care delivery. Facilities with better registered nurse and certified nurse aide staffing ratios and those with religious affiliation also scored higher on selected care process measures. Implications: This study offers a new validated tool for measuring EOL care processes in nursing homes. Our findings suggest wide variations in care processes across facilities, which in part may stem from lack of gold standards for EOL practice in nursing homes. PMID:19574538

  7. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  8. Alternative measures of resource consumption in home care episodes.

    PubMed

    Madigan, E A; Fortinsky, R H

    1999-06-01

    Expected changes in home health care reimbursement will require a shift in focus from a visit-based unit to some other yet-to-be-defined unit of resource consumption. Little research has been done to understand other measures of resource consumption, however, especially those examining disciplinary differences. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical evidence on other measures of resource consumption as a way to frame discussions on alternative measures. Information is presented from a study of 102 home health care patients from 10 agencies in Ohio who completed an episode of care and remained at home. While the mean time per visit was similar for all disciplines (46 to 55 minutes), there were differences in the number of visits provided by various disciplines (home care aide services had the highest mean number of visits with 11.8). The mean cost per day for all services was $43.80 while the mean cost per episode was $1,160. Recommendations for further research include similar examinations using a more rigorous sampling methodology and including disparate populations of patients.

  9. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study. PMID:27713260

  10. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  11. An Analysis of Nursing Home Quality Measures and Staffing

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate nursing home quality measures (QMs) available in a national database called Nursing Home Compare. The aim was to determine whether differences in QM scores occurred with changing staffing-level mix. Subjects All Missouri nursing home facilities were included for the analysis of the 14 QMs downloaded in February 2004. Methods Analyses of variance were used to examine differences in the dependent QM scores; the independent range of staffing levels for 3 disciplines, certified nurse assistant (CNA), licensed practical nurse (LPN), and registered nurse (RN), was analyzed on the basis of their number of hours per resident per day worked in the nursing home. Planned contrasts and post hoc Bonferroni adjustments were calculated to further evaluate significance levels. Finally, residents were used as a covariate to determine effects on significant analyses of variance. Results Care is proportionate to the percentage of CNA/LPN/RN staffing-level mix, with 2 long-stay QMs (percentage of residents who lose bowel or bladder control and percentage of residents whose need for help with activities of daily living has increased) and 2 short-stay measures (percentage of residents who had moderate to severe pain and percentage of residents with pressure ulcers) revealed differences in mean quality scores when staffing levels changed. PMID:18641507

  12. Measuring work environment and performance in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan; Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B

    2009-04-01

    Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that attributes such as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. This study is designed to develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N = 308) and direct care workers (N = 7418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness have been demonstrated. Several individual (eg, occupation, race) and facility characteristics (eg, management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care.

  13. Measuring Infiltration Rates in Homes as a Basis for Understanding Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerz, G. G.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fuchs, M.; Kirk, M.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration rates, or the rate of air exchange, of houses are important to understand because ventilation can be a dominate factor in determining indoor air quality. There are chemicals that are emitted from surfaces or point sources inside the home which are harmful to humans; these chemicals come from various objects including furniture, cleaning supplies, building materials, gas stoves, and the surrounding environment. The use of proper ventilation to cycle cleaner outdoor air into the house can be crucial for maintaining healthy living conditions in the home. At the same time, there can also be outdoor pollutants which infiltrate the house and contribute to poor indoor air quality. In either case, it is important to determine infiltration rates as a function of outdoor weather conditions, the house structure properties and indoor heating and cooling systems. In this work, the objective is to measure ventilation rates using periodic releases of a tracer gas and measuring how quickly the tracer concentration decays. CO2 will be used as the tracer gas because it is inert and harmless at low levels. An Arduino timer is connected to a release valve which controls the release of 9.00 SLPM of CO2 into the uptake vent within the test home. CO2 will be released until there is at least a 200 to 300 ppm increase above ambient indoor levels. Computers with CO2 sensors and temperature/pressure sensors attached will be used to record data from different locations within the home which will continuously record data up to a week. The results from these periodic ventilation measurements will be analyzed with respect to outdoor wind and temperature conditions and house structure properties. The data will be used to evaluate an established indoor air quality model.

  14. Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

  15. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe.

    PubMed

    Morellet, Nicolas; Bonenfant, Christophe; Börger, Luca; Ossi, Federico; Cagnacci, Francesca; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Nicoloso, Sandro; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-11-01

    1. Because many large mammal species have wide geographical ranges, spatially distant populations may be confronted with different sets of environmental conditions. Investigating how home range (HR) size varies across environmental gradients should yield a better understanding of the factors affecting large mammal ecology. 2. We evaluated how HR size of a large herbivore, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), varies in relation to seasonality, latitude (climate), weather, plant productivity and landscape features across its geographical range in Western Europe. As roe deer are income breeders, expected to adjust HR size continuously to temporal variation in food resources and energetic requirements, our baseline prediction was for HR size to decrease with proxies of resource availability. 3. We used GPS locations of roe deer collected from seven study sites (EURODEER collaborative project) to estimate fixed-kernel HR size at weekly and monthly temporal scales. We performed an unusually comprehensive analysis of variation in HR size among and within populations over time across the geographical range of a single species using generalized additive mixed models and linear mixed models, respectively. 4. Among populations, HR size decreased with increasing values for proxies of forage abundance, but increased with increases in seasonality, stochastic variation of temperature, latitude and snow cover. Within populations, roe deer HR size varied over time in relation to seasonality and proxies of forage abundance in a consistent way across the seven populations. Thus, our findings were broadly consistent across the distributional range of this species, demonstrating a strong and ubiquitous link between the amplitude and timing of environmental seasonality and HR size at the continental scale. 5. Overall, the variability in average HR size of roe deer across Europe reflects the interaction among local weather, climate and seasonality, providing valuable insight into the

  16. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety Outdoor Safety Specific Situations ... Hurricanes Before a Hurricane Make a Plan Get Supplies Get Your Family, Home, and Car Ready Evacuate ...

  17. Effects of space weather on GOCE electrostatic gravity gradiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, E. Sinem; Pagiatakis, Spiros D.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the presence of residual nongravitational signatures in gravitational gradients measured by GOCE electrostatic gravity gradiometer. These signatures are observed over the magnetic poles during geomagnetically active days and can contaminate the trace of the gravitational gradient tensor by up to three to five times the expected noise level of the instrument (˜ 11 mE). We investigate these anomalies in the gradiometer measurements along many satellite tracks and examine possible causes using external datasets, such as interplanetary electric field measurements from the ACE (advanced composition explorer) and WIND spacecraft, and Poynting vector (flux) estimated from equivalent ionospheric currents derived from spherical elementary current systems over North America and Greenland. We show that the variations in the east-west and vertical electrical currents and Poynting vector components at the satellite position are highly correlated with the disturbances observed in the gradiometer measurements. The results presented in this paper reveal that the disturbances are due to intense ionospheric current variations that are enhanced by increased solar activity that causes a very dynamic drag environment. Moreover, successful modelling and removal of a high percentage of these disturbances are possible using external geomagnetic field observations.

  18. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  19. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  20. Can the care transitions measure predict rehospitalization risk or home health nursing use of home healthcare patients?

    PubMed

    Ryvicker, Miriam; McDonald, Margaret V; Trachtenberg, Melissa; Peng, Timothy R; Sridharan, Sridevi; Feldman, Penny H

    2013-01-01

    The Care Transitions Measure (CTM) was designed to assess the quality of patient transitions from the hospital. Many hospitals are using the measure to inform their efforts to improve transitional care. We sought to determine if the measure would have utility for home healthcare providers by predicting newly admitted patients at heightened risk for emergency department use, rehospitalization, or increased home health nursing visits. The CTM was administered to 495 home healthcare patients shortly after hospital discharge and home healthcare admission. Follow-up interviews were completed 30 and 60 days post hospital discharge. Interview data were supplemented with agency assessment and service use data. We did not find evidence that the CTM could predict home healthcare patients having an elevated risk for emergent care, rehospitalization, or higher home health nursing use. Because Medicare/Medicaid-certified home healthcare providers already use a comprehensive, mandated start of care assessment, the CTM may not provide them additional crucial information. Process and outcome measurement is increasingly becoming part of usual care. Selection of measures appropriate for each service setting requires thorough site-specific evaluation. In light of our findings, we cannot recommend the CTM as an additional measure in the home healthcare setting.

  1. Direct measurement of the combined effects of lichen, rainfall, and temperature onsilicate weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, P.V.; Dorn, R.I.; Brazel, A.J.; Clark, J.; Moore, R.B.; Glidewell, T.

    1999-01-01

    A key uncertainty in models of the global carbonate-silicate cycle and long-term climate is the way that silicates weather under different climatologic conditions, and in the presence or absence of organic activity. Digital imaging of basalts in Hawaii resolves the coupling between temperature, rainfall, and weathering in the presence and absence of lichens. Activation energies for abiotic dissolution of plagioclase (23.1 ?? 2.5 kcal/mol) and olivine (21.3 ?? 2.7 kcal/mol) are similar to those measured in the laboratory, and are roughly double those measured from samples taken underneath lichen. Abiotic weathering rates appear to be proportional to rainfall. Dissolution of plagioclase and olivine underneath lichen is far more sensitive to rainfall.

  2. Near-realtime Cosmic Ray measurements for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigies, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    In its FP7 program the European Commission has funded the creation of scientific databases. One successful project is the Neutron Monitor database NMDB which provides near-realtime access to ground-based Neutron Monitor measurements. In its beginning NMDB hosted only data from European and Asian participants, but it has recently grown to also include data from North American stations. We are currently working on providing also data from Australian stations. With the increased coverage of stations the accuracy of the NMDB applications to issue an alert of a ground level enhancement (GLE) or to predict the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is constantly improving. Besides the Cosmic Ray community and Airlines, that want to calculate radiation doses on flight routes, NMDB has also attracted users from outside the core field, for example hydrologists who compare local Neutron measurements with data from NMDB to determine soil humidity. By providing access to data from 50 stations, NMDB includes already data from the majority of the currently operating stations. However, in the future we want to include data from the few remaining stations, as well as historical data from stations that have been shut down.

  3. Quality assessment in nursing home facilities: measuring customer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mostyn, M M; Race, K E; Seibert, J H; Johnson, M

    2000-01-01

    A national study designed to assess the reliability and validity of a nursing home customer satisfaction survey is summarized. One hundred fifty-nine facilities participated, each responsible for the distribution and collection of 200 questionnaires randomly sent to the home of the resident's responsible party. A total of 9053 completed questionnaires were returned, for an average adjusted response rate of 53%. The factor analysis identified 4 scales: Comfort and Cleanliness, Nursing, Food Services, and Facility Care and Services, each with high reliability. Based on a multiple regression analysis, the scales were shown to have good criterion-related validity, accounting for 64% of the variance in overall quality ratings. Comparisons based on select characteristics indicated significantly different satisfaction ratings among facilities. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the construct validity of a multidimensional customer satisfaction scale with measured reliability and criterion-related validity. Moreover, the scale can be used to differentiate satisfaction levels among facilities.

  4. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  5. Radiation belt measurements strategy for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Maget, Vincent; Lazaro, Didier; Daglis, Yannis; Sandberg, Ingmar

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MAARBLE project, the Salammbô code and an ensemble Kalman filter is being used to reproduce the electron radiation belt dynamics during storms. One of the most widely used and reliable methods of assessing a data assimilation scheme is that of the twin experiments. The identical-twin experiments consist in a numerical procedure where synthetic data can be generated by the model to which data assimilation is applied, subject to a specified stochastic forcing term. The data with assigned errors are then evaluated for their effectiveness in obtaining optimal state estimates. The convergence of the unassimilated model fields from the second run towards those of the first run ("true" state) can then be measured. This set up is used here to define what is the minimum data required and along which orbits to still ensure a good estimate of the true state. The number of data being assimilated (cadence as well as distinct orbits) will be considered as a parameter such as to check data assimilation tool performance in each case. This analysis will be very useful in the case of optimizing a space surveillance system for ionizing particles. MAARBLE has received fundings from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-.2010-1, SP1 Cooperation, Collaborative project) under grant agreement n284520. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  6. On the Disambiguation of Passively Measured In-home Gait Velocities from Multi-person Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha

    2011-01-01

    In-home monitoring of gait velocity with passive PIR sensors in a smart home has been shown to be an effective method of continuously and unobtrusively measuring this important predictor of cognitive function and mobility. However, passive measurements of velocity are nonspecific with regard to who generated each measurement or walking event. As a result, this method is not suitable for multi-person homes without additional information to aid in the disambiguation of gait velocities. In this paper we propose a method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) combined with infrequent clinical assessments of gait velocity to model in-home walking speeds of two or more residents. Modeling the gait parameters directly allows us to avoid the more difficult problem of assigning each measured velocity individually to the correct resident. We show that if the clinically measured gait velocities of residents are separated by at least 15 cm/s a GMM can be accurately fit to the in-home gait velocity data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method by showing that the correlation between the means of the GMMs and the clinically measured gait velocities is 0.877 (p value < 0.0001) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of (0.79, 0.94) for 54 measurements of 20 subjects living in multi-person homes. Example applications of using this method to track in-home mean velocities over time are also given. PMID:21572911

  7. On the Disambiguation of Passively Measured In-home Gait Velocities from Multi-person Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha

    2011-01-01

    In-home monitoring of gait velocity with passive PIR sensors in a smart home has been shown to be an effective method of continuously and unobtrusively measuring this important predictor of cognitive function and mobility. However, passive measurements of velocity are nonspecific with regard to who generated each measurement or walking event. As a result, this method is not suitable for multi-person homes without additional information to aid in the disambiguation of gait velocities. In this paper we propose a method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) combined with infrequent clinical assessments of gait velocity to model in-home walking speeds of two or more residents. Modeling the gait parameters directly allows us to avoid the more difficult problem of assigning each measured velocity individually to the correct resident. We show that if the clinically measured gait velocities of residents are separated by at least 15 cm/s a GMM can be accurately fit to the in-home gait velocity data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method by showing that the correlation between the means of the GMMs and the clinically measured gait velocities is 0.877 (p value < 0.0001) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of (0.79, 0.94) for 54 measurements of 20 subjects living in multi-person homes. Example applications of using this method to track in-home mean velocities over time are also given.

  8. Seasonal variation in self-measured home blood pressure among patients on antihypertensive medications: HOMED-BP study.

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, Tomohiro; Asayama, Kei; Watabe, Daisuke; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro; Yasui, Daisaku; Obara, Taku; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Kikuya, Masahiro; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Seasonal variation of blood pressure (BP) has been reported in small populations or by BP levels captured at only a few points in a year, for example, summer and winter. We aimed to investigate the multiyear seasonal variation in self-measured home BP among hypertensive patients receiving antihypertensive medications. We selected 1649 eligible patients receiving antihypertensive drug treatment, and weekly averaged home BPs were analyzed throughout the follow-up period. Systolic and diastolic home BPs were fitted with the cosine function: 'Variation+Other Effects+Intercept', in which the 'Variation' was expressed by a cosine curve with three parameters representing: (1) maximum-minimum difference of home BP in one cycle of the cosine curve; (2) time required for one cycle of the cosine curve for home BP variation; and (3) time at which home BP reached the maximum point. Maximum-minimum differences in home BP were 6.7/2.9 mm Hg, and the highest home BPs were observed in mid-to-late January. In the multivariable-adjusted model, a large maximum-minimum difference in home BP was associated with lower body mass index and older age, and larger differences were observed in men compared with women. Summer-winter difference in home BP was essentially similar every year, though it was marginally reduced by 0.14/0.04 mm Hg per year, under long-term antihypertensive treatment. Records of daily home BP measurements enable us to capture long-term factors such as seasonal variation. Home BP should therefore be carefully monitored, particularly in patients with increased BP in winter, to mitigate cardiovascular risk.

  9. Review of water, lighting, and cooling energy efficiency measures for low-income homes located in warm climates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-02-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has performed a literature review of weatherization measures applicable for homes located in warm climate regions. Sources for this information included: (1) documented engineering estimates, (2) vendor information, (3) reported performance from research and field tests, and (4) direct discussions with researchers, vendors, and field reporters. Estimated savings are extrapolated from reported energy savings and applied to the end-use energy consumption for low-income homes reported by the Energy Information Administration. Additionally, installation costs, savings-to-investment ratios, and parameters indicating performance sensitivity to issues such as occupancy, construction, client education, and maintenance requirements are presented. The report is comprised of two sections: (1) an overview of measure performance, and (2) an appendix. The overview of measures is in a tabular format, which allows for quick reference. More detailed discussions and references for each measure are presented in the Appendix and it is highly recommended that these be reviewed prior to measure selection.

  10. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ < 0.8, the probability of traffic accidents is much higher; and CO emissions increase significantly when ρ < 0.2. After an intermittent release measure is applied, the probability of traffic accidents and level of CO emissions become reasonable. Obviously, the measure can enhance traffic safety and reduce emissions.

  11. Comparison of in-home collection of physical measurements and biospecimens with collection in a standardized setting: the health measures at home study.

    PubMed

    Gindi, Renee M; Zipf, George; Galinsky, Adena M; Miller, Ivey M; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Terry, Ana L

    2014-04-01

    Collection of physical measurements and biospecimens in the home may be an efficient way to obtain objective health measurements. This study assesses differences between collection in the home and a standardized setting. Participants had physical measurements and biospecimens taken in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mobile examination center (MEC). Then, they had height and weight measured in the MEC using portable equipment. In the home, participants had height, weight, and blood pressure measured and dried blood spots collected using portable equipment. Two complete examinations were done in the home: one by a health technician and one by a field interviewer. Home environments were less standardized and presented more challenges to examiners. Correlations between all four height measurements and all four weight measurements were higher than 99%. Mean differences in height (0.3 cm) and weight (0.4 kg) were small but statistically significant. The home measurements perfectly or near-perfectly classified participants as obese relative to the standardized MEC examination. The selected physical measurements can be collected in the home by field interviewers using portable equipment. Before adding home collection of physical measurements to household interview surveys, further research should be done to examine the impact of these changes on interviewer training, participant recruitment, and participant response rates. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Nanosatellite standardization and modularization as an asset to space weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, D.; Carssow, D.; Fritz, T. A.; Voss, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    The continuity of measurements from satellites in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere is essential for the space weather community as pointed out by the US National Space Weather Program. Challenges to space budgets and the growing dependence upon space weather prediction have opened the door for extremely small satellites to play a large role in making these measurements. Standardization allows for modularity and the ability to lower satellite cost by reusing instrumentation and satellite systems without redesigning interfaces. Use of nanosatellites gives a designer the freedom to depart from the customary larger satellite design by deploying standardized interfaces throughout the spacecraft bus. Examples from the Boston University Student Satellite for Application and Training (BUSAT), the Thunderstorms and Effects Scientific and Technology nanosatellite (TEST), and the Loss Cone Imaging Instrument (LCI) will be provided. BUSAT is a five instrument nanosatellite with a nine pixel Imaging Electron Spectrometer, a Magnetometer, an Auroral Imager, a Very Low Frequency receiver, and a Langmuir Plasma Probe. Its purpose is to further the understanding of the coupling between energetic particles originating in the magnetosphere and their subsequent effects on the Ionosphere. In addition to their space weather science objective, BUSAT’s subsystems are based on the Cubesat concept and have been standardized, enabling them to be stacked in any orientation. Subsystems are not limited in size to the basic 1U cube, but are able to be any multiple of that size in any direction.

  13. Improvement of NCEP Numerical Weather Prediction with Use of Satellite Land Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Ek, M. B.; Wei, H.; Meng, J.; Dong, J.; Wu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Liu, J.; Jiang, Z.; Vargas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past two decades, satellite measurements are being increasingly used in weather and climate prediction systems and have made a considerable progress in accurate numerical weather and climate predictions. However, it is noticed that the utilization of satellite measurements over land is far less than over ocean, because of the high land surface inhomogeneity and the high emissivity variabilities in time and space of surface characteristics. In this presentation, we will discuss the application efforts of satellite land observations in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational Global Forecast System (GFS) in order to improve the global numerical weather prediction (NWP). Our study focuses on use of satellite data sets such as vegetation type and green vegetation fraction, assimilation of satellite products such as soil moisture retrieval, and direct radiance assimilation. Global soil moisture data products could be used for initialization of soil moisture state variables in numerical weather, climate and hydrological forecast models. A global Soil Moisture Operational Product System (SMOPS) has been developed at NOAA-NESDIS to continuously provide global soil moisture data products to meet NOAA-NCEP's soil moisture data needs. The impact of the soil moisture data products on numerical weather forecast is assessed using the NCEP GFS in which the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation algorithm has been implemented. In terms of radiance assimilation, satellite radiance measurements in various spectral channels are assimilated through the JCSDA Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) on the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system, which requires the CRTM to calculate model brightness temperature (Tb) with input of model atmosphere profiles and surface parameters. Particularly, for surface sensitive channels (window channels), Tb largely depends on surface parameters such as land surface skin temperature, soil

  14. When Astronomy Gets Closer to Home: Why space weather outreach is important and how to give it impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, B.

    2014-12-01

    When the public think about natural hazards, space weather is not the first thing to come to mind. Yet, though uncommon, extreme space weather events can have an economic impact similar to that of large floods or earthquakes. Although there have been efforts across various sectors of society to communicate this topic, many people are still quite confused about it, having only a limited understanding of the relevance of space weather in their daily lives. As such, it is crucial to properly communicate this topic to a variety of audiences. This article explores why we should communicate space weather research, how it can be framed for different audiences and how researchers, science communicators, policy makers and the public can raise awareness of the topic.

  15. Lithium isotope ratios measured in scottish rivers and weathering of old silicate rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, N.; Reynolds, B. C.; Burton, K. W.; Rogers, N. W.

    2003-04-01

    Silicate weathering is often considered as one of the most important sinks of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales, but the palaeovariations of the silicate weathering rates are still debated and depend on the reliability of the chosen proxies. It has recently been suggested that Li isotopes significantly fractionate during continental erosion (Huh et al., 1999), and that 7Li measured in large rivers could mainly reflect the degree of silicate weathering at large scales. Two main reasons have been proposed, the high Li contents in silicate minerals relative to carbonates, and the preferential uptake of 6Li by secondary clay minerals. Nevertheless, very few measurements have been made either on source minerals or on weathering products. In principle, the study of small silicated catchments should allow us to better constrain the factors controlling the fractionation of Li isotopes. A previous study has shown that 7Li measured in Icelandic basaltic rivers displays a large range (from 10 to 25.3) which correlates well with estimated weathering rates (Gislason et al., 1996). Here we present results for about 15 rivers located in Northern Scotland, which show little evidence for anthropogenic contamination, and draining mainly old silicated terrains (>500Ma). These rivers have been sampled twice, in May and in October 2002, in order to constrain the seasonal variations of the Li signature. Major and trace elements have also been measured, as well as the dissolved organic carbon. All rivers have very low Ca/Na and Mg/Na ratios (average of 0.38 and 0.17 respectively), that corresponds to the end-member previously defined for silicate rivers (Gaillardet et al, 1999), suggesting negligible contribution from carbonate dissolution. Li contents range between 0.2 and 1.2 ppb and are significantly greater than in Iceland rivers (up to 0.09 ppb). First results for the May 2002 samples show a restricted range in 7Li (from 16 to 22

  16. Semi-automatic handling of meteorological ground measurements using WeatherProg: prospects and practical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    WeatherProg is a computer program for the semi-automatic handling of data measured at ground stations within a climatic network. The program performs a set of tasks ranging from gathering raw point-based sensors measurements to the production of digital climatic maps. Originally the program was developed as the baseline asynchronous engine for the weather records management within the SOILCONSWEB Project (LIFE08 ENV/IT/000408), in which daily and hourly data where used to run water balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum or pest simulation models. WeatherProg can be configured to automatically perform the following main operations: 1) data retrieval; 2) data decoding and ingestion into a database (e.g. SQL based); 3) data checking to recognize missing and anomalous values (using a set of differently combined checks including logical, climatological, spatial, temporal and persistence checks); 4) infilling of data flagged as missing or anomalous (deterministic or statistical methods); 5) spatial interpolation based on alternative/comparative methods such as inverse distance weighting, iterative regression kriging, and a weighted least squares regression (based on physiography), using an approach similar to PRISM. 6) data ingestion into a geodatabase (e.g. PostgreSQL+PostGIS or rasdaman). There is an increasing demand for digital climatic maps both for research and development (there is a gap between the major of scientific modelling approaches that requires digital climate maps and the gauged measurements) and for practical applications (e.g. the need to improve the management of weather records which in turn raises the support provided to farmers). The demand is particularly burdensome considering the requirement to handle climatic data at the daily (e.g. in the soil hydrological modelling) or even at the hourly time step (e.g. risk modelling in phytopathology). The key advantage of WeatherProg is the ability to perform all the required operations and

  17. Quality Improvement under Nursing Home Compare: The Association between Changes in Process and Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Rachel M.; Konetzka, R. Tamara; Kim, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in resident outcomes may be driven by many factors, including changes in nursing home care processes. Understanding what processes, if any, lead to successful improvements in resident outcomes could create a stronger case for the continued use of these outcome measures in nursing home report cards. Objective To test the extent to which improvements in outcomes of care are explained by changes in nursing home processes, a setting where, to our knowledge, this link has not been previously studied. Research Design/Measures We describe facility-level changes in resident processes and outcomes before and after outcomes were publicly reported. We then assess the extent to which the changes in outcomes are associated with changes in nursing home processes of care, using the public release of information on nursing home outcomes as a source of variation in nursing home outcomes to identify the process-outcome relationship. Subjects All 16,623 U.S. nursing homes included in public reporting from 2000 to 2009 in OSCAR and the nursing home Minimum Data Set Results Of the 5 outcome measures examined, only improvements in the percentage of nursing home residents in moderate or severe pain were associated with changes in nursing home processes of care. Furthermore, these changes in the measured process of care explained only a small part of the overall improvement in pain prevalence. Conclusions A large portion of the improvements in nursing home outcomes were not associated with changes in measured processes of care suggesting that processes of care typically measured in nursing homes do little to improve nursing home performance on outcome measures. Developing quality measures that are related improved patient outcomes would likely benefit quality improvement. Understanding the mechanism behind improvements in nursing home outcomes is key to successfully achieving broad quality improvements across nursing homes. PMID:23756645

  18. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  19. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  20. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  1. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  2. Defining and Measuring the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    PubMed Central

    Nutting, Paul A.; Miller, William L.; Jaén, Carlos R.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Flocke, Susan A.; Gill, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is four things: 1) the fundamental tenets of primary care: first contact access, comprehensiveness, integration/coordination, and relationships involving sustained partnership; 2) new ways of organizing practice; 3) development of practices’ internal capabilities, and 4) related health care system and reimbursement changes. All of these are focused on improving the health of whole people, families, communities and populations, and on increasing the value of healthcare. The value of the fundamental tenets of primary care is well established. This value includes higher health care quality, better whole-person and population health, lower cost and reduced inequalities compared to healthcare systems not based on primary care. The needed practice organizational and health care system change aspects of the PCMH are still evolving in highly related ways. The PCMH will continue to evolve as evidence comes in from hundreds of demonstrations and experiments ongoing around the country, and as the local and larger healthcare systems change. Measuring the PCMH involves the following:Giving primacy to the core tenets of primary careAssessing practice and system changes that are hypothesized to provide added valueAssessing development of practices’ core processes and adaptive reserveAssessing integration with more functional healthcare system and community resourcesEvaluating the potential for unintended negative consequences from valuing the more easily measured instrumental features of the PCMH over the fundamental relationship and whole system aspectsRecognizing that since a fundamental benefit of primary care is its adaptability to diverse people, populations and systems, functional PCMHs will look different in different settings.Efforts to transform practice to patient-centered medical homes must recognize, assess and value the fundamental features of primary care that provide personalized, equitable health care and foster

  3. Defining and measuring the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Stange, Kurt C; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Jaén, Carlos R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Flocke, Susan A; Gill, James M

    2010-06-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is four things: 1) the fundamental tenets of primary care: first contact access, comprehensiveness, integration/coordination, and relationships involving sustained partnership; 2) new ways of organizing practice; 3) development of practices' internal capabilities, and 4) related health care system and reimbursement changes. All of these are focused on improving the health of whole people, families, communities and populations, and on increasing the value of healthcare. The value of the fundamental tenets of primary care is well established. This value includes higher health care quality, better whole-person and population health, lower cost and reduced inequalities compared to healthcare systems not based on primary care. The needed practice organizational and health care system change aspects of the PCMH are still evolving in highly related ways. The PCMH will continue to evolve as evidence comes in from hundreds of demonstrations and experiments ongoing around the country, and as the local and larger healthcare systems change. Measuring the PCMH involves the following: Giving primacy to the core tenets of primary care. Assessing practice and system changes that are hypothesized to provide added value Assessing development of practices' core processes and adaptive reserve. Assessing integration with more functional healthcare system and community resources. Evaluating the potential for unintended negative consequences from valuing the more easily measured instrumental features of the PCMH over the fundamental relationship and whole system aspects. Recognizing that since a fundamental benefit of primary care is its adaptability to diverse people, populations and systems, functional PCMHs will look different in different settings. Efforts to transform practice to patient-centered medical homes must recognize, assess and value the fundamental features of primary care that provide personalized, equitable health care and foster

  4. High latitude stratospheric electrical measurements in fair and foul weather under various solar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric electric field and conductivity measurements are presented for sites of latitude greater than 50 deg N GG, during the months of either April or August, in a variety of weather and solar conditions. Vertical electric field data from balloon flights with an average duration of 18 hours at ceiling, in fair weather, are shown to be appropriately modeled by a simple, exponential, altitude-dependent equation. Data collected over electrified clouds and thunderstorms are presented, along with a discussion of the thunderstorm-related electric currents. Current surges in the atmosphere due to DC currents as well as the spheric are calculated, and it is found that in over 1000 hours of balloon data, no direct solar influence is identified except during major flares.

  5. Only Two More Sleeps until the School Holidays: One Child's Home Experiences of Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Tamsin

    2011-01-01

    Children bring a wealth of mathematical knowledge from home to school. This paper describes one six/seven year old girl's home interactions over 20 weeks about measurable quantities. Almost all measurement discussions occurred when actions were not straightforward. Consequently the measurement attributes usually used to introduce measurement at…

  6. The utility of a data-logging device for measuring adherence to home phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Yelverton, Christopher B; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2006-10-01

    Treatment adherence to home phototherapy is not well characterized. To develop an accurate measure of home phototherapy unit usage. We tested a commercially available data logger containing a photo-sensor on two home phototherapy units. The data logger accurately recorded actual usage and did not record stray light sources over the study period. A data logger can accurately capture usage patterns for a home phototherapy unit. These devices could potentially be used in clinical trials to measure adherence to home phototherapy treatment regimens.

  7. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  8. Are changes in weather masking the efficacy of measures aimed at mitigating diffuse pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2016-04-01

    Interpretations of the efficacy of mitigation measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies are challenged by the temporal variability of air temperature and rainfall. Influences are different depending on flow controls, associated time lags and nutrient transformations that may occur along the pathways. In Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale weather systems over the North Atlantic. One of the most prominent teleconnection patterns that affect the weather across all seasons is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In northwestern Europe a positive phase in the NAO index over the winter period is often associated with elevated air temperatures in summer and more frequent large rain events in winter than normal. The objective of this study was to investigate the catchment-scale influences and relationships of naturally altered hydro-meteorological processes on the diffuse N and P losses to waters, in order to distinguish natural climate effects from those caused by adaptive management (increased agricultural intensity, decreased nutrient use etc.). Here we present six years of monthly nitrate-N and total reactive P concentrations in stream water (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring) in six, ca. 10 km2, Irish agricultural catchments with different hydrological flow controls and land use. The locations of the catchments make them susceptible to sudden and/or seasonal shifts in weather. Changes in long term air temperatures and rainfall were investigated and annual N and P concentrations were compared to the NAO. During the monitored period (2009-2015) there was a steady increase in wintertime NAO index, reaching positive values in recent years, resulting in higher air temperatures and more frequent large rain events in winter. In some settings annual N and/or P concentrations were positively correlated to the three-year moving average NAO index (R2 > 0.90). Catchments with free

  9. The effects of daily weather on accelerometer-measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Feinglass, Joe; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzes Chicago-area weather effects on objectively measured physical activity over a 3-year period among a cohort of 241 participants in an on-going arthritis physical activity trial. Uniaxial accelerometer counts and interview data were analyzed for up to 6 weekly study waves involving 4823 days of wear. The effects of temperature, rainfall, snowfall and daylight hours were analyzed after controlling for participant characteristics, day of the week, and daily accelerometer wear hours in a mixed effects linear regression model. Daylight hours, mean daily temperature < 20 or ≥ 75 degrees, and light or heavy rainfall (but not snowfall) were all significantly associated with lower physical activity after controlling for the significant effects of weekends, accelerometer wear hours, age, sex, type of arthritis, employment, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and SF36 physical and mental health scores. The cumulative effects of weather are reflected in a 38.3% mean monthly difference in daily counts between November and June, reflecting over 3 additional hours of sedentary time. Physical activity promotion programs for older persons with chronic conditions need lifestyle physical activity plans adapted to weather extremes.

  10. The Effects of Daily Weather on Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity among Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Feinglass, Joe; Lee, Julia; Dunlop, Dorothy; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pam; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study analyzes Chicago-area weather effects on objectively measured physical activity over a three year period among a cohort of 241 participants in an on-going arthritis physical activity trial. Methods Uniaxial accelerometer counts and interview data were analyzed for up to six weekly study waves involving 4823 days of wear. The effects of temperature, rainfall, snowfall and daylight hours were analyzed after controlling for participant characteristics, day of the week, and daily accelerometer wear hours in a mixed effects linear regression model. Results Daylight hours, mean daily temperature <20 or ≥ 75 degrees and light or heavy rainfall (but not snowfall) were all significantly associated with lower physical activity after controlling for the significant effects of weekends, accelerometer wear hours, age, sex, type of arthritis, employment, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and SF36 physical and mental health scores. Conclusions The cumulative effects of weather are reflected in a 38.3% mean monthly difference in daily counts between November and June, reflecting over three additional hours of sedentary time. Physical activity promotion programs for older persons with chronic conditions need lifestyle physical activity plans adapted to weather extremes. PMID:21885884

  11. Comparison of the NLDAS Weather Forcing Model to Agrometeorological Measurements in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Clayton S.; Geli, Hatim M. E.; Neale, Christopher M. U.

    2014-03-01

    Diverse topography and climate in the American West have stymied efforts to accurately quantify the flux of water on the land surface at a high spatial resolution. Observations of the processes governing the earth's water budget and energy balance are generally from disparate point measurements on the ground and have lower frequency, distinction, or confidence when remotely sensed. Combined, these terrestrial and aerial sources can offset the other's inherent weaknesses. At a local scale, methodologies have been developed to estimate evapotranspiration. A systematic approach to calculating reference evapotranspiration at a regional scale over the western United States was explored by comparing the drivers of the North American Land Data Assimilation System weather forcing model to 704 agriculturally representative, electronic weather stations at an hourly time step. Parameters of solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed were analyzed to identify any uncertainties and biases. Initial inspection of the weather parameter comparisons revealed unsatisfactory performance of one or more of the NLDAS parameters in several regions, but this was mollified in the calculation of reference evapotranspiration for all but the southerly portions of the study area.

  12. Roundhouse (RND) Mountain Top Research Site: Measurements and Uncertainties for Winter Alpine Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P.; Kucera, P. A.; Theriault, J. M.; Fisico, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to better understand and summarize the mountain meteorological observations collected during the Science of Nowcasting Winter Weather for the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics (SNOW-V10) project that was supported by the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project. The Roundhouse (RND) meteorological station was located 1,856 m above sea level that is subject to the winter extreme weather conditions. Below this site, there were three additional observation sites at 1,640, 1,320, and 774 m. These four stations provided some or all the following measurements at 1 min resolution: precipitation rate (PR) and amount, cloud/fog microphysics, 3D wind speed (horizontal wind speed, U h; vertical air velocity, w a), visibility (Vis), infrared (IR) and shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes, temperature ( T) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and aerosol observations. In this work, comparisons are made to assess the uncertainties and variability for the measurements of Vis, RHw, T, PR, and wind for various winter weather conditions. The ground-based cloud imaging probe (GCIP) measurements of snow particles using a profiling microwave radiometer (PMWR) data have also been shown to assess the icing conditions. Overall, the conclusions suggest that uncertainties in the measurements of Vis, PR, T, and RH can be as large as 50, >60, 50, and >20 %, respectively, and these numbers may increase depending on U h, T, Vis, and PR magnitude. Variability of observations along the Whistler Mountain slope (~500 m) suggested that to verify the models, model space resolution should be better than 100 m and time scales better than 1 min. It is also concluded that differences between observed and model based parameters are strongly related to a model's capability of accurate prediction of liquid water content (LWC), PR, and RHw over complex topography.

  13. The silent customers: measuring customer satisfaction in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Kleinsorge, I K; Koenig, H F

    1991-12-01

    Nursing home administrators concerned with customer satisfaction and quality of care need a tool to assess and monitor ongoing satisfaction of nursing home residents and family members. The authors report a preliminary effort to develop such a survey using focus groups.

  14. Measuring Student Achievement in Home Health Assisting. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Home Health Assisting (HHA) program was developed specifically for use by educational agencies which offer a program in HHA upon approval granted by New York State Education Department through the Joint State Agency review and approval process. It is designed to prepare adults for work in the home under supervision of a health-care agency. A…

  15. Sensorized toys for measuring manipulation capabilities of infants at home.

    PubMed

    Passetti, Giovanni; Cecchi, Francesca; Baldoli, Ilaria; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Beani, Elena; Cioni, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants, i.e. babies born after a gestation period shorter than 37 weeks, spend less time exploring objects. The quantitative measurement of grasping actions and forces in infants can give insights on their typical or atypical motor development. The aim of this work was to test a new tool, a kit of sensorized toys, to longitudinally measure, monitor and promote preterm infants manipulation capabilities with a purposive training in an ecological environment. This study presents preliminary analysis of grasping activity. Three preterm infants performed 4 weeks of daily training at home. Sensorized toys with embedded pressure sensors were used as part of the training to allow quantitative analysis of grasping (pressure and acceleration applied to toys while playing). Each toy was placed on the midline, while the infant was in supine position. Preliminary data show differences in the grasping parameters in relation to infants age and the performed daily training. Ongoing clinical trial will allow a full validation of this new tool for promoting object exploration in preterm infants.

  16. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  17. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  18. Measured Performance of Occupied, Side-by-Side, South Texas Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; vonSchramm, Valerie

    2012-09-01

    The performance of three homes in San Antonio, Texas with identical floor plans and orientation were evaluated through a partnership between the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), CPS Energy, and Woodside Homes of South Texas. Measurements included whole house gas and electric use as well as heating, cooling, hot water, major appliances and indoor and outdoor conditions. One home built to builder standard practice served as the control, while the other homes demonstrated high performance features. Utility peak electric load comparisons of these dual-fuel homes provide an assessment of envelope and equipment improvements.

  19. Better Weather Prediction and Climate Diagnostics Using Rainfall Measurements from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; Li, Jui-Lin; Reale, Oreste

    2002-01-01

    Progress in understanding of the role of water in global weather and climate is currently limited by our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of primary hydrological fields such as precipitation and evaporation. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has recently demonstrated that use of microwave-based rainfall observations from space in data assimilation can provide better climate data sets and improve short-range weather forecasting. At NASA, we have been exploring non-traditional approaches to assimilating TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Special Sensor Microwavehager (SSM/I) surface rain rate and latent heating profile information in global systems. In this talk we show that assimilating microwave rain rates using a continuous variational assimilation scheme based on moisture tendency corrections improves quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and related clouds, radiation energy fluxes, and large-scale circulations in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalyses. Short-range forecasts initialized with these improved analyses also yield better QPE scores and storm track predictions for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd. We present a status report on current efforts to assimilate convective and stratiform latent heating profile information within the general variational framework of model parameter estimation to seek further improvements. Within the next 5 years, there will be a gradual increase in microwave rain products available from operational and research satellites, culminating to a target constellation of 9 satellites to provide global rain measurements every 3 hours with the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission in 2007/2008. Based on what has been learned from TRMM, there is a high degree of confidence that these observations can play a'major role in improving weather forecasts and producing better global datasets for understanding the Earth's water and energy cycle. The key to success is to adopt an

  20. Measured Performance of Occupied, Side-by-Side, South Texas Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, D.; vonSchramm, V.

    2012-09-01

    The performance of three homes in San Antonio, Texas with identical floor plans and orientation were evaluated through a partnership between the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), CPS Energy, and Woodside Homes of South Texas. Measurements included whole house gas and electric use as well as heating, cooling, hot water, major appliances and indoor and outdoor conditions. One home built to builder standard practice served as the control, while the other homes demonstrated high performance features. Utility peak electric load comparisons of these dual-fuel homes provide an assessment of envelope and equipment improvements. The control home used natural gas for space and water heating only, while the improved homes had gas heating and major appliances with the exception of a high efficiency heat pump in one home. Data collection began in July of 2009 and continued through April of 2011. Energy ratings for the homes yielded E-Scales (aka HERS indices) of 86 for the control home, 54 for one improved home and 37 for the other home which has a 2.4kW photovoltaic array.

  1. Assimilation of Combined Microwave and Lightning Measurement in a Mesoscale Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Dong-Eon; Weinman, James A.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent measurements of precipitation and integrated water vapor (IWV) distributions were retrieved from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometers. Lightning generates very low frequency (VLF) radio noise pulses called sferics. Those pulses propagate over large distances so that they can be continuously monitored with a sparse network of ground based radio receivers. Sferics data, tuned with intermittent spaceborne microwave radiometer data, were used to generate estimated rainfall that was assimilated into a mesoscale weather prediction model. Both continuous latent heating adjustment and a variational technique are applied as assimilation procedures to evaluate the impact of lightning observations on the forecast of an intense winter squall line over the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitivities to the assimilation of additional measurements such as IWV and sea surface temperature (SST), and measurement errors will also be discussed.

  2. Assimilation of Combined Microwave and Lightning Measurement in a Mesoscale Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Dong-Eon; Weinman, James A.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent measurements of precipitation and integrated water vapor (IWV) distributions were retrieved from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometers. Lightning generates very low frequency (VLF) radio noise pulses called sferics. Those pulses propagate over large distances so that they can be continuously monitored with a sparse network of ground based radio receivers. Sferics data, tuned with intermittent spaceborne microwave radiometer data, were used to generate estimated rainfall that was assimilated into a mesoscale weather prediction model. Both continuous latent heating adjustment and a variational technique are applied as assimilation procedures to evaluate the impact of lightning observations on the forecast of an intense winter squall line over the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitivities to the assimilation of additional measurements such as IWV and sea surface temperature (SST), and measurement errors will also be discussed.

  3. Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)Users Manual (Version 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    2003-01-27

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA uses a relatively standard Windows graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment appliances, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. Weatherization retrofit measures are evaluated based on the predicted energy savings after installation of the measure, the measure cost, and the measure life. Finally, MHEA recommends retrofit measures that are energy and cost effective for the particular home being evaluated. MHEA evaluates each manufactured home individually and takes into account local weather conditions, retrofit measure costs, and fuel costs. The recommended package of weatherization retrofit measures is tailored to the home being evaluated. More traditional techniques apply the same package of retrofit measures to all manufactured homes, often the same set of measures that are installed into site-built homes. Effective manufactured home weatherization can be achieved only by installing measures developed specifically for manufactured homes. The unique manufactured home construction characteristics require that

  4. Constellation of CubeSats for Realtime Ionospheric E-field Measurements for Global Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.; Swenson, C.; Pilinski, M.; Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.; Azeem, I.; Barjatya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Inexpensive and robust space-weather monitoring instruments are needed to fill upcoming gaps in the Nation's ability to meet requirements for space weather specification and forecasting. Foremost among the needed data are electric fields, since they drive global ionospheric and thermospheric behavior, and because there are relatively few ground-based measurements. We envisage a constellation of CubeSats to provide global coverage of the electric field and its variability. The DICE (Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment) mission was a step towards this goal, with two identical 1.5U CubeSats, each carrying three space weather instruments: (1) double probe instruments to measure AC and DC electric fields; (2) Langmuir probes to measure ionospheric electron density, and; (3) a magnetometer to measure field-aligned currents. DICE launched in October 2011. DICE was the first CubeSat mission to observe a Storm Enhanced Density event, fulfilling a major goal of the mission. Due to attitude control anomalies encountered in orbit, the DICE electric field booms have not yet been deployed. Important lessons have been learned for the implementation of a spin-stabilized CubeSat, and the design and performance of the Attitude Determination & Control System (ADCS). These lessons are now being applied to the DIME SensorSat, a risk-reduction mission that is capable of deploying flexible electric field booms up to a distance of 10-m tip-to-tip from a 1.5U CubeSat. DIME will measure AC and DC electric fields, and will exceed several IORD-2 threshold requirements. Ion densities, and magnetic fields will also be measured to characterize the performance of the sensor in different plasma environments. We show the utility of a constellation of electric field measurements, describe the DIME SensorSat, and demonstrate how the measurement will meet or exceed IORD requirements. The reduced cost of these sensors will enable constellations that can, for the first time, adequately resolve the

  5. Measured Infiltration and Ventilation in Manufactured Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project, Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, Larry S.; Ecotope, Inc.

    1992-04-28

    Air infiltration is an important factor in heat loss and indoor air quality; in modern well-insulated homes, it may account for as much as half of the total heat loss. Due to the recent emphasis by home buyers and manufacturers on energy efficiency, tighter homes are being constructed. In the past, it was assumed that natural infiltration would provide adequate ventilation to maintain acceptable indoor air quality, but this is no longer the case in modern energy-efficient homes. This report summarizes the results of infiltration measurements made on two groups of manufactured homes in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area: 131 energy-efficient homes constructed under RCDP, and a control group of 29 homes not participating in energy-efficiency programs.

  6. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  7. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

  8. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

  9. Computed Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to study the internal structure and measure weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza-Indart, A.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    internal damage allowing to measure non visible structural weathering and also to analyze surface damage due to 3D reconstructions of the samples. MRI results show higher T1 and T2 values in samples subjected to salt crystallization and freezing and thawing cycles than in samples subjected to thermal shock and marine aerosol ageing test meaning the presence of larger pores in these specimens. This results correlate with the results obtained by X ray Computed Tomography analysis where a dramatic internal damage is observed in samples subjected to salt crystallization and freezing and thawing cycles while in the other samples the damage concentrates in the surface. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and X ray Computed Tomography proved to be powerful non-destructive techniques for study the internal structure and measure weathering.

  10. Decision making for urban drainage systems under uncertainty caused by weather radar rainfall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiang; Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    With the rapidly growth of urbanization and population, the decision making for managing urban flood risk has been a significant issue for most large cities in China. A high-quality measurement of rainfall at small temporal but large spatial scales is of great importance to urban flood risk management. Weather radar rainfall, with its advantage of short-term predictability and high spatial and temporal resolutions, has been widely applied in the urban drainage system modeling. It is recognized that weather radar is subjected to many uncertainties and many studies have been carried out to quantify these uncertainties in order to improve the quality of the rainfall and the corresponding outlet flow. However, considering the final action in urban flood risk management is the decision making such as flood warning and whether to build or how to operate a hydraulics structure, some uncertainties of weather radar may have little or significant influence to the final results. For this reason, in this study, we aim to investigate which characteristics of the radar rainfall are the significant ones for decision making in urban flood risk management. A radar probabilistic quantitative rainfall estimated scheme is integrated with an urban flood model (Storm Water Management Model, SWMM) to make a decision on whether to warn or not according to the decision criterions. A number of scenarios with different storm types, synoptic regime and spatial and temporal correlation are designed to analyze the relationship between these affected factors and the final decision. Based on this, parameterized radar probabilistic rainfall estimation model is established which reflects the most important elements in the decision making for urban flood risk management.

  11. The Africentric Home Environment Inventory: An Observational Measure of the Racial Socialization Features of the Home Environment for African American Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Randolph, Suzanne M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot tested the Africentric Home Environment Inventory (AHEI), an observational measure for racial socialization features of the home environment, collecting data during home visits with socioeconomically diverse, urban, African American families with preschoolers. There was a strong association between AHEI scores and family socioeconomic…

  12. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  13. Simultaneous Measurements of Atmospheric Electric Field near Elbrus in Fair Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreff, Anton; Adzhiev, Anatoly; Boldyreva, Ksenia; Knyazeva, Zalina; Kudrinskaya, Tatiana; Kupovykh, Gennady; Pestova, Olesya; Pestov, Dmitry; Redin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric Electric field variations are an appropriate indicator of local weather phenomena electrification and global electric circuit processes. The temporal variations of electric field based on experimental data, measured at Baksan gorge and high-mountains stations near Elbrus in the period of June 2012 - September 2013. The experimental stations are located in the natural preserve zone, characterized by low aerosol emissions and low quantity of ionizing radiation sources. Such perfect conditions allow to identify the diurnal variations of the electric field in fair weather, caused by unitary variation of the potential gradient. The station near Kyzburun village is situated 40 km on the west from Nalchik city at 600 m above sea level (43º40'N, 43º27'E). The alpine stations "Peak Cheget" and "Peak Terskol" are situated at 3040 m and 3003 m above sea level respectively (43º16'N, 42º30'E). The distance between mountain stations is about 3 km. The Kyzburun station is located 70 km on the east along the Baksan canyon. The EFM 550 Vaisala devices were used for uninterrupted electric field registration at three experimental stations. Measuring sensors were installed on the buildings' roofs at 3 m height. The Vaisala weather stations were applied for automatic 10-minutes registrations of the meteorological data on each stations. Meteorological parameters have been also measured using traditional methods simultaneously. The electric field diurnal variation during summer is characterized by significant evening maximum (16-19) UT and morning minimum (09-12) UT for all stations. The extra morning maximum at (05-07) UT was observed as a peculiarity of diurnal electric field data, received at Kyzburun, during summer and winter seasons. The correlation between diurnal variation of data, received at high-mountains stations and Carnegie curve, is rather high. Correlation between electric field, measured at high-altitude stations (Peak Cheget, Peak Terskol) and plain

  14. Very Low Energy Homes in the United States: Perspectivies on Performance from Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S.

    2008-09-28

    This report describes how Florida Solar Energy Center measured annual performance data from a dozen recent-vintage very low energy homes in North America. Many of the designs combine greater energy efficiency with solar electric photovoltaic power in an attempt to create Zero Energy Homes. Data was also provided from the first home constructed to the German Passivhaus standard in the U.S.

  15. An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2006-01-01

    Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

  16. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Toward Blood Pressure Measurement at Home Among Japanese Nurses.

    PubMed

    Ishikuro, Mami; Ubeda, Sergio Ramón Gutiérrez; Obara, Taku; Watanabe, Ikue; Metoki, Hirohito; Kikuya, Masahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Maruyama, Ryoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The self-measurement of blood pressure (BP) at home is useful in predicting the level of target organ damage and in managing hypertension. Nurses are essential practitioners for managing hypertension; however, it is unclear whether they have adequate knowledge of home BP management. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of home BP measurement among Japanese nurses. A questionnaire regarding home BP measurement was distributed among nurses and collected by mail. A total of 6,002 (61.8%) responses were eligible for the study. The proportion of participants who correctly recognized the reference values for clinic BP and home BP was 9.9% and 2.8%. Midwives and those working for the government had the highest proportion of correct responses of reference values among all nursing subgroups. Participants who thought that home BP gave the most important BP information were 62.7%. About 60% of the participants who recommended home BP measurement to hypertensive patients preferred to recommend an upper-arm cuff device. Our findings suggested that more knowledge of home BP measurement among nurses is warranted.

  17. Adjusting weather radar data to rain gauge measurements with data-driven models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschl, Reinhard; Randeu, Walter; Teschl, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Weather radar networks provide data with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Hence they are able to describe the variability of precipitation. Typical radar stations determine the rain rate for every square kilometre and make a full volume scan within about 5 minutes. A weakness however, is their often poor metering precision limiting the applicability of the radar for hydrological purposes. In contrast to rain gauges, which measure precipitation directly on the ground, the radar determines the reflectivity aloft and remote. Due to this principle, several sources of possible errors occur. Therefore improving the radar estimates of rainfall is still a vital topic in radar meteorology and hydrology. This paper presents data-driven approaches to improve radar estimates of rainfall by mapping radar reflectivity measurements Z to rain gauge data R. The analysis encompasses several input configurations and data-driven models. Reflectivity measurements at a constant altitude and the vertical profiles of reflectivity above a rain gauge are used as input parameters. The applied models are Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT), and IBk a k-nearest-neighbour classifier. The relationship found between the data of a rain gauge and the reflectivity measurements is subsequently applied to another site with comparable terrain. Based on this independent dataset the performance of the data-driven models in the various input configurations is evaluated. For this study, rain gauge and radar data from the province of Styria, Austria, were available. The data sets extend over a two-year period (2001 and 2002). The available rain gauges use the tipping bucket principle with a resolution of 0.1 mm. Reflectivity measurements are obtained from the Doppler weather radar station on Mt. Zirbitzkogel (by courtesy of AustroControl GmbH). The designated radar is a high-resolution C-band weather-radar situated at an altitude of 2372 m above mean sea level. The data

  18. Gamma ray and fair weather electric field measurements during thunderstorms: indications for TGEs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Yuval; Yair, Yoav; Steinitz, Gideon; Price, Colin; Pustil'nik, Lev; Yaniv, Roy; Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Evgeni

    2016-04-01

    We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with strong electric fields typical of lightning discharges, measured at a mountainous site in northern Israel. High-energy emissions detected on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms supposedly initiate Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) of fluxes of electrons, neutrons and gamma rays that can last tens of minutes. Such enhancements are thought to be related to Extensive Cloud Showers (ECSs) initiated between the main negative charge center and the lower positive charge pocket in mature thunderstorms (Chilingarian et al., 2015). The Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center located at Mt. Hermon hosts a gamma ray detector alongside a continuous multi-parametric array consisting of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) geodetic receiver (for measuring Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC)), vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) and current (Jz) and a neutron super monitor (for cosmic ray measurements). The diurnal variations in fair-weather conditions exhibit a clear 24-hour periodicity, related to the diurnal variation of atmospheric parameters. During several severe thunderstorms that occurred over Israel and near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015, we recorded several instantaneous enhancements in the counts of Gamma rays, which lasted ten of minutes, and that coincided with peaks in the vertical electric field and current. Lightning data obtained from the Israeli Lightning Detection Network (ILDN) show that these peaks match the occurrences of close-by CG lightning discharges. This talk will present correlations between the properties of parent flashes and the observed peaks, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  19. Optical and In-situ Debris Measurements under Collaboration with Space Weather Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    Kyushu University established International Centre for Space Weather Science and Education, shortly ICSWSE, in April 2012. The ICSWSE is leading two major research areas. One is magnetized environment of the Earth, and the other is space debris environment. Now, the ICSWSE fuses these two major research areas into one new project to contribute to the protection of space environment and space situational awareness. The ICSWSE has already established a technical and human network under the MAGnetic Data Acquisition System / Circum pan Pacific Magnetometer Array (MAGDAS/CPMN) project. Now, the ICSWSE is willing to establish a measurement network for space debris using small-aperture optical telescopes and small satellite constellation under the technical and human network, being named DEBris Data Acquisition System (DEBDAS). The telescopes are well organized to be robotically and remotely controlled, including sophisticated image processing techniques and orbit estimation software. The satellites are conducting in-situ measurements of micron-size debris using an easy-to-operate new sensor developed at JAXA. Data acquired from the systems will be analyzed and modeled in a manner coupled with space weather science to provide a better understanding of the present and future space debris environment. The ICSWSE also aims at education for practical astronomy and space engineering at Kyushu University, collaborative measurements in combination between robotic telescopes and small satellites, space environmental awareness and space science, including debris generation and resulting environment. Practical astronomy provides you with planning and observation, processing and detection, and origin identification. Space engineering provides you with small satellite design, production, and operation.

  20. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  1. Home dim light melatonin onsets with measures of compliance in delayed sleep phase disorder.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Fogg, Louis F

    2016-06-01

    The dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) assists with the diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Home DLMOs are attractive for cost savings and convenience, but can be confounded by home lighting and sample timing errors. We developed a home saliva collection kit with objective measures of light exposure and sample timing. We report on our first test of the kit in a clinical population. Thirty-two participants with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD; 17 women, aged 18-52 years) participated in two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments. Most participants (66%) received at least one 30-s epoch of light >50 lux during the home phase assessments, but for only 1.5% of the time. Most participants (56%) collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Eighty-three per cent of home DLMOs were not affected by light or sampling errors. The home DLMOs occurred, on average, 10.2 min before the laboratory DLMOs, and were correlated highly with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). These results indicate that home saliva sampling with objective measures of light exposure and sample timing, can assist in identifying accurate home DLMOs. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. The Relationship between Measures of Home Environment and School Achievement of Follow Through Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Joseph J.; Hanes, Michael L.

    The investigators hypothesized that home environment variables--as measured by the Home Environment Review, administered upon entrance to kindergarten--account for the variance in children's reading achievement at the end of kindergarten, first, and second grade. One hundred fifty-three children representing a longitudinal, traced sample from two…

  3. Home Circadian Phase Assessments with Measures of Compliance Yield Accurate Dim Light Melatonin Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Wyatt, James K.; Park, Margaret; Fogg, Louis F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is a need for the accurate assessment of circadian phase outside of the clinic/laboratory, particularly with the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). We tested a novel kit designed to assist in saliva sampling at home for later determination of the DLMO. The home kit includes objective measures of compliance to the requirements for dim light and half-hourly saliva sampling. Design: Participants were randomized to one of two 10-day protocols. Each protocol consisted of two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments in counterbalanced order, separated by a 5-day break. Setting: Laboratory or participants' homes. Participants: Thirty-five healthy adults, age 21–62 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Most participants received at least one 30-sec epoch of light > 50 lux during the home phase assessments (average light intensity 4.5 lux), but on average for < 9 min of the required 8.5 h. Most participants collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Ninety-two percent of home DLMOs were not affected by light > 50 lux or sampling errors. There was no significant difference between the home and laboratory DLMOs (P > 0.05); on average the home DLMOs occurred 9.6 min before the laboratory DLMOs. The home DLMOs were highly correlated with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Participants were reasonably compliant to the home phase assessment procedures. The good agreement between the home and laboratory dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) demonstrates that including objective measures of light exposure and sample timing during home saliva sampling can lead to accurate home DLMOs. Clinical Trial Registration: Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Citation: Burgess HJ, Wyatt JK, Park M, Fogg LF. Home circadian phase assessments with measures of compliance yield accurate dim light melatonin onsets. SLEEP 2015;38(6):889–897

  4. Weather and Atmospheric Effects on the Measurement and Use of Electro-Optical Signature Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    Radiation from these atmospheric constituents also contaminates the radiation from targets. Some weather conditions, such as clouds and fogs...conditions (e.g., clouds , fog, smoke, or dust between a system and a target) EO systems operating at any wavelength have a severely limited capability...wind, clouds , rain, and constantly changing weather conditions. Almost all weather takes place within the troposphere. The stratosphere is a layer

  5. The Impact of the Assimilation of AIRS Radiance Measurements on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Will; Jedlovec, Gary; Miller, Timothy L.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced spaceborne instruments have the ability to improve the horizontal and vertical characterization of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere through the explicit use of hyperspectral thermal infrared radiance measurements. The incorporation of these measurements into a data assimilation system provides a means to continuously characterize a three-dimensional, instantaneous atmospheric state necessary for the time integration of numerical weather forecasts. Measurements from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are incorporated into the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation system to provide improved initial conditions for use in a mesoscale modeling framework mimicking that of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. The methodologies for the incorporation of the measurements into the system are presented. Though the measurements have been shown to have a positive impact in global modeling systems, the measurements are further constrained in this system as the model top is physically lower than the global systems and there is no ozone characterization in the background state. For a study period, the measurements are shown to have positive impact on both the analysis state as well as subsequently spawned short-term (0-48 hr) forecasts, particularly in forecasted geopotential height and precipitation fields. At 48 hr, height anomaly correlations showed an improvement in forecast skill of 2.3 hours relative to a system without the AIRS measurements. Similarly, the equitable threat and bias scores of precipitation forecasts of 25 mm (6 hr)-1 were shown to be improved by 8% and 7%, respectively.

  6. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  7. Measuring Dark Matter With MilkyWay@home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Siddhartha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Arsenault, Matthew; Bauer, Jacob; Desell, Travis; Judd, Roland; Magdon-Ismail, Malik; Newby, Matthew; Rice, Colin; Thompson, Jeffrey; Ulin, Steve; Weiss, Jake; Widrow, Larry

    2016-01-01

    We perform N-body simulations of two component dwarf galaxies (dark matter and stars follow separate distributions) falling into the Milky Way and the forming of tidal streams. Using MilkyWay@home we optimize the parameters of the progenitor dwarf galaxy and the orbital time to fit the simulated distribution of stars along the tidal stream to the observed distribution of stars. Our initial dwarf galaxy models are constructed with two separate Plummer profiles (one for the dark matter and one for the baryonic matter), sampled using a generalized distribution function for spherically symmetric systems. We perform rigorous testing to ensure that our simulated galaxies are in virial equilibrium, and stable over a simulation time. The N-body simulations are performed using a Barnes-Hut Tree algorithm. Optimization traverses the likelihood surface from our six model parameters using particle swarm and differential evolution methods. We have generated simulated data with known model parameters that are similar to those of the Orphan Stream. We show that we are able to recover a majority of our model parameters, and most importantly the mass-to-light ratio of the now disrupted progenitor galaxy, using MilkyWay@home. This research is supported by generous gifts from the Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the MilkyWay@home volunteers.

  8. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David; Lay, Kerylyn

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  9. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI). Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old), when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male). Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height of their children at home

  10. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of resodential homes. Multistage sa...

  11. AMS-02 Capabilities in Solar Energetic Particle Measurements for Space Weather Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Cristina; Bindi, Veronica; Corti, Claudio; Hoffman, Julia; Whitman, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), thanks to its large acceptance of about 0.45 m2 sr, is the biggest Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) detector ever flown in space. AMS-02 was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011, where it will measure cosmic rays from 1 GV up to a few TV, for the duration of the ISS, currently extended till 2024. During these years of operation, AMS-02 measured several increases of the protons flux over the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) background associated to the strongest solar events. AMS-02 has observed the related SEP accelerated during M- and X-class flares and fast coronal mass ejections measuring an increase of the proton flux near 1 GV and above. Some of these solar events were also followed by the typical GCR suppression i.e. Forbush decrease, which makes even more evident the measurement of the SEP flux over the GCR background. Thanks to its large acceptance and particle detection capabilities, AMS-02 is able to perform precise measurements in a short period of time which is typical of these transient phenomena and to collect enough statistics to measure fine structures and time evolution of particle spectra. The events observed by AMS-02 since the beginning of its mission will be presented and some of the more interesting events will be shown. AMS-02 observations with their unprecedented resolution and high statistics, will improve the understanding of SEP behavior at high energies to constrain models of SEP production used in space weather physics.

  12. Assessment of Weatherization Assistance Program Needs for Improved Residential Measure Selection Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the current measure selection techniques and needs of agencies within the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study precedes initiation of a project to revise and upgrade the current means of selecting energy conservation measures for low-income single- and multi-family housing and includes recommendations for the revision. Issues relevant to the formation of the revised audit procedures are discussed. Currently available audits are reviewed. No single- to multi-family audit program was found capable of fulfilling the currents needs of the WAP. Recommendations include the separate development of single- and multi-family audits. Addition of specific features to the single-family audit is recommended, including (1) measure ranking unique to each eligible house, (2) heating and cooling equipment measures, (3) cooling envelope measures, (4) means of determining the amount of infiltration work to be performed, (5) potential for customizing and simplifying to meet local needs, and (6) implementation on either a personal computer or as an alternate manual technique. A single-family audit development plan is proposed which includes examination of several existing programs as potential starting points. Recommendations related to the development of a WAP multi-family audit include examination of several existing private programs for possible use by state WAP agencies expressing the greatest need and further study of the DOE supported programs ASEAM and CIRA as possible starting points for a DOE procedure. Early identification of approved multi-family measures and their applicability to various building stock, equipment types, and fuels is also recommended.

  13. Can integrating health literacy into the patient-centered medical home help us weather the perfect storm?

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Jessica R; Larson, Eric B; Greene, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    Improving health literacy is one key to buoying our nation's troubled health care system. As system-level health literacy improvement strategies take the stage among national priorities for health care, the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care emerges as a compelling avenue for their widespread implementation. With a shared focus on effective communication and team-based care organized around patient needs, health literacy principles and the PCMH are well aligned. However, their synergy has received little attention, even as PCMH demonstration projects and health literacy interventions spring up nationwide. While many health literacy interventions are limited by their focus on a single point along the continuum of care, creating a "room" for health literacy within the PCMH may finally provide a multi-dimensional, system-level approach to tackling the full range of health literacy challenges. Increasing uptake coupled with federal support and financial incentives further boosts the model's potential for advancing health literacy. On the journey toward a revitalized health care system, integrating health literacy into the PCMH presents a promising opportunity that deserves consideration.

  14. Objectively measured sleep quality and nursing home placement in older women.

    PubMed

    Spira, Adam P; Covinsky, Kenneth; Rebok, George W; Stone, Katie L; Redline, Susan; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-07-01

    To determine the association between objectively measured sleep and subsequent placement in a nursing home or a personal care home. Prospective cohort. Participants' homes and sites of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. One thousand six hundred sixty-four community-dwelling women with a mean age of 83 ± 4. At baseline, participants completed an average of 4 nights of wrist actigraphy; they provided data on place of residence at baseline and at follow-up, 5 years later. At baseline, participants had a mean total sleep time of 408 ± 72 minutes, mean wake after sleep onset of 71 ± 43 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency of 79 ± 11%. At follow-up, 71 (4%) were residing in a nursing home, and 127 (8%) were in a personal care home. Women with the most wake after sleep onset (by quartile) had more than twice the odds as those with the least of placement in a nursing home (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-6.44) or a personal care home (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.26-4.30). Similarly, women with the lowest sleep efficiency had more than three times the odds as those with the highest of nursing home placement (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.35, 7.82) and more than twice the odds of placement in a personal care home (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.33, 4.24). There was no association between sleep duration and placement. In very old community-dwelling women, greater wake after sleep onset and lower sleep efficiency are risk factors for placement in a nursing home or personal care home. Sleep duration alone does not appear to increase the risk of placement in these long-term care settings. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Resident, nursing home, and state factors affecting the reliability of Minimum Data Set quality measures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Mor, Vincent; Roy, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Nursing home quality measures impact policy decisions such as reimbursement or consumer choice. Quality indicators in the United States are collected through the federally mandated Minimum Data Set (MDS). Bias in MDS data collection or coding can thus have a negative impact on policy applications. To understand whether bias was present in coding, the authors studied 5174 pairs of MDS assessments that were independently collected by nursing home staff and study nurses from 206 nursing homes. The authors developed multivariate multilevel models to identify nursing home and resident characteristics that were significantly associated with the data quality of multiple MDS measures of nursing home quality. The outcomes were coding differences between nursing home staff and study nurses. Resident characteristics explained little of the variation in coding differences among facilities, while facilities characteristics explained 4% to 20% of the variation and state location further explained 13% to 34% of the variation. A generalized effect of nursing home state location tended to be consistent across measures. States that overidentified problems also tended to have worse quality indicators and vice versa. Comparisons of MDS-based quality indicators reflect differences in assessment practices at least as much as true quality differences. Efforts to standardize assessment practices across states are needed.

  16. Lidar-measured winds from space: A key component for weather and climate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Wayman E.; Emmitt, George D.; Robertson, Franklin; Atlas, Robert M.; Molinari, John E.; Bowdle, David A.; Paegle, Jan; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of a space-based Doppler lidar would provide information that is fundamental to advancing the understanding and prediction of weather and climate. This paper reviews the concepts of wind measurement by Doppler lidar, highlights the results of some observing system simulation experiments with lidar winds, and discusses the important advances in earth system science anticipated with lidar winds. Observing system simulation experiments, conducted using two different general circulation models, have shown (1) that there is a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy over the Southern Hemisphere and tropical oceans resulting from the assimilation of simulated satellite wind data, and (2) that wind data are significantly more effective than temperature or moisture data in controlling analysis error. Because accurate wind observations are currently almost entirely unavailable for the vast majority of tropical cyclones worldwide, lidar winds have the potential to substan- tially improve tropical cyclone forecasts. Similarly, to improve water vapor flux divergence calculations, a direct measure of the ageostrophic wind is needed since the present level of uncer- tainty cannot be reduced with better temperature and moisture soundings alone.

  17. Constructing and Adapting Causal and Formative Measures of Family Settings: The HOME Inventory as Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of the home environment are frequently used in studies of children’s development. This review provides information on indices composed of causal and formative indicators (the kind of indicators often used to capture salient aspects of family environments) and to suggest approaches that may be useful in constructing such measures for diverse populations. The HOME Inventory is used to illustrate challenges scholars face in determining what to include in useful measures of family settings. To that end, a cross-cultural review of research on relations among HOME, family context, and child outcomes is presented. The end of the review offers a plan for how best to further research on relations between the home environment and child development for diverse populations. PMID:26997978

  18. Constructing and Adapting Causal and Formative Measures of Family Settings: The HOME Inventory as Illustration.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    Measures of the home environment are frequently used in studies of children's development. This review provides information on indices composed of causal and formative indicators (the kind of indicators often used to capture salient aspects of family environments) and to suggest approaches that may be useful in constructing such measures for diverse populations. The HOME Inventory is used to illustrate challenges scholars face in determining what to include in useful measures of family settings. To that end, a cross-cultural review of research on relations among HOME, family context, and child outcomes is presented. The end of the review offers a plan for how best to further research on relations between the home environment and child development for diverse populations.

  19. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  20. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  1. Assessing the Effects of Weather Conditions on Physical Activity Participation Using Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine B.; Ryan, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Habitual physical activity is an important determinant of health, yet many people are considered to be inactive. Identification of the obstacles to greater participation is necessary for the development of strategies to overcome those obstacles. The weather has been identified as a perceived barrier to participation in physical activity, but exactly which adverse weather conditions are most important, and the extent to which they contribute to decreases in physical activity have rarely been quantified in populations. In the past decade, a small number of studies have used publicly available databases to examine the quantitative effects of weather (e.g., temperature, precipitation, wind) on physical activity in children, adolescents and adults. This review examines our historical, qualitative versus emerging, quantitative understanding of how specific weather conditions affect a population’s activity. PMID:20054460

  2. Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, C.R.; Weidner, G A.

    1992-03-01

    In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological variables, including snow temperatures at various depths, in support of ice coring studies. The AWS units measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3.6 meters, air pressure at the electronics enclosure, and air temperature difference between 3.6 m and 0.5 m. The AWS units at GISP2 and GRIP also measure solar radiation, and seven snow temperatures from the surface to a depth of approximately 4 m in the snow. The data are updated at 10-minute intervals and transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on board the NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites. The air temperature and snow temperatures are presented as a function of time for the period from June 8, 1989 to August 31, 1990 and as tautochrones at 30-day intervals. The heat flux into the snow is determined from the daily mean snow temperature between the day after and the day before using the volumetric heat capacity of the snow assuming a snow density of 300 kg m-3. The daily mean heat flux into the snow between the highest and the lowest levels of snow temperature is presented as a function of time.

  3. Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Song, Eugenie; Arnold, Jessica A.; Lemelin, Myriam; Hanna, Kerri Donaldson; Bowles, Neil E.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral infrared measurements by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Renaissance Orbiter enable the characterization of the position of the Christiansen Feature, a thermal infrared spectral feature that laboratory work has shown is proportional to the bulk silica content of lunar surface materials. Diviner measurements show that the position of this feature is also influenced by the changes in optical and physical properties of the lunar surface with exposure to space, the process known as space weathering. Large rayed craters and lunar swirls show corresponding Christiansen Feature anomalies. The space weathering effect is likely due to differences in thermal gradients in the optical surface imposed by the space weathering control of albedo. However, inspected at high resolution, locations with extreme compositions and Christiansen Feature wavelength positions - silica-rich and olivine-rich areas - do not have extreme albedos, and fall off the albedo- Christiansen Feature wavelength position trend occupied by most of the Moon. These areas demonstrate that the Christiansen Feature wavelength position contains compositional information and is not solely dictated by albedo. An optical maturity parameter derived from near-IR measurements is used to partly correct Diviner data for space weathering influences.

  4. Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurements in Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This May 1993 document, is a guidance document.The objective of this document is to provide information, recommendations and technological guidance for anyone providing measurement services using 15 radon and radon decay product measurement methods.

  5. Improving the Traceability of Meteorological Measurements at Automatic Weather Stations in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Sinhaneti, T.; Phuuntharo, P.; Phanakulwijit, S.; Nimsamer, A.

    2017-08-01

    A joint project between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Thai Meteorology Department (TMD) was established for improving the traceability of meteorology measurements at automatic weather stations (AWSs) in Thailand. The project aimed to improve traceability of air temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure by implementing on-site calibration facilities and developing of new calibration procedures. First, new portable calibration facilities for air temperature, humidity and pressure were set up as working standard of the TMD. A portable humidity calibrator was applied as a uniform and stable source for calibration of thermo-hygrometers. A dew-point hygrometer was employed as reference hygrometer and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) traceable to NIMT was used as reference thermometer. The uniformity and stability in both temperature and relative humidity were characterized at NIMT. A transportable pressure calibrator was used for calibration of air pressure sensor. The estimate overall uncertainty of the calibration setup is 0.2 K for air temperature, 1.0 % for relative humidity and 0.2 hPa for atmospheric pressure, respectively. Second, on-site calibration procedures were developed and four AWSs in the central part and the northern of Thailand were chosen as pilot stations for on-site calibration using the new calibration setups and developed calibration procedures. At each station, the calibration was done at the minimum temperature, average temperature and maximum temperature of the year, for air temperature, 20 %, 55 % and 90 % for relative humidity at the average air temperature of that station and at a one-year statistics pressure range for atmospheric pressure at ambient temperature. Additional in-field uncertainty contributions such as the temperature dependence on relative humidity measurement were evaluated and included in the overall uncertainty budget. Preliminary calibration results showed that using a

  6. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-11-30

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM(2.5) during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM(2.5) levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM(2.5) feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring.

  7. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  8. Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME). Report from the First International Consensus Meeting (HOME 1), 24 July 2010, Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Williams, H

    2010-12-01

    Current clinical research in eczema (atopic dermatitis) is hampered by a profusion of outcome measures, most of which have not been developed or tested adequately. The first Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema meeting (HOME 1) was an exploratory meeting to determine whether there was sufficient interest and enthusiasm in the international scientific community to form a collaborative group to define a minimum set of core outcomes for future eczema (atopic dermatitis) research. The meeting was open to all participants of the 6th Georg Rajka Symposium/International Symposium on Atopic Dermatitis/New Trends in Allergy VII meeting in Munich, 22-24 July 2010. Approximately 40 individuals attended. Prior to the meeting, an international Delphi exercise was performed to develop consensus-based sets of core outcome domains for eczema for 'controlled trials' and 'clinical recordkeeping'. The results of this Delphi exercise were presented at the meeting and critically discussed by the attendees. The constructive group discussion identified several important issues for future eczema outcomes research such as the degree to which patients and carers can be involved and the importance of involving colleagues from countries not represented at the meeting. In summary, this exploratory meeting indicated a genuine interest in the academic eczema community to form an international multiprofessional group dedicated to harmonizing outcomes research in eczema. The group decided to continue collaboratively with the HOME initiative.

  9. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  10. Unobtrusive, continuous, in-home gait measurement using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie

    2013-10-01

    A system for capturing habitual, in-home gait measurements using an environmentally mounted depth camera, the Microsoft Kinect, is presented. Previous work evaluating the use of the Kinect sensor for in-home gait measurement in a lab setting has shown the potential of this approach. In this paper, a single Kinect sensor and computer were deployed in the apartments of older adults in an independent living facility for the purpose of continuous, in-home gait measurement. In addition, a monthly fall risk assessment protocol was conducted for each resident by a clinician, which included traditional tools such as the timed up a go and habitual gait speed tests. A probabilistic methodology for generating automated gait estimates over time for the residents of the apartments from the Kinect data is described, along with results from the apartments as compared to two of the traditionally measured fall risk assessment tools. Potential applications and future work are discussed.

  11. Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion in extreme climates, measured by cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical weathering and physical erosion jointly regulate soil development and deliver sediment and solutes to riverine habitats. Chemical weathering also generates nutrients and helps regulate global climate over million year timescales. Thus it is important to quantify long-term rates of weathering and erosion in different environments. New cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance techniques can be widely applied to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion. In previous work, we used those techniques to show that both physical erosion and chemical weathering rates are insensitive to differences in climate across a set of granitic Sierra Nevada study sites that span 20-145 cm/yr in average precipitation and 4-15 ° C in mean annual temperature. Our measurements also showed that long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion are tightly coupled, possibly because chemical weathering rates are regulated by rates of fresh mineral supply by physical erosion of rock. Here we present long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from new sites with more extreme climates, including both temperate and tropical rainforests. Overall, mean annual temperature spans 4-22 ° C and average precipitation span 20-420 cm/yr across our sites. Our new weathering and erosion data should reveal whether climatic effects on rates of weathering and erosion are more pronounced over a greatly extended range of climates.

  12. Porosity evolution of artificially weathered sandstones: how reliable are porosimetric measurements for durability prediction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana

    2017-04-01

    Several types of sandstones were subjected to artificial weathering (cycles of freezing/thawing, salt crystallization). After termination of certain number of cycles (the highest one was 144 cycles), part of specimens were removed and tested for various physical properties. In the recent study, we have focused on the analysis of pore space textural characteristics by means of mercury porosimetry. From the raw data, several durability indices previously proposed in literature were computed. Despite macroscopically visible damage produced by artificial weathering, most of the examined materials were classified as resistant against respective weathering processes by those indices. Additional observation of rock microfabric conducted by SEM-EDS revealed features which must be taken into account during evaluation of durability of porous materials. Therefore, porosimetric data alone cannot be used as a single durability estimate.

  13. Measurements of Ionospheric Density, Temperature, and Spacecraft Charging in a Space Weather Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazor, R. L.; McHarg, M. G.; Wilson, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Integrated Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (IMESA) is a space weather sensor developed by the United States Air Force Academy and integrated and flown by the DoD's Space Test Program. IMESA records plasma spectrograms from which can be derived plasma density, temperature, and spacecraft frame charging. Results from IMESA currently orbiting on STPSat-3 are presented, showing frame charging effects dependent on a complex function of the number of solar panel cell strings switched in, solar panel current, and plasma density. IMESA will fly on four more satellites launching in the next two calendar years, enabling an undergraduate DoD space weather constellation in Low Earth Orbit that has the ability to significantly improve space weather forecasting capabilities using assimilative forecast models.

  14. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  15. MEASUREMENT OF POSITIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF STATE HOME ECONOMICS LEADER IN ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS IN COOPERATIVE EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REGAN, MARY C.

    IN THIS STUDY OF THE INVOLVEMENT OF STATE HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS IN ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION MAKING, THE GUIDING PURPOSE WAS TO DEVELOP DIMENSIONS FOR MEASURING SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND TO ASSESS HOW WELL THE ITEMS CONSTITUTING THE DIMENSIONS MEASURED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND VARIABLES. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED AROUND FOUR…

  16. Exhaustive measurement of food items in the home using a universal product code scanner

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Lily; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aimed to develop, test and describe the Exhaustive Home Food Inventory (EHFI), which measures foods in the home using scanning of the universal product code (UPC) and EHFI software to link codes to food identities and energy values. Design Observational design with up to three repeated measures in each household yielded a total of 218 inventories. Setting Eighty private households in North Carolina. Subjects Low-income African-American women with an infant between the ages of 12 and 18 months. Recruitment rate was 71%. Results Approximately 12 200 different food items were successfully recorded using the EHFI method. The average number of food items within a household was 147. The time required for the first measurement in a home declined from 157 to 136 min (P<0·05) for the first third compared to the last third of homes measured. In the sixty-four households in which three assessments were performed, the time required decreased from 145 to 97 min as did the time per item from 1·10 to 0·73 min. Conclusions It is feasible to record all foods and drinks in the home using UPC scanning. Further development and enhancement of databases linking UPC to food identification, nutrients and other information are needed. PMID:20602866

  17. Sleep Blood Pressure Self-Measured at Home as a Novel Determinant of Organ Damage: Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) Study.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Haimoto, Hajime; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Uchiba, Kiyoshi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yano, Yuichiro; Eguchi, Kazuo; Matsui, Yoshio; Shimizu, Motohiro; Ishikawa, Joji; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-05-01

    To study whether sleep blood pressure (BP) self-measured at home is associated with organ damage, the authors analyzed the data of 2562 participants in the J-HOP study who self-measured sleep BP using a home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, three times during sleep (2 am, 3 am, 4 am), as well as the home morning and evening BPs. The mean sleep home systolic BPs (SBPs) were all correlated with urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), maximum carotid intima-media thickness, and plasma N-terminal pro-hormone pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) (all P<.001). After controlling for clinic SBP and home morning and evening SBPs, associations of home sleep SBP with UACR, LVMI, and baPWV remained significant (all P<.008). Even in patients with home morning BP <135/85 mm Hg, 27% exhibited masked nocturnal hypertension with home sleep SBP ≥120 mm Hg and had higher UACR and NTproBNP. Masked nocturnal hypertension, which is associated with advanced organ damage, remains unrecognized by conventional HBPM.

  18. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  19. Isotopic ratios and release rates of strontium measured from weathering feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Chesley, J. T.; Stillings, L. L.

    1998-05-01

    Based upon dissolution of feldspars under controlled laboratory conditions, we conclude that Sr release, at pH 3, is neither consistently stoichiometric nor constant for the feldspars measured. Bytownite, microcline, and albite all initially release Sr at rates which are 5 (bytownite) to 160 (microcline) times faster than steady-state release rates. The Sr/Si ratios in the early effluents are significantly elevated compared to the bulk mineral values. The 87Sr/ 86Sr measured in effluent early in dissolution is higher than the bulk mineral 87Sr/ 86Sr for bytownite, but lower than bulk mineral ratios for microcline and albite. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios for the feldspar powders also changed markedly during dissolution of the three phases. In part, nonstoichiometric release of Sr can be explained by the presence of secondary phases (exsolution lamellae or minute quantities of accessory phases) or by surface leaching. Although we infer that these feldspars eventually release Sr with isotopic composition roughly equal to that of the bulk mineral at steady-state, the feldspars dissolve at extremely different rates (bytownite releases Sr at a steady-state rate ˜10 2 to 10 3 times faster than albite and microcline, at pH 3). Therefore, a mixture of these feldspars, or of other minerals exhibiting vast differences in dissolution rate, will release 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios distinctly different from the bulk whole rock. In addition, initial Sr release rates of the minerals (bytownite > microcline > albite) differ from steady-state release rates (bytownite > albite > microcline), complicating analysis of weathering solutions. Log (rate constants) for bytownite, albite, and microcline decrease from -13.5 to -16.4 to -17.2 (mol Sr cm -2 s -1). Interpretation of catchment scale riverine 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios on the basis of whole-rock Sr isotopes is, therefore, problematic at best, and would require normalization of bulk isotopic ratios by relative rates of dissolution of Sr-contributing phases. We

  20. At home and away: measuring the sleep of Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Baulk, Stuart D; Fletcher, Adam

    2012-03-01

    The causes of fatigue in truck drivers related to work hours have been studied extensively and are reasonably well understood. However, much less is known about how rest opportunities can be structured to optimise recovery from fatigue. The nature of the road transport industry often requires that rest be taken in various locations. New investigation in this area, focusing on sleep obtained in truck cabs and other non-home environments is critically important to complement existing understanding. This study examined sleep at home and in truck cabs, in truck drivers who were actively working during the time of the study. Thirty-seven male drivers aged between 24 and 63 years (age: 48.7 ± 9.0 years; mean ± SD) wore activity monitors (also known as 'sleep watches') and completed work and sleep diaries for a period of 21 days, recording their subjective fatigue levels before, during and after work shifts, and before and after sleep periods. They also self-rated their sleep quality and noted the number of times they woke during sleep periods. Analyses focused on home versus in-truck sleep periods. The subjective data suggested that a greater quantity (P<.001) and quality (P<.05) of sleep was obtained at home than in the truck, and that sleeping at home more effectively reduced fatigue levels (P<.001). The objective data showed trends towards longer sleep length at home, but other variables, including total sleep per 24h and sleep quality, showed no significant differences. This study demonstrates that measuring sleep quantity and quality in operational road transport environments is feasible. The findings caution against over-reliance on laboratory and simulator studies since there are critical aspects of the operating environment that cannot be validly studied in artificially controlled settings. This study is unique in its direct examination of sleep quantity and quality in truck drivers sleeping at home and away from home.

  1. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: from laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments.

    PubMed

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-08-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF's laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70-90% ice cover) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experiments were tested for ignitability using the same laboratory burning cell. The measured ignitability from the experiments in these different scales showed a good agreement for samples with similar weathering. The ice conditions clearly affected the weathering process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool to monitor the ignitability of oil spills.

  2. Personal Career Orientation. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alveta; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for a personal career orientation course for seventh grade students. This 6- to 9-week course is designed to acquaint the student with personal qualities and characteristics necessary for success in the world of work.…

  3. Young Children's Photographs of Measurement in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of children's photography as a method for conducting mathematics education research with young children. Collected as part of a study focusing on the experiences with measurement children have at the start of schooling, the photographs presented here were taken by children aged five and six years, from two Australian…

  4. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  5. Child Care Services Guide. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 14 terminal objectives for a high school child care services course. This course is designed to provide opportunities for exploring a broad range of child care, guidance, and service occupations. Major concepts include characteristics of…

  6. Young Children's Photographs of Measurement in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of children's photography as a method for conducting mathematics education research with young children. Collected as part of a study focusing on the experiences with measurement children have at the start of schooling, the photographs presented here were taken by children aged five and six years, from two Australian…

  7. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  8. The Effect of Temperature on Reflectance of Materials Space Weathered by Laser Irradiation: Implications for Increased Albedo Measured by LOLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, L. M.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Lucey, P. G.; Trang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Space weathering significantly changes the optical properties of airless planetary bodies, resulting in decreased albedo, spectral reddening, and subdued absorption bands. These optical changes are caused by the presence of submicroscopic iron (SMFe) in agglutinates and patina glass, which is observed in lunar soils returned by the Apollo and Luna missions. Micrometeorite impacts and solar wind irradiation are key processes that produce SMFe. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured a trend of increased albedo at 1064 nm with decreasing temperature and a spike in 1064-nm albedo in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). Although the LOLA albedo increase could be due to the presence of ice, increased reflectance is also consistent with reduced space weathering. It is currently unknown how temperature influences the production of SMFe and the resulting spectral effects. Low temperatures of polar regions and PSRs (as low as 50K) may affect the volume of impact melt/vaporization produced and the subsequent development of SMFe. To test this hypothesis we compare visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra of materials laser space weathered at low temperature and room temperature. Olivine irradiated at 88K is brighter at 1064 nm and exhibits less reddening than olivine irradiated at 295K. Radiative transfer modeling provided abundance estimates for SMFe. Based on these estimates, olivine irradiated at 88K contains 65-70% the abundance of SMFe of olivine irradiated at 295K. Laser weathering of a highlands analog at 85K results in reduced reddening but does not yield a statistically significant increased brightness at 1064 nm with lower temperature. Hence, our results show that laser weathering at low temperatures produces a measurable effect in VNIR spectra for olivine and less so for a plagioclase dominated soil. We attribute this mineral dependent observation to a decrease in the production of SMFe, and we will

  9. Reliability and validity of the Dementia Quality of Life measure in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Adler, Efrat; Resnick, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Dementia Quality of Life (DQOL) in a sample of 486 residents from 12 nursing homes in the greater Baltimore area. There was some evidence of validity of the DQOL based on confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch model testing and criterion-related validity. Reliability of the DQOL was somewhat supported in this study based on internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Alpha coefficients and R(2) estimations were generally low across all of the subscales. Despite these findings, the subscale scores remained consistent over a 12-month period. The use of the single-item question about QOL may not be an accurate reflection of QOL among nursing home residents. These findings provide additional information about the psychometric properties of the DQOL and offer some recommendations for revisions in the measure to optimally measure QOL in nursing home residents.

  10. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  11. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  12. Telemedicine Home Blood Pressure Measurements Predict Progression of Albuminuria in Elderly People with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Palmas, Walter; Pickering, Thomas G.; Teresi, Jeanne; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Field, Lesley; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Shea, Steven

    2013-01-01

    We assessed whether home blood pressure monitoring improved the prediction of progression of albuminuria when added to office measurements, and compared it to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a multiethnic cohort of older people (n=392) with diabetes mellitus, without macroalbuminuria, participating in the telemedicine arm of the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) study. Albuminuria was assessed by measuring the spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline and annually for three years. Ambulatory sleep/wake systolic blood pressure ratio was categorized as dipping (ratio≤0.9), non-dipping (ratio>0.9 -1), and nocturnal rise (ratio>1). In a repeated measures mixed linear model, after adjustment that included office pulse pressure, home pulse pressure was independently associated with higher follow-up albumin-to-creatinine ratio (p=0.001). That association persisted (p=0.01) after adjusting for 24-hour pulse pressure, and nocturnal rise, which were also independent predictors (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). Cox proportional hazards models examined progression of albuminuria (n=74) as defined by cutoff values used by clinicians. After adjustment for office pulse pressure the hazards ratio (95% CI) per 10 mmHg increment of home pulse pressure was 1.34 (1.1-1.7), p=0.01. Home pulse pressure was not an independent predictor in the model including ambulatory monitoring data—a nocturnal rise was the only independent predictor (p=0.035). However, Cox models built separately for home pulse pressure and ambulatory monitoring exhibited similar calibration and discrimination. In conclusion, home blood pressure adds to office measurements and may substitute for ambulatory monitoring to predict worsening of albuminuria in elderly people with diabetes. PMID:18378859

  13. Space weathering of primitive bodies: From laboratory measurements to space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Cateline; Brunetto, Rosario; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Fornasier, Sonia; Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard; Fulchignoni, Marcello

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering (SpWe) is a combination of micrometeorite bombardment and irradiation by energetic particles leading to surface alterations of airless bodies and affecting their reflectance spectra. Numerous studies have been made on S-type asteroids, including laboratory experiments on silicate materials and a direct confirmation measured on Itokawa grains showing darkening and reddening trends. Few results have been obtained for C-types, no general trend has been found. In order to understand the influence of SpWe on primitive asteroids, we present an experimental study on ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites, simulating solar wind. The goal of our work is to better constrain the SpWe processes of low albedo objects and to develop a model that will also support sample return missions (OSIRIS-REx/NASA and Hayabusa-2/JAXA).The irradiations were performed on pressed pellets of several CC types, as well as on some silicate samples. We used 40 keV He+ with fluences up to 6.1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiations in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4 - 16 µm). In the MIR range, we observe a shift of the phyllosilicates (near 3 and 10 µm) and silicates (near 10 µm) bands toward longer wavelength. In the visible-NIR range, we confirm the red/dark trends on silicates, but CCs present a continuum of behaviors after ion irradiation correlated with the initial albedo/composition: from red to blue and from dark to bright.We propose a model for SpWe effects on low albedo objects, showing that those with initial albedo between 5 and 9 % do not suffer SpWe effects in the visible range.These new spectral alterations due to SpWe can be used by future and ongoing space missions to detect pristine/altered materials. To do so, we have started looking at VIR data on Ceres. Craters are ideal for this purpose as they expose both old and young surfaces in the same area. We have been looking at HAMO data on several craters

  14. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Joint commission accreditation and quality measures in U.S. nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Laura M; McDonald, Shawna M; Castle, Nicholas G

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the association between accreditation and select measures of quality in U.S. nursing homes, both cross-sectionally and over time. Data analyzed in this research originated from a web-based search of The Joint Commission (TJC) accredited facilities and the Nursing Home Compare set of Quality Measures relating to physical restraint use, pain management, urinary catheter use, and pressure sores. Five-Star Nursing Home Quality Rating System information was also used to calculate overall quality measure and health inspection scores. Data were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Comparing quality in the year before accreditation with the 1st year after accreditation, all five Quality Measures and both Five-Star categories demonstrated improvement. In comparing quality after 8 years of accreditation, three of the Quality Measures examined continued to improve. There were no cases where accreditation was associated with decreased quality. These results indicate that TJC accredited nursing homes improve their quality immediately after accreditation but do not continue to improve in all areas over time.

  16. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) Measure Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.; Yee, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  17. Development of two measures of client engagement for use in home aged care.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jess Rose; Harrison, Fleur; Low, Lee-Fay

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and validate measures of client engagement in aged homecare. The Homecare Measure of Engagement-Staff questionnaire (HoME-S) is a self-complete measure of six dimensions of client engagement: client acceptance, attention, attitude, appropriateness, engagement duration and passivity. The Homecare Measure of Engagement-Client/Family report (HoME-CF) is a researcher-rated interview which obtains client and/or family perspectives regarding frequency and valence of conversational and recreational engagement during care worker visits. Care workers (n = 84) completed the HoME-S and a measure of relationship bond with client. Researchers interviewed clients (n = 164) and/or their family (n = 117) and completed the HoME-CF, and measures of agitation, dysphoria, apathy and cognitive functioning. The HoME-S and HoME-CF demonstrated good test-retest and inter-rater reliability, and showed significant negative correlations with apathy, agitation and non-English-speaking background. Controlling for client and care service characteristics, a stronger care worker-client relationship bond and English-speaking background were independently associated with higher HoME-S scores, and apathy was independently associated with higher HoME-CF scores. In conclusion, the HoME-S and HoME-CF are psychometrically sound engagement measures for use in homecare. Clients who are apathetic or from non-English-speaking backgrounds may be less responsive to traditional care worker engagement strategies. Engagement may be augmented in clients who have stronger relationships with their care workers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pilot study of methods and equipment for in-home noise level measurements

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Heikkinen, Maire S.A.; Williams, Christopher C.; Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the auditory and non-auditory effects of noise has increased dramatically over the past decade, but indoor noise exposure measurement methods have not advanced appreciably, despite the introduction of applicable new technologies. This study evaluated various conventional and smart devices for exposure assessment in the National Children's Study. Three devices were tested: a sound level meter (SLM), a dosimeter, and a smart device with a noise measurement application installed. Instrument performance was evaluated in a series of semi-controlled tests in office environments over 96-hour periods, followed by measurements made continuously in two rooms (a child's bedroom and a most used room) in nine participating homes over a 7-day period with subsequent computation of a range of noise metrics. The SLMs and dosimeters yielded similar A-weighted average noise levels. Levels measured by the smart devices often differed substantially (showing both positive and negative bias, depending on the metric) from those measured via SLM and dosimeter, and demonstrated attenuation in some frequency bands in spectral analysis compared to SLM results. Virtually all measurements exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's 45 dBA day-night limit for indoor residential exposures. The measurement protocol developed here can be employed in homes, demonstrates the possibility of measuring long-term noise exposures in homes with technologies beyond traditional SLMs, and highlights potential pitfalls associated with measurements made by smart devices. PMID:27053775

  19. Pilot study of methods and equipment for in-home noise level measurements.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard L; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Williams, Christopher C; Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael

    2015-01-15

    Knowledge of the auditory and non-auditory effects of noise has increased dramatically over the past decade, but indoor noise exposure measurement methods have not advanced appreciably, despite the introduction of applicable new technologies. This study evaluated various conventional and smart devices for exposure assessment in the National Children's Study. Three devices were tested: a sound level meter (SLM), a dosimeter, and a smart device with a noise measurement application installed. Instrument performance was evaluated in a series of semi-controlled tests in office environments over 96-hour periods, followed by measurements made continuously in two rooms (a child's bedroom and a most used room) in nine participating homes over a 7-day period with subsequent computation of a range of noise metrics. The SLMs and dosimeters yielded similar A-weighted average noise levels. Levels measured by the smart devices often differed substantially (showing both positive and negative bias, depending on the metric) from those measured via SLM and dosimeter, and demonstrated attenuation in some frequency bands in spectral analysis compared to SLM results. Virtually all measurements exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's 45 dBA day-night limit for indoor residential exposures. The measurement protocol developed here can be employed in homes, demonstrates the possibility of measuring long-term noise exposures in homes with technologies beyond traditional SLMs, and highlights potential pitfalls associated with measurements made by smart devices.

  20. The Weatherization Assistant User's Manual (Version 8.9)

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, Michael B.; Malhotra, Mini; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistant is a Windows-based energy audit software tool that was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help states and their local weatherization agencies implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. The Weatherization Assistant is an umbrella program for two individual energy audits or measure selection programs: the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) for site-built single-family homes and the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) for mobile homes. The Weatherization Assistant User's Manual documents the operation of the user interface for Version 8.9 of the software. This includes how to install and setup the software, navigate through the program, and initiate an energy audit. All of the user interface forms associated with the software and the data fields on these forms are described in detail. The manual is intended to be a training manual for new users of the Weatherization Assistant and as a reference manual for experienced users.

  1. Strategies for classifying patients based on office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Ting-Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines propose home or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as indispensable after office measurement. However, whether preference should be given to home or ambulatory monitoring remains undetermined. In 831 untreated outpatients (mean age, 50.6 years; 49.8% women), we measured office (3 visits), home (7 days), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressures. We applied hypertension guidelines for cross-classification of patients into normotension or white-coat, masked, or sustained hypertension. Based on office and home blood pressures, the prevalence of white-coat, masked, and sustained hypertension was 61 (10.3%), 166 (20.0%), and 162 (19.5%), respectively. Using daytime (from 8 am to 6 pm) instead of home blood pressure confirmed the cross-classification in 575 patients (69.2%), downgraded risk from masked hypertension to normotension (n=24) or from sustained to white-coat hypertension (n=9) in 33 (4.0%), but upgraded risk from normotension to masked hypertension (n=179) or from white-coat to sustained hypertension (n=44) in 223 (26.8%). Analyses based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were confirmatory. In adjusted analyses, both the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (+20.6%; confidence interval, 4.4-39.3) and aortic pulse wave velocity (+0.30 m/s; confidence interval, 0.09-0.51) were higher in patients who moved up to a higher risk category. Both indexes of target organ damage and central augmentation index were positively associated (P≤0.048) with the odds of being reclassified. In conclusion, for reliably diagnosing hypertension and starting treatment, office measurement should be followed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Using home instead of ambulatory monitoring misses the high-risk diagnoses of masked or sustained hypertension in over 25% of patients.

  2. Decreased Pulmonary Function Measured in Children Exposed to High Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Homes

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Wymer, Larry; Kennedy, Suzanne; Grimsley, L. Faye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposures to water-damaged homes/buildings has been linked to deficits in respiratory health. However, accurately quantifying this linkage has been difficult because of the methods used to assess water damage and respiratory health. Purpose: The goal of this analysis was to determine the correlation between the water-damage, as defined by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value in an asthmatic child’s home, and the child’s pulmonary function measured by spirometry, “forced expiratory volume in one second, percent predicted” or FEV1%. Methods: This analysis utilized data obtained from the “Heads-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana” (HEAL) study. The children (n= 109), 6 to 12 years of age, who had completed at least one spirometry evaluation and a dust sample collected for ERMI analysis from the home at approximately the same time as the spirometry testing, were included in the analysis. Statistical evaluation of the correlation between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation analysis. The relationship between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using B-spline regression. Results: The average ERMI value in the HEAL study homes was 7.3. For homes with ERMI values between 2.5 and 15, there was a significant inverse correlation with the child’s lung function or FEV1% measurement (Spearman’s rho -0.23; p= 0.03), i.e. as the ERMI value increased, the FEV1% value decreased. Conclusions: Measures of water-damage (the ERMI) and clinical assessments of lung function (FEV1%) provided a quantitative assessment of the impact of water-damaged home exposures on children’s respiratory health. PMID:24494033

  3. The association of Nursing Home Compare quality measures with market competition and occupancy rates.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G; Liu, Darren; Engberg, John

    2008-01-01

    Since 2002, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have reported quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare Web site. It has been assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these measures. In this study researchers examined nursing homes to see whether they have improved their quality scores, after accounting for regression to the mean. Researchers also examined whether gains varied according to market competition or market occupancy rates. They identified some regression to the mean for the quality measure scores over time; nevertheless, they also determined that some nursing homes had indeed made small improvements in their quality measure scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, the greatest improvements occurred in the most competitive markets and in those with the Lowest average occupancy rates. As policies to promote more competition in Long-term care proceed, further reducing occupancy rates, further, albeit small, quality gains will likely be made in the future.

  4. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Phthalates Measured from Floor Wipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), conducted a survey measuring phthalates in randomly selected residential homes throughout the U.S. Multistage sampling with clustering w...

  5. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Phthalates Measured from Floor Wipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), conducted a survey measuring phthalates in randomly selected residential homes throughout the U.S. Multistage sampling with clustering w...

  6. Higher measured moisture in California homes with qualitative evidence of dampness.

    PubMed

    Macher, J M; Mendell, M J; Kumagai, K; Holland, N T; Camacho, J M; Harley, K G; Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A

    2016-12-01

    Relationships between measured moisture and qualitative dampness indicators (mold odor, visible mold, visible water damage, or peeling paint) were evaluated using data collected from California homes in a prospective birth cohort study when the infants were 6 or 12 months of age (737 home visits). For repeated visits, agreement between observation of the presence/absence of each qualitative indicator at both visits was high (71-87%, P < 0.0001). Among individual indicators, musty odor and visible mold were most strongly correlated with elevated moisture readings. Measured moisture differed significantly between repeated visits in opposite seasons (P < 0.0001), and dampness increased with the number of indicators in a home. Linear mixed-effect models showed that 10-unit increases in maximum measured moisture were associated with the presence of 0.5 additional dampness indicators (P < 0.001). Bedroom (BR) walls were damper than living room (LR) walls in the same homes (P < 0.0001), although both average and maximum readings were positively correlated across room type (r = 0.75 and 0.67, respectively, both P < 0.0001). Exterior walls were significantly damper than interior walls (P < 0.0001 in both LRs and BRs), but no differences were observed between maximum wall readings and measurements at either window corners or sites of suspected dampness.

  7. Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

  8. Anthropometric measurements may be informative for nursing home-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aksoy, Sevki Murat; Ozkaya, Ismail; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia (NHAP) risk. Methods: Consecutive patients of 65 years or elderly who were living in the Balikli Rum Hospital Nursing Homes were included in this prospective study. At the beginning of this study, the patients’ anthropometrics values were measured. The patients were followed for one year, and any incidences of pneumonia attacks were recorded. The relationship between the anthropometric measurements and pneumonia occurrences was analyzed. Results: There were 133 inmates at the initial assessments. Of 108 patients who were eligible for the study, 77 (72.2%) were female and 37 (27.8%) were male. The mean age of the group was 79.8±10.5. Patients were assigned to a group according to the presence of pneumonia during the one -year follow-up. There were 74 (55.6%) patients who had suffered from at least one attack of pneumonia during the follow-up period. The mean triceps skinfold was significantly thinner in the pneumonia group, and the mean handgrip measurements in both the dominant and non-dominant hands were significantly weaker in the pneumonia group. Furthermore, the frequency of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) was significantly higher in this group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The risk of pneumonia was high in the elderly population who live in nursing homes. Simple anthropometric values may be predictive of the potential for Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia. PMID:27375716

  9. Evaluation on the implementation of respiratory protection measures in old age homes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Diana Tf; Yu, Doris; Ip, Margaret; Tang, Jennifer Ym

    2017-01-01

    Old age homes (OAHs) represent a vulnerable community for influenza outbreaks. Effective implementation of respiratory protection measures has been identified as an effective prevention measure to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by such outbreaks. Yet, relatively little is known about this aspect in these homes. This study evaluated the implementation of respiratory protection measures among infection control officers (ICOs) and health care workers (HCWs) in these homes in Hong Kong. A territory-wide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 OAHs. A total of 87 ICOs and 1,763 HCWs (including nurses, health workers, care workers, allied HCWs and assistants) completed the questionnaires that evaluated the implementation at the organizational level and individual level, respectively. Generalized estimating equations with unstructured working correlation matrix were used to analyze the simultaneous influence of organizational and individual factors on the implementation. At the organizational level, all homes had a policy on respiratory protection and implementation of such measures was generally adequate. Basic resources such as paper towels/hand dryers and equipment disinfectants, however, were rated as most inadequate by HCWs. Training opportunities were also identified as grossly inadequate. Only less than half of the ICOs and HCWs participated in training on infection control either at the initiation of employment or on a regular basis. Twenty-five percent of HCWs even indicated that they had never participated in any infection control training. At the individual level, hand hygiene, among other protection measures, was found to be less well implemented by HCWs. In terms of the association of various organizational and individual characteristics, private homes and health workers rated significantly higher scores in the implementation of various domains in respiratory protection. Addressing the unmet training needs and promoting hand hygiene practice are

  10. Evaluation on the implementation of respiratory protection measures in old age homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Diana TF; Yu, Doris; Ip, Margaret; Tang, Jennifer YM

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Old age homes (OAHs) represent a vulnerable community for influenza outbreaks. Effective implementation of respiratory protection measures has been identified as an effective prevention measure to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by such outbreaks. Yet, relatively little is known about this aspect in these homes. This study evaluated the implementation of respiratory protection measures among infection control officers (ICOs) and health care workers (HCWs) in these homes in Hong Kong. Patients and methods A territory-wide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 OAHs. A total of 87 ICOs and 1,763 HCWs (including nurses, health workers, care workers, allied HCWs and assistants) completed the questionnaires that evaluated the implementation at the organizational level and individual level, respectively. Generalized estimating equations with unstructured working correlation matrix were used to analyze the simultaneous influence of organizational and individual factors on the implementation. Results At the organizational level, all homes had a policy on respiratory protection and implementation of such measures was generally adequate. Basic resources such as paper towels/hand dryers and equipment disinfectants, however, were rated as most inadequate by HCWs. Training opportunities were also identified as grossly inadequate. Only less than half of the ICOs and HCWs participated in training on infection control either at the initiation of employment or on a regular basis. Twenty-five percent of HCWs even indicated that they had never participated in any infection control training. At the individual level, hand hygiene, among other protection measures, was found to be less well implemented by HCWs. In terms of the association of various organizational and individual characteristics, private homes and health workers rated significantly higher scores in the implementation of various domains in respiratory protection. Conclusion Addressing the unmet training

  11. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa; Faulkner, David; Heredia, Elizabeth; Cohn, Sebastian; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Noris, Federico; Logue, Jennifer; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Singer, Brett; Sherman, Max H.

    2012-10-01

    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison between different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.

  12. Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather

  13. Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather

  14. Massachusetts Fosters the Weatherization Spirit: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    Massachusetts demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  15. The Spirit of North Dakota: Alive in Weatherization; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    North Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  16. Weatherization Radiates Energy Savings in Florida: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    Florida demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  17. Weatherization Savings Peak in Alaska: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    Alaska demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  18. Weatherization Grows in the Green Mountain State (Vermont): Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    Vermont demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  19. Prevention of infections in nursing homes: antibiotic prophylaxis versus infection control and antimicrobial stewardship measures.

    PubMed

    Giannella, Maddalena; Tedeschi, Sara; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of structural and human resources for implementing more effective and safe preventive procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis is often used to prevent infections in nursing homes. However, if data on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in nursing homes are null, there is a plenty of evidence that the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in this setting is associated with a high rate of colonization and infection with multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), and of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Here, we have reviewed the infection epidemiology, the burden of MDROs and CDI, the antibiotic use and some potential infection preventive measures in nursing homes, pointing up the peculiarities of this setting and the absolute need of a more prudential use of antimicrobials.

  20. Office, ambulatory and home blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpettas, Nikos; Kollias, Anastasios; Vazeou, Andriani; Stergiou, George S

    2010-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in pediatric hypertension, the prevalence of which is rising in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Traditionally the assessment of hypertension in children has relied on office blood pressure (BP) measurements by the physician. However, as in adults, office BP might be misleading in children mainly due to the white coat and masked hypertension phenomena. Thus, out-of-office BP assessment, using ambulatory or home monitoring, has gained ground for the accurate diagnosis of hypertension and decision-making. Ambulatory monitoring is regarded as indispensable for the evaluation of pediatric hypertension. Preliminary data support the usefulness of home monitoring, yet more evidence is needed. Office, ambulatory and home BP normalcy tables providing thresholds for diagnosis have been published and should be used for the assessment of elevated BP in children.

  1. Postdischarge Communication Between Home Health Nurses and Physicians: Measurement, Quality, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Press, Matthew J; Gerber, Linda M; Peng, Timothy R; Pesko, Michael F; Feldman, Penny H; Ouchida, Karin; Sridharan, Sridevi; Bao, Yuhua; Barron, Yolanda; Casalino, Lawrence P

    2015-07-01

    To use natural language processing (NLP) of text from electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify failed communication attempts between home health nurses and physicians, to identify predictors of communication failure, and to assess the association between communication failure and hospital readmission. Retrospective cohort study. Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY), the nation's largest freestanding home health agency. Medicare beneficiaries with congestive heart failure who received home health care from VNSNY after hospital discharge in 2008-09 (N = 5,698). Patient-level measures of communication failure and risk-adjusted 30-day all-cause readmission. Identification of failed communication attempts using NLP had high external validity (kappa = 0.850, P < .001). A mean of 8% of communication attempts failed per episode of home care; failure rates were higher for black patients and lower for patients from higher median income ZIP codes. The association between communication failure and readmission was not significant with adjustment for patient, nurse, physician, and hospital factors. NLP of EMRs can be used to identify failed communication attempts between home health nurses and physicians, but other variables mostly explained the association between communication failure and readmission. Communication failures may contribute to readmissions in more-serious clinical situations, an association that this study may have been underpowered to detect. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Anomalous effects of radioactive decay rates and capacitance values measured inside a modified Faraday cage: Correlations with space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholkmann, F.; Milián-Sánchez, V.; Mocholí-Salcedo, A.; Milián, C.; Kolombet, V. A.; Verdú, G.

    2017-03-01

    Recently we reported (Milián-Sánchez V. et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 828 (2016) 210) our experimental results involving 226Ra decay rate and capacitance measurements inside a modified Faraday cage. Our measurements exhibited anomalous effects of unknown origin. In this letter we report new results regarding our investigation into the origins of the observed effects. We report preliminary findings of a correlation analysis between the radioactive decay rates and capacitance time series and space weather related variables (geomagnetic field disturbances and cosmic-ray neutron counts). A significant correlation was observed for specific data sets. The results are presented and possible implications for future work discussed.

  3. Giving voice to the vulnerable: the development of a CAHPS nursing home survey measuring family members' experiences.

    PubMed

    Frentzel, Elizabeth M; Sangl, Judith A; Evensen, Christian T; Cosenza, Carol; Brown, Julie A; Keller, San; Garfinkel, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    To complement a nursing home resident survey, the team developed a survey asking family members about their experiences with nursing homes. Although a family member does not receive care directly from a nursing home, their experiences at the nursing home and with staff can contribute to understanding nursing home quality. To describe how the nursing home family member instrument was developed, refined, tested, and finalized. The team developed a draft survey using information from a literature review, 12 focus groups with family members involved in choosing a nursing home for someone, review of nursing home surveys, and expert/stakeholder input. The survey went through 2 rounds of cognitive interviews (n=54) and revisions and was fielded in 15 nursing homes. Data from the pilot survey (n=885) were subjected to psychometric analyses to evaluate the measurement properties of items as well as the reliability and validity of the resulting composites. On the basis of these analyses and input from experts, the survey was finalized. Focus groups and experts provided input into discerning important indicators of quality, although in some cases family members were not the best sources of information. Cognitive testing refined the survey and eliminated some of the proxy items. The field test analysis and input from experts eliminated 10 items. The final survey included 21 items organized into 4 composites. This survey measures family members' experiences of nursing home care, and the results contribute to the understanding of quality of care in nursing homes.

  4. Now, Here's the Weather Forecast...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…

  5. Now, Here's the Weather Forecast...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…

  6. Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much

  7. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  8. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  9. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  10. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  11. Laboratory Simulation of Space Weathering: ESR Measurements of Nanophase Metallic Iron in Laser-irradiated Olivine and Pyroxene Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurahashi, E.; Yamanaka, C.; Nakamura, K.; Sasaki, S.

    2003-01-01

    S-type asteroids are believed to be parent bodies of ordinary chondrites. Although both S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites contain the same mineral assemblage, mainly olivine and pyroxene, the reflectance spectra of the asteroids exhibit more overall depletion (darkening) and reddening, and more weakening of absorption bands relative to the meteorites. This spectral mismatch is explained by space weathering process, where high-velocity dust particle impacts should change the optical properties of the uppermost regolith surface of asteroids. In order to simulate the space weathering, we irradiated nanosecond pulse laser beam onto pellet samples of olivine (8.97wt% FeO) and pyroxene (enstatite: 9.88wt% FeO, hypersthene: 16.70wt%). We got spectral changes in our samples similar to that by space weathering on asteroids and confirmed nanophase alpha-metallic iron particles, which were theoretically predicted, not only on olivine but also on pyroxene samples by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Nanophase metallic iron particles were widely scattered throughout the amorphous rims developed along the olivine grains, whereas they were embedded in aggregates of amorphous in enstatite samples. Recently, we also measured laser-irradiated samples by ESR (Electron Spin Resonance). Strong ESR signals, characteristic to nanophase iron particles, are observed on irradiated olivine samples. In this paper, we report the quantities of nanophase metallic iron particles in pyroxene samples by ESR observations in addition to olivine samples.

  12. Teacher to Teacher: Take-Home Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Joyce; Krebill, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    Describes a kit containing mathematical enrichment activities and activity evaluation sheets that kindergarten students can complete at home. Thirteen sample activities involving weather, pattern recognition, counting, money, estimation, observation skills, weight, temperature, measurement, and time are included. Suggestions for utilization, care,…

  13. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  14. Challenges in Enforcing Home Smoking Rules in a Low-Income Population: Implications for Measurement and Intervention Design.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Haardӧrfer, Regine; Berg, Carla; Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lucja; Williams, Rebecca; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-05-01

    Smoke-free homes reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, contribute to lower levels of consumption, and help smokers to quit. Even when home smoking rules are established however, they may not be consistently enforced. This study uses data from a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention to create smoke-free homes among callers to the United Way of Greater Atlanta 2-1-1. Participants with partial or full home smoking bans at 6-month follow-up were asked about enforcement challenges, rooms where smoking occurred, and exceptions to the rules. Air nicotine monitors were placed in a subset of homes. Participants (n = 286) were mostly female (84.6%) and African American (84.9%). Most were smokers (79.0%) and reported at least half of their friends and relatives smoked (63.3%). Among those with a full ban, 4.3% reported their rules were broken very often whereas 52.6% stated they were never broken. Bad weather and parties were the most common exceptions to rules. Among nonsmokers with full bans, 16% reported exposure to secondhand smoke in the home 1-3 days in the past week. In multivariate analyses, having a partial ban, being a nonsmoker, and living with three or more smokers predicted higher levels of enforcement challenges. Findings suggest the majority of households with newly adopted smoke-free rules had no or rare enforcement challenges, but about one-fifth reported their rules were broken sometimes or very often. Interventions to create smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges as newly adopted rules may be fragile in some households. Interventions that promote smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reliability of home-based, motor function measure in hereditary neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cortes, Xiomara; Ortiz-Corredor, Fernando; Mendoza-Pulido, Camilo

    2017-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability of the motor function measure (MFM) scale in the assessment of disease severity and progression when administered at home and clinic and assess its correlation with the Paediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI). Methods In this prospective study, two assessors rated children with hereditary neuromuscular diseases (HNMDs) using the MFM at the clinic and then 2 weeks later at the patients' home. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the reliability of the MFM and its domains. The reliability of each item was assessed and the correlation between MFM and three domains of PODCI was evaluated. Results A total of 48 children (5-17 years of age) were assessed in both locations and the MFM scale demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC, 0.98). Weighted kappa ranged from excellent to poor. Correlation of the home-based MFM with the PODCI domain 'basic mobility and transfers' was excellent, with the 'upper extremity' domain was moderate, but there was no correlation with the 'happiness' domain. Conclusion The MFM is a reliable tool for assessing patients with HNMD when used in a home-based setting.

  16. Snowfall Rate Retrieval Using Passive Microwave Measurements and Its Applications in Weather Forecast and Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Yan, Banghua; Zavodsky, Bradley; Zhao, Limin; Dong, Jun; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has also been developed. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. It employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derives the probability of snowfall. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model. A method adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The SFR products are being used mainly in two communities: hydrology and weather forecast. Global blended precipitation products traditionally do not include snowfall derived from satellites because such products were not available operationally in the past. The ATMS and AMSU/MHS SFR now provide the winter precipitation information for these blended precipitation products. Weather forecasters mainly rely on radar and station observations for snowfall forecast. The SFR products can fill in gaps where no conventional snowfall data are available to forecasters. The products can also be used to confirm radar and gauge snowfall data and increase forecasters' confidence in their prediction.

  17. Measurement of home-use laser and intense pulsed light systems for hair removal: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Town, Godfrey; Ash, Caerwyn

    2009-09-01

    Laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) devices are used routinely by healthcare professionals for hair removal, but laser and light technology devices intended for home use have so far had little impact in the consumer market. However, as multinational companies enter this market, there will be an explosion in the use of such devices by the consumer. This investigation focuses on the technical performance of the devices tested and although no clinical data are presented, the measured parameters are those that will directly impact efficacy in hair reduction, efficient coverage of skin, and safety in terms of unintentional eye exposure to the light source or incorrect settings for a given skin type. Consumers will consult healthcare professionals with experience of light-based therapies for guidance and this study provides useful reference information on available home-use devices. Previously published standard test methods were used to evaluate the devices tested. Some of the devices measured in this study showed significant discrepancies between claims made by the manufacturers and the parameters measured. There is an urgent need for early ratification of the draft international IEC 60601-1 intense light standard, which will encompass manufacturing standards for both professional and home-use hair removal devices.

  18. Automated measurement of office, home and ambulatory blood pressure in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S

    2014-01-01

    1. Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist and are strong risk factors for stroke. Current guidelines for blood pressure (BP) measurement in AF recommend repeated measurements using the auscultatory method, whereas the accuracy of the automated devices is regarded as questionable. This review presents the current evidence on the feasibility and accuracy of automated BP measurement in the presence of AF and the potential for automated detection of undiagnosed AF during such measurements. 2. Studies evaluating the use of automated BP monitors in AF are limited and have significant heterogeneity in methodology and protocols. Overall, the oscillometric method is feasible for static (office or home) and ambulatory use and appears to be more accurate for systolic than diastolic BP measurement. 3. Given that systolic hypertension is particularly common and important in the elderly, the automated BP measurement method may be acceptable for self-home and ambulatory monitoring, but not for professional office or clinic measurement. 4. An embedded algorithm for the detection of asymptomatic AF during routine automated BP measurement with high diagnostic accuracy has been developed and appears to be a useful screening tool for elderly hypertensives.

  19. Associations Between Family Ratings on Experience With Care and Clinical Quality-of-Care Measures for Nursing Home Residents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua; Tang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Several states are currently collecting and publicly reporting nursing home resident and/or family member ratings of experience with care in an attempt to improve person-centered care in nursing homes. Using the 2008 Maryland nursing home family survey reports and other data, this study performed both facility- and resident-level analyses, and estimated the relationships between family ratings of care and several long-term care quality measures (pressure ulcers, overall and potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and mortality) after adjustment for resident characteristics. We found that better family evaluations of overall and specific aspects of care may be associated with reduced rates of risk-adjusted measures at the facility level (range of correlation coefficients: -.01 to -.31). Associations of overall experience ratings tended to persist after further adjustment for common nursing home characteristics such as nurse staffing levels. We conclude that family ratings of nursing home care complement other types of performance measures such as risk-adjusted outcomes.

  20. Higher Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) Values Measured in Homes of Asthmatic Children in Boston, Kansas City, and San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Stephen; Barnes, Charles; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Johanns, Alan; Kennedy, Kevin; Murphy, Johnna S.; Nunez-Alvarez, Arcela; Sandel, Megan T.; Cox, David; Dewalt, Gary; Ashley, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mold in water-damaged homes has been linked to asthma. Our objective was to test a new metric to quantify mold exposures in asthmatic children’s homes in three widely dispersed cities in the United States. Methods The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) metric was created by the US Environmental Protection Agency, with assistance by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), to quantify mold contamination in US homes. The ERMI values in homes of asthmatic children were determined for the three widely dispersed cities of Boston, Kansas City, and San Diego. Results Asthmatic children in Boston (n = 76), Kansas City (n = 60), and San Diego (n = 93) were found to be living in homes with significantly higher ERMI values than were found in homes randomly selected during the 2006 HUD American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS) from the same geographic areas (n = 34, 22, and 28, respectively). Taken together, the average ERMI value in the homes with an asthmatic child was 8.73 compared to 3.87 for the AHHS homes. In addition, Kansas City homes of children with “Mild, Moderate, or Severe Persistent Asthma” had average ERMI value of 12.4 compared to 7.9 for homes of children with only “Mild Intermittent Asthma.” Aspergillus niger was the only mold of the 36 tested which was measured in significantly greater concentration in the homes of asthmatic children in all three cities. Conclusion High ERMI values were associated with homes of asthmatic children in three widely dispersed cities in the United States. PMID:23137280

  1. Difference between home and office blood pressures among treated hypertensive patients from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) study.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to clarify the factors associated with the magnitude of the difference between home and office blood pressures in treated hypertensive patients. Study subjects consisted of 3,308 essential hypertensive patients (mean age, 66 years; males, 44%) receiving antihypertensive treatment in primary care settings in Japan. Patients were classified into 3 groups (the home effect group, small difference group, and office effect group) according to tertiles of the magnitude of the office-home systolic blood pressure difference. Compared to the other two groups, the home effect group patients were significantly and independently older, were more often habitual drinkers, had a greater family history of cerebrovascular disease or personal history of ischemic heart disease, and were prescribed a greater number of antihypertensive drugs, non-amlodipine calcium channel blockers, and alpha-blockers as antihypertensive drugs. Compared to the other two groups, the office effect group patients were significantly and independently younger, included more females, less frequently had a family history of cerebrovascular disease or personal history of ischemic heart disease, and were less often prescribed alpha-blockers as antihypertensive drugs. The characteristics of home effect group patients and the factors negatively affecting the blood pressure difference were the same. Among treated hypertensive patients, compared to patients in the other groups, office effect group patients had a lower-risk profile, whereas home effect group patients had a higher-risk profile. These predictive factors might be useful clinically to help identify patients who may have a large difference between home and office blood pressures.

  2. Maternal clinic and home blood pressure measurements during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the BOSHI study.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Noriyuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yagihashi, Katsuyo; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Takashi; Sugawara, Junichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This prospective cohort study compared measurements of maternal home blood pressure (HBP) with clinic blood pressure (CBP) before 20 weeks' gestation to determine associations with the risk of delivering a lower birth weight infant. A total of 605 Japanese women were included. Exposures were initial CBP, made between 10 weeks 0 days and 19 weeks 0 days, and HBP for comparison made within 1 week of CBP. Outcome was infant's birth weight, categorized and ranked as follows: ⩾3500 g, 3000-3499 g, 2500-2999 g and <2500 g. The proportional odds model with possible confounding factors was applied to compare the associations between CBP and HBP on infant birth weight. When both CBP and HBP were included simultaneously, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation (1s.d.) increase in clinic and home diastolic BP (DBP) were 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.30) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04-1.58), respectively. The adjusted ORs per 1s.d. increase in clinic and home mean arterial pressure (MAP) were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.83-1.24) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), respectively. Systolic BP measurement was not associated with infant birth weight. In conclusion, high maternal home DBP and MAP before 20 weeks' gestation was associated with a higher risk of lower infant birth weight than clinic DBP and MAP. Therefore, in addition to CBP, it may be worth having pregnant women measure HBP to determine the risk of lower infant birth weight.

  3. Weatherization Inspection Guide 1 for the Department of Energy's weatherization installers and inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This guide provides written procedures for the post-inspection of weatherization measures under both the Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program (DOE) and the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). Since the inception of the DOE program in 1976, quality of workmanship has been controlled by front end training of work crews and post-inspections by crew leaders. The subjective nature of this approach to quality assurance has obvious shortcomings. Not all installers and inspectors receive the same amount of training. Not all training programs neither adequately address the correct techniques and procedures for the proper installation of basic weatherization measures nor the correct inspection of the completed installations. The weatherization standards were written to address several of these shortcomings by providing uniform, objective, clearly written and illustrated standards for the installation of quality workmanship. The standards also serve as tools for measuring quality performance. The Inspection Guide supplements the standards and serves installers and inspectors training needs. The Inspection Guide also is an instrument for the inspection of completed dwelling units. The guide is not blower door driven and does not make use of the more advanced diagnostic technology such as tracer gases and infrared thermography. It was written to supplement those weatherization programs that utilize mandatory lists of measures and do not yet make use of this advanced technology. 19 figs.

  4. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics-a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb (P < 0.05). We concluded that along with "good" weather conditions, efforts to reduce traffic congestion in Beijing during the Olympic Games were associated with a prolonged reduction in air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  5. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  6. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  7. Turbulence as observed by concurrent measurements made at NSSL using weather radar, Doppler radar, Doppler lidar and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jean T.

    1987-01-01

    As air traffic increases and aircraft capability increases in range and operating altitude, the exposure to weather hazards increases. Turbulence and wind shears are two of the most important of these hazards that must be taken into account if safe flight operations are to be accomplished. Beginning in the early 1960's, Project Rough Rider began thunderstorm investigations. Past and present efforts at the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) to measure these flight safety hazards and to describe the use of Doppler radar to detect and qualify these hazards are summarized. In particular, the evolution of the Doppler-measured radial velocity spectrum width and its applicability to the problem of safe flight is presented.

  8. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  9. Recommended documentation of evapotranspiration measurements and associated weather data and a review of requirements for accuracy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More and more evapotranspiration (ET) models, ET crop coefficients, and associated measurements of ET are reported in the literature. These measurements base from a range of measurement systems including lysimeters, eddy covariance, Bowen ratio, water balance (gravimetric, neutron meter, other soil ...

  10. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  11. The Harmonizing Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap: a methodological framework to develop core sets of outcome measurements in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian; Spuls, Phyllis I; Thomas, Kim S; Simpson, Eric L; Furue, Masutaka; Chalmers, Joanne; Williams, Hywel C

    2015-01-01

    Core outcome sets (COSs) are consensus-derived minimum sets of outcomes to be assessed in a specific situation. COSs are being increasingly developed to limit outcome-reporting bias, allow comparisons across trials, and strengthen clinical decision making. Despite the increasing interest in outcomes research, methods to develop COSs have not yet been standardized. The aim of this paper is to present the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap for the development and implementation of COSs, which was developed on the basis of our experience in the standardization of outcome measurements for atopic eczema. Following the establishment of a panel representing all relevant stakeholders and a research team experienced in outcomes research, the scope and setting of the core set should be defined. The next steps are the definition of a core set of outcome domains such as symptoms or quality of life, followed by the identification or development and validation of appropriate outcome measurement instruments to measure these core domains. Finally, the consented COS needs to be disseminated, implemented, and reviewed. We believe that the HOME roadmap is a useful methodological framework to develop COSs in dermatology, with the ultimate goal of better decision making and promoting patient-centered health care.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of NACA Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence Within a Thunderstorm - U.S. Weather Bureau Thunderstorm Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, Harold B

    1947-01-01

    A general description of the field operations of the U.S. Weather Bureau thunderstorm project conducted in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida during the summer month of 1946 is given. The participation of NACA in this project is described and measurements of atmospheric turbulence taken by NACA are presented for one of the flights. The results indicate that some regions of thunderstorms may present no great hazard to flight, while exceptionally severe conditions of atmospheric turbulence may occur in other regions, or even in the same region, at about the same time. The results also indicate that these severe conditions of turbulence might lead to loss of control with the possible loss of the airplane.

  13. [Why and how should the patient perform a correct home blood pressure measurement?].

    PubMed

    Krzesinski, F; Krzesinski, J M

    2009-04-01

    Home blood pressure (BP) measurement is a medical prescription. The interpretation of the results must be left to the physician. This method is complementary to the classical office BP measurement and the 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement. It must be proposed to some selected patients on the basis of their capacity of learning and understanding the place of the technique for the diagnosis and the treatment compliance. It allows a more active contribution of the patient to the management of her chronic disease and, this, may improve the prevention of cardiovascular complication. A normal blood pressure during self BP measurement is equal or lower to 135/85 mmHg or even lower in high cardiovascular risk patients. This new technique, already largely used by patients, needs adequate education and good advice for buying a validated device.

  14. Long-term measurements of respirable sulfates and particles inside and outside homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spengler, J. D.; Dockery, D. W.; Turner, W. A.; Wolfson, J. M.; Ferris, B. G.

    The results of extensive indoor and outdoor monitoring for respirable size particles and the sulfate fraction of these particles are reported. These air pollution measurements were obtained in conjunction with an epidemiologic study in six U.S. cities: Portage, Wisconsin; Topeka, Kansas; Kingston/Harriman, Tennessee; Watertown, Massachusetts; St. Louis, Missouri: and Steubenville, Ohio. The major source of indoor particulate matter is cigarette smoke, which contributes approximately 20 μm -3 to the indoor concentrations for each smoker. Even in homes without smokers, indoor particle concentrations equal or exceed outdoor levels. The indoor respirable sulfate concentrations are consistently lower than outdoor concentrations.

  15. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  16. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Ballbè, Montse; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine

  17. Using X-band Weather Radar Measurements to Monitor the Integrity of Digital Elevation Models for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steve; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Further, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a realtime monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around the Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.

  18. Space Weather Measurements from the Surface of Mars with the RAD Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Posner, Arik; Guo, Jingnan; Ehresmann, Bent; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Matthiä, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle analyzer currently operating on the surface of Mars as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD is providing the first measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of another planet due to solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). RAD is providing synoptic measurements of the energetic particle environment at a 2nd location in heliosphere (other than near-Earth or L1), and will aid heliospheric modeling over solar cycle. These observations of SEP fluxes are contributing to a solar energetic particle (SEP) event database at Mars and the Martian surface to aid prediction of Solar Particle Events (SPEs), including onset, temporal & size predictions. This presentation will provide an overview of the RAD investigation and present measurements of the solar flare, GCR and radiation environment on the surface of Mars, and discuss the importance of providing broad heliospheric coverage for situational awareness of space weather as we plan to send humans out into deep space and to Mars. RAD is supported by NASA (HEOMD) under JPL subcontract #1273039 to SwRI, and by DLR in Germany under contract with Christian-Albrechts-Universitat (CAU).

  19. Using X-band weather radar measurements to monitor the integrity of digital elevation models for synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven D.; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Futher, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a real-time monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.

  20. The operational weather radar of Fossalon di Grado (Gorizia, Italy): accuracy of reflectivity and differential reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, R.; Gorgucci, E.; Scarchilli, G.; Dietrich, S.

    The error structure of radar measurements should be accurately known in order to provide reliable estimates for a number of quantitative meteorological applications, from rainfall rate estimation to cloud microphysics. The aim of this paper is to give a detailed characterization of ZH and ZDR measurements obtained by the weather radar of Fossalon di Grado (Gorizia, Italy). Vertical-looking observations are used to determine the system bias on differential reflectivity and to estimate the measurement error on both ZH and ZDR in the rain medium. It is estimated that no bias is affecting ZDR and the accuracy of ZH and ZDR is 0.8 and 0.1dB, respectively. A similar evaluation is done in the rain medium at larger ranges with the antenna pointing at low elevation angles. The long time stability of the absolute reflectivity calibration is also established by radar-rain gage inter-comparison over almost 200 hours of precipitation data collected during nearly two years.

  1. Space Weather Measurements from the Surface of Mars with the RAD Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle analyzer currently operating on the surface of Mars as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD is providing the first measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of another planet due to solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). RAD is providing synoptic measurements of the energetic particle environment at a 2nd location in heliosphere (other than near-Earth or L1), and will aid heliospheric modeling over solar cycle. These observations of SEP fluxes are contributing to a solar energetic particle (SEP) event database at Mars and the Martian surface to aid prediction of Solar Particle Events (SPEs), including onset, temporal & size predictions. This presentation will provide an overview of the RAD investigation and present measurements of the solar flare, GCR and radiation environment on the surface of Mars, and discuss the importance of providing broad heliospheric coverage for situational awareness of space weather as we plan to send humans out into deep space and to Mars. RAD is supported by NASA (HEOMD) under JPL subcontract #1273039 to SwRI, and by DLR in Germany under contract with Christian-Albrechts-Universitat (CAU).

  2. Derivation and confirmation of scales measuring medical directors' attitudes about the hospitalization of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Edward R; O'Malley, A James; Murkofsky, Rachel L; Caudry, Daryl J; Buchanan, Joan L

    2006-12-01

    To derive and confirm scales measuring medical director's attitudes about hospitalization of nursing home residents. The authors surveyed nursing facility medical directors about the necessity of hospitalizing residents for eight clinical conditions and compared the ratings to those obtained from an expert panel to derive a relative hospitalization score. They also asked about factors that might influence hospitalization decisions. They performed a factor analysis to derive scales that measure attitudinal determinants of hospitalization and used the relative hospitalization score to confirm the scales. The survey had a 79% response rate. The relative hospitalization score demonstrated that medical directors were slightly less likely to recommend hospitalization than expert panel physicians. Factor analyses yielded 10 scales focusing on nursing home functioning, economics, resident specific considerations, and physician attitudes. Eight of the 10 scales had significant bivariable associations with the relative hospitalization score, and 6 had significant multivariable associations. Medical directors identify multiple determinants of hospitalization for nursing facility residents across several domains. Hospitalization decisions for nursing facility residents are complex and involve clinical and nonclinical factors.

  3. An assessment of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models surface soil temperature products using ground-based measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models developed by various weather centers produce estimates of the soil temperature state. In this study in situ data collected over the state of Oklahoma is used to assess and compare three NWP surface (soil) temperature products. These are 1) the integrated for...

  4. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  5. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  6. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  7. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  8. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone: Results of material loss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1986-11-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern US sites. A number of methods were employed for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among results obtained with different methods. A rate of surface recession near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in North Carolina, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. Response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a rate of loss similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  9. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone: Results of material loss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern U.S. sites. A number of methods were employed for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among results obtained with different methods. A rate of surface recession near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in North Carolina, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. Response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a rate of loss similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  10. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  11. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro E-mail: afraleoni@units.it

    2015-01-15

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  12. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  13. Psychometric testing of an instrument to measure the experience of home.

    PubMed

    Molony, Sheila L; McDonald, Deborah Dillon; Palmisano-Mills, Christine

    2007-10-01

    Research related to quality of life in long-term care has been hampered by a paucity of measurement tools sensitive to environmental interventions. The primary aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Experience of Home (EOH) Scale, designed to measure the strength of the experience of meaningful person-environment transaction. The instrument was administered to 200 older adults in diverse dwelling types. Principal components analysis provided support for construct validity, eliciting a three-factor solution accounting for 63.18% of variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability was supported with Cronbach's alpha of .96 for the entire scale. The EOH Scale is a unique research tool to evaluate interventions to improve quality of living in residential environments.

  14. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), a core instrument to measure symptoms in clinical trials: a Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) statement.

    PubMed

    Spuls, P I; Gerbens, L A A; Simpson, E; Apfelbacher, C J; Chalmers, J R; Thomas, K S; Prinsen, C A C; von Kobyletzki, L B; Singh, J A; Williams, H C; Schmitt, J

    2017-04-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has defined four core outcome domains for a core outcome set (COS) to be measured in all atopic eczema (AE) trials to ensure cross-trial comparison: clinical signs, symptoms, quality of life and long-term control. The aim of this paper is to report on the consensus process that was used to select the core instrument to consistently assess symptoms in all future AE trials. Following the HOME roadmap, two systematic reviews were performed which identified three instruments that had sufficient evidence of validity, reliability and feasibility to be considered for the final COS. At the fourth international HOME meeting, there was broad consensus among all stakeholders that the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) should be used as the core instrument (87·5% agreed, 9·4% unsure, 3·1% disagreed). All relevant stakeholders are encouraged to use POEM as the chosen instrument to measure the core domain of symptoms in all future AE clinical trials. Other instruments of interest can be used in addition to POEM. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: in-home measurements of ventilation control and source control.

    PubMed

    Hult, E L; Willem, H; Price, P N; Hotchi, T; Russell, M L; Singer, B C

    2015-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration was 33 μg/m(3) and 22 μg/m(3) for low-VOC homes and 45 μg/m(3) and 30 μg/m(3) for conventional.

  16. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Willem, Henry; Price, Phillip N.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  17. HIGHER ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX (ERMISM) VALUES MEASURED IN DETROIT HOMES OF SEVERELY ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sieved vacuum bag dust from the homes of 143 children in Detroit was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMIsm) was calculated for each home. Children living in these homes were categorized into non-asthmatic (n=8...

  18. HIGHER ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX (ERMISM) VALUES MEASURED IN DETROIT HOMES OF SEVERELY ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sieved vacuum bag dust from the homes of 143 children in Detroit was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMIsm) was calculated for each home. Children living in these homes were categorized into non-asthmatic (n=8...

  19. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. 201.25 Section 201.25 Protection of Environment... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. (a) Measurements must be conducted only at receiving...

  20. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. 201.25 Section 201.25 Protection of Environment... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. (a) Measurements must be conducted only at receiving...

  1. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. 201.25 Section 201.25 Protection of Environment... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. (a) Measurements must be conducted only at receiving...

  2. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. 201.25 Section 201.25 Protection of Environment... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. (a) Measurements must be conducted only at receiving...

  3. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. 201.25 Section 201.25 Protection of Environment... cell test stands, and stationary locomotives. (a) Measurements must be conducted only at receiving...

  4. Knowledge and use of pressure ulcer preventive measures in nursing homes: a comparison of Dutch and German nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Meesterberends, Esther; Wilborn, Doris; Lohrmann, Christa; Schols, Jos M G A; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2014-07-01

    To examine the knowledge and use of pressure ulcer preventive measures among nursing staff in Dutch and German nursing homes. Studies in the Netherlands and Germany have shown a large discrepancy in pressure ulcer prevalence rates among nursing homes in both countries and concluded that some of this variance could be explained by differences in pressure ulcer prevention. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey nested in a prospective multicenter cohort study. A questionnaire was distributed to nursing staff employed in 10 Dutch nursing homes (n = 600) and 11 German nursing homes (n = 578). Data were collected in January 2009. The response rate was 75·7% in the Netherlands (n = 454) and 48·4% in Germany (n = 283). Knowledge about useful pressure ulcer preventive measures was moderate in both countries, while nonuseful preventive measures were poorly known. On average, only 19·2% (the Netherlands) and 24·6% (Germany) of preventive measures were judged correctly as nonuseful. The same pattern could be seen with regard to the use of preventive measures, because nonuseful preventive measures were still commonly used according to the respondents. The results indicate that the respondents' knowledge and use of pressure ulcer preventive measures could be improved in both countries, especially for nonuseful measures. Changes and improvements can be achieved by providing sufficient education and refresher courses for nurses and nursing assistants employed within Dutch and German nursing homes. Recurring education about pressure ulcer prevention is required among nursing staff employed in Dutch and German nursing homes, particularly in relation to the use of ineffective and outdated preventive measures. Obstacles regarding the implementation of preventive measures should be addressed to achieve a change in practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  6. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    assessments, which paid particular attention to the intra-monthly changes in household availability in type and amount of foods. This study contributes to research on home food availability by identifying the importance of multiple measures, presence of certain foods in the home, and the feasibility of comprehensive in-home assessments. PMID:20398314

  7. Ready Your Home for Winter's Wrath

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep you and your home safe when frigid weather hits, according the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC offers this checklist: Install weather stripping, insulation and storm windows. Insulate any water ...

  8. Have Nursing Home Compare quality measure scores changed over time in response to competition?

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Liu, Darren

    2007-06-01

    Currently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services report on 15 Quality Measures (QMs) on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) website. It is assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these QMs, and in doing so they will attract more residents. In this investigation, we examine changes in QM scores, and whether competition and/or excess demand have influenced these change scores over a period of 1 year. Data come from NHC and the On-line Survey Certification And Recording (OSCAR) system. QM change scores are calculated using values from January 2003 to January 2004. A series of regression analyses are used to examine the association of competition and excess demand on QM scores. Eight QMs show an average decrease in scores (ie, better quality) and six QMs show an average increase in scores (ie, worse quality). However, for 13 of the 14 QMs these average changes averaged less than 1%. The regression analyses show an association between higher competition and improving QM scores and an association between lower occupancy and improving QM scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, we show that it is in the most competitive markets and those with the lowest average occupancy rates that improvements in the QM scores are more likely.

  9. Modeling COSMO-SkyMed measurements of precipitating clouds over the sea using simultaneous weather radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, N.; Baldini, L.; Facheris, L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2014-07-01

    Several satellite missions employing X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) have been activated to provide high-resolution images of normalized radar cross-sections (NRCS) on land and ocean for numerous applications. Rainfall and wind affect the sea surface roughness and consequently the NRCS from the combined effects of corrugation due to impinging raindrops and surface wind. X-band frequencies are sensitive to precipitation: intense convective cells result in irregularly bright and dark patches in SAR images, masking changes in surface NRCS. Several works have modeled SAR images of intense precipitation over land; less adequately investigated is the precipitation effect over the sea surface. These images are analyzed in this study by modeling both the scattering and attenuation of radiation by hydrometeors in the rain cells and the NRCS surface changes using weather radar precipitation estimates as input. The reconstruction of X-band SAR returns in precipitating clouds is obtained by the joint utilization of volume reflectivity and attenuation, the latter estimated by coupling ground-based radar measurements and an electromagnetic model to predict the sea surface NRCS. Radar signatures of rain cells were investigated using X-band SAR images collected from the COSMO-SkyMed constellation of the Italian Space Agency. Two case studies were analyzed. The first occurred over the sea off the coast of Louisiana (USA) in summer 2010 with COSMO-SkyMed (CSK®) ScanSar mode monitoring of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Simultaneously, the NEXRAD S-band Doppler radar (KLIX) located in New Orleans was scanning the same portion of ocean. The second case study occurred in Liguria (Italy) on November 4, 2011, during an extraordinary flood event. The same events were observed by the Bric della Croce C-band dual polarization radar located close to Turin (Italy). The polarimetric capability of the ground radars utilized allows discrimination of the composition of the precipitation

  10. Novel assay procedures for the measurement of α-amylase in weather-damaged wheat.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Claudio; Ivory, Ruth; Mangan, David; McCleary, Barry V

    2016-01-30

    The measurement of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) in sprout-damaged grains is a crucial analysis yet a problematic one owing to the typically low α-amylase levels in ground wheat samples. A number of standardised methods such as the Falling Number method and the Ceralpha method exist which are routinely used for the assay of α-amylase. These methods, however, are either highly substrate-dependent or lack the required sensitivity to assess sprout damage. Novel colorimetric and fluorometric reagents have been prepared (Amylase HR, Amylase SD, BzCNPG7 reagent and BzMUG7 reagent) for the direct and specific assay of α-amylase activity in sprout-damaged wheat. Assays employing these reagents have been developed and optimised to include a decolourisation step using activated charcoal. When used in a convenient assay format, Amylase SD--containing EtNPG7 (II) as the colorimetric substrate and α-glucosidase as the ancillary enzyme--was found to be an excellent reagent for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat with incubation times as short as 5 min. The assay using Amylase SD is completely specific for α-amylase. The use of the Amylase SD assay represents a sensitive and valid alternative to the traditionally used Falling Number values for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Usability of a home-based test for the measurement of fecal calprotectin in asymptomatic IBD patients.

    PubMed

    Bello, Caroline; Roseth, Arne; Guardiola, Jordi; Reenaers, Catherine; Ruiz-Cerulla, Alexandra; Van Kemseke, Catherine; Arajol, Claudia; Reinhard, Christian; Seidel, Laurence; Louis, Edouard

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our work was to test the usability of fecal calprotectin (FC) home-based test in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. IBD patients were prospectively recruited. They had to measure FC with a dedicated tool and smartphone application, 5 times at two weeks intervals over an 8 weeks period. They had to fill in a usability questionnaire at the first and the last FC measurement. A System Usability Scale (SUS: 0-100) and the Global Score of Usability (GSU: 0-85) were calculated. FC was also centrally measured by ELISA. Fifty-eight patients were recruited. Forty-two performed at least one FC measurement and 27 performed all the FC requested measurements. The median (IQR) SUS (0-100) at the first and last use were 85 (78-90) and 81 (70-88), respectively; the median (IQR) GSU (0-85) at the first and last use were 74 (69-80) and 77 (68-83), respectively. Adherence to the planned measurements and usability of the tool were higher in females and in less severe disease. The intra-class correlation coefficient between home-based and centrally measured FC was 0.88. The adherence to home-based measurement of FC was fair. Usability scores for the home-based test were high. There was a good correlation with the centrally measured FC by ELISA. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This course provides broadcast meteorologists with information to help them understand watersheds as our environmental home and to help their viewers understand the relationship between the weather and the environment.

  13. An oscillating microbalance for meteorological measurements of ice and volcanic ash accumulation from a weather balloon platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    A new, low cost, instrument has been developed for meteorological measurements of the accumulation of ice and volcanic ash that can be readily deployed using commercial radiosondes and weather balloons. It is based on principles used by [1], an instrument originally developed to measure supercooled liquid water profiles in clouds. This new instrument introduces numerous improvements in terms of reduced complexity and cost. It uses the oscillating microbalance principle, whereby a wire vibrating at its natural frequency is subjected to increased loading of the property to be measured. The increase in mass modifies the wire properties such that its natural frequency of oscillation changes. By measuring this frequency, the increase in mass can be inferred and transmitted to a ground base station through the radiosonde's UHF antenna via the PANDORA interface [2], which has been previously developed to provide power and connection to the radiosonde telemetry. The device consists of a simple circuit board controlled by an ATMEGA microcontroller. For calibration, the controller is capable of driving the wire at specified frequencies via excitation by a piezo sounder upon which the wire is mounted. The same piezo sounder is also used during active operation to measure the frequency of the wire in its non-driven state in order to infer the mass change on the wire. A phase-locked loop implemented on the board identifies when resonance occurs and the measured frequency is stable, prompting the microcontroller to send the measurement through the data interface. The device may be used for any application that requires the measurement of incremental mass variation e.g. ice accumulation, frosting, or particle accumulation such as dust and volcanic ash. For the solid particle accumulation, a low temperature, high-tack, adhesive may be applied to the wire prior to deployment to collect the material. In addition, the same instrument may be used for ground-based applications, such as

  14. Policy Measures to Support Palliative Care at Home: A Cross-Country Case Comparison in Three European Countries.

    PubMed

    Maetens, Arno; Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Aubry, Régis; Radbruch, Lukas; Cohen, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The proportion of people in need of palliative care worldwide is rising, and the majority wish to receive this care at home. Many countries have created policy measures to support palliative care at home. To list and compare existing policy measures designed to support palliative care at home in addition to available primary care services in Belgium, France, and Germany. A cross-country case comparison based on expert consultation, governmental policy documents, and relevant scientific literature. All three countries have policy measures that allow informal caregivers to adapt their working patterns or take leave of absence to provide care without losing employee rights; however, only Belgium offers specific paid palliative care leave. All three countries offer various allowances to people who are dying at home and their caregivers. Cost-reductions for out-of-pocket expenses are available, based on the level of care dependency in Germany and on prognosis in Belgium, but are not provided in France. Mobile home support teams exist in all three countries and are free of charge for patients and caregivers; but only in Belgium and Germany, there are specialist multidisciplinary palliative home care teams. Belgium and Germany provide respite care for palliative patients. European countries with similar contextual characteristics offer comparable policy measures to support palliative care at home in addition to the available primary care services. However, important differences exist in the criteria for access and the extent of what is offered. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Kramer, Stefanie; Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Sven; Monninkhoff, Bertram; Pfützner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management and possible impacts of climate change led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with a very intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  16. Automated health alerts from Kinect-based in-home gait measurements.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie; Back, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    A method for automatically generating alerts to clinicians in response to changes in in-home gait parameters is investigated. Kinect-based gait measurement systems were installed in apartments in a senior living facility. The systems continuously monitored the walking speed, stride time, and stride length of apartment residents. A framework for modeling uncertainty in the residents' gait parameter estimates, which is critical for robust change detection, is developed; along with an algorithm for detecting changes that may be clinically relevant. Three retrospective case studies, of individuals who had their gait monitored for periods ranging from 12 to 29 months, are presented to illustrate use of the alert method. Evidence suggests that clinicians could be alerted to health changes at an early stage, while they are still small and interventions may be most successful. Additional potential uses are also discussed.

  17. Using saliva to measure endogenous cortisol in nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

    PubMed

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Kovach, Christine R; Raff, Hershel; Joosse, Laura; Basmadjian, Alicia; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2008-06-01

    Two research teams determined the feasibility of saliva collection for cortisol measurement in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Study aims were to: (a) determine if sufficient saliva could be obtained for assay and (b) examine whether cortisol values exhibited range and variability for meaningful interpretation. Useable samples were consistent across sites, suggesting that saliva collection for cortisol assay is a viable method in this setting. Cortisol values showed range and variability. More than half of the residents showed the normal adult pattern of high morning levels decreasing throughout the day. A third of the participants demonstrated an increase in the evening cortisol levels, while the remaining profiles were flat, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation in this population.

  18. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA long baseline campaign of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Lucas, Robert; Broguière, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B.; Dent, William R. F.; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    In a radio interferometer, the geometrical antenna positions are determined from measurements of the observed delay to each antenna from observations across the sky of many point sources whose positions are known to high accuracy. The determination of accurate antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), with baseline lengths up to 15 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of October through November 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurements typically degrades as a function of antenna distance. Also, the scatter is more than three times worse in the vertical direction than in the local tangent plane, suggesting that a systematic effect is limiting the measurements. So far we have explored correcting the delay model for deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium in the measured air pressure and separating the partial pressure of water from the total pressure using water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. Correcting for these combined effects still does not provide a good match to the residual position errors in the vertical direction. One hypothesis is that the current model of water vapor may be too simple to fully remove the day-to-day variations in the wet delay. We describe possible new avenues of

  19. Single-Camera-Based Method for Step Length Symmetry Measurement in Unconstrained Elderly Home Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xi; Han, Guang; Song, Xin; Wang, Jinkuan

    2017-01-16

    Single-camera-based gait monitoring is unobtrusive, inexpensive and easy-to-use to monitor daily gait of seniors in their homes. However, most studies require subjects to walk perpendicularly to camera's optical axis or along some specified routes, which limits its application in elderly home monitoring. To build unconstrained monitoring environments, we propose a method to measure step length symmetry ratio (a useful gait parameter representing gait symmetry without significant relationship with age) from unconstrained straight walking using a single camera, without strict restrictions on walking directions or routes. According to projective geometry theory, we first develop a calculation formula of step length ratio for the case of unconstrained straight-line walking. Then, to adapt to general cases, we propose to modify noncollinear footprints, and accordingly provide general procedure for step length ratio extraction from unconstrained straight walking. Our method achieves a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 1.9547% for 15 subjects' normal and abnormal side-view gaits, and also obtains satisfactory MAPEs for non-side-view gaits (2.4026% for 45º-view gaits and 3.9721% for 30º-view gaits). The performance is much better than a well-established monocular gait measurement system suitable only for side-view gaits with a MAPE of 3.5538%. Independently of walking directions, our method can accurately estimate step length ratios from unconstrained straight walking. This demonstrates our method is applicable for elders' daily gait monitoring to provide valuable information for elderly health care, such as abnormal gait recognition, fall risk assessment, etc.

  20. The impact of obstructive sleep apnea variability measured in-lab versus in-home on sample size calculations.

    PubMed

    Levendowski, Daniel; Steward, David; Woodson, B Tucker; Olmstead, Richard; Popovic, Djordje; Westbrook, Philip

    2009-01-02

    When conducting a treatment intervention, it is assumed that variability associated with measurement of the disease can be controlled sufficiently to reasonably assess the outcome. In this study we investigate the variability of Apnea-Hypopnea Index obtained by polysomnography and by in-home portable recording in untreated mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients at a four- to six-month interval. Thirty-seven adult patients serving as placebo controls underwent a baseline polysomnography and in-home sleep study followed by a second set of studies under the same conditions. The polysomnography studies were acquired and scored at three independent American Academy of Sleep Medicine accredited sleep laboratories. The in-home studies were acquired by the patient and scored using validated auto-scoring algorithms. The initial in-home study was conducted on average two months prior to the first polysomnography, the follow-up polysomnography and in-home studies were conducted approximately five to six months after the initial polysomnography. When comparing the test-retest Apnea-hypopnea Index (AHI) and apnea index (AI), the in-home results were more highly correlated (r = 0.65 and 0.68) than the comparable PSG results (r = 0.56 and 0.58). The in-home results provided approximately 50% less test-retest variability than the comparable polysomnography AHI and AI values. Both the overall polysomnography AHI and AI showed a substantial bias toward increased severity upon retest (8 and 6 events/hr respectively) while the in-home bias was essentially zero. The in-home percentage of time supine showed a better correlation compared to polysomnography (r = 0.72 vs. 0.43). Patients biased toward more time supine during the initial polysomnography; no trends in time supine for in-home studies were noted. Night-to-night variability in sleep-disordered breathing can be a confounding factor in assessing treatment outcomes. The sample size of this study was small given

  1. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  2. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  3. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  4. Performance Analysis of MIMO Schemes in Residential Home Environment via Wideband MIMO Propagation Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Gia Khanh; Dao, Nguyen Dung; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Sakata, Tsutomu; Ogawa, Koichi

    This paper illustrates a large-scale MIMO propagation channel measurement in a real life environment and evaluates throughput performance of various MIMO schemes in that environment. For that purpose, 4 × 4 MIMO transceivers and a novel spatial scanner are fabricated for wideband MIMO channel measurements in the 5GHz band. A total of more than 50, 000 spatial samples in an area of 150m2, which includes a bedroom, a Japanese room, a hallway, and the living and dining areas, are taken in a real residential home environment. Statistical properties of the propagation channel and throughput performance of various MIMO schemes are evaluated by using measured data. Propagation measurement results show large dynamic channel variations occurring in a real environment in which statistical properties of the channel, such as frequency correlation and spatial correlation are not stationary any more, and become functions of the SNR. Furthermore, evaluation of throughput shows that although MIMO schemes outperform the SISO system in most areas, open loop systems perform badly in the far areas with low SNR. Paying for the cost of CSI or partial CSI at Tx, closed loop and hybrid systems have superior performance compared to other schemes, especially in reasonable SNR areas ranging from 10dB to 30dB. Spatial correlation, which is common in Japanese wooden residences, is also found to be a dominant factor causing throughput degradation of the open loop MIMO schemes.

  5. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  6. Measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in British homes using unflued heating or cooking appliances.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, K J

    1985-08-01

    Measurements of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) were made in three kitchens, two with gas cookers and one all electric, and two living rooms, one heated by a portable butane heater and the other by a paraffin stove. The measurements were taken whilst the homes were in normal use and the occupants kept a diary of when specific appliances were used. Measurements of NO2 were made simultaneously by chemiluminescence and by diffusion tubes. The accuracy of the diffusion tube measurements relative to the chemiluminescent standard was estimated as +/- 10% and the precision less than or equal to 300 ppb. hr. Results from diffusion tubes were used to indicate the distribution of NO2 throughout other rooms in the house. At the all electric house the CO and NO2 concentrations were very similar to the expected outdoor levels. In all the other houses NO2 levels exceeded typical outdoor concentrations measured in Central London and in the paraffin heated house and one gas cooking house median CO concentrations exceeded these measured at the curbside of a very busy road in Central London. The living room concentrations of NO2 where the paraffin heater was in use were elevated for long periods. Analysis of the decay of pollutant concentration in one kitchen yielded an effective deposition velocity for NO2 of 3 X 10(-5) m s-1. The magnitude of the CO and NO2 concentrations measured in this survey confirms that indoor air pollution should be taken into account when assessing overall public exposure to air pollution.

  7. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, we use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.

  8. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    DOE PAGES

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; ...

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, wemore » use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.« less

  9. Definition, measurement, and correlates of quality of life in nursing homes: toward a reasonable practice, research, and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Kane, Rosalie A

    2003-04-01

    This article identifies challenges in defining, measuring, and studying quality of life of nursing home residents. A theoretical analysis was conducted based on literature and the author's own large-scale studies of quality of life of nursing home residents. Measuring quality of life is a relatively low priority in nursing homes because of focus on markers of poor quality of care, pervasive sense that nursing homes are powerless to influence quality of life, and impatience with research among those dedicated to culture change. The research argues that the resident voice must be sought in reaching operational definitions for quality of life and as reporters on the quality of their own lives, and that resident burden is a spurious concern that should not deter direct interviews with residents. Five challenges in measuring quality of life were identified: (a) designing questions with appropriate response categories and time frames, (b) developing a sampling strategy, (c) aggregating information at the individual and facility level, (d) validating what are ultimately subjective constructs, and (e) developing an approach using observations and proxies to assess quality of life for approximately the 40% of the residents who will be impossible to interview. Although residents' perceived quality of life is partly a product of their health, social supports, and personalities, nursing homes can directly influence quality of life through their policies, practices, and environments, and, indirectly, through their approaches to family and community. A research agenda is needed, which includes both methodological research and studies of the correlates of quality of life.

  10. Associations between family ratings on experience with care and clinical quality-of-care measures for nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghua; Tang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Several states are currently collecting and publicly reporting nursing home resident and/or family member ratings of experience with care in an attempt to improve person-centered care in nursing homes. Using the 2008 Maryland nursing home family survey reports and other data, this study performed both facility- and resident-level analyses, and estimated the relationships between family ratings of care and several long-term care quality measures (pressure ulcers, overall and potentially-avoidable hospitalizations, and mortality) after adjustment for resident characteristics. We found that better family evaluations of overall and specific aspects of care may be associated with reduced rates of risk-adjusted measures at the facility level (range of correlation coefficients: −0.01 to −0.31). Associations of overall experience ratings tended to persist after further adjustment for common nursing home characteristics such as nurse staffing levels. We conclude that family ratings of nursing home care complement other types of performance measures such as risk-adjusted outcomes. PMID:26199288

  11. Measuring the quality of care in nursing homes: a pilot study in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Fiss, Charles J.; Fryback, Judy C.; Smelser, Peggy A.; Hiles, Mary E.

    1980-01-01

    The traditional method of evaluating nursing homes, which relies on State and Federal regulations, does not ensure quality care for nursing home residents. This fact led the Wisconsin State Department of Health and Social Services to fund a project for the development of a system that would permit rapid and reliable assessment of the quality of care given by nursing homes, permit the identification of specific problem areas, and suggest whether more in-depth investigation was needed. A corner-stone in that system was to be a screening instrument that would quickly determine where the care delivery system in a nursing home was breaking down so that resources could be focused on these problem areas. Eleven quality of care criteria to be used in the screening instrument were drawn up by a panel of experts. The instrument itself was then tested in nine Wisconsin nursing homes. Five teams of people with nursing home expertise (two persons per team) used the screening instrument to evaluate each of the homes. Another team, visiting the same homes, used a second screening instrument based on State and Federal regulations to evaluate the homes. Finally, without relying on any survey instrument, all of the teams did a general assessment of the homes. The purpose of this general assessment was to ascertain if a “common wisdom” exists among experts in the field. The results of the teams' evaluations using both instruments were compared with each other, as well as with the results of the general assessments and the results of the most recent standard survey. This analysis showed that there was a significant amount of inter-team reliability among the teams using the new screening model and, also, that the new screening model correlated well with the general assessments. The model is being tested further in a 2-year study of 170 nursing homes in urban and rural parts of Wisconsin. PMID:6775345

  12. Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation. PMID:18370969

  13. Home blood pressure monitoring: a few minutes of rest before measurement may not be appropriate.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Jean-Marc; Boutte, Emilie; Fay, Renaud; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faïez

    2014-07-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended for the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertensive patients. While measurement protocols emphasize a rest period before taking the measurement, this directive has not been supported by any specific study to date. This analysis aimed to determine whether the respect or nonrespect of rest before HBPM could introduce a difference between daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and HBPM; whether this rest is observed "in real life" among educated hypertensive patients. In this open, prospective study we compared HBPM, with and without rest, and ABPM among 52 office/clinically controlled hypertensive patients. HBPM was performed during 3 days (French HAS instructions); 24-hour ABPM was performed within 3 days of HBPM. All patients who regularly performed HBPM before the study were asked how they practiced HBPM in real life. There was a differential impact of rest on differences observed in daytime ABPM and HBPM. Systolic HBPM decreased with rest, while diastolic HBPM did not significantly increase. HBPM systolic BP (SBP) without rest was not significantly different from daytime ABPM SBP (P = 0.27). HBPM SBP without rest was lower than daytime and 24-hour systolic ABPM. Diastolic HBPM after rest was not significantly different from daytime diastolic ABPM (P = 0.09). None of the 38 patients who regularly performed HBPM were compliant with a period of rest before beginning the measurements. Rest before HBPM induces a bias that underestimates SBP vs. daytime ABPM and perhaps complicates patient adherence to HBPM protocols. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  15. Sample size and repeated measures required in studies of foods in the homes of African-American families.

    PubMed

    Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Chin-Hua; Cai, Jianwen; Bentley, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Measurement of the home food environment is of interest to researchers because it affects food intake and is a feasible target for nutrition interventions. The objective of this study was to provide estimates to aid the calculation of sample size and number of repeated measures needed in studies of nutrients and foods in the home. We inventoried all foods in the homes of 80 African-American first-time mothers and determined 6 nutrient-related attributes. Sixty-three households were measured 3 times, 11 were measured twice, and 6 were measured once, producing 217 inventories collected at ~2-mo intervals. Following log transformations, number of foods, total energy, dietary fiber, and fat required only one measurement per household to achieve a correlation of 0.8 between the observed and true values. For percent energy from fat and energy density, 3 and 2 repeated measurements, respectively, were needed to achieve a correlation of 0.8. A sample size of 252 was needed to detect a difference of 25% of an SD in total energy with one measurement compared with 213 with 3 repeated measurements. Macronutrient characteristics of household foods appeared relatively stable over a 6-mo period and only 1 or 2 repeated measures of households may be sufficient for an efficient study design.

  16. Do experiences consistent with a medical-home model improve diabetes care measures reported by adult Medicaid patients?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gregory D; Shi, Leiyu; Vane, Christina; Peters, Anne L

    2014-09-01

    The patient-centered medical home has gained much traction. Little is known about the relationship between the model and specific health care processes for chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study assesses the impact of features of a medical home on diabetes care. A cross-sectional survey of 540 patients with Medicaid (Medi-Cal) health insurance and type 2 diabetes in Los Angeles County was performed. The Primary Care Assessment Tools was used to measure seven features of medical-home performance. The response rate of the patient survey was 68.9%. Patient-reported medical-home performance averaged a score of 2.85 ± 0.29 (on a 1-4 scale, with 4 equaling the best care). Patients who received more timely and thorough diabetes care reported higher medical-home performance in every feature except for the comprehensiveness-services available. For example, the first-contact access feature score was higher among patients who had an HbA1c test in the past 6 months versus those who did not (2.38 vs. 2.25; P < 0.05). Before and after adjusting for sociodemographics and health status, total medical-home performance was positively associated with each diabetes care measure. A 1-point increase in total medical-home score was associated with 4.53 higher odds of an HbA1c test in the past 6 months and 1.88 higher odds of an eye exam in the past year. Features consistent with higher medical-home performance are associated with improvements in patient-reported diabetes care process measures, even in this low socioeconomic status setting. The patient-centered medical-home model may help in caring for people with type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Weather investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the offing, “business as usual” may come to imply the use of weather data, according to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration officials. “Climate data are part of this country's infrastructure,” says Kenneth Hadeen, director of the National Climatic Data Center, now in Asheville, N.C. “These data play a major role in decisions that businesses make every day; they are vital to our economy.” Touted as the world's largest collection of weather data, the National Climatic Data Center, has more than 150 years of weather data on file. Data originating from everything from 19th century handwritten observations to state-of-the-art equipment can be found in the center's archives.

  18. Measuring patient-centered medical home access and continuity in clinics with part-time clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Krein, Sarah L; Kim, Hyunglin Myra; Greenstone, Clinton L; Tremblay, Adam; Ratz, David; Saffar, Darcy; Kerr, Eve A

    2015-05-01

    Common patient-centered medical home (PCMH) performance measures value access to a single primary care provider (PCP), which may have unintended consequences for clinics that rely on part-time PCPs and team-based care. Retrospective analysis of 110,454 primary care visits from 2 Veterans Health Administration clinics from 2010 to 2012. Multi-level models examined associations between PCP availability in clinic, and performance on access and continuity measures. Patient experiences with access and continuity were compared using 2012 patient survey data (N = 2881). Patients of PCPs with fewer half-day clinic sessions per week were significantly less likely to get a requested same-day appointment with their usual PCP (predicted probability 17% for PCPs with 2 sessions/week, 20% for 5 sessions/week, and 26% for 10 sessions/week). Among requests that did not result in a same-day appointment with the usual PCP, there were no significant differences in same-day access to a different PCP, or access within 2 to 7 days with patients' usual PCP. Overall, patients had >92% continuity with their usual PCP at the hospital-based site regardless of PCP sessions/week. Patients of full-time PCPs reported timely appointments for urgent needs more often than patients of part-time PCPs (82% vs 71%; P < .01), but reported similar experiences with routine access and continuity. Part-time PCP performance appeared worse when using measures focused on same-day access to patients' usual PCP. However, clinic-level same-day access, same-week access to the usual PCP, and overall continuity were similar for patients of part-time and full-time PCPs. Measures of in-person access to a usual PCP do not capture alternate access approaches encouraged by PCMH, and often used by part-time providers, such as team-based or non-face-to-face care.

  19. Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Residents of Nursing Homes on Measures of Daily Activity Involvement and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Mathieu, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined how depressed and nondepressed nursing home residents differed on measures of frequency of daily activity involvement and accompanying affect. Interviews indicated the groups differed significantly on frequency of activity involvement and affect. Depressed subjects spent large portions of time watching television. Nondepressed…

  20. The North Carolina Field Test: Field performance of the preliminary version of an advanced weatherization audit for the Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The field performance of weatherizations based on a newly-developed advanced technique for selecting residential energy conservation measures was tested alongside current Retro-Tech-based weatherizations in North Carolina. The new technique is computer-based and determines measures based on the needs of an individual house. In addition, it recommends only those measures that it determines will have a benefit-to-cost ratio greater than 1 for the house being evaluated. The new technique also considers the interaction of measures in computing the benefit-to-cost ratio of each measure. The two weatherization approaches were compared based on implementation ease, measures installed, labor and cost requirements, and both heating and cooling energy savings achieved. One-hundred and twenty houses with the following characteristics participated: the occupants were low-income, eligible for North Carolina`s current weatherization program, and responsible for their own fuel and electric bills. Houses were detached single-family dwellings, not mobile homes; were heated by kerosene, fuel oil, natural gas, or propane; and had one or two operating window air conditioners. Houses were divided equally into one control group and two weatherization groups. Weekly space heating and cooling energy use, and hourly indoor and outdoor temperatures were monitored between November 1989 and September 1990 (pre-period) and between December 1990 and August 1991 (post-period). House consumption models were used to normalize for annual weather differences and a 68{degrees}F indoor temperature. Control group savings were used to adjust the savings determined for the weatherization groups. The two weatherization approaches involved installing attic and floor insulations in near equivalent quantities, and installing storm windows and wall insulation in drastically different quantities. Substantial differences also were found in average air leakage reductions for the two weatherization groups.

  1. TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MULTI-MEDIA TRANSPORT, IMPACTS, AND CONTROL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the transport of toxic pollutants through multiple media and drainage systems in the urban watershed during wet-weather periods. It includes the origin of the toxic substances; their transport via atmospheric deposition, overland washoff, and ur...

  2. TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MULTI-MEDIA TRANSPORT, IMPACTS, AND CONTROL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the transport of toxic pollutants through multiple media and drainage systems in the urban watershed during wet-weather periods. It includes the origin of the toxic substances; their transport via atmospheric depositon, overland washoff, and urb...

  3. The Relationship between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Classroom disruptions present an obstacle to raising student achievement for teachers and school administrators. This study was designed to investigate potential relationships between weather, specifically barometric pressure, or the lunar cycle, and whether either had a direct correlation with student discipline referrals. The intent was to…

  4. TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MULTI-MEDIA TRANSPORT, IMPACTS, AND CONTROL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the transport of toxic pollutants through multiple media and drainage systems in the urban watershed during wet-weather periods. It includes the origin of the toxic substances; their transport via atmospheric depositon, overland washoff, and urb...

  5. TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MULTI-MEDIA TRANSPORT, IMPACTS, AND CONTROL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the transport of toxic pollutants through multiple media and drainage systems in the urban watershed during wet-weather periods. It includes the origin of the toxic substances; their transport via atmospheric deposition, overland washoff, and ur...

  6. The Relationship between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Classroom disruptions present an obstacle to raising student achievement for teachers and school administrators. This study was designed to investigate potential relationships between weather, specifically barometric pressure, or the lunar cycle, and whether either had a direct correlation with student discipline referrals. The intent was to…

  7. Relation between hand grip strength, respiratory muscle strength and spirometric measures in male nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Ozkaya, Hilal; Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Akin, Sibel; Bahat, Zumrut; Kaya, Zuleyha; Kiyan, Esen; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2014-09-01

    Adverse-outcomes related to sarcopenia are mostly mentioned as physical disability. As the other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles may also be affected by sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is known to affect pulmonary functions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relations between extremity muscle strength, respiratory muscle strengths and spirometric measures in a group of male nursing home residents. Among a total of 104 male residents, residents with obstructive measures were excluded and final study population was composed of 62 residents. Mean age was 70.5 ± 6.7 years, body mass index: 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and dominant hand grip strength: 29.7 ± 6.5 kg. Hand grip strength was positively correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (r = 0.35, p < 0.01 and r = 0.26, p < 0.05, respectively). In regression analysis, the only factor related to MIP was hand grip strength; among spirometric measures only parameter significantly related to grip strength was peak cough flow (PCF). The association of PCF with grip strength disappeared when MIP alone or "MIP and MEP" were included in the regression analysis. In the latter case, PCF was significantly associated only with MIP. We found peripheric muscle strength be associated with MIP and PCF but not with MEP or any other spirometric parameters. The relation between peripheral muscle strength and PCF was mediated by MIP. Our findings suggest that sarcopenia may affect inspiratory muscle strength earlier or more than the expiratory muscle strength. Sarcopenia may cause decrease in PCF in the elderly, which may stand for some common adverse respiratory complications.

  8. Validation of the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is an energy audit tool designed specifically to identify recommended weatherization measures for mobile homes as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program. A field validation of MHEA was performed using billing/delivery data collected on 86 mobile homes heated primarily by electricity, natural gas, or propane to assess the audit's accuracy and the validity of its recommendations. The validation found that MHEA overpredicts the annual space-heating energy savings of weatherization measures to be installed in mobile homes, which leads to low realization rates, primarily because of its large overprediction of annual pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption. However, MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates and realization rates can be improved considerably using MHEA's built-in billing adjustment feature. In order to improve the accuracy of MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates and realization rate, the cause of MHEA's overprediction of annual pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption needs to be further investigated and corrected. Although MHEA's billing adjustment feature improved MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates, alternative methods of making the correction that may provide improved performance should be investigated. In the interim period before permanent improvements to MHEA can be made, the following recommendations should be followed: (a) do not enter into MHEA insulation thicknesses of 1 in. or less and especially zero (0 in.) unless such low levels have been verified through visual inspection of several parts of the envelope area in question; (b) use MHEA's billing adjustment feature to develop a list of recommended measures based on adjusted energy savings if possible, especially in mobile homes that have several major energy deficiencies; and (c) do not use MHEA's "evaluate duct sealing" option at this time

  9. Measuring in-home walking speed using wall-mounted RF transceiver arrays.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Peter G; Wan, Eric A; Schafermeyer, Erich; Adenwala, Fatema; Paul, Anindya S; Preiser, Nick; Kayez, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for passively measuring walking speed using a small array of radio transceivers positioned on the walls of a hallway within a home. As a person walks between a radio transmitter and a receiver, the received signal strength (RSS) detected by the receiver changes in a repeatable pattern that may be used to estimate walking speed without the need for the person to wear any monitoring device. The transceivers are arranged as an array of 4 with a known distance between the array elements. Walking past the first pair of transceivers will cause a peak followed by a second peak when the person passes the second pair of transceivers. The time difference between these peaks is used to estimate walking speed directly. We further show that it is possible to estimate the walking speed by correlating the shape of the signal using a single pair of transceivers positioned across from each other in a hallway or doorframe. RMSE performance was less than 15 cm/s using a 2-element array, and less than 8 cm/s using a 4-element array relative to a gait mat used for ground truth.

  10. Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Jamie E. L.; Millward, Hugh

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

  11. Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Spinney, Jamie E L; Millward, Hugh

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

  12. The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and daily temperature measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-04-01

    Temperature estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the temperature/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly temperature between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a range of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for daily minimum and maximum temperatures, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in temperature. Results indicate a weak temperature/elevation relationship for daily minimum temperatures. The average temperature/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for daily minimum temperatures, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold air pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. Daily maximum temperatures have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum temperature/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the temperature/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day

  13. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  14. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  15. Measuring disability in Medicare home care patients: application of Rasch modeling to the outcome and assessment information set.

    PubMed

    Fortinsky, Richard H; Garcia, Ramon I; Joseph Sheehan, T; Madigan, Elizabeth A; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    2003-05-01

    The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is the universal clinical assessment tool for adult nonmaternity patients receiving skilled care at home from Medicare-certified home health agencies in the United States. Anticipating increased use of OASIS data for research purposes, this article explored the usefulness of Rasch modeling to address disability measurement challenges presented by the unique response category structure of the seven activities of daily living (ADL) and eight instrumental ADL (IADL) items in the OASIS. To illustrate how Rasch model statistics can be used to evaluate OASIS ADL and IADL item unidimensionality and model fit; to illustrate how Rasch modeling simultaneously estimates ADL and IADL item difficulty, thresholds between item response categories, and person disability; and to compare Rasch estimates of item difficulty and person disability scores to estimates based on more conventional Likert scoring techniques. Medicare-eligible home health care patients (n = 583) served by one of 12 home care agencies in Ohio between November 1999 and September 2000. ADL and IADL items were measured three ways: according to the original OASIS scoring (raw Likert); transformed raw Likert scores accounting for the nonuniform item structure (corrected Likert); and Rasch Partial Credit model scores. The items bathing and telephone use showed evidence of unexpected response patterns; recoding of these items was necessary for good Rasch model fit. Partial Credit model results revealed that interval distances between response categories varied widely across the 15 ADL and IADL items. When ADL and IADL items were ranked by level of difficulty, results were similar between Rasch and corrected Likert measurement approaches; however, corrected Likert person scores were found to be nonlinear at highest and lowest disability levels when plotted against Rasch person scores. Rasch modeling can help improve the precision of disability measurement in Medicare

  16. Quality of care in Icelandic nursing homes measured with Minimum Data Set quality indicators: retrospective analysis of nursing home data over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Hjaltadóttir, Ingibjörg; Ekwall, Anna Kristensson; Nyberg, Per; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2012-11-01

    The increasing need for long-term care as well as diminished financial resources may compromise the quality of care of older people. Thus the need for clinically based quality of care monitoring to guide development of long-term services has been pointed out. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in quality of care during 2003-2009 as reflected in the Minimum Data Set quality indicator outcome in Icelandic nursing homes and to investigate the association of Minimum Data Set quality indicators with residents' health status (health stability, pain, depression and cognitive performance) and functional profile (activities of daily living and social engagement). Retrospective analysis of nursing home data over 7 years. The sample used for analysis was 11,034 Minimum Data Set assessments of 3694 residents living in Icelandic nursing homes in 2003-2009. Minimum Data Set quality indicators were used to measure quality of care. The chi-square test for trend and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The mean age of residents during the period of the study ranged from 82.3 (SD 9.1) to 85.1 (SD 8.3) and women accounted for from 65.2% to 67.8%. Findings for 16 out of 20 quality indicators indicated a decline in quality of care (p<0.05), although in 12 out of 20 indicators the prevalence was lower than 25%. One quality indicator showed improvement, i.e. for "Bladder and bowel incontinence without a toileting plan" from 17.4% in 2003 decreasing to 11.5% in 2009 (p<0.001). Residents' health and functional status partially explain the increased prevalence of the quality indicators over time. Further developments in quality of care in Icelandic nursing homes need to be monitored as well as the association between residents' health and functional status and the Minimum Data Set quality indicator outcome. The areas of care where the Minimum Data Set quality indicators showed need for improvement included treatment of depression, number of

  17. Pentachlorophenol measurements in body fluids of people in log homes and workplaces.

    PubMed

    Cline, R E; Hill, R H; Phillips, D L; Needham, L L

    1989-01-01

    Human exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated in the normal population (controls), residents of PCP-treated log homes, and persons exposed primarily in the workplace. Blood and urine samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after extraction and acetylation. For 34 controls, serum PCP values ranged from 15-75 ppb with a mean of 40 ppb. For 123 residents of log homes, serum levels ranged from 69-1,340 ppb with a mean of 420 ppb. In such homes, serum levels for children were significantly higher than those for parents, averaging 1.8 times greater. Serum and urine values for workers varied widely, depending on the workplace, with serum levels ranging from 26 to 84,900 ppb of PCP. Urinary concentrations when corrected for creatinine values correlated well (r = 0.92) with serum concentrations. Coating PCP-treated logs of home interiors with a sealant reduced serum PCP levels in the residents.

  18. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  19. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  20. Radon testing behavior in a sample of individuals with high home radon screening measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Kross, B.C.; Vust, L.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Although radon exposure has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer, fewer than 6% of US homeowners test their homes for radon. This report examines participants' follow-up radon testing behavior subsequent to receiving an initial screening radon level greater than 20 pCi/L. Sixty-two participants in the Iowa State-Wide Rural Radon Screening Survey who had radon screening measurements over 20 pCi/L were questioned by phone survey 3 months after receipt of their radon screening result to assess: whether participants were aware of radon's health risk; if participants recalled the radon screening results; how participants perceived the relative health risk of radon and whether participants planned follow-up radon testing. Only 19% of the respondents specifically identified lung cancer as the possible adverse health outcome of high radon exposure, and the majority of participants underestimated the health risks high radon levels pose when compared to cigarettes and x-rays. In addition, less than one third (29%) of the participants actually remembered their radon screening level within 10 pCi/L 3 months after receiving their screening results. Only 53% of the individuals correctly interpreted their screening radon level as being in the high range, and only 39% of the participants planned follow-up radon measurements. Receipt of radon screening test results indicating high radon levels was not an adequate motivational factor in itself to stimulate further radon assessment or mitigation. The findings suggest that free radon screening will not result in a dramatic increase in subsequent homeowner initiated remediation or further recommended radon testing. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  2. COSMO-SkyMed measurements in precipitation over the sea: analysis of Louisiana summer thunderstorms by simultaneous weather radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, N.; Baldini, L.; Gorgucci, E.; Facheris, L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-04-01

    Radar signatures of rain cells are investigated using X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) images acquired from COSMO-SkyMed constellation over oceans off the coast of Louisiana in summer 2010 provided by ASI archive. COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) monitoring of Deepwater Horizon oil spill provided a big amount of data during the period April-September 2010 and in July-August when several thunderstorms occurred in that area. In X-SAR images, radar signatures of rain cells over the sea usually consist of irregularly shaped bright and dark patches. These signatures originate from 1) the scattering and attenuation of radiation by hydrometers in the rain cells and 2) the modification of the sea roughness induced by the impact of raindrops and by wind gusts associated with rain cell. However, the interpretation of precipitation signatures in X-SAR images is not completely straightforward, especially over sea. Coincident measurements from ground based radars and an electromagnetic (EM) model predicting radar returns from the sea surface corrugated by rainfall are used to support the analysis. A dataset consisting of 4 CSK images has been collected over Gulf of Mexico while a WSR-88D NEXRAD S-band Doppler radar (KLIX) located in New Orleans was scanning the nearby portion of ocean. Terrestrial measurements have been used to reconstruct the component of X-SAR returns due to precipitation by modifying the known technique applied on measurements over land (Fritz et al. 2010, Baldini et al. 2011). Results confirm that the attenuation signature in X-SAR images collected over land, particularly pronounced in the presence of heavy precipitation cells, can be related to the S-band radar reflectivity integrated along the same path. The Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) of land is considered to vary usually up to a few dBs in case of rain but with strong dependency on the specific type and conditions of land cover. While the NRCS of sea surface in clear weather condition can be

  3. Basic atmospheric measurements via Arduino Uno microcontroller with commercially available sensors towards simple real-time weather forecasting for increased classroom engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Ryan; Tanner, Meghan; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    Makers, engineers and the applied physics community have adapted Arduino microcontrollers due to their versatility, robustness and cost effectiveness. Arduino microcontroller environment coupled with commercially available sensors have been used to systematically measure, record and analyze temperature, humidity and barometric pressure for building a simplified weather station for subsequent educational purposes. This data will become available in classroom settings for real-time analysis towards simple weather forecasting. Setup was assembled via breadboard, wire and simple soldering with an Arduino Uno ATmega328P microcontroller connected to a PC. The microcontroller was programmed with Arduino Software while the bootloader was used to upload the code. Commercial DHT22 humidity and temperature sensor, and BMP180 barometric pressure sensor were used to obtain relative humidity, temperature and the barometric pressure. A weather resistant enclosure protected the system while stable real-time data measurements were obtained, and uploaded onto the PC. The data was used to predict atmospheric conditions and lifting condensation level (LCL). Discussion will focus on capabilities and limitations of these systems and corresponding teaching aspects. Lock Haven University Nanotechnology Program.

  4. Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor Bundles for Air Force Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    value of WeatherNow technology in terms of return on investment (ROI) and uses integrated risk management (IRM) to provide a way to value implementation...further detail in the study. The quantitative framework for this research is known as ROI-IRM ( return on investment with integrated risk management...ROK estimates are precisely comparable with regard to value for cost return estimates. Integrated risk management (IRM) uses the KVA results to

  5. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach topotential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaCStudios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this homewas evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored todetermine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  6. Prediction of harmful water quality parameters combining weather, air quality and ecosystem models with in situ measurement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to predict water quality in lakes is important since lakes are sources of water for agriculture, drinking, and recreational uses. Lakes are also home to a dynamic ecosystem of lacustrine wetlands and deep waters. They are sensitive to pH changes and are dependent on d...

  7. Prediction of harmful water quality parameters combining weather, air quality and ecosystem models with in situ measurement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to predict water quality in lakes is important since lakes are sources of water for agriculture, drinking, and recreational uses. Lakes are also home to a dynamic ecosystem of lacustrine wetlands and deep waters. They are sensitive to pH changes and are dependent on d...

  8. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  9. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  10. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical home implementation and trends in diabetes quality measures for AN/AI primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Johnston, Janet M; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Dillard, Denise A; Tierney, Steve; Driscoll, David L

    2015-04-01

    Patient-centered medical home (PCMH) principles including provider continuity, coordination of care, and advanced access align with healthcare needs of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus (DM-II). We investigate changes in trend for DM-II quality indicators after PCMH implementation at Southcentral Foundation, a tribal health organization in Alaska. Monthly rates of DM-II incidence, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements, and service utilization were calculated from electronic health records from 1996 to 2009. We performed interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in trend. Rates of new DM-II diagnoses were stable prior to (p=0.349) and increased after implementation (p<0.001). DM-II rates of HbA1c screening increased, though not significantly, before (p=0.058) and remained stable after implementation (p=0.969). There was non-significant increasing trend in both periods for percent with average HbA1c less than 7% (53 mmol/mol; p=0.154 and p=0.687, respectively). Number of emergency visits increased before (p<0.001) and decreased after implementation (p<0.001). Number of inpatient days decreased in both periods, but not significantly (p=0.058 and p=0.101, respectively). We found positive changes in DM-II quality trends following PCMH implementation of varying strength and onset of change, as well as duration of sustained trend. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visually observed mold and moldy odor versus quantitatively measured microbial exposure in homes

    PubMed Central

    Reponen, Tiina; Singh, Umesh; Schaffer, Chris; Vesper, Stephen; Johansson, Elisabet; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Indugula, Reshmi; Ryan, Patrick; Levin, Linda; LeMasters, Grace

    2010-01-01

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children’s asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child’s age 1 (Year 1). Similar assessment supplemented with air sampling was conducted in Year 7. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin, (1–3)-β-D-glucan, and fungal spores. The Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to analyze 36 mold species in dust samples, and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated. Homes were categorized based on three criteria: 1) visible mold damage, 2) moldy odor, and 3) ERMI. Even for homes where families had not moved, Year 7 endotoxin and (1–3)-β-D-glucan exposures were significantly higher than those in Year 1 (p<0.001), whereas no difference was seen for ERMI (p=0.78). Microbial concentrations were not consistently associated with visible mold damage categories, but were consistently higher in homes with moldy odor and in homes that had high ERMI. Low correlations between results in air and dust samples indicate different types or durations of potential microbial exposures from dust vs. air. Future analysis will indicate which, if any, of the assessment methods is associated with the development of asthma. PMID:20810150

  13. Visually observed mold and moldy odor versus quantitatively measured microbial exposure in homes.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Singh, Umesh; Schaffer, Chris; Vesper, Stephen; Johansson, Elisabet; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Indugula, Reshmi; Ryan, Patrick; Levin, Linda; Lemasters, Grace

    2010-10-15

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year 1). Similar assessment supplemented with air sampling was conducted in Year 7. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin, (1-3)-β-D-glucan, and fungal spores. The Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to analyze 36 mold species in dust samples, and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated. Homes were categorized based on three criteria: 1) visible mold damage, 2) moldy odor, and 3) ERMI. Even for homes where families had not moved, Year 7 endotoxin and (1-3)-β-d-glucan exposures were significantly higher than those in Year 1 (p<0.001), whereas no difference was seen for ERMI (p=0.78). Microbial concentrations were not consistently associated with visible mold damage categories, but were consistently higher in homes with moldy odor and in homes that had high ERMI. Low correlations between results in air and dust samples indicate different types or durations of potential microbial exposures from dust vs. air. Future analysis will indicate which, if any, of the assessment methods is associated with the development of asthma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. National Weather Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heat Hurricanes Lightning Rip Currents Safe Boating Thunderstorms Space Weather Sun (Ultraviolet Radiation) Safety Campaigns Wind Drought ... Outlook Hurricanes Fire Weather Outlooks UV Alerts Drought Space Weather NOAA Weather Radio NWS CAP Feeds PAST ...

  15. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  16. Orbital-scale changes in the global silicate weathering intensity: the Mesozoic bedded chert sequence in Japan as its potential measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, M.; Tada, R.; Olsen, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    Silicate weathering is one of the most important regulators of the Earth system dynamics through nutrient supply and consumption of atmospheric CO2. However, its changes in the geologic past using geologic records have been controversial due to the lack of appropriate method to quantitatively reconstruct the past global silicate weathering intensity. One way for its measurement would be an estimation of the pelagic biogenic silica burial rate, because the silicate weathering and pelagic biogenic silica burial are the major source and major sink of dissolved silica in the present ocean, respectively (e.g. Treguer et al., 1995). During the Mesozoic, the pelagic bedded chert is the potential major sink of the biogenic silica in the ocean. We therefore first estimate the biogenic silica burial rate for the Inuyama bedded chert in Japan based on the major elements chemical analysis of individual chert and shale beds on the continuous sequence with bed-by-bed resolution. The rhythmically alternation of chert and shale beds were reflected by the precession cycle (Ikeda et al., 2010). By using the chert-shale couplet as time scale, we reconstructed the variation in the biogenic silica burial rate for the Inuyama bedded chert from the Early Triassic to Early Jurassic. Together with paleogeographic distribution of bedded chert compiled from previous studies, the biogenic silica burial rate in the low latitude Panthalassa ocean in the form of bedded chert was several times higher than the biogenic silica burial rate in the modern global ocean (DeMaster, 2002). This result suggests that bedded chert was the major sink of the dissolved silica in the ocean at least during the early Mesozoic. Therefore, the variations in the biogenic silica burial rate for bedded chert should be proportional to the variations in the dissolved silica input to the ocean in time-scales longer than its residence time in the ocean (15 kyr; Treguer et al., 1995). The variation in 87Sr/86Sr isotopic

  17. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  18. Field testing, refinement, and psychometric evaluation of a new measure of nursing home care quality.

    PubMed

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Zwygart-Stauffacher, Mary; Mehr, David R; Petroski, Gregory F; Owen, Steven V; Madsen, Richard W; Flesner, Marcia; Conn, Vicki; Bostick, Jane; Smith, Robyn; Maas, Meridean

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this NINR-NIH-funded field test in 407 nursing homes in 3 states was to complete the development of and conduct psychometric testing for the Observable Indicators of Nursing Home Care Quality Instrument (Observable Indicators, OIQ). The development of the OIQ was based on extensive qualitative and iterative quantitative work that described nursing home care quality and did initial validity and reliability field testing of the instrument in 123 nursing homes in 1 state. The scale is meant for researchers, consumers, and regulators interested in directly observing and quickly evaluating (within 30 minutes of observation) the multiple dimensions of care quality in nursing homes. After extensive testing in this study, the Observable Indicators instrument has been reduced to 30 reliable and discriminating items that have a conceptually coherent hierarchical factor structure that describes nursing home care quality. Seven first-order factors group together into two second-order factors of Structure (includes Environment: Basics and Odors) and Process (includes Care Delivery, Grooming, Interpersonal Communication, Environment: Access, and Environment: Homelike) that are classic constructs of Quality, which was the third-order factor. Internal consistency reliability for the 7 first-order factors ranged from .77 to .93. Construct validity analyses revealed an association between survey citations and every subscale as well as the total score of the OIQ instrument. Known groups analysis revealed expected trends in the OIQ scores. The Observable Indicators instrument as a whole shows acceptable interrater and test-retest reliabilities, and strong internal consistency. Scale subscales show acceptable reliability as well. Generalizability Theory analyses revealed that dependability of scores can be improved by including a second site observer, or by revisiting a site. There is a small additional benefit from increasing observers or visits beyond two.

  19. Radon water to air transfer measured in a bathroom in an energy-efficient home with a private well.

    PubMed

    Harley, Naomi H; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Cook, Gordon B; Fisenne, Isabel M

    2014-07-01

    Monthly measurements of radon in kitchen and bath tap water along with indoor air concentrations were made from 1994 to 1996 in an energy-efficient home with a private well. The well supplies all water to the home. The radon in cold and hot kitchen water averaged 69±2 and 52±2 Bq l(-1), respectively. Radon in cold and hot water from the bath/shower room shower head averaged 60±1 and 38±2 Bq l(-1), respectively, whereas hot water collected in the shower at the tub base averaged 5±1 Bq l(-1) or a 92% radon loss to air. While the calculated transfer factor of 1/10,000, i.e. radon concentration in air to radon in water, conventionally applies to the whole house, measurements for the specific water release during showering in a bathroom exhibit a larger transfer factor of 1/2300, due to smaller room volume.

  20. 'I try not to bother the residents too much' - the use of capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Lillan Mo; Granas, Anne Gerd; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Kjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide

    2016-01-01

    Capillary blood glucose measurements are regularly used for nursing home residents with diabetes. The usefulness of these measurements relies on clear indications for use, correct measurement techniques, proper documentation and clinical use of the resulting blood glucose values. The use of a regular, invasive procedure may also entail additional challenges in a population of older, multimorbid patients who often suffer from cognitive impairment or dementia. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of physicians, registered nurses and auxiliary nurses on the use, usefulness and potential challenges of using capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and the procedures for doing so. This was a qualitative study that used three profession-specific focus group interviews. Interviews were transcribed in modified verbatim form and analysed in accordance with Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation. Five physicians, four registered nurses and three auxiliary nurses participated in the focus groups. All professional groups regarded capillary blood glucose measurements as a necessity in the management of diabetes, the physicians to ensure that the treatment is appropriate, and the nurses to be certain and assured about their caring decisions. Strict glycaemic control and excessive measurements were avoided in order to promote the well-being and safety of the residents. Sufficient knowledge of diabetes symptoms, equivalent practices for glucose measurement, and unambiguous documentation and communication of results were determined to be most helpful. However, all professional groups seldom involved the residents in managing their own measurements and stated that guidelines and training had been inconsistent or lacking. Inadequate procedures and training in diabetes care may compromise the rationale for capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and hence the residents' safety. These concerns should be addressed together

  1. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  2. Family's difficulty scale in end-of-life home care: a new measure of the family's difficulties in caring for patients with cancer at the end of life at home from bereaved family's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoko; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sato, Kazuki; Ozawa, Taketoshi

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool to measure the family's difficulties in caring for cancer patients at the end of life at home: Family's Difficulty Scale in end-of-life home care (FDS). The draft of the FDS was derived from a pilot interview survey and literature reviews. The questionnaires were sent to 395 bereaved family caregivers whose family members were patients with terminal cancer receiving home service. We obtained 306 responses (response rate, 81%). Factor analysis resulted in 29 items and 8 factors: Burden of Care, Concerns about Home Care Doctor, Balance of Work and Care, Patient's Pain and Condition, Concerns about Visiting Nurse, Concerns about Home Care Service, Relationship between Family Caregivers and their Families, and Funeral Preparations. The cumulative rate of contribution was 71.8%. Cronbach coefficient α for the FDS was 0.73-0.75; the intraclass correlation coefficient in the test-retest examination was 0.75-0.85. Evidence for construct validity was confirmed by convergent and divergent validity. Concurrent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between identified factors and concurrent measures. The validity and reliability of this new instrument were confirmed. This scale should help home care providers to assess and focus on family difficulties and provide individualized care for the family who cares for a patient with terminal cancer at home.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Healthy Home Survey: A tool to measure factors within homes hypothesized to relate to overweight in children

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Maria J; Ward, Dianne S; Hales, Derek; Vaughn, Amber; Tabak, Rachel G; Stevens, June

    2008-01-01

    Background The contribution of the environment to the obesity epidemic is well recognized. Parents have control over their home environment and can, therefore, support healthy dietary and activity habits in their children by manipulating factors such as access to energy-dense foods, availability of physical activity equipment, and restricting screen time. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Home Survey and its reliability and validity. The Healthy Home Survey was designed to assess characteristics of the home environment that are hypothesized to influence healthy weight behaviors in children including diet and physical activity. Methods We recruited 85 families with at least one child between 3–8 years. The Healthy Home Survey was administered to parents via telephone and repeated in a random sample of 45 families after 7 days. In-home observations were performed within 14 days of the first Healthy Home Survey interview. Percent agreement, Kappa statistics, Intra-class correlation coefficients and sensitivity analyses were used to evaluate reliability and validity evidence. Results Reliability and validity estimates for the Healthy Home Survey were varied, but generally high (0.22–1.00 and 0.07–0.96 respectively), with lower scores noted for perishable foods and policy items. Lower scores were likely related to actual change in the perishable foods present and the subjective nature or clarity of policy questions and response categories. Conclusion Initial testing demonstrated that the Healthy Home Survey is a feasible, reliable, and valid assessment of the home environment; however, it has also highlighted areas that need improvement. The Healthy Home Survey will be useful in future research exploring the relationship between the home environment and child weight. PMID:18442392

  4. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  5. Residential exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations: Model predictions versus personal and home measurements.

    PubMed

    Martens, Astrid L; Slottje, Pauline; Meima, Marie Y; Beekhuizen, Johan; Timmermans, Danielle; Kromhout, Hans; Smid, Tjabe; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2016-04-15

    Geospatial models have been demonstrated to reliably and efficiently estimate RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations (downlink) at stationary locations with the implicit assumption that this reflects personal exposure. In this study we evaluated whether RF-EMF model predictions at the home address are a good proxy of personal 48h exposure. We furthermore studied potential modification of this association by degree of urbanisation. We first used an initial NISMap estimation (at an assumed height of 4.5m) for 9563 randomly selected addresses in order to oversample addresses with higher exposure levels and achieve exposure contrast. We included 47 individuals across the range of potential RF-EMF exposure and used NISMap to re-assess downlink exposure at the home address (at bedroom height). We computed several indicators to determine the accuracy of the NISMap model predictions. We compared residential RF-EMF model predictions with personal 48h, at home, and night-time (0:00-8:00AM) ExpoM3 measurements, and with EME-SPY 140 spot measurements in the bedroom. We obtained information about urbanisation degree and compared the accuracy of model predictions in high and low urbanised areas. We found a moderate Spearman correlation between model predictions and personal 48h (rSp=0.47), at home (rSp=0.49), at night (rSp=0.51) and spot measurements (rSp=0.54). We found no clear differences between high and low urbanised areas (48h: high rSp=0.38, low rSp=0.55, bedroom spot measurements: high rSp=0.55, low rSp=0.50). We achieved a meaningful ranking of personal downlink exposure irrespective of degree of urbanisation, indicating that these models can provide a good proxy of personal exposure in areas with varying build-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  7. Weather Conditions During the 2013 SAS/SOAS Field Campaign: Providing Meteorological Context to the Extensive Project Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Farkas, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS)/Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) (url: http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/sas/) was a joint project supported by the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, Electric Power Research Institute and 30 US and International Research Institutions, and was the largest U.S. air quality study in decades. This collaborative project addressed various components of air quality, chemical and aerosol constituent evolution over the SE US. An international team of investigators brought an unprecedented suite of chemical species filter sampling equipment and in-situ sensors to characterize the atmosphere and the chemical processes occurring within it with specific emphasis on the characterization of the content, form and evolution of chemical and aerosol species in the humid Southeast US from 1 June-15 July during summer. The main ';super site' brought ~100 participants and ~50 specialized samplers and analyzers to the EPRI sponsored SouthEastern Aerosol and Atmospheric Characterization (SEARCH) Network site near Brent, Alabama. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the meteorological context to the observations that were made at the central Alabama ';super site' described above. The long-term climatology of the region suggested that the weather would be relatively quiet during the period with the occasional air mass change (frontal passage) and a few days of showers and/or windy conditions. What actually happened during the 45-day campaign was generally a much more unsettled period that included several frontal passages, a large number of rainy days and cooler than normal temperatures. Table 1 provides a preliminary summary of conditions during the campaign. The number of quiet or stagnant periods that might allow the buildup of various chemical constituents important to the study were infrequent and did not last for extended periods. Contact will be made with the Alabama State Climatologist to improve

  8. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  9. VISUALLY OBSERVED MOLD AND MOLDY ODOR VERSUS QUANTITATIVELY MEASURED MICROBIAL EXPOSURE IN HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year ...

  10. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  11. AMERICAN HEALTHY HOMES SURVEY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDES MEASURED FROM FLOOR WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development conducted the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS) in 2006 to assess environmental concentrations of lead, allergens, mold, pesticides, and arsenic in and around U.S. residences.

  12. Small and Home-Based Businesses: Measures of Success and the Contribution of Local Development Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian; Shideler, Dave; Muske, Glenn; Woods, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Small and home-based businesses have long been identified by Extension educators as an important component of economic development, particularly in rural areas. The services available to these businesses can take many forms, including management training, accessibility of local funding, providing incubation facilities, or setting up mentoring…

  13. VISUALLY OBSERVED MOLD AND MOLDY ODOR VERSUS QUANTITATIVELY MEASURED MICROBIAL EXPOSURE IN HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year ...

  14. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  15. In-Home Interviews Measure Positive Effects of a School Nutrition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, William F.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes a study which used in-home interviews with children (N=1,431) and their mothers (N=812) to assess behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of K-6 students who were or were not exposed to a nutrition learning system. Concludes that in-school nutrition education positively influences children's food behavior. (DC)

  16. Stability of Measures of the Home Environment for Families of Children with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousey, Ann Maria; Wild, Margaret; Blacher, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the home environments of 64 families of children with severe disabilities 7 and 9 years after the initial assessment found a high degree of stability, especially on the Family Environment Scale (FES). However, internal consistency reliability of the FES was lower for these families than in the standardization samples. (Contains…

  17. Effect of Caffeine on Attention and Alertness Measured in a Home-Setting, Using Web-Based Cognition Tests.

    PubMed

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Boessen, Ruud; Donner, Yoni; Clabbers, Nard; Boorsma, André

    2017-09-07

    There is an increasing interest among nutritional researchers to perform lifestyle and nutritional intervention studies in a home setting instead of testing subjects in a clinical unit. The term used in other disciplines is 'ecological validity' stressing a realistic situation. This becomes more and more feasible because devices and self-tests that enable such studies are more commonly available. Here, we present such a study in which we reproduced the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness in an at-home setting. The study was aimed to reproduce the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness using a Web-based study environment of subjects, at home, performing different Web-based cognition tests. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects were provided with coffee sachets (2 with and 2 without caffeine). They were also provided with a written instruction of the test days. Healthy volunteers consumed a cup of coffee after an overnight fast. Each intervention was repeated once. Before and 1 hour after coffee consumption subjects performed Web-based cognitive performance tests at home, which measured alertness and attention, established by 3 computerized tests provided by QuantifiedMind. Each test was performed for 5 minutes. Web-based recruitment was fast and efficient. Within 2 weeks, 102 subjects applied, of whom 70 were eligible. Of the 66 subjects who started the study, 53 completed all 4 test sessions (80%), indicating that they were able to perform the do it yourself tests, at home, correctly. The Go-No Go cognition test performed at home showed the same significant improvement in reaction time with caffeine as found in controlled studies in a metabolic ward (P=.02). For coding and N-back the second block was performed approximately 10% faster. No effect was seen on correctness. The study showed that the effects of caffeine consumption on a cognition test in an at-home setting revealed similar

  18. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  19. Space weather: Challenges and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) has the following legal mandates to: a) Continuously monitor, measure, and specify the space environment, b) Provide timely and accurate space weather data, operational forecasts, alerts, and warnings of hazardous space weather phenomena, c) Provide scientific stewardship of, and public access to, space weather data and products, d) Understand the processes that influence space weather and develop applications for the user community and e) Develop new and improved products and transition them into operations to meet evolving space weather user needs. This presentation will discuss the challenges and opportunities that NOAA and the SWPC face in addressing these mandates. This includes coordination of space environment activities across federal agencies and the strategic planning for NOAA's space weather services, integration of space weather activities as well as critical dependencies of space weather services on current and future operational environmental satellites.

  20. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... are often overdressed for the first trip home. Dress your baby as you would dress yourself. So, if you'd be too warm ... baby probably will be, too. In warm weather, dress your baby in a T-shirt and light ...

  1. Space Weather Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  2. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  3. A Geyser of Energy Savings in Idaho: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D&R International

    2001-10-10

    Idaho demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  4. Report from the third international consensus meeting to harmonise core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME).

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J R; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C; Dohil, M; Eichenfield, L F; Simpson, E L; Singh, J; Spuls, P; Thomas, K S; Admani, S; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Barbarot, S; Berger, T; Bergman, J N; Block, J; Borok, N; Burton, T; Chamlin, S L; Deckert, S; DeKlotz, C C; Graff, L B; Hanifin, J M; Hebert, A A; Humphreys, R; Katoh, N; Kisa, R M; Margolis, D J; Merhand, S; Minnillo, R; Mizutani, H; Nankervis, H; Ohya, Y; Rodgers, P; Schram, M E; Stalder, J F; Svensson, A; Takaoka, R; Teper, A; Tom, W L; von Kobyletzki, L; Weisshaar, E; Zelt, S; Williams, H C

    2014-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the third meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in San Diego, CA, U.S.A., 6-7 April 2013 (HOME III). The meeting addressed the four domains that had previously been agreed should be measured in every eczema clinical trial: clinical signs, patient-reported symptoms, long-term control and quality of life. Formal presentations and nominal group techniques were used at this working meeting, attended by 56 voting participants (31 of whom were dermatologists). Significant progress was made on the domain of clinical signs. Without reference to any named scales, it was agreed that the intensity and extent of erythema, excoriation, oedema/papulation and lichenification should be included in the core outcome measure for the scale to have content validity. The group then discussed a systematic review of all scales measuring the clinical signs of eczema and their measurement properties, followed by a consensus vote on which scale to recommend for inclusion in the core outcome set. Research into the remaining three domains was presented, followed by discussions. The symptoms group and quality of life groups need to systematically identify all available tools and rate the quality of the tools. A definition of long-term control is needed before progress can be made towards recommending a core outcome measure. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. ); Witherspoon, M.J. ); Brown, M.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy's national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  6. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E.; Witherspoon, M.J.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy`s national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  7. Wearable interrupter module for home-based applications in a telemedical system dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    The mobile interrupter module, dedicated to the enhanced interrupter (EIT) measurement of respiratory mechanics in a home environment and capable of cooperation with a telemedical system, is presented. Characterized by noninvasiveness and minimal requirements regarding patient cooperation, the EIT algorithm is especially suitable for newborns, preschool children, and patients suffering from respiratory muscle impairment. Furthermore, this device enables access to raw data--without initial preprocessing--in a fully flexible measurement protocol (which is not available in any commercial apparatus), and the EIT procedure improves insight (the number and precision of assessed parameters) into the physiological system with respect to the classical occlusive methods.

  8. The Effects of Weather Patterns on the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of SO2 over East Asia as Seen from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, L.; Li, C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Weather systems, particularly mid-latitude wave cyclones, have been known to play an important role in the short-term variation of near-surface air pollution. Ground measurements and model simulations have demonstrated that stagnant air and minimal precipitation associated with high pressure systems are conducive to pollutant accumulation. With the passage of a cold front, built up pollution is transported downwind of the emission sources or washed out by precipitation. This concept is important to note when studying long-term changes in spatio-temporal pollution distribution, but has not been studied in detail from space. In this study, we focus on East Asia (especially the industrialized eastern China), where numerous large power plants and other point sources as well as area sources emit large amounts of SO2, an important gaseous pollutant and a precursor of aerosols. Using data from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) we show that such weather driven distribution can indeed be discerned from satellite data by utilizing probability distribution functions (PDFs) of SO2 column content. These PDFs are multimodal and give insight into the background pollution level at a given location and contribution from local and upwind emission sources. From these PDFs it is possible to determine the frequency for a given region to have SO2 loading that exceeds the background amount. By comparing OMI-observed long-term change in the frequency with meteorological data, we can gain insights into the effects of climate change (e.g., the weakening of Asian monsoon) on regional air quality. Such insight allows for better interpretation of satellite measurements as well as better prediction of future pollution distribution as a changing climate gives way to changing weather patterns.

  9. GLOBE Observer: A new tool to bring science activities and measurements home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek Kohl, H.; Murphy, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program is an international science and education program that provides students and the public worldwide with the opportunity to participate in data collection and the scientific process, and contribute meaningfully to our understanding of the Earth system and global environment. For more than 20 years, GLOBE-trained teachers have been leading environmental data collection and student research in the classroom. In 2016, GLOBE expanded to invite data collection from citizen scientists of all ages through a simple smart phone app. The app makes it possible for students to take GLOBE data (environmental observations) outside of school with their families. It enables a museum, park, youth organization, or other informal institution to provide a simple take-home activity that will keep patrons engaged in environmental science from home. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the app and will provide examples of its use in informal settings.

  10. The influence of intern home call on objectively measured perioperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kastenberg, Zachary J; Rhoads, Kim F; Melcher, Marc L; Wren, Sherry M

    2013-04-01

    In July 2011, surgical interns were prohibited from being on call from home by the new residency review committee guidelines on work hours. In support of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions, we expected that a period of intern home call would correlate with increased rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort. University-affiliated tertiary Veterans Affairs Medical Center. All patients identified in the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent an operation performed by general, vascular, urologic, or cardiac surgery services between fiscal years (FYs) 1999 and 2010 were included. During FYs 1999-2003, the first call for all patients went to an in-hospital intern. In the subsequent period (FYs 2004-2010), the first call went to an intern on home call. Thirty-day unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates and risk-adjusted observed to expected ratios were analyzed by univariate analysis and joinpoint regression, respectively. Unadjusted overall morbidity rates decreased between 1999-2003 and 2004-2010 (12.14% to 10.19%, P = .003). The risk-adjusted morbidity observed to expected ratios decreased at a uniform annual percentage change of -6.03% (P < .001). Unadjusted overall mortality rates also decreased between the 2 periods (1.76% to 1.26%; P = .05). There was no significant change in the risk-adjusted mortality observed to expected ratios during the study. The institution of an intern home call schedule was not associated with increased rates of postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  11. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Kayoko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA), are crucial indicators of child development and health. Purpose To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes. Methods In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14–19 years old), women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964), which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311) and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014. Results In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98) and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92) compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5). Conclusion Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA. PMID:26348847

  12. Assessing the welfare of laboratory mice in their home environment using animal-based measures--a benchmarking tool.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Elin M F; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-02-01

    Welfare problems in laboratory mice can be a consequence of an ongoing experiment, or a characteristic of a particular genetic line, but in some cases, such as breeding animals, they are most likely to be a result of the design and management of the home cage. Assessment of the home cage environment is commonly performed using resource-based measures, like access to nesting material. However, animal-based measures (related to the health status and behaviour of the animals) can be used to assess the current welfare of animals regardless of the inputs applied (i.e. the resources or management). The aim of this study was to design a protocol for assessing the welfare of laboratory mice using only animal-based measures. The protocol, to be used as a benchmarking tool, assesses mouse welfare in the home cage and does not contain parameters related to experimental situations. It is based on parameters corresponding to the 12 welfare criteria established by the Welfare Quality® project. Selection of animal-based measures was performed by scanning existing published, web-based and informal protocols, and by choosing parameters that matched these criteria, were feasible in practice and, if possible, were already validated indicators of mouse welfare. The parameters should identify possible animal welfare problems and enable assessment directly in an animal room during cage cleaning procedures, without the need for extra equipment. Thermal comfort behaviours and positive emotional states are areas where more research is needed to find valid, reliable and feasible animal-based measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Report from the third international consensus meeting to harmonise core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME)

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, JR; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C; Dohil, M; Eichenfield, LF; Simpson, EL; Singh, J; Spuls, P; Thomas, KS; Admani, S; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Barbarot, S; Berger, T; Bergman, JN; Block, J; Borok, N; Burton, T; Chamlin, SL; Deckert, S; DeKlotz, CC; Graff, LB; Hanifin, JM; Hebert, AA; Humphreys, R; Katoh, N; Kisa, RM; Margolis, DJ; Merhand, S; Minnillo, R; Mizutani, H; Nankervis, H; Ohya, Y; Rodgers, P; Schram, ME; Stalder, JF; Svensson, A; Takaoka, R; Teper, A; Tom, WL; von Kobyletzki, L; Weisshaar, E; Zelt, S; Williams, HC

    2014-01-01

    Summary This report provides a summary of the third meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in San Diego, CA, U.S.A., 6–7 April 2013 (HOME III). The meeting addressed the four domains that had previously been agreed should be measured in every eczema clinical trial: clinical signs, patient-reported symptoms, long-term control and quality of life. Formal presentations and nominal group techniques were used at this working meeting, attended by 56 voting participants (31 of whom were dermatologists). Significant progress was made on the domain of clinical signs. Without reference to any named scales, it was agreed that the intensity and extent of erythema, excoriation, oedema/papulation and lichenification should be included in the core outcome measure for the scale to have content validity. The group then discussed a systematic review of all scales measuring the clinical signs of eczema and their measurement properties, followed by a consensus vote on which scale to recommend for inclusion in the core outcome set. Research into the remaining three domains was presented, followed by discussions. The symptoms group and quality of life groups need to systematically identify all available tools and rate the quality of the tools. A definition of long-term control is needed before progress can be made towards recommending a core outcome measure. What's already known about this topic? Many different scales have been used to measure eczema, making it difficult to compare trials in meta-analyses and hampering improvements in clinical practice. HOME core outcome measures must pass the OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology) filter of truth (validity), discrimination (sensitivity to change and responsiveness) and feasibility (ease of use, costs, time to perform and interpret). It has been previously agreed as part of the consensus process that four domains should be measured by the core outcomes: clinical signs, patient

  14. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  15. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  16. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds.

  17. Basic Weather Facts Study Texts for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This pamphlet offers information to teachers and students concerning basic facts about weather and how to construct simple weather measurement devices. Directions, necessary materials, procedures, and instructions for use are given for four weather predicting instruments: wind vane, rain gauge, barometer, anemometer. Information is provided on…

  18. Basic Weather Facts Study Texts for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This pamphlet offers information to teachers and students concerning basic facts about weather and how to construct simple weather measurement devices. Directions, necessary materials, procedures, and instructions for use are given for four weather predicting instruments: wind vane, rain gauge, barometer, anemometer. Information is provided on…

  19. Development of a brief survey to measure nursing home residents' perceptions of pain management.

    PubMed

    Teno, Joan M; Dosa, David; Rochon, Therese; Casey, Virginia; Mor, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Persistent severe pain in nursing home residents remains an important public health problem. One major key to quality improvement efforts is the development of tools to assist in auditing and monitoring the quality of health care delivery to these patients. A qualitative synthesis of existing pain guidelines, and input from focus groups and an expert panel, were used to develop a 10-item instrument, the Resident Assessment of Pain Management (RAPM). The psychometric properties of the RAPM were examined in a sample of 107 (82% female, average age 85) cognitively intact nursing home residents living in six Rhode Island nursing homes. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated with test-retest and Cronbach's alpha, respectively, and validity was examined against independent assessment of pain management by research nurses. After comparing the results of RAPM with the independent pain assessment and examining a frequency distribution and factor analysis, five of the 10 items were retained. Internal reliability of the final instrument was 0.55. The rate of reported concerns ranged from 8% stating that they were not receiving enough pain medication to 43% stating that pain interfered with their sleep. The median pain problem score (i.e., the count of the number of opportunities to improve) was 1, with 23% of residents reporting three or more concerns. Overall, RAPM was moderately correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.43) with an independent expert nurse assessment of the quality of pain management. Evidence of construct validity for RAPM is based on the correlation of the pain problem score with nursing home resident satisfaction with pain management (r=0.26), reported average pain intensity (r=0.41), research nurse completion of the Minimum Data Set pain items (r=0.52), and the quality of pain documentation in the medical record (r=0.28). In conclusion, RAPM is a brief survey tool easily administered to nursing home residents that identifies

  20. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

  1. What Adherence Measures Should Be Used in Trials of Home-Based Rehabilitation Interventions? A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Acceptability of Measures.

    PubMed

    Frost, Rachael; Levati, Sara; McClurg, Doreen; Brady, Marian; Williams, Brian

    2017-06-01

    To systematically review methods for measuring adherence used in home-based rehabilitation trials and to evaluate their validity, reliability, and acceptability. In phase 1 we searched the CENTRAL database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and Health Technology Assessment Database (January 2000 to April 2013) to identify adherence measures used in randomized controlled trials of allied health professional home-based rehabilitation interventions. In phase 2 we searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health, and Web of Science (inception to April 2015) for measurement property assessments for each measure. Studies assessing the validity, reliability, or acceptability of adherence measures. Two reviewers independently extracted data on participant and measure characteristics, measurement properties evaluated, evaluation methods, and outcome statistics and assessed study quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. In phase 1 we included 8 adherence measures (56 trials). In phase 2, from the 222 measurement property assessments identified in 109 studies, 22 high-quality measurement property assessments were narratively synthesized. Low-quality studies were used as supporting data. StepWatch Activity Monitor validly and acceptably measured short-term step count adherence. The Problematic Experiences of Therapy Scale validly and reliably assessed adherence to vestibular rehabilitation exercises. Adherence diaries had moderately high validity and acceptability across limited populations. The Borg 6 to 20 scale, Bassett and Prapavessis scale, and Yamax CW series had insufficient validity. Low-quality evidence supported use of the Joint Protection Behaviour Assessment. Polar A1 series heart monitors were considered acceptable by 1 study. Current rehabilitation adherence measures are limited. Some possess

  2. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  3. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  4. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  5. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  6. Field Test of Advanced Duct-Sealing Technologies Within the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, MP

    2001-12-05

    A field test of an aerosol-spray duct-sealing technology and a conventional, best-practice approach was performed in 80 homes to determine the efficacy and programmatic needs of the duct-sealing technologies as applied in the U.S. Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. The field test was performed in five states: Iowa, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. The study found that, compared with the best-practice approach, the aerosol-spray technology is 50% more effective at sealing duct leaks and can potentially reduce labor time and costs for duct sealing by 70%, or almost 4 crew-hours. Further study to encourage and promote use of the aerosol-spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program is recommended. A pilot test of full production weatherization programs using the aerosol-spray technology is recommended to develop approaches for integrating this technology with other energy conservation measures and minimizing impacts on weatherization agency logistics. In order to allow or improve adoption of the aerosol spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program, issues must be addressed concerning equipment costs, use of the technology under franchise arrangements with Aeroseal, Inc. (the holders of an exclusive license to use this technology), software used to control the equipment, safety, and training. Application testing of the aerosol-spray technology in mobile homes is also recommended.

  7. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; P<0.001 for both). The agreement between the methods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  8. Home Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the Guaranteed Watt Savers (GWS) system, plans for a new home are computer analyzed for anticipated heat loss and gain. Specifications are specifically designed for each structure and a Smart- House Radiant Barrier is installed. Designed to reflect away 95% of the Sun's radiant energy, the radiant barrier is an adaptation of an aluminum shield used on Apollo spacecraft. On completion of a home, technicians using a machine, check for air tightness, by creating a vacuum in the house and computer calculations that measure the amount of air exchanged. A guarantee that only the specified number kilowatt hours will be used is then provided.

  9. Home Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Dispenza, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  10. Home Energy Assessments

    ScienceCinema

    Dispenza, Jason

    2016-07-12

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  11. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducret-Stich, R.; Delfino, R. J.; Tjoa, T.; Gemperli, A.; Ineichen, A.; Wu, J.; Phuleria, H. C.; Liu, L.-J. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM25), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM25, EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM25, EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM2 5, EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R2) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM25, EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM25 (R2=0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R2=0.01-0.29) and OC (R2=0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM25. However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  12. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ∼14.50°N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) particularly covering the solar maximum in the 24th solar cycle. We present low energy (15-140 keV) secondary radiation measurement results extending from the ground till the near space (∼40 km) using a scintillator detector on board rubber weather balloons. We also concentrate on the cosmic ray intensity at the Regener-Pfotzer maxima and find a strong anti-correlation between this intensity and the solar activity even at low geomagnetic latitudes.

  13. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  14. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  15. Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  16. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  17. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  18. Health effects of hot weather: from awareness of risk factors to effective health protection.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Shakoor; O'Connor, Madeline; Kosatsky, Tom

    2010-03-06

    Because of the increasing concerns about climate change and deadly heatwaves in the past, the health effects of hot weather are fast becoming a global public health challenge for the 21st century. Some cities across the world have introduced public health protection measures, with the timely provision of appropriate home-based prevention advice to the general public being the most crucial point of intervention. In this Review, we report current epidemiological and physiological evidence about the range of health effects associated with hot weather, and draw attention to the interplay between climate factors, human susceptibility, and adaptation measures that contribute to heat burdens. We focus on the evidence base for the most commonly provided heat-protection advice, and make recommendations about the optimum clinical and public health practice that are expected to reduce health problems associated with current and future hot weather. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inexpensive Home-Made Single Wavelength Ellipsometer (λ = 633 nm) for Measuring the Optical Constant of Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, L. Z.; Megasari, K.; Suharyadi, E.; Anugraha, R.; Abraha, K.; Santoso, I.

    2017-05-01

    Inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry with RAE (Rotating Analyser Ellipsometer) configuration has been developed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is an optical measurement technique which is based on the measurement of the change of the phase difference (Δ) and the amplitude ratio (ψ) between p and s linear polarized of reflected (or transmitted) light. Our RAE configuration system composed of polarizer, sample, analyzer, detector, and He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm) that acted as the monochromatic light source. To test the reliability of our SE system, we measure the optical constant of Au bulk and Cr (30 nm thick) film. The optical constant and the thickness were extracted by employing the pseudo-dielectric function and numerical inversion which is based on the secant method, the ψ and Δ of our SE data which is modelled by Fresnel equation. From the extraction using the secant method we obtain the optical constant of the Au bulk sample with n = 0.11 to 0.22 and k = 3.26 to 3.37 which is close to that of using pseudo-dielectric method. We obtain the same result for Cr film with n = 3.66 to 3.81 and k = 5.32 to 5.38 which is close to the result from reference. These results show that our inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry instrument and the extraction method are reliable for determining the optical constant of nanostructured materials.

  20. Measuring primary care services performance: issues and opportunities from a home care pilot experience in the Tuscan health system.

    PubMed

    Cinquini, Lino; Vainieri, Milena

    2008-08-01

    In recent years in Italy, as in other European countries, profound changes have been introduced in health care both at central and regional levels. Most of them were oriented towards a shift from 'hospital-centred' health care to health care based more on primary care services. This transition pursues two objectives: giving more effective responses to citizens' needs and reducing public health expenditure. Changes that involve organizational structure must also be carried out with the introduction of measurement tools that can help in planning and can control the changes. The paper provides the results obtained through the experience of modelling a measurement system for primary care carried out in 2004 and 2005 by some territorial managers and controllers in the Tuscan Health system, and the main issues in measuring primary care services emerging from this pilot experience focused on integrated home care services.

  1. Measuring Social Integration among Residents in a Dementia Special Care Unit vs. Traditional Nursing Home: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sefcik, Justine S.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The physical and mental health of older adults with dementia is affected by levels of social integration. The development of dementia special care units (D-SCU) arose, in part, to facilitate more meaningful social interactions among residents implying greater social integration of D-SCU residents as compared to residents in a traditional nursing home. But, it is unknown whether D-SCU residents are receiving equal or greater benefits from living on a segregated unit intended to enhance their social environment and integration through both design and staff involvement. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a comprehensive objective assessment to measure social integration among nursing home residents with dementia and to compare levels of integration of residents living on a dementia special care unit (D-SCU) to those living in a traditional nursing home (TNH). A total of 29 residents participated (15 D-SCU and 14 TNH) and data were gathered from medical charts, visitor logs, and through direct observations. Over 1,700 interactions were recorded during 143 hours of observation. Specifically, the location, context, type, quantity, and quality of residents’ interactions were recorded. Overall, the majority of resident interactions were verbal and initiated by staff. Interactions were social in context, and occurred in public areas, such as the common room with a large screen TV. Average interactions lasted less than one minute and did not change the resident’s affect. Residents spent between 10% and 17% of their time interacting with other people on average. D-SCU staff were significantly more likely to initiate interactions with residents than TNH staff. D-SCU residents also experienced more interactions in the afternoons and expressed more pleasure and anxiety than residents in the TNH. This study helps to lay the groundwork necessary to comprehensively and objectively measure social integration among people with dementia in order to evaluate care

  2. Markerless motion capture and measurement of hand kinematics: validation and application to home-based upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Cheryl D; Robinson, Rebecca; Malpass, Adam J; Bogle, Tristan P; Dell, Thomas A; Harris, Chris; Demain, Sara H

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic movements of the hand, fingers, and thumb are difficult to measure due to the versatility and complexity of movement inherent in function. An innovative approach to measuring hand kinematics is proposed and validated. The proposed system utilizes the Microsoft Kinect and goes beyond gesture recognition to develop a validated measurement technique of finger kinematics. The proposed system adopted landmark definition (validated through ground truth estimation against assessors) and grip classification algorithms, including kinematic definitions (validated against a laboratory-based motion capture system). The results of the validation show 78% accuracy when identifying specific markerless landmarks. In addition, comparative data with a previously validated kinematic measurement technique show accuracy of MCP ± 10° (average absolute error (AAE) = 2.4°), PIP ± 12° (AAE = 4.8°), and DIP ± 11° (AAE = 4.8°). These results are notably better than clinically based alternative manual measurement techniques. The ability to measure hand movements, and therefore functional dexterity, without interfering with underlying composite movements, is the paramount objective to any bespoke measurement system. The proposed system is the first validated markerless measurement system using the Microsoft Kinect that is capable of measuring finger joint kinematics. It is suitable for home-based motion capture for the hand and, therefore, achieves this objective.

  3. Patient Home Visits: Measuring Outcomes of a Community Model for Palliative Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Allo, Julio A.; Cuello, Deanna; Zhang, Yi; Reddy, Suresh K.; Azhar, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health care professionals may have limited exposure to home-based care. There is no published literature that has described the experiences and satisfaction of participation in patient home visits (PHV). Objective: The objective of this article is to describe the characteristics of PHV, our approach, and evaluation by participants over a nine-year period. Methods: We conducted a review of surveys completed by participants in PHV from 2005–2013. All participants anonymously completed the evaluation questionnaires at the end of PHVs. Different PHV assessment forms were used for the 2005–2010 and 2011–2013 time periods. Results: A total of 34 PHVs were conducted with 106 patients and approximately 750 participants with a mean of 3 patients and 22 participants per PHV between 2005 and 2013. For 18 PHVs there are 317 surveys completed with 353 participants, making it a 90% response rate. Responding participants were physicians 125/543 (23%) and other professionals 418/543 (77%). In both time periods of 2005–2010 and 2011–2013 a survey with a 1 (completely agree) to 5 (completely disagree) scale was used. Agreeing that PHV was an effective teaching tool during 2005–2010 were 335/341 (98%); during 2011–2013, 191/202 (95%) agreed that PHV provided increased understanding and sharing of best practices in palliative care. Conclusions: PHV was perceived by participants as an effective way of providing interactive community education. A broad range of themes were addressed, and the participants reported high levels of learning in all domains of palliative care. There were no cases of patient or relative expression of distress as a result of PHV. PMID:26652056

  4. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; de Craen, Anton Jm; Jongstra, Susan; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2016-06-13

    Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile phone-assisted technology, by investigating (1) the association between study center and home BP measurements; (2) adherence to reminders on the mobile phone to perform home BP measurements; and (3) referrals, treatment consequences and BP reduction after a raised home BP was diagnosed. We used iVitality, a research platform that comprises a Website, a mobile phone-based app, and health sensors, to measure BP and several other health characteristics during a 6-month period. BP was measured twice at baseline at the study center. Home BP was measured on 4 days during the first week, and thereafter, at semimonthly or monthly intervals, for which participants received reminders on their mobile phone. In the monthly protocol, measurements were performed during 2 consecutive days. In the semimonthly protocol, BP was measured at 1 day. We included 151 participants (mean age [standard deviation] 57.3 [5.3] years). BP measured at the study center was systematically higher when compared with home BP measurements (mean difference systolic BP [standard error] 8.72 [1.08] and diastolic BP 5.81 [0.68] mm Hg, respectively). Correlation of study center and home measurements of BP was high (R=0.72 for systolic BP and 0.72 for diastolic BP, both P<.001). Adherence was better in participants measuring semimonthly (71.4%) compared with participants performing monthly measurements (64.3%, P=.008). During the study, 41 (27.2%) participants were referred to their general practitioner because of a high BP. Referred participants had a decrease in their BP during follow-up (mean difference final and initial [standard error] -5.29 [1.92] for systolic BP and -2.93 [1.08] for diastolic BP, both P<.05). Mobile

  5. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; Jongstra, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. Objective In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile phone-assisted technology, by investigating (1) the association between study center and home BP measurements; (2) adherence to reminders on the mobile phone to perform home BP measurements; and (3) referrals, treatment consequences and BP reduction after a raised home BP was diagnosed. Methods We used iVitality, a research platform that comprises a Website, a mobile phone-based app, and health sensors, to measure BP and several other health characteristics during a 6-month period. BP was measured twice at baseline at the study center. Home BP was measured on 4 days during the first week, and thereafter, at semimonthly or monthly intervals, for which participants received reminders on their mobile phone. In the monthly protocol, measurements were performed during 2 consecutive days. In the semimonthly protocol, BP was measured at 1 day. Results We included 151 participants (mean age [standard deviation] 57.3 [5.3] years). BP measured at the study center was systematically higher when compared with home BP measurements (mean difference systolic BP [standard error] 8.72 [1.08] and diastolic BP 5.81 [0.68] mm Hg, respectively). Correlation of study center and home measurements of BP was high (R=0.72 for systolic BP and 0.72 for diastolic BP, both P<.001). Adherence was better in participants measuring semimonthly (71.4%) compared with participants performing monthly measurements (64.3%, P=.008). During the study, 41 (27.2%) participants were referred to their general practitioner because of a high BP. Referred participants had a decrease in their BP during follow-up (mean difference final and initial [standard error] −5.29 [1.92] for systolic BP and −2.93 [1

  6. A new measure of home care patients' dignity at the end of life: The Palliative Patients' Dignity Scale (PPDS).

    PubMed

    Rudilla, David; Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura; Barreto, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a new and brief instrument to be employed in dignity measurement, one based on the perceptions of patients, relatives, and professionals about dignity. Surveys of patients receiving palliative care, family caregivers, and palliative care professionals were first carried out (sample 1). In the second step, palliative care patients were surveyed with a pilot questionnaire (sample 2). Finally, a survey design was used to assess patients admitted into a home care unit (sample 3). Sample 1 included 78 subjects, including patients, family caregivers, and professionals. Some 20 additional palliative patients participated in sample 2. Finally, 70 more patients admitted to a home care unit participated were surveyed (sample 3). Together with the Palliative Patients' Dignity Scale (PPDS), our survey included other measures of dignity, anxiety, depression, resilient coping, quality of life, spirituality, and social support. After analyzing data from steps 1 and 2, an eight-item questionnaire was presented for validation. The new scale showed appropriate factorial validity (χ2(19) = 21.43, p = 0.31, CFI = 0.99, GFI = 0.92, SRMR = 0.07, and RMSEA = 0.04), reliability (internal consistency estimations of 0.75 and higher), criterial validity (significant correlations with the hypothesized related variables), and a cutoff criteria of 50 on the overall scale. The new PPDS has appropriate psychometric properties that, together with its briefness, encourages its applicability for dignity assessment at the end of life.

  7. Assessment of the impact of cancer on work, recreation, home management and sleep using a general health status measure.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, M; Harris, A L; Luscombe, D K

    1994-01-01

    A general health status measure (the UK Sickness Impact Profile) was used to assess health-related quality of life in 212 cancer patients [143 women, mean (SD-standard deviation) age 55.3 (11.7) years] compared to 105 age-sex matched control subjects [71 women, mean (SD) age 54.7 (12.2) years]. The four main areas of impairment in the cancer patient group were work, recreation and pastimes, home management and sleep and rest. The majority of patients were unable to work or working shorter hours due to their disease. A diagnosis of cancer was likewise found to have a major impact on active leisure pursuits and led to reduced participation in social and community activities. Patients had particular problems in carrying out household chores and maintenance or repair work in the house. Many patients had difficulty sleeping at night and tended to sleep during the day or rest for much of the day. The majority of studies of quality of life in oncology patients concentrate upon alterations in symptoms, such measures would fail to detect impairment in the aspects described above. Greater attention should be directed towards addressing issues such as changes in employment status and the need for help in the home to improve the overall care of cancer patients. PMID:8046723

  8. A Community Planning Guide to Weatherization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Services Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication of the Community Services Administration is a guide for Community Action Agencies (CAA's) programs for home energy conservation. CAA's involved with renovation of dwellings in poor and depressed areas are given in this guide and step-by-step instructions for administering their weatherization programs. Contents include: (1) a…

  9. Weather and the W.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Types of weather phenomena that can be demonstrated in a home bathroom are discussed. For example, if the bathroom is small enough, warm, moist air can be seen accumulating in the upper part of the room after taking a hot shower. (Author/JN)

  10. 40 CFR 201.23 - Test site, weather conditions and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and... and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from... meters (4 feet) above the ground at the microphone location, except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  11. 40 CFR 201.23 - Test site, weather conditions and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and... and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from... meters (4 feet) above the ground at the microphone location, except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  12. 40 CFR 201.23 - Test site, weather conditions and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and... and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from... meters (4 feet) above the ground at the microphone location, except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  13. The North Carolina Field Test: Field Performance of the Preliminary Version of an Advanced Weatherization Audit for the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The field performance of weatherizations based on a newly-developed advanced technique for selecting residential energy conservation measures was tested alongside current Retro-Tech-based weatherizations in North Carolina. The new technique is computer-based and determines measures based on the needs of an individual house. In addition, it recommends only those measures that it determines will have a benefit-to-cost ratio greater than 1 for the house being evaluated. The new technique also considers the interaction of measures in computing the benefit-to-cost ratio of each measure. The two weatherization approaches were compared based on implementation ease, measures installed, labor and cost requirements, and both heating and cooling energy savings achieved. One-hundred and twenty houses with the following characteristics participated: the occupants were low-income, eligible for North Carolina's current weatherization program, and responsible for their own fuel and electric bills. Houses were detached single-family dwellings, not mobile homes; were heated by kerosene, fuel oil, natural gas, or propane; and had one or two operating window air conditioners. Houses were divided equally into one control group and two weatherization groups. Weekly space heating and cooling energy use, and hourly indoor and outdoor temperatures were monitored between November 1989 and September 1990 (pre-period) and between December 1990 and August 1991 (post-period). House consumption models were used to normalize for annual weather differences and a 68 F indoor temperature. Control group savings were used to adjust the savings determined for the weatherization groups. The two weatherization approaches involved installing attic and floor insulations in near equivalent quantities, and installing storm windows and wall insulation in drastically different quantities. Substantial differences also were found in average air leakage reductions for the two weatherization groups. Average

  14. The Measure and Discuss Intervention: A Procedure for Client Empowerment and Quality Control in Residential Care Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geen, V. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an intervention, used in the Netherlands, that empowers clients in residential care homes. The intervention comprises a standardized survey-feedback procedure in which residents' opinions on life and care in their particular home are gauged, discussed, and reported. Explores instrument validity, reliability, and its use in the home. (RJM)

  15. Measured Self-Esteem and Locus of Control of Students Related to Video Game, Home Computer, and Television Viewing Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of television on the lives of young people and the correlation between home computer programming, the playing of video games at home, and the playing of arcade games out of the home related to self-esteem and locus of control. Subjects were 405 students in grades 4 through 12 from 21 classrooms…

  16. Environmental Influences on the Longitudinal Covariance of Expressive Vocabulary: Measuring the Home Literacy Environment in a Genetically Sensitive Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; Schatschneider, Chris; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the well-replicated relationship between the home literacy environment and expressive vocabulary, few studies have examined the extent to which the home literacy environment is associated with the development of early vocabulary ability in the context of genetic influences. This study examined the influence of the home literacy…

  17. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  18. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  19. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  20. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  1. Fun with Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana

    2007-01-01

    This three-part weather-themed lesson for young learners connects weather, clothing, and feelings vocabulary. The target structures covered are: asking about the weather; comparing weather; using the modal auxiliary, should; and the question word, when. The lessons utilize all four skills and include such activities as going outside, singing,…

  2. Determining mineral weathering rates based on solid and solute weathering gradients and velocities: Application to biotite weathering in saprolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical weathering gradients are defined by the changes in the measured elemental concentrations in solids and pore waters with depth in soils and regoliths. An increase in the mineral weathering rate increases the change in these concentrations with depth while increases in the weathering velocity decrease the change. The solid-state weathering velocity is the rate at which the weathering front propagates through the regolith and the solute weathering velocity is equivalent to the rate of pore water infiltration. These relationships provide a unifying approach to calculating both solid and solute weathering rates from the respective ratios of the weathering velocities and gradients. Contemporary weathering rates based on solute residence times can be directly compared to long-term past weathering based on changes in regolith composition. Both rates incorporate identical parameters describing mineral abundance, stoichiometry, and surface area. Weathering gradients were used to calculate biotite weathering rates in saprolitic regoliths in the Piedmont of Northern Georgia, USA and in Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Solid-state weathering gradients for Mg and K at Panola produced reaction rates of 3 to 6 x 10-17 mol m-2 s-1 for biotite. Faster weathering rates of 1.8 to 3.6 ?? 10-16 mol m-2 s-1 are calculated based on Mg and K pore water gradients in the Rio Icacos regolith. The relative rates are in agreement with a warmer and wetter tropical climate in Puerto Rico. Both natural rates are three to six orders of magnitude slower than reported experimental rates of biotite weathering. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of parental attitudes towards Internet use on the employment of online safety measures at home.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Dafouli, Evaggelia; Fisoun, Virginia; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet safety-related practices and attitudes towards the Internet. Total sample was 2017 students and 1214 parent responders. Research material included extended demographics and an Internet security questionnaire, the Internet Attitudes Scale (IAS) for parents and the Adolescent Computer Addiction Test (ACAT) for children and both parents. Both parents thus provided their views on their children's computer use and an estimate for their degree of computer addiction which was tested against their child's self-report. Results indicated that fathers and mothers who had negative views of the Internet, tended to encourage less their children to engage in online activities and worried more for the possibility that their child is addicted to computer use; their worries weren't correlated with their children's results. Parental views on the Internet had no effect on the level of security precautions they employed at home. Those parents who reported a low level of security knowledge and were unsure as to what their children were doing online, tended to consider their children more likely to be addicted to computer use; those views were confirmed by their children' self-reported results.

  4. Clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements for the prevention and management of high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Elnagar, Noha; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    1. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring (M) provides BP information at many points on any particular day during unrestricted routine daily activities, whereas home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring provides a lot of BP information obtained under fixed times and conditions over a long period of time, thus mean values of HBP provide high reproducibility, and thus an overall superiority compared with ABP.  2. HBP is at least equally or better able than ABP to predict hypertensive target organ damage and prognosis of cardiovascular disease.  3. HBPM allows for ongoing disease monitoring by patients, improves adherence to antihypertensive treatment, and can provide health-care providers with timely clinical data and direct and immediate feedback regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.  4. HBPM provides BP information in relation to time; that is, BP in the morning, in the evening and at night during sleep, and it is an essential tool for the diagnosis of white-coat and masked hypertension.  5. HBPM yields minimal alerting affects and no or minimal placebo effect, and can therefore distinguish small, but significant, serial changes in BP. It is thus the most practical method for monitoring BP in the day-to-day management of hypertension. 6. The superiority of HBPM over ABPM and clinic BPM is apparent from almost all practical and clinical research perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the association between Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety culture (NHSOPS) measures and catheter-associated urinary tract infections: results of a national collaborative.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shawna N; Greene, M Todd; Mody, Lona; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Petersen, Laura D; Meddings, Jennifer

    2017-09-26

    Recent efforts to reduce patient infection rates emphasise the importance of safety culture. However, little evidence exists linking measures of safety culture and infection rates, in part because of the difficulty of collecting both safety culture and infection data from a large number of nursing homes. To examine the association between nursing home safety culture, measured with the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture (NHSOPS), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates (CAUTI) using data from a recent national collaborative for preventing healthcare-associated infections in nursing homes. In this prospective cohort study of nursing homes, facility staff completed the NHSOPS at intervention start and 11 months later. National Healthcare Safety Network-defined CAUTI rates were collected monthly for 1 year. Negative binomial models examined CAUTI rates as a function of both initial and time-varying facility-aggregated NHSOPS components, adjusted for facility characteristics. Staff from 196 participating nursing homes completed the NHSOPS and reported CAUTI rates monthly. Nursing homes saw a 52% reduction in CAUTI rates over the intervention period. Seven of 13 NHSOPS measures saw improvements, with the largest improvements for 'Management Support for Resident Safety' (3.7 percentage point increase in facility-level per cent positive response, on average) and 'Communication Openness' (2.5 percentage points). However, these increases were statistically insignificant, and multivariate models did not find significant association between CAUTI rates and initial or over-time NHSOPS domains. This large national collaborative of nursing homes saw declining CAUTI rates as well as improvements in several NHSOPS domains. However, no association was found between initial or over-time NHSOPS scores and CAUTI rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  6. Reports of Elder Neglect by Older Adults, Their Family Caregivers, and Their Home Care Workers: A Test of Measurement Invariance.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat

    2015-05-01

    The present study evaluated the measurement invariance of a 7-item scale designed to assess elder neglect across three groups of informants: Older adults, family members, and home care workers. In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) was evaluated in order to examine whether individuals of certain characteristics have a different probability of endorsing certain items even at equivalent levels of the overall construct of neglect. A cross-sectional sample of 686 family members, 388 older adults, and 523 home care workers was drawn. A series of sequentially nested confirmatory factor models was examined to identify whether configural (the same items are associated with the same factor across groups), metric (factors have a similar meaning across groups), and scalar (group means can be meaningfully compared across groups) invariances can be established. Multi indicators multi causes analysis was conducted to identify DIF across age, gender, and education. Five items were adequate indicators of the overall construct. The findings provide support to configural, metric, and scalar invariances across the 3 groups of informants. None of the items resulted in DIF. The findings advocate for the use of the 5-item neglect scale across different groups of informants and call for the evaluation of elder neglect within the constellation of the caregiving unit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Concept and modular telemedicine platform for measuring of vital signs, ADL and behavioral patterns of elderly in home settings.

    PubMed

    Czabke, A; Loeschke, J; Lueth, T C

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a new centralized platform for telemedicine is presented. It combines functions for measuring of vital signs, ADL and behavioral patterns and is especially designed for home care scenarios and the use by elderly people who are not familiar with the use of a PC. Unlike many other approaches we did not use a modified standard PC but developed a new dedicated hardware platform. It comes with various interfaces to communicate with different medical home care systems. We implemented a modular software architecture, which allows managing multiple user accounts with different personal settings. Every account can be adapted individually to the user. Every medical device that can be connected to the platform has its own software module, in which data is analyzed, displayed, stored to an internal database or transmitted to a server. Though the user is not bothered with technical issues such as setting up a connection to the internet, he keeps control on his data because he decides if and when data is transferred to a web server. The device was developed in an iterative process and evaluated in focus groups by n = 31 subjects (average age: 67 years) under the supervision of a psychogerontologist. All findings obtained from those sessions were directly incorporated in the presented work.

  8. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  9. Homes away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurel D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the construction of a variety of inexpensive, escape-proof, and safe insect homes--each complete with window, ventilation screen, and cover--so students can observe firsthand the intriguing world of insects. (PR)

  10. Space Weathering of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Space weathering is defined as any process that wears away and alters surfaces, here confined to small bodies in the Solar System. Mechanisms which possibly alter asteroid and comet surfaces include solar wind bombardment, UV radiation, cosmic ray bombardment, micrometeorite bombardment. These processes are likely to contribute to surface processes differently. For example, solar wind bombardment would be more important on a body closer to the Sun compared to a comet where cosmic ray bombardment might be a more significant weathering mechanism. How can we measure the effects of space weathering? A big problem is that we don't know the nature of the surface before it was weathered. We are in a new era in the study of surface processes on small bodies brought about by the availability of spatially resolved, color and spectral measurements of asteroids from Galileo and NEAR. What processes are active on which bodies? What physics controls surface processes in different regions of the solar system? How do processes differ on different bodies of different physical and chemical properties? What combinations of observable parameters best address the nature of surface processes? Are there alternative explanations for the observed parameters that have been attributed to space weathering? Should we retain the term, space weathering? How can our understanding of space weathering on the Moon help us understand it on asteroids and comets? Finally, we have to leave behind some presuppositions, one being that there is evidence of space weathering based on the fact that the optical properties of S-type asteroids differs from those of ordinary chondrites.

  11. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members.

    PubMed

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes. Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC).

  12. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes. Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC). PMID:28138474

  13. Quality of Care in One Italian Nursing Home Measured by ACOVE Process Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Claudia; Manuti, Benedetto; Costantino, Rosa; Bianco, Aida; Nobile, Carmelo G. A.; Pavia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To adapt the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators (ACOVE QIs) for use in Italy, to assess the adherence to these indicators as reported in the medical records of residents in a nursing home (NH), to compare this adherence for general medical and geriatric conditions, and eventually, to identify the relationships between patients' characteristics and reported processes of care. Methods Two physicians collected the data by reviewing medical records of all NH residents in the previous 5 years, for a period of one year. Patients aged <65 years were excluded. A total of 245 patients were reviewed during the study period. The ACOVE QIs set, developed for NH processes of care, was used to assess the quality of care. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on quality of processes of care by several domains of care in general medical and geriatric conditions. Results With the exception of diabetes management, quality of processes of care for general medical conditions approached adequate adherence. Care falls substantially short of acceptable levels for geriatric conditions (pressure ulcers, falls, dementia). On the contrary, the recommended interventions for urinary incontinence were commonly performed. Adherence to indicators varied for the different domains of care and was proven worse for the screening and prevention indicators both for geriatric and general medical conditions. Statistical analysis showed disparities in provision of appropriate processes of care associated with gender, age, co-morbidities, level of function and mobility, length of stay and modality of discharge by NHs. Conclusions Adherence to recommended processes of care delivered in NH is inadequate. Substantial work lies ahead for the improvement of care. Efforts should focus particularly on management of geriatric conditions and on preventive healthcare. PMID:24675745

  14. Home Energy Professional Certifications (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    As the weatherization and home energy upgrade industries expand and gain recognition, the need for a qualified workforce becomes more apparent. The certification component of the Guidelines project was designed to create meaningful and lasting careers for weatherization workers. Intended for experienced home energy professionals, the four new certifications focus on the most common jobs in the industry: energy auditor, retrofit installer technician, crew leader, and quality control inspector.

  15. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) statement to assess clinical signs of atopic eczema in trials.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis I; Thomas, Kim S; Simpson, Eric; Furue, Masutaka; Deckert, Stefanie; Dohil, Magdalene; Apfelbacher, Christian; Singh, Jasvinder A; Chalmers, Joanne; Williams, Hywel C

    2014-10-01

    The lack of core outcome sets for atopic eczema (AE) is a major obstacle for advancing evidence-based treatment. The global Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has already defined clinical signs, symptoms, quality of life, and long-term control of flares as core outcome domains for AE trials. This article deals with the standardization of measurement instruments to assess clinical signs of AE. To resolve the current lack of standardization of the assessment of clinical signs of AE, we followed a structured process of systematic reviews and international consensus sessions to identify 1 core outcome measurement instrument for assessment of clinical signs in all future AE trials. Systematic reviews indicated that from 16 different instruments identified to assess clinical signs of AE, only the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and the objective Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index were identified as extensively validated. The EASI has adequate validity, responsiveness, internal consistency, and intraobserver reliability. The objective SCORAD index has adequate validity, responsiveness, and interobserver reliability but unclear intraobserver reliability to measure clinical signs of AE. In an international consensus study, patients, physicians, nurses, methodologists, and pharmaceutical industry representatives agreed that the EASI is the preferred core instrument to measure clinical signs in all future AE trials. All stakeholders involved in designing, reporting, and using clinical trials on AE are asked to comply with this consensus to enable better evidence-based decision making, clearer scientific communication, and improved patient care.

  16. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a much

  17. Cardiovascular outcomes in the first trial of antihypertensive therapy guided by self-measured home blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Inoue, Ryusuke; Kikuya, Masahiro; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A; Imai, Yutaka

    2012-11-01

    Hypertension guidelines recommend blood pressure self-measurement at home (HBP), but no previous trial has assessed cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients treated according to HBP. The multicenter Hypertension Objective Treatment Based on Measurement by Electrical Devices of Blood Pressure (HOMED-BP; 2001-2010) trial involved 3518 patients (50% women; mean age 59.6 years) with an untreated systolic/diastolic HBP of 135-179/85-119 mm Hg. In a 2 × 3 design, patients were randomized to usual control (125-134/80-84 mm Hg (UC)) vs. tight control (<125/<80 mm Hg (TC)) of HBP and to initiation of drug treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers or calcium channel blockers. During follow-up, a computer algorithm automatically generated treatment recommendations based on HBP. At the last follow-up (median 5.3 years), TC patients used more antihypertensive drugs than UC patients (1.82 vs. 1.74 defined daily doses, P=0.045) and had a greater HBP reduction (21.3/13.1 mm Hg vs. 22.7/13.9 mm Hg, P=0.018/0.020), but they less frequently achieved the lower HBP targets (37.4 vs. 63.5%, P<0.0001). The primary end point, cardiovascular death plus stroke and myocardial infarction, occurred in 25 UC and 26 TC patients (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.77; P=0.94). Rates were similar (P≥0.13) in the three drug groups. In all patients combined, the risk of the primary end point independently increased by 41% (6-89%; P=0.019) and 47% (15-87%; P=0.0020) for a 1-s.d. increase in baseline (12.5 mm Hg) and follow-up (13.2 mm Hg) systolic HBP. The 5-year risk was minimal (≤1%) if on-treatment systolic HBP was 131.6 mm Hg or less. HOMED-BP proved the feasibility of adjusting antihypertensive drug treatment based on HBP and suggests that a systolic HBP level of 130 mm Hg should be an achievable and safe target.

  18. Semivolatile organic compounds in homes: strategies for efficient and systematic exposure measurement based on empirical and theoretical factors.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Robin E; Camann, David E; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia G; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2015-01-06

    Residential exposure can dominate total exposure for commercial chemicals of health concern; however, despite the importance of consumer exposures, methods for estimating household exposures remain limited. We collected house dust and indoor air samples in 49 California homes and analyzed for 76 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)--phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. Sixty chemicals were detected in either dust or air and here we report 58 SVOCs detected in dust for the first time. In dust, phthalates (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate) and flame retardants (PBDE 99, PBDE 47) were detected at the highest concentrations relative to other chemicals at the 95th percentile, while phthalates were highest at the median. Because SVOCs are found in both gas and condensed phases and redistribute from their original source over time, partitioning models can clarify their fate indoors. We use empirical data to validate air-dust partitioning models and use these results, combined with experience in SVOC exposure assessment, to recommend residential exposure measurement strategies. We can predict dust concentrations reasonably well from measured air concentrations (R(2) = 0.80). Partitioning models and knowledge of chemical Koa elucidate exposure pathways and suggest priorities for chemical regulation. These findings also inform study design by allowing researchers to select sampling approaches optimized for their chemicals of interest and study goals. While surface wipes are commonly used in epidemiology studies because of ease of implementation, passive air sampling may be more standardized between homes and also relatively simple to deploy. Validation of passive air sampling methods for SVOCs is a priority.

  19. Measuring social integration among residents in a dementia special care unit versus traditional nursing home: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Katherine M; Sefcik, Justine S; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    The physical and mental health of older adults with dementia is affected by levels of social integration. The development of dementia special care units (D-SCU) arose, in part, to facilitate more meaningful social interactions among residents implying greater social integration of D-SCU residents as compared to residents in a traditional nursing home (TNH). But, it is unknown whether D-SCU residents are receiving equal or greater benefits from living on a segregated unit intended to enhance their social environment and integration through both design and staff involvement. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a comprehensive objective assessment to measure social integration among nursing home residents with dementia and to compare levels of integration of residents living on a D-SCU to those living in a TNH. A total of 29 residents participated (15 D-SCU and 14 TNH) and data were gathered from medical charts, visitor logs, and through direct observations. Over 1700 interactions were recorded during 143 h of observation. Specifically, the location, context, type, quantity, and quality of residents' interactions were recorded. Overall, the majority of resident interactions were verbal and initiated by staff. Interactions were social in context, and occurred in public areas, such as the common room with a large screen TV. Average interactions lasted less than 1 min and did not change the resident's affect. Residents spent between 10% and 17% of their time interacting with other people on average. D-SCU staff were significantly more likely to initiate interactions with residents than TNH staff. D-SCU residents also experienced more interactions in the afternoons and expressed more pleasure and anxiety than residents in the TNH. This study helps to lay the groundwork necessary to comprehensively and objectively measure social integration among people with dementia in order to evaluate care environments.

  20. Testing objective measures of motor impairment in early Parkinson's disease: Feasibility study of an at-home testing device.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wolff, David; DeLeeuw, William; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Elble, Rodger; Hallett, Mark; Nutt, John; Ramig, Lorraine; Sanger, Terence; Wu, Allan D; Kraus, Peter H; Blasucci, Lucia M; Shamim, Ejaz A; Sethi, Kapil D; Spielman, Jennifer; Kubota, Ken; Grove, Andrew S; Dishman, Eric; Taylor, C Barr

    2009-03-15

    We tested the feasibility of a computer based at-home testing device (AHTD) in early-stage, unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients over 6 months. We measured compliance, technical reliability, and patient satisfaction to weekly assessments of tremor, small and large muscle bradykinesia, speech, reaction/movement times, and complex motor control. relative to the UPDRS motor score. The AHTD is a 6.5'' x 10'' computerized assessment battery. Data are stored on a USB memory stick and sent by internet to a central data repository as encrypted data packets. Although not designed or powered to measure change, the study collected data to observe patterns relative to UPDRS motor scores. Fifty-two PD patients enrolled, and 50 completed the 6 month trial, 48 remaining without medication. Patients complied with 90.6% of weekly 30-minute assessments, and 98.5% of data packets were successfully transmitted and decrypted. On a 100-point scale, patient satisfaction with the program at study end was 87.2 (range: 80-100). UPDRS motor scores significantly worsened over 6 months, and trends for worsening over time occurred for alternating finger taps (P = 0.08), tremor (P = 0.06) and speech (P = 0.11). Change in tremor was a significant predictor of change in UPDRS (P = 0.047) and was detected in the first month of the study. This new computer-based technology offers a feasible format for assessing PD-related impairment from home. The high patient compliance and satisfaction suggest the feasibility of its incorporation into larger clinical trials, especially when travel is difficult and early changes or frequent data collection are considered important to document.

  1. Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Homes: Strategies for Efficient and Systematic Exposure Measurement Based on Empirical and Theoretical Factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Residential exposure can dominate total exposure for commercial chemicals of health concern; however, despite the importance of consumer exposures, methods for estimating household exposures remain limited. We collected house dust and indoor air samples in 49 California homes and analyzed for 76 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)—phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. Sixty chemicals were detected in either dust or air and here we report 58 SVOCs detected in dust for the first time. In dust, phthalates (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate) and flame retardants (PBDE 99, PBDE 47) were detected at the highest concentrations relative to other chemicals at the 95th percentile, while phthalates were highest at the median. Because SVOCs are found in both gas and condensed phases and redistribute from their original source over time, partitioning models can clarify their fate indoors. We use empirical data to validate air-dust partitioning models and use these results, combined with experience in SVOC exposure assessment, to recommend residential exposure measurement strategies. We can predict dust concentrations reasonably well from measured air concentrations (R2 = 0.80). Partitioning models and knowledge of chemical Koa elucidate exposure pathways and suggest priorities for chemical regulation. These findings also inform study design by allowing researchers to select sampling approaches optimized for their chemicals of interest and study goals. While surface wipes are commonly used in epidemiology studies because of ease of implementation, passive air sampling may be more standardized between homes and also relatively simple to deploy. Validation of passive air sampling methods for SVOCs is a priority. PMID:25488487

  2. Use of Munsell Color Charts to Measure Skin Tone Objectively in Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Pressure Ulcer Development

    PubMed Central

    MCCREATH, Heather E.; BATES-JENSEN, Barbara M.; NAKAGAMI, Gojiro; PATLAN, Anabel; BOOTH, Howard; CONNOLLY, Dana; TRUONG, Cyndi; WOLDAI, Agazi

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess feasibility of classifying skin tone using Munsell color chart values and to compare Munsell-based skin tone categories to ethnicity/race to predict pressure ulcer risk. Background Pressure ulcer classification uses level of visible tissue damage, including skin discoloration over bony prominences. Prevention begins with early detection of damage. Skin discoloration in those with dark skin tones can be difficult to observe, hindering early detection. Design Observational cohort of 417 nursing home residents from 19 nursing homes collected between 2009 – 2014, with weekly skin assessments for up to 16 weeks. Methods Assessment included forearm and buttocks skin tone based on Munsell values (Dark, Medium, Light) at three time points, ethnicity/race medical record documentation, and weekly skin assessment on trunk and heels. Results Inter-rater reliability was high for forearm and buttock values and skin tone. Mean Munsell buttocks values differed significantly by ethnicity/race. Across ethnicity/race, Munsell value ranges overlapped, with the greatest range among African-Americans. Trunk pressure ulcer incidence varied by skin tone, regardless of ethnicity/race. In multinomial regression, skin tone was more predictive of skin damage than ethnicity/race for trunk locations but ethnicity/race was more predictive for heels. Conclusions Given the overlap of Munsell values across ethnicity/race, color charts provide more objective measurement of skin tone than demographic categories. An objective measure of skin tone can improve pressure ulcer risk assessment among patients for whom current clinical guidelines are less effective. PMID:27062396

  3. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program: Program Overview and Philadelphia Project Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Case Study with WIPP program overview, information regarding eligibility, and successes from Pennsylvania's Commission on Economic Opportunity (CEO) that demonstrate innovative approaches that maximize the benefit of the program. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recently launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of homes of low-income families. Since 2010, WIPP has helped weatherization service providers as well as new and nontraditional partners leverage non-federal financial resources to supplement federal grants, saving taxpayer money. WIPP complements the Weatherization Assistance program (WAP), which operates nation-wide, in U.S. territories and in three Native American tribes. 16 grantees are implementing weatherization innovation projects using experimental approaches to find new and better ways to weatherize homes. They are using approaches such as: (1) Financial tools - by understanding a diverse range of financing mechanisms, grantees can maximize the impact of the federal grant dollars while providing high-quality work and benefits to eligible low-income clients; (2) Green and healthy homes - in addition to helping families reduce their energy costs, grantees can protect their health and safety. Two WIPP projects (Connecticut and Maryland) will augment standard weatherization services with a comprehensive green and healthy homes approach; (3) New technologies and techniques - following the model of continuous improvement in weatherization, WIPP grantees will continue to use new and better technologies and techniques to improve the quality of work; (4) Residential energy behavior change - Two grantees are rigorously testing home energy monitors (HEMs) that display energy used in kilowatt-hours, allowing residents to monitor and reduce their energy

  4. Meals in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Kofod, Jens; Birkemose, Anna

    2004-06-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. In the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home. This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20. The study could not confirm the general hypothesis, as a consistent improvement in the meal situation was not found in the nursing homes studied. But an indication of improved nutritional status was found in two of the nursing homes where the degree of undernutrition was lower than generally found in Denmark. Furthermore, the study indicated that the staff and the residents conceived the nursing homes differently.

  5. Weather Forecasting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Weather forecasters are usually very precise in reporting such conditions as temperature, wind velocity and humidity. They also provide exact information on barometric pressure at a given moment, and whether the barometer is "rising" or "falling"- but not how rapidly or how slowly it is rising or falling. Until now, there has not been available an instrument which measures precisely the current rate of change of barometric pressure. A meteorological instrument called a barograph traces the historical ups and downs of barometric pressure and plots a rising or falling curve, but, updated every three hours, it is only momentarily accurate at each updating.

  6. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  7. Home Modifications

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Home HomeFit ? (AARP) (PDF) Back to top Financial Assistance Minor improvements and repairs can cost between $ ... Learn more by visiting https://www.ncoa.org/economic-security/home-equity/ . Search for additional resources in ...

  8. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  9. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  10. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  11. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  12. Applying large datasets to developing a better understanding of air leakage measurement in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I. S.; Sherman, M. H.; Joh, J.; Chan, W. R.

    2013-03-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. There are several methods for measuring air tightness that may result in different values and sometimes quite different uncertainties. The two main approaches trade off bias and precision errors and thus result indifferent outcomes for accuracy and repeatability. To interpret results from the two approaches, various questions need to be addressed, such as the need to measure the flow exponent, the need to make both pressurization and depressurization measurements and the role of wind in determining the accuracy and precision of the results. This article uses two large datasets of blower door measurements to reach the following conclusions. For most tests the pressure exponent should be measured but for wind speeds greater than 6 m/s a fixed pressure exponent reduces experimental error. The variability in reported pressure exponents is mostly due to changes in envelope leakage characteristics. Finally, it is preferable to test in both pressurization and depressurization modes due to significant differences between the results in these two modes.

  13. Applying large datasets to developing a better understanding of air leakage measurement in homes

    DOE PAGES

    Walker, I. S.; Sherman, M. H.; Joh, J.; ...

    2013-03-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. There are several methods for measuring air tightness that may result in different values and sometimes quite different uncertainties. The two main approaches trade off bias and precision errors and thus result indifferent outcomes for accuracy and repeatability. To interpret results from the two approaches, various questions needmore » to be addressed, such as the need to measure the flow exponent, the need to make both pressurization and depressurization measurements and the role of wind in determining the accuracy and precision of the results. This article uses two large datasets of blower door measurements to reach the following conclusions. For most tests the pressure exponent should be measured but for wind speeds greater than 6 m/s a fixed pressure exponent reduces experimental error. The variability in reported pressure exponents is mostly due to changes in envelope leakage characteristics. Finally, it is preferable to test in both pressurization and depressurization modes due to significant differences between the results in these two modes.« less

  14. A Space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth. A concept mission consisting of six spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Meskers, Arjan J. H.; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-02-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past 40 years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CME properties. The obtained data can additionally be used for updating scientific models. This update is the mission's secondary objective. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and fluxgate magnetometers, while for remote measurements coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. They provide an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuous space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and then forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center which will, in turn, inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will

  15. Simulations of Clouds and Sensitivity Study by Weather Research and Forecast Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Case 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Zhang, M.

    2005-03-18

    One of the large errors in general circulation models (GCMs) cloud simulations is from the mid-latitude, synoptic-scale frontal cloud systems. Now, with the availability of the cloud observations from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) 2000 cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) and other observational datasets, the community is able to document the model biases in comparison with the observations and make progress in development of better cloud schemes in models. Xie et al. (2004) documented the errors in midlatitude frontal cloud simulations for ARM Case 4 by single-column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs). According to them, the errors in the model simulated cloud field might be caused by following reasons: (1) lacking of sub-grid scale variability; (2) lacking of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind a moving cyclone which may play important role to generate the clouds there. Mesoscale model, however, can be used to better under stand these controls on the subgrid variability of clouds. Few studies have focused on applying mesoscale models to the forecasting of cloud properties. Weaver et al. (2004) used a mesoscale model RAMS to study the frontal clouds for ARM Case 4 and documented the dynamical controls on the sub-GCM-grid-scale cloud variability.

  16. Coupling Vector-host Dynamics with Weather Geography and Mitigation Measures to Model Rift Valley Fever in Africa

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, B.H.; Manore, C.A.; Hyman, J.M.; LaBute, M.X.; Fair, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present and characterize a multi-host epidemic model of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa with geographic spread on a network, rule-based mitigation measures, and mosquito infection and population dynamics. Susceptible populations are depleted by disease and vaccination and are replenished with the birth of new animals. We observe that the severity of the epidemics is strongly correlated with the duration of the rainy season and that even severe epidemics are abruptly terminated when the rain stops. Because naturally acquired herd immunity is established, total mortality across 25 years is relatively insensitive to many mitigation approaches. Strong reductions in cattle mortality are expected, however, with sufficient reduction in population densities of either vectors or susceptible (ie. unvaccinated) hosts. A better understanding of RVF epidemiology would result from serology surveys to quantify the importance of herd immunity in epidemic control, and sequencing of virus from representative animals to quantify the realative importance of transportation and local reservoirs in nucleating yearly epidemics. Our results suggest that an effective multi-layered mitigation strategy would include vector control, movement control, and vaccination of young animals yearly, even in the absence of expected rainfall. PMID:25892858

  17. Prevalence and measures of nutritional compromise among nursing home patients: weight loss, low body mass index, malnutrition, and feeding dependency, a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christina L; Tamura, Bruce K; Masaki, Kamal H; Amella, Elaine J

    2013-02-01

    Weight loss and poor nutrition have been important considerations in measuring quality of nursing home care since 1987. Our purpose was to examine, synthesize, and provide a systematic review of the current literature on the prevalence and definitions of nutritional problems in nursing home residents. In the fall of 2011, we performed MEDLINE searches of English-language articles published after January 1, 1990. Articles were systematically selected for inclusion if they presented prevalence data for general nursing home populations on at least one of the following: weight loss, low body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment or other measure of malnutrition, poor oral intake, or dependency for feeding. Data on each study, including study author, year, setting, population, type of study (study design), measures, and results, were systematically extracted onto standard matrix tables by consensus by a team of two fellowship-trained medical school faculty geriatrician clinician-researchers with significant experience in long term care. The MEDLINE search yielded 672 studies plus 229 studies identified through related citations and reference lists. Of the 77 studies included, 11 articles provided prevalence data from the baseline data of an intervention study, and 66 articles provided prevalence data in the context of an observational study of nutrition. There is a wide range of prevalence of low body mass index, poor appetite, malnutrition, and eating disability reported among nursing home residents. Studies demonstrate a lack of standardized definitions and great variability among countries. Of all the measures, the Minimum Data Set (MDS) weight loss definition of ≥5% in 1 month or ≥10% in 6 months had the narrowest range of prevalence rate: 6% to 15%. Weight loss, as measured by the MDS, may be the most easily replicated indicator of nutritional problems in nursing home residents for medical directors to follow for quality-improvement purposes. Additional

  18. Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance of a School Readiness Screener by Ethnicity and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Mayworm, Ashley; Edyburn, Kelly; Furlong, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP) when used to rate the school readiness of children from different ethnic backgrounds (Latino or White, non-Latino), as well as from households where a different language was predominant (Spanish or English). Teachers rated the…

  19. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  20. Measurement Properties of the Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale with a Residential Group Home Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…