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Sample records for homeopathic combination preparation

  1. Evaluating Complementary Therapies for Canine Osteoarthritis—Part II: A Homeopathic Combination Preparation (Zeel®)

    PubMed Central

    Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Salonen, Hanna; Raekallio, Marja

    2009-01-01

    A homeopathic combination preparation (HCP) for canine osteoarthritic pain was evaluated in a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. Forty-four dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) that were randomly allocated into one of three groups completed the study. All dogs were fed test products or placebo for 8 weeks. The dogs were evaluated at the clinic four times, with 4-week intervals. Six different variables were assessed: veterinary-assessed mobility, two force plate variables, an owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain and locomotion visual analogue scales (VASs). Intake of extra non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was also evaluated. A Chi-squared test and a Mann–Whitney test were used to determine significant improvement between groups. When changed into dichotomous responses of ‘improved’ or ‘not improved’ three out of the six variables showed a significant difference (P = 0.016, P = 0.008, P = 0.039) in improved dogs per group, between the HCP group and the placebo group. The odds ratios were over one for the same variables. As extent of improvement in the variables from start to end of treatment, the HCP product was significantly more improved in four (P = 0.015, P = 0.028, P = 0.049, P = 0.020) of the six variables, compared with the placebo. Our results indicated that the HCP Zeel® was beneficial in alleviating chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen. PMID:18955260

  2. Effects of exposure to physical factors on homeopathic preparations as determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Barbara; Nelle, Mathias; Wolf, Martin; Baumgartner, Stephan; Heusser, Peter; Wolf, Ursula

    2010-01-08

    Clinical trials have reported statistically significant and clinically relevant effects of homeopathic preparations. We applied ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy to investigate the physical properties of homeopathic preparations and to contribute to an understanding of the not-yet-identified mode of action. In previous investigations, homeopathic preparations had significantly lower UV light transmissions than controls. The aim of this study was to explore the possible effects of external factors (UV light and temperature) on the homeopathic preparations. Homeopathic centesimal (c) dilutions, 1c to 30c, of copper sulfate (CuSO(4)), decimal dilutions of sulfur (S(8)), 1x to 30x, and controls (succussed potentization medium) were prepared, randomized, and blinded. UV transmission was measured at six different time points after preparation (from 4 to 256 days). In addition, one series of samples was exposed to UV light of a sterilization lamp for 12 h, one was incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for 24 h, and one was heated to 90 degrees Celsius for 15 min. UV light transmission values from 190 or 220 nm to 340 nm were measured several times and averaged. After each exposure, UV transmission of the homeopathic preparations of CuSO(4) was significantly reduced compared to the controls, particularly after heating to 37 degrees Celsius. Overall, the nonexposed CuSO(4) preparations did not show significantly lower UV transmission compared to controls; however, the pooled subgroup of measurements at days 26, 33, and 110 yielded significant differences. UV light transmission for S(8) preparations did not show any differences compared to controls. Our conclusion is that exposure to external factors, incubation at 37 degrees Celsius in particular, increases the difference in light transmission of homeopathic CuSO(4) preparations compared to controls.

  3. Development of a Biocrystallisation Assay for Examining Effects of Homeopathic Preparations Using Cress Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, S.; Doesburg, P.; Scherr, C.; Andersen, J.-O.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in basic research into homeopathic potentisation is to develop bioassays that yield consistent results. We evaluated the potential of a seedling-biocrystallisation method. Cress seeds (Lepidium sativum L.) germinated and grew for 4 days in vitro in Stannum metallicum 30x or water 30x in blinded and randomized assignment. 15 experiments were performed at two laboratories. CuCl2-biocrystallisation of seedlings extracted in the homeopathic preparations was performed on circular glass plates. Resulting biocrystallograms were analysed by computerized textural image analysis. All texture analysis variables analysed yielded significant results for the homeopathic treatment; thus the texture of the biocrystallograms of homeopathically treated cress exhibited specific characteristics. Two texture analysis variables yielded differences between the internal replicates, most probably due to a processing order effect. There were only minor differences between the results of the two laboratories. The biocrystallisation method seems to be a promising complementary outcome measure for plant bioassays investigating effects of homeopathic preparations. PMID:22969820

  4. [Homeopathic medicine and magic].

    PubMed

    Angutek, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The article compares homeopathic medicine and primitive magic. The author realises formal similarities beetwen these two fields of knowledge. The primitive homeopathic magic characterised by J. G. Frazer in his The Golden Bought announces that "similar courses similar". M. Mauss and H. Hubert added to this "low" an another formula: "similar acts on similar that courses a contrary phenomenon". The last formula is an identic one with the "low" of homeopathic medicine. Moreover there is a similarity between pantheistic religion of Hahnemann and magician beliefs in the power named mana in Melanesia and Polinesia or orenda, wakan, manitou and so on, by the Indians from The North America. The amazing thing is that homeopathic chemists belive that kinetic power transforms itself into esoteric one, during preparation of homeopathic medicines.In the end of this article the author ascertains that homeopathic medicine and magic has certain paradigm in common what is opposit to racionalism of official European paradigm of thinking.

  5. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Niemer, W; Weiser, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel on variables related to microcirculation were investigated using vital microscopy techniques in patients with vestibular vertigo. In a non-randomized, open study, 16 patients given Vertigoheel were compared with 16 untreated patients. Measurements were carried out in two areas (defined by selecting 60 blood-cell perfused nodal points of arterioles, venules, and capillaries with a mean diameter > or = 40 microm): the cuticulum/subcuticulum of the inside left lower arm and an area 5 mm behind the left earlobe. After 12 weeks of treatment, patients receiving the homeopathic preparation exhibited an increased number of nodal points, increased flow rates of erythrocytes in both arterioles and venules, increased vasomotion, and a slight reduction in hematocrit vs. baseline. None of these changes were observed in the control group and the differences between treatment groups were statistically significant. Partial oxygen pressure increased significantly in the Vertigoheel group compared with the control group. In addition, in Vertigoheel patients, significantly increased numbers of cell-wall adhering leucocytes were observed, accompanied by increased local concentrations of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1. The microcirculatory changes were associated with a reduction in the severity of vertigo in the actively treated patients, both as assessed by the treating physician and by the patients themselves. The data support a pharmacological effect on microcirculation from the treatment.

  6. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  7. Enhancement of adaptive biological effects by nanotechnology preparation methods in homeopathic medicines.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E

    2015-04-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that traditional homeopathic manufacturing reagents and processes can generate remedy source and silica nanoparticles (NPs). Homeopathically-made NPs would initiate adaptive changes in an organism as a complex adaptive system (CAS) or network. Adaptive changes would emerge from several different endogenous amplification processes that respond to exogenous danger or threat signals that manufactured nanomaterials convey, including (1) stochastic resonance (SR) in sensory neural systems and (2) time-dependent sensitization (TDS)/oscillation. SR is nonlinear coherent amplification of a weak signal by the superposition of a larger magnitude white noise containing within it the same frequencies of the weak signal. TDS is progressive response magnitude amplification and oscillatory reversal in response direction to a given low dose at physiological limits with the passage of time. Hormesis is an overarching adaptive phenomenon that reflects the observed nonlinear adaptive dose-response relationship. Remedies would act as enhanced micro- and nanoscale forms of their source material via direct local ligand-receptor interactions at very low potencies and/or by triggering systemic adaptive network dynamical effects via their NP-based electromagnetic, optical, and quantum mechanical properties at higher potencies. Manufacturing parameters including dilution modify sizes, shapes, and surface charges of nanoparticles, thereby causing differences in physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Based on surface area, size, shape, and charge, nanoparticles adsorb a complex pattern of serum proteins, forming a protein corona on contact that constitutes a unique biological identity. The protein corona may capture individualized dysfunctional biological mediator information of the organism onto the surfaces of the salient, i.e., resonant, remedy nanostructures. SR would amplify this weak signal from the salient remedy NPs with protein corona

  8. The homeopathic preparation Nervoheel N can offer an alternative to lorazepam therapy for mild nervous disorders.

    PubMed

    van den Meerschaut, Lodewijk; Sünder, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    In an open-label, prospective non-randomized cohort study, we compared the effectiveness and tolerability profiles of the homeopathic remedy Nervoheel N with those of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, in 248 patients with insomnia, distress, anxieties, restlessness or burnout and similar nervous conditions ('mild nervous disorders'). Patients were treated with Nervoheel N or lorazepam at the recommended doses for a maximum of 4 weeks. Dose variations were allowed if in the patient's best interest. Treatment effects were evaluated by the practitioner in a dialogue with the patient at the start of treatment, after 2 weeks and after maximally 4 weeks of treatment. Tolerability data were recorded as adverse events. At baseline, lorazepam patients were on average slightly older and there was a somewhat greater percentage of men in this group than in the Nervoheel group. Both treatment groups reported significant symptomatic improvements of similar magnitude during the course of the study. The sum of symptom scores improved by 4.4 points with Nervoheel N and by 4.2 points with lorazepam. The differences between the treatment groups were not significant. All differences between treatments were within 10% of the maximum score ranges, demonstrating non-inferiority of Nervoheel N. Both treatments were well tolerated, with few adverse events and very good self-assessed tolerability ratings by the patients. Thus, in patients who opt for a homeopathic treatment regimen for the short-term relief of mild nervous disorders, the effects of Nervoheel N are non-inferior to those of lorazepam.

  9. The Homeopathic Preparation Nervoheel N can Offer an Alternative to Lorazepam Therapy for Mild Nervous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Meerschaut, Lodewijk

    2009-01-01

    In an open-label, prospective non-randomized cohort study, we compared the effectiveness and tolerability profiles of the homeopathic remedy Nervoheel N with those of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, in 248 patients with insomnia, distress, anxieties, restlessness or burnout and similar nervous conditions (‘mild nervous disorders’). Patients were treated with Nervoheel N or lorazepam at the recommended doses for a maximum of 4 weeks. Dose variations were allowed if in the patient's best interest. Treatment effects were evaluated by the practitioner in a dialogue with the patient at the start of treatment, after 2 weeks and after maximally 4 weeks of treatment. Tolerability data were recorded as adverse events. At baseline, lorazepam patients were on average slightly older and there was a somewhat greater percentage of men in this group than in the Nervoheel group. Both treatment groups reported significant symptomatic improvements of similar magnitude during the course of the study. The sum of symptom scores improved by 4.4 points with Nervoheel N and by 4.2 points with lorazepam. The differences between the treatment groups were not significant. All differences between treatments were within 10% of the maximum score ranges, demonstrating non-inferiority of Nervoheel N. Both treatments were well tolerated, with few adverse events and very good self-assessed tolerability ratings by the patients. Thus, in patients who opt for a homeopathic treatment regimen for the short-term relief of mild nervous disorders, the effects of Nervoheel N are non-inferior to those of lorazepam. PMID:18955261

  10. Effect of artesunate based combination therapy with homeopathic medicine china on liver and kidney of Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

    PubMed

    Rajan, A; Bagai, U; Chandel, S

    2013-04-01

    Present study has been undertaken to evaluate antimalarial potential and safety of artesunate based combination therapy with homeopathic medicine china (ϕ/30 potency) against Plasmodium berghei (NK-65), a lethal rodent malaria parasite. In combination therapy, the oral administration of artesunate (100 mg/kg) + china ϕ/30 proved to be highly efficacious as it completely cleared the blood stage infection. During the follow up period up to day 28, no recrudescence was observed and the survival rate was 100 %. Combination did not disturb the normal functioning of liver and kidney, as evident from the normal activity of ALP (190.5 ± 0.2 and 174.2 ± 9.12 IU/l), level of bilirubin (0.6 ± 0.33 and 0.73 ± 0.1 mg/dl), urea (28 ± 0.51 and 29.1 ± 0.03 mg/dl) and creatinine (0.9 ± 0.62 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg/dl) in serum of treated mice on day 7 and 28 respectively. Present study points to better efficacy of china as an alternative drug partner in combination to enhance antimalarial efficacy of artesunate without affecting the liver and kidney functions of P. berghei infected BALB/c mice.

  11. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial shows no benefit of homeopathic mastitis treatment in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Fanny; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Simons, Julia; Pieper, Laura

    2017-03-22

    Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals. The homeopathic treatment was selected based on clinical symptoms but most commonly consisted of a combination of nosodes with Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pyrogenium, and Escherichia coli at a potency of 200c. Treatment was administered to cows in the homeopathy group at least once per day for an average of 5 d. The cows in the placebo group were treated similarly, using a placebo preparation instead (lactose globules without active ingredients). If necessary, we also used allopathic drugs (e.g., antibiotics, udder creams, and anti-inflammatory drugs) in both groups. We recorded data relating to the clinical signs of mastitis, treatment, time to recovery, milk yield, somatic cell count at first milk recording after mastitis, and culling. We observed cows for up to 200 d after clinical recovery. Base-level data did not differ between the homeopathy and placebo groups. Mastitis lasted for an average of 6 d in both groups. We observed no significant differences in time to recovery, somatic cell count, risk of clinical cure within 14 d after disease occurrence, mastitis recurrence risk, or culling risk. The results indicated no additional effect of homeopathic treatment compared with placebo. The advantages or disadvantages of homeopathy should be carefully assessed for individual farms.

  12. The Red flag! risk assessment among medical homeopaths in Norway: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    their clinical practice. A feeling of well-being emerging soon after taking the remedy was the most important criterion for discriminating between Homeopathic Aggravations and Adverse Effects in clinical practice. The Medical Homeopaths used the view of both professions and always looked for red flag situations in the consultation room. They combined knowledge from two treatment systems which may have advantages for the patient. These tentative results deserve further research efforts to improve patient safety among users of homeopathy. For further research we find it important to improve and develop concepts that are unique to homeopathy in order to validate and modernize this medical practice. PMID:22967054

  13. The School Nurse's Role in Homeopathic Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Janice; Thomas, Elizabeth; McLean, Kay

    1998-01-01

    Describes the practices of homeopathy and how they affect the scope of practice of school nurses. Includes a definition of homeopathy, a discussion of remedies and the specific symptoms for which they are effective, and an examination of conditions treatable by homeopathic physicians. Nine guidelines for managing homeopathic products in the school…

  14. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.

  15. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  16. Serious mistakes in meta-analysis of homeopathic research

    PubMed Central

    Vithoulkas, G

    2017-01-01

    The article discussed the immanent problems of meta-analyses selecting a number of independent trials in homeopathy, within which, the purpose was to examine the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. Our focus lied in clarifying that the complex effects of homeopathic treatment known from history and day-to-day practice have not been respected so far. The examination of most of the homeopathic trials showed that studies rarely account for homeopathic principles, in order to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. The main flaw was that trials reflect the point of view that the treatment with a specific remedy could be administered in a particular disease. However, homeopathy aims to treat the whole person, rather than the diseases and each case has to be treated individually with an individualized remedy. Furthermore, the commonly known events during the course of homeopathic treatment, such as “initial aggravation” and “symptom-shift” were not considered in almost all the studies. Thus, only few trials were eligible for meta-analyses, if at all. These and other factors were discussed and certain homeopathic principles were suggested to be respected in further trials. It is expected, that a better understanding of homeopathic principles would provide guidelines for homeopathic research, which are more acceptable to both homeopathy and conventional medicine. PMID:28255376

  17. Scientific Research in Homeopathic Medicine: Validation, Methodology and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Verona's School of Homeopathic Medicine (www.omeopatia.org) organized a day of full immersion in the field of homeopathy, focusing on the validity of this much-debated discipline. There is widespread consensus in the medical community that evidence-based medicine is the best standard for assessing efficacy and safety of healthcare practices, and systematic reviews with strict protocols are essential to establish proof for various therapies. Students, homeopathic practitioners, academic and business representatives, who are interested in or curious about homeopathic practices attended the conference.

  18. [Effectiveness of a homeopathic prophylaxis for bovine mastitis during dry-off and parturition].

    PubMed

    Notz, C; Hässig, M

    2013-07-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a homeopathic dry cow prophylaxis in a randomized, placebo controlled case-control field trial. The study was conducted in 24 Brown Swiss farms in the Engadine (Swiss mountain region). The effect of the used homeopathic substances were combined with antibiotics in justified cases. At drying off and in the 3rd and 5th week of lactation the udders were clinically examined and quarter milk samples were taken for bacteriological and cytological analysis. In addition, milk recording data of the first 6 milk testing were included in the evaluations. The used homeopathic prophylaxis at drying off did not show any effect in the incidence of dry cow mastitis and mastitis in the first 120 days of lactation. However, at day 21 post partum significantly fewer animals in the verum group showed a bacteriological finding of a major pathogen, but more animals in this group suffered from a secretion disorder. It has been shown that at the 6th milk test pp significantly more animals of the verum group had a somatic cell count below 100'000 cells/ml than the control group.

  19. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine D; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies.

  20. [Peculiarities of ion transport of calcium in tumor cells under conditions of irradiation by ionizing radiation, chemopreparations and homeopathic means].

    PubMed

    Mikhvetadze, A V; Nadateĭshvili, G G

    2006-11-01

    The goal of given investigation was to reveal an effect of different agents on ion transport of Ca2+ in tumor cells (Erlich's carcinomas). Ionizing radiation, antitumor preparation vinkristin as well as homeopathic means - stimulated phosphoric acid diluted at 10-14 were used. Small doses of radiation (0,05 and 0,1 Gr) always had a stimulating effect on ion transport even in combination with vinkristin, which separately always depressed it. Both separately and in any combination stimulated phosphoric acid always reinforced transmembrane ion transport. In regard to Ca2+ a hypothesis about its participation in the process of reparation of tumor cell has been suggested. At increasing of Ca2+ concentrations a transmembrane transport of this ion in the environment increases what induces strengthening of adhesive properties of the cell. However, it is known that in tumors these properties are decreased. Apparently, in this case two contrary processes - strengthening and decrease of adhesive properties take place pointing to the fact that there appear reparative forces in tumor process.

  1. Brief Homeopathic Pathogenetic Experimentation: A Unique Educational Tool in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In homeopathy, many difficulties are encountered in understanding theoretical presuppositions because they represent different paradigms from those of hegemonic science. In our medical school, we developed a brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation course to be added as curricular content and a didactic method in homeopathic disciplines to add practical experience to the theoretical approach of homeopathic presuppositions. In accordance with the premises laid out by Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, brief pathogenetic experimentation was offered on a voluntary basis for students who were free of chronic diseases and who had not regularly used medication in the last 3 months. The clinical test, either crossed or sequential (randomized and blind), was used as a study model. Single weekly doses of a homeopathic medicine of 30 cH or placebo were taken by participants during 4 weeks after which crossover of the experimented substances took place for another 4 weeks. Polycrest medicines were used so that symptoms developed by the participants could be compared to those described in Homeopathic Materia Medica. Thirty-three of the 50 students who studied homeopathy as an elective discipline over the last 4 years at the School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP) participated. Participants described symptoms according to specific methodology including many comments with peculiar characteristics and notable idiosyncrasies. All these students endorsed the course because it contributed to their understanding of how dynamized substances produced symptoms in healthy participants as well as the cure of symptoms according to the casual similitude principle. Brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation proved to be an effective method to observe the idiosyncratic manifestations of human individuality based on qualitative methodology, thus building a basis of understanding of homeopathy. PMID:18955242

  2. Brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation: a unique educational tool in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2009-09-01

    In homeopathy, many difficulties are encountered in understanding theoretical presuppositions because they represent different paradigms from those of hegemonic science. In our medical school, we developed a brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation course to be added as curricular content and a didactic method in homeopathic disciplines to add practical experience to the theoretical approach of homeopathic presuppositions. In accordance with the premises laid out by Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, brief pathogenetic experimentation was offered on a voluntary basis for students who were free of chronic diseases and who had not regularly used medication in the last 3 months. The clinical test, either crossed or sequential (randomized and blind), was used as a study model. Single weekly doses of a homeopathic medicine of 30 cH or placebo were taken by participants during 4 weeks after which crossover of the experimented substances took place for another 4 weeks. Polycrest medicines were used so that symptoms developed by the participants could be compared to those described in Homeopathic Materia Medica. Thirty-three of the 50 students who studied homeopathy as an elective discipline over the last 4 years at the School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP) participated. Participants described symptoms according to specific methodology including many comments with peculiar characteristics and notable idiosyncrasies. All these students endorsed the course because it contributed to their understanding of how dynamized substances produced symptoms in healthy participants as well as the cure of symptoms according to the casual similitude principle. Brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation proved to be an effective method to observe the idiosyncratic manifestations of human individuality based on qualitative methodology, thus building a basis of understanding of homeopathy.

  3. Homeopathic drug proving of Okoubaka aubrevillei: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeopathic drug proving is a basic concept in homeopathy. This study aimed to record symptoms produced by a homeopathic drug compared with placebo. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial consisted of a 7-day run-in period, a 5-day intervention period and a 16-day post-intervention observation period. Subjects, investigators and statisticians were blinded for intervention groups and identity of the homeopathic drug. Subjects in the intervention group received Okoubaka aubrevillei (potency C12) and subjects in the placebo group received the optically identical sucrose globules. Dosage in both groups was five globules taken five times per day over a maximum period of 5 days. Subjects documented the symptoms they experienced in a semistructured online diary. The primary outcome parameter was the number of characteristic proving symptoms compared with placebo after a period of 3 weeks. Characteristic symptoms were categorised using content analysis. Secondary outcome parameters were the qualitative differences in profiles of characteristic and proving symptoms and the total number of all proving symptoms. The number of symptoms was quantitatively analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using analyses of covariance with the subject’s expectation and baseline values as covariates. Results Thirty-one subjects were included (19 Okoubaka and 12 placebo). Data for 29 participants could be analysed. No significant differences in number of characteristic symptoms in both groups were observed between Okoubaka (mean ± standard deviation 5.4 ± 6.0) and placebo (4.9 ± 5.6). The odds ratio for observation of a characteristic symptom was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 3.05, P = 0.843). Females and subjects expecting a higher number of symptoms at baseline or feeling more sensitive to homeopathic drugs experienced more characteristic symptoms regardless of allocation. The qualitative analysis showed

  4. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from

  5. Homeopathic medicine in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico: patients' perspectives and observations.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, M B

    1999-03-01

    This article looks at the growth and use of homeopathic medicine in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. Based on interviews with 174 male and female patients from half of the homeopathic clinics in the city, this research examined attitudes toward disease causation and how one stays healthy. Findings suggest that women are better at monitoring and trying to improve their health than are their male counterparts. Although homeopathy enjoys a strong and almost devoted following, women seem to be more convinced of the overall efficacy of homeopathic medicine than do men.

  6. Bioactivity of the Murex Homeopathic Remedy and of Extracts from an Australian Muricid Mollusc against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benkendorff, Kirsten; McIver, Cassandra M.; Abbott, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Marine molluscs from the family Muricidae are the source of a homeopathic remedy Murex, which is used to treat a range of conditions, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of egg mass extracts of the Australian muricid Dicathais orbita, in comparison to the Murex remedy, against human carcinoma and lymphoma cells. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the chemical composition of the extracts and homeopathic remedy, focusing on biologically active brominated indoles. The MTS (tetrazolium salt) colorimetric assay was used to determine effects on cell viability, while necrosis and apoptosis induction were investigated using flow cytometry (propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining, resp.). Cells were treated with varying concentrations (1–0.01 mg/mL) of crude and semi-purified extracts or preparations (dilute 1 M and concentrated 4 mg/mL) from the Murex remedy (4 h). The Murex remedy showed little biological activity against the majority of cell lines tested. In contrast, the D. orbita egg extracts significantly decreased cell viability in the majority of carcinoma cell lines. Flow cytometry revealed these extracts induce necrosis in HT29 colorectal cancer cells, whereas apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells. These findings highlight the biomedical potential of Muricidae extracts in the development of a natural therapy for the treatment of neoplastic tumors and lymphomas. PMID:19491143

  7. The vital sensation of the minerals: reducing uncertainty in homeopathic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E A; Geraghty, J

    2007-04-01

    We illustrate the 'vital sensation' of mineral-based homeopathic medicines as revealed by an interview style based on a synthesis of the Bombay method and Scholten's, understanding derived from the periodic table. The 'Bombay method', described by Rajan Sankaran, builds on homeopathic teaching giving a structure to guide the gathering and synthesising homeopathic data. The concept of 'levels' gives a route to the deepest reflection of the vital disturbance, the vital sensation. Moving through the levels of fact, symptom, emotion, delusion and finally vital sensation provides valuable prescribing information. These aspects are discussed in conjunction with the kingdoms: plant, mineral and animal, focusing on the mineral kingdom. By synthesizing information relating to the concepts of vital sensation and kingdom we can reduce uncertainly in homeopathic prescribing.

  8. Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Devendra V; Goel, Shubhra; Ratra, Vineet; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of acute, bilateral and severe vision loss after inadvertent consumption of a large quantity of the homoeopathic medication Arnica-30. Severe vomiting which required hospitalization preceded visual symptoms. In the acute stage, pupillary responses to light were absent and fundus examination was normal. Vision loss followed a fluctuating course, with profound loss noted after 6 weeks along with bilateral optic disc pallor. Neuro-ophthalmic examination and detailed investigations were performed, including magnetic resonance imaging, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed gross thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. While a differential diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was kept in mind, these findings supported a diagnosis of bilateral toxic optic neuropathy. Arnica-30 is popularly used to accelerate wound healing, including after oculoplastic surgery. While homeopathic medicines are generally considered safe due to the very low concentrations involved, Arnica-30 may be neurotoxic if consumed internally in large quantities.

  9. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used

  10. Efficacy of homeopathic remedies as prophylaxis of bovine endometritis.

    PubMed

    Arlt, S; Padberg, W; Drillich, M; Heuwieser, W

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 different homeopathic prophylactic strategies for the prevention of endometritis. The drugs used were Lachesis compositum (Lachesis), Carduus compositum (Carduus), and Traumeel LT (Traumeel). Each drug contained a mixed formula of homeopathic remedies. All 929 cows received the first treatment within 24 h postpartum. The second to fourth treatments were conducted at 7 to 13, 14 to 20, and 21 to 27 d in milk, respectively. In the first group, the 4 treatments were Traumeel, Lachesis, Carduus, and Carduus, respectively (n = 206). In the second group, Lachesis was administered 3 times, followed by 1 treatment with Carduus (n = 198). The control group received 4 injections of saline (n = 189). In the fourth week after calving, the prevalence of clinical endometritis, uterine involution, and ovarian activity was monitored by rectal palpation and by ultrasonography. To assess the resumption of ovarian activity, blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of serum progesterone. The concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in blood serum were examined to evaluate energy metabolism. The incidence of clinical endometritis at 21 to 27 d in milk did not differ between the groups (44.4, 44.8, and 36.9% in the Traumeel, Lachesis, Carduus, and Carduus group; the 3x Lachesis, followed by Carduus group; and the control group, respectively). The proportion of cows with cyclic activity at 21 to 27 d in milk and the proportion of cows above threshold values of progesterone, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids did not differ significantly between groups. When reproductive performance data were analyzed, no significant differences were found between groups. Hence, the treatment protocols tested were not effective in preventing bovine endometritis or in enhancing reproductive performance in this study.

  11. Prevention of poison ivy dermatitis with oral homeopathic Rhus toxicodendron.

    PubMed

    Signore, Robert Joseph

    2017-01-15

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy is acommon and miserable dermatosis which affectsmillions of Americans each year. Preventativemeasures, such as avoidance, protective clothing,barrier creams, soaps, and solvents often fail despiteour patients' best attempts. Severe allergic reactionsto poison ivy are a significant source of decreasedemployee productivity owing to inability to work anda major health care expenditure. Patients may haveto leave their jobs and discontinue favorite outdoorrecreational activities as a result of severe urushiolsensitivity. Thus, a simple and effective method ofpreventing poison ivy dermatitis would be of greatbenefit to clinical dermatologists and their patients.Complementary and alternative medical practitionerscommonly prescribe homeopathic poison ivyproducts by mouth for the prevention of poisonivy dermatitis. Yet, conventional dermatologists aremostly unaware of this little known clinical pearl. Theauthor discusses two open studies and anecdotalexperience with administration of homeopathicpoison ivy in the prevention of acute allergic contactdermatitis related to poison ivy exposure. Potentialadvantages could include patient acceptability,ease of administration, affordability, and availability.Randomized clinical trials are needed to furtherevaluate the safety and efficacy of this interesting andpromising clinical tip.

  12. Homeopathic Secretin in autism: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T W

    2001-04-01

    Autism is a condition characterised by impairments of social communication, social interaction and social imagination. The exact aetiology of autism is unknown but some autistic features have been explained by the 'opioid excess theory' in which excess brain peptide levels have a morphine-like activity. Reduction of peptide levels by administration of the duodenal enzyme Secretin has been found to improve social and language skills in autistic patients. Homeopathic Secretin has been said to produce similar effects. A pilot study was undertaken to study these effects by administration of Secretin to a group of autistic patients. Weekly assessment for 12 weeks was performed by the patients' care workers. Statistical analysis of the mean pre-treatment results compared with the mean treatment results suggested a worsening in the autistic symptoms during treatment. Discussion with the care workers revealed changes and some improvements that were not recordable on the scoring system. Further research into Secretin treatment of autism using a more detailed and customized scoring system would be justified. Following this pilot study a randomised controlled trial of Secretin vs placebo would be appropriate.

  13. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H

    1996-08-01

    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group.

  14. Education in Homeopathic Medicine during the Biennium 1918-1920. Bulletin, 1921, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, W. A.

    1921-01-01

    Education in the homeopathic schools of medicine is under the direct guidance of the American Institute of Homeopathy, and the requirements of the American Federation of State Medical Examiners Boards are fulfilled in all details, so that graduates may comply with the requirements of all the States and Territorial possessions. There were 45 more…

  15. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p < 0.001). Unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) had no influence on cell migration (6.3%; p > 0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  16. "Homeopathic" palladium nanoparticle catalysis of cross carbon-carbon coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Deraedt, Christophe; Astruc, Didier

    2014-02-18

    Catalysis by palladium derivatives is now one of the most important tools in organic synthesis. Whether researchers design palladium nanoparticles (NPs) or nanoparticles occur as palladium complexes decompose, these structures can serve as central precatalysts in common carbon-carbon bond formation. Palladium NPs are also valuable alternatives to molecular catalysts because they do not require costly and toxic ligands. In this Account, we review the role of "homeopathic" palladium catalysts in carbon-carbon coupling reactions. Seminal studies from the groups of Beletskaya, Reetz, and de Vries showed that palladium NPs can catalyze Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with aryl iodides and, in some cases, aryl bromides at part per million levels. As a result, researchers coined the term "homeopathic" palladium catalysis. Industry has developed large-scale applications of these transformations. In addition, chemists have used Crooks' concept of dendrimer encapsulation to set up efficient nanofilters for Suzuki-Miyaura and selective Heck catalysis, although these transformations required high PdNP loading. With arene-centered, ferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers containing triazolyl ligands in the tethers, we designed several generations of dendrimers to compare their catalytic efficiencies, varied the numbers of Pd atoms in the PdNPs, and examined encapsulation vs stabilization. The catalytic efficiencies achieved "homeopathic" (TON = 540 000) behavior no matter the PdNP size and stabilization type. The TON increased with decreasing the Pd/substrate ratio, which suggested a leaching mechanism. Recently, we showed that water-soluble arene-centered dendrimers with tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG) tethers stabilized PdNPs involving supramolecular dendritic assemblies because of the interpenetration of the TEG branches. Such PdNPs are stable and retain their "homeopathic" catalytic activities for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions for months. (TONs can reach 2.7 × 10(6) at 80 °C for aryl

  17. Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems. The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient’s symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials. This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism’s dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors. The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health. PMID:23290882

  18. Obstetrics and gynecology outpatient scenario of an Indian homeopathic hospital: A prospective, research-targeted study

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhranil; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Sangita; Singh, Rakesh; Hossain, Md. Monowar; Pramanik, Indrani

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to document prescriptions and clinical outcomes in routine homeopathic practice to short list promising areas of targeted research and efficacy trials of homeopathy in obstetrics and gynecology (O&G). Three homeopathic physicians participated in methodical data collection over a 3-month period in the O&G outpatient setting of The Calcutta Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet was used to record data on consecutive appointments, including date, patient identity, socioeconomic status, place of abode, religion, medical condition/complaint, whether chronic/acute, new/follow-up case, patient-assessed outcome (7-point Likert scale: −3 to +3), prescribed homeopathic medication, and whether other medication/s was being taken for the condition. These spreadsheets were submitted monthly for data synthesis and analysis. Data on 878 appointments (429 patients) were collected, of which 61% were positive, 20.8% negative, and 18.2% showed no change. Chronic conditions (93.2%) were chiefly encountered. A total of 434 medical conditions and 52 varieties were reported overall. The most frequently treated conditions were leucorrhea (20.5%), irregular menses (13.3%), dysmenorrhea (10%), menorrhagia (7.5%), and hypomenorrhea (6.3%). Strongly positive outcomes (+3/+2) were mostly recorded in oligomenorrhea (41.7%), leucorrhea (34.1%), polycystic ovary (33.3%), dysmenorrhea (28%), and irregular menses (22.2%). Individualized prescriptions predominated (95.6%). A total of 122 different medicines were prescribed in decimal (2.9%), centesimal (87.9%), and 50 millesimal potencies (4.9%). Mother tinctures and placebo were prescribed in 3.4% and 30.4% instances, respectively. Several instances of medicine-condition pairings were detected. This systematic recording cataloged the frequency and success rate of treating O&G conditions using homeopathy. PMID:27114940

  19. Gestodene. A review of its pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    PubMed

    Wilde, M I; Balfour, J A

    1995-08-01

    The newer progestogens gestodene, desogestrel and norgestimate were developed in an attempt to produce agents with more selective progestational activity that would improve cycle control and minimise metabolic changes and adverse events while effectively preventing pregnancy. In clinical practice, gestodene is combined with ethinylestradiol in monophasic or triphasic combined oral contraceptive preparations. The drug has pharmacokinetic advantages over the other new progestogens in that it is active per se (the others are prodrugs) and has high bioavailability (approximately 100%). The ability of gestodene-containing oral contraceptives to inhibit ovulation is similar to that of preparations containing other progestogens although the required dosage is lower. In common with oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or norgestimate, and in contrast with those containing levonorgestrel, gestodene-containing preparations are associated with neutral or positive changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The effects of gestodene preparations on coagulation parameters, like those of desogestrel and levonorgestrel, are balanced by changes in the fibrinolytic system. Although the impact of these changes on clinical cardiovascular end-points has not been determined, the altered lipid profile is not likely to have significant clinical relevance because of the predominantly thrombogenic nature of cardiovascular disease in oral contraceptive users. Pregnancy rates and Pearl Indices with gestodene-containing preparations are low and similar to those with preparations containing other progestogens. Most pregnancies are attributable to user failure. Cycle control appears to be better with gestodene preparations than with levonorgestrel preparations, and available data suggest that cycle control may also be better with monophasic gestodene/ethinylestradiol than with monophasic desogestrel- or norgestimate-containing preparations, and better with triphasic gestodene- than with

  20. The anticancer homeopathic composite "Canova Method" is not genotoxic for human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Igor C; Lima, Patrícia D L; Cardoso, Plínio C S; Khayat, André S; Bahia, Marcelo O; Buchi, Dorli de Freitas; Cabral, Isabel R; Burbano, Rommel R

    2003-06-30

    The Canova Method (CM) is a homeopathic medicine indicated for the treatment of patients with cancer and for pathologies that involve a depressed immune system, such as AIDS. This product is composed of homeopathic dilutions of Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album (arsenic trioxide), Bryonia alba, Lachesis muta venom and Thuya occidentalis. It stimulates the immune system by activating macrophages. Activated macrophages stimulate the lymphocytes so that they increase their cytotoxic action in response to tumoral growth or infection. Given that the CM stimulates and accelerates the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes, we evaluated genotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes treated with this homeopathic medication in vitro. Structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The lymphocytes were cultivated for 24, 48 or 72 h in the following final concentrations of the medicinal composite CM: 4, 8 and 12%. Treatments with the CM did not affect mitotic indexes, nor did they provoke chromosomal aberrations, when compared with untreated controls. There was no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity at the chromosomal level.

  1. Dental Practice Scenario in a Government Homeopathic Hospital in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Panja, Shamik; Ghosh, Tarak Nath; Sharma, Pawan; Sarkar, Piyali; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil

    2014-07-01

    This pilot investigation initiated a research-targeted systematic dental homeopathy data collection in the dental outpatient section in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. One conventionally trained dentist and 3 homeopathic doctors collected data from 949 appointments of 411 patients over 3 months. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet enabled recording of consecutive dental appointments that was subjected to data synthesis and analysis in the end. A total of 87.3% conditions were chronic, and chronic periodontitis was most frequent (27.5%). Positive outcome was observed in 72.3% appointments. Strongly positive outcomes (scores of +2 or +3) were achieved most notably in toothache (84.6%). Single medicines were prescribed in 83.5% encounters, and mostly in tincture form (29.9%). Arnica montana constituted of 17.8% prescriptions. Considerable insight was gained into the homeopathic dental practice scenario in West Bengal, India. Positive findings suggest that dental homeopathy is a promising area for research in near future.

  2. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-02-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery.

  3. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Chemotherapeutic approaches to treat melanoma have been uniformly disappointing. A Brazilian complex homeopathic medication (CHM), used as an immune modulator, has been recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies in mice have demonstrated that the CHM activates macrophages, induces an increase in the number of leukocytes and improves the murine response against Sarcoma-180. Methods Here we studied the interaction of mouse lymph node lymphocytes, co-cultured in vitro with macrophages in the presence or absence of the CHM, with B16F10 melanoma cells. Results Lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of the CHM had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the number of lysed tumor cells. There was also a higher proportion of activated (CD25+) lymphocytes with increased viability. Overall, lymphocytes activated by treatment destroyed growing cancer cells more effectively than control lymphocytes. Conclusion Co-culture of macrophages with lymphocytes in the presence of the CHM enhanced the anti-cancer performance of lymphocytes against a very aggressive lineage of melanoma cells. These results suggest that non-toxic therapies using CHMs are a promising alternative approach to the treatment of melanomas. In addition, they are attractive combination-therapy candidates, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells. PMID:19698142

  4. [Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].

    PubMed

    Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection.

  5. The "New Breed" Educator: A Rationale and Program for Combining Elementary and Special Education Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feden, Preston D.; Clabaugh, Gary K.

    1986-01-01

    All teachers can understand and meet the educational needs of individual students in the context of their developmental stages through preparation in such teacher education programs as the one at La Salle University (Pennsylvania) where developmental theory is the unifying theme combining training programs for elementary and special education…

  6. Combining Operations Management and Information Systems Curricula: Assessing Alumni Preparations for the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David; McFadden, Kathleen L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how well a curriculum that combines operations management and information systems uniquely prepares students for the workforce. To address our research questions, a Web-based survey was developed. We sent our survey to 203 alumni that graduated from the Department of Operations Management and Information…

  7. Method for appraising model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathic treatment: multi-rater concordance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A method for assessing the model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy is needed. To date, only conventional standards for assessing intrinsic bias (internal validity) of trials have been invoked, with little recognition of the special characteristics of homeopathy. We aimed to identify relevant judgmental domains to use in assessing the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). We define MVHT as the extent to which a homeopathic intervention and the main measure of its outcome, as implemented in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reflect 'state-of-the-art' homeopathic practice. Methods Using an iterative process, an international group of experts developed a set of six judgmental domains, with associated descriptive criteria. The domains address: (I) the rationale for the choice of the particular homeopathic intervention; (II) the homeopathic principles reflected in the intervention; (III) the extent of homeopathic practitioner input; (IV) the nature of the main outcome measure; (V) the capability of the main outcome measure to detect change; (VI) the length of follow-up to the endpoint of the study. Six papers reporting RCTs of homeopathy of varying design were randomly selected from the literature. A standard form was used to record each assessor's independent response per domain, using the optional verdicts 'Yes', 'Unclear', 'No'. Concordance among the eight verdicts per domain, across all six papers, was evaluated using the kappa (κ) statistic. Results The six judgmental domains enabled MVHT to be assessed with 'fair' to 'almost perfect' concordance in each case. For the six RCTs examined, the method allowed MVHT to be classified overall as 'acceptable' in three, 'unclear' in two, and 'inadequate' in one. Conclusion Future systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy should adopt the MVHT method as part of a complete appraisal of trial validity. PMID:22510227

  8. Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting qualities followed by blend of pearl millet and sorghum flour. The control cookies showed a higher yield (186.8%) but stronger peak force (2.69 kg). The cookies prepared from rice and maize combination had highest spread ratio whereas, the lowest spread ratio was observed in rice and sorghum combination. The cookies with pearl millet and sorghum flour combination had higher fat, protein, ash and calorific values as compared to control cookies. The maximum sensory overall acceptability scores were found for cookies prepared from combination of pearl millet and sorghum flour followed by rice and sorghum, maize and sorghum, rice and maize, maize and pearl millet, rice and pearl millet and control cookies. All gluten free cookies had higher nutritional value as compared to control cookies and were acceptable by panelists.

  9. Homeopathic prescribing for chronic conditions in equine veterinary practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mathie, R T; Baitson, E S; Hansen, L; Elliott, M F; Hoare, J

    2010-02-20

    Twelve Faculty of Homeopathy veterinarians recorded data systematically at 777 consecutive homeopathic appointments for horses over a period of 12 months. A spreadsheet enabled the recording of information, which included the date of appointment; horse and owner identity (anonymised); sex of horse; main medical problem treated; whether the condition was chronic or acute; whether the appointment was new or a follow-up; owner-assessed clinical outcome on a seven-point scale, ranging from -3 to +3, compared with the first appointment; homeopathic medicine(s) prescribed; and whether any conventional or other complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) was being used concurrently to treat the condition. Data from 289 horses comprised a total of 305 individual conditions identified as chronic in nature, of which 234 had a follow-up assessment. At the final appointment for chronic cases during the study period, 4.3 per cent were receiving conventional medication and 17.1 per cent were being given another CAM treatment in addition to homeopathy. The eight chronic conditions most frequently treated with homeopathy were: arthritis, headshaking, laminitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sweet itch, dermatitis, sarcoidosis and Cushing's syndrome.

  10. Rosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lucy; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors’ aim was to understand rosacea patients’ perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. Method: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. Results: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified—motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. Conclusion: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID:26557217

  11. Homeopathic Medications as Clinical Alternatives for Symptomatic Care of Acute Otitis Media and Upper Respiratory Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nancy N

    2013-01-01

    The public health and individual risks of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and conventional over-the-counter symptomatic drugs in pediatric treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) are significant. Clinical research suggests that over-the-counter homeopathic medicines offer pragmatic treatment alternatives to conventional drugs for symptom relief in children with uncomplicated AOM or URIs. Homeopathy is a controversial but demonstrably safe and effective 200-year-old whole system of complementary and alternative medicine used worldwide. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate that homeopathy accelerates early symptom relief in acute illnesses at much lower risk than conventional drug approaches. Evidence-based advantages for homeopathy include lower antibiotic fill rates during watchful waiting in otitis media, fewer and less serious side effects, absence of drug-drug interactions, and reduced parental sick leave from work. Emerging evidence from basic and preclinical science research counter the skeptics' claims that homeopathic remedies are biologically inert placebos. Consumers already accept and use homeopathic medicines for self care, as evidenced by annual US consumer expenditures of $2.9 billion on homeopathic remedies. Homeopathy appears equivalent to and safer than conventional standard care in comparative effectiveness trials, but additional well-designed efficacy trials are indicated. Nonetheless, the existing research evidence on safety supports pragmatic use of homeopathy in order to “first do no harm” in the early symptom management of otherwise uncomplicated AOM and URIs in children. PMID:24381823

  12. Homeopathic medications as clinical alternatives for symptomatic care of acute otitis media and upper respiratory infections in children.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Boyer, Nancy N

    2013-01-01

    The public health and individual risks of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and conventional over-the-counter symptomatic drugs in pediatric treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) are significant. Clinical research suggests that over-the-counter homeopathic medicines offer pragmatic treatment alternatives to conventional drugs for symptom relief in children with uncomplicated AOM or URIs. Homeopathy is a controversial but demonstrably safe and effective 200-year-old whole system of complementary and alternative medicine used worldwide. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate that homeopathy accelerates early symptom relief in acute illnesses at much lower risk than conventional drug approaches. Evidence-based advantages for homeopathy include lower antibiotic fill rates during watchful waiting in otitis media, fewer and less serious side effects, absence of drug-drug interactions, and reduced parental sick leave from work. Emerging evidence from basic and preclinical science research counter the skeptics' claims that homeopathic remedies are biologically inert placebos. Consumers already accept and use homeopathic medicines for self care, as evidenced by annual US consumer expenditures of $2.9 billion on homeopathic remedies. Homeopathy appears equivalent to and safer than conventional standard care in comparative effectiveness trials, but additional well-designed efficacy trials are indicated. Nonetheless, the existing research evidence on safety supports pragmatic use of homeopathy in order to "first do no harm" in the early symptom management of otherwise uncomplicated AOM and URIs in children.

  13. Enhanced ex vivo intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil nanosuspension: Preparation by combinative technology.

    PubMed

    Attari, Zenab; Bhandari, Amita; Jagadish, P C; Lewis, Shaila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension based on combinative technology to enhance the intestinal absorption of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), a potent antihypertensive agent with limited oral bioavailability. Two combinative approaches were employed and then characterized. In vitro intestinal absorption of OLM nanosuspension and plain OLM was studied using non-everted rat intestinal sac model. Optimal OLM nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of ball milling and probe sonication using stabilizer, Poloxamer 407. The formula exhibited particle size of 469.9 nm and zeta potential of -19.1 mV, which was subjected to ex vivo studies. The flux and apparent permeability coefficient in intestine from OLM nanosuspension was higher than the plain drug, thereby suggesting better drug delivery.

  14. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-21

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.

  15. [Preparation of elastic porous cell scaffold fabricated with combined polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydroxyapatite (HA)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lan, Ding; Huang, Yan; Li, Yanming; Wang, Yuren; Sun, Lianwen; Fan, Yubo

    2014-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were combined in our laboratory to fabricate an elastic porous cell scaffold with pore-forming agent, and then the scaffold was used as culture media for rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Different porous materials (square and circular in shape) were prepared by different pore-forming agents (NaCl or paraffin spheres) with adjustable porosity (62%-76%). The HA crystals grew on the wall of hole when the material was exposed to SBF solutions, showing its biocompatibility and ability to support the cells to attach on the materials.

  16. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay application in water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Brand, Walter; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; van der Kooi, Margaretha M E; van Doorn, René H; Emke, Erik; Reus, Astrid A; van der Linden, Sander C; de Voogt, Pim; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-11-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39 chemicals were spiked to surface water, which were extracted using Oasis MCX cartridges. The extracts were chemically analyzed by liquid chromatography linear ion trap Orbitrap analysis and recoveries appeared to be on average 61% Compounds with logK(ow) values in the range between 0 and 4 are recovered well using this method. In a next step, the same extracts were tested for genotoxic activity using the Comet assay and Ames fluctuation test and for specific endocrine receptor activation using a panel of CALUX assays, for estrogenic (ER), androgenic (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), progestagenic (PR), and thyroidogenic (TR) agonistic activities. The results of the genotoxicity assays indicated that spiked genotoxic compounds were preserved during sample preparation. The measured responses of the GR CALUX and ER CALUX assays were similar to the predicted responses. The measured responses in the AR CALUX and PR CALUX assays were much lower than expected from the analytical concentration, probably due to antagonistic effects of some spiked compounds. Overall, the presented sample preparation method seems to be suitable for both chemical analysis and specific in vitro bioassay applications.

  17. Systematic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Preparations of Chondroitin Sulfate Combined with Glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gustavo R C; Piquet, Adriana A; Glauser, Bianca F; Tovar, Ana M F; Pereira, Mariana S; Vilanova, Eduardo; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2017-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are carbohydrate-based compounds widely employed as nutraceuticals or prescribed drugs. Oral formulations of chondroitin sulfate combined with glucosamine sulfate have been increasingly used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis. The chondroitin sulfate of these combinations can be obtained from shark or bovine cartilages and hence presents differences regarding the proportions of 4- and 6-sulfated N-acetyl β-d-galactosamine units. Herein, we proposed a systematic protocol to assess pharmaceutical batches of this combination drug. Chemical analyses on the amounts of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in the batches were in accordance with those declared by the manufacturers. Anion-exchange chromatography has proven more effective than electrophoresis to determine the type of chondroitin sulfate present in the combinations and to detect the presence of keratan sulfate, a common contaminant found in batches prepared with shark chondroitin sulfate. 1D NMR spectra revealed the presence of non-sulfated instead of sulfated glucosamine in the formulations and thus in disagreement with the claims declared on the label. Moreover, 1D and 2D NMR analyses allowed a precise determination on the chemical structures of the chondroitin sulfate present in the formulations. The set of analytical tools suggested here could be useful as guidelines to improve the quality of this medication.

  18. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH) dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo (solvent vehicle) were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD) choice test and by the Open-Field (OF) exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = .047), while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = .341, non-significant). The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < .001) but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = .009 and P = .003, resp.), while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < .01 for all tested variables). Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia. PMID:19752165

  19. Effects of the homeopathic remedy arnica on attenuating symptoms of exercise-induced muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Plezbert, Julie A.; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Arnica at a high potency (200c), on moderating delayed onset muscle soreness and accompanying symptoms of muscle dysfunction. Methods Twenty subjects completed a maximal eccentric exercise protocol with the non-dominate elbow flexors to induce delayed onset muscle soreness. Either Arnica or placebo tablets were administered in a random, double- blinded fashion immediately after exercise and at 24 hours and 72 hours after exercise. Before exercise, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise, assessments of delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle function included: 1) muscle soreness and functional impairment; 2) maximum voluntary contraction torque; 3) muscle swelling; and 4) range of motion tests to document spontaneous muscle shortening and muscle shortening ability. Blood samples drawn before exercise and at 24, 48, and 96 hours after exercise were used to measure muscle enzymes as indirect indices of muscle damage. Results Regardless of the intervention, the extent of delayed onset muscle soreness and elevations in muscle enzymes were similar on the days following the eccentric exercise protocol. The post-exercise time profiles of decreases in maximum voluntary contraction torque and muscle shortening ability and increases in muscle swelling and spontaneous muscle shortening were similar for each treatment intervention. Conclusions The results of this study did not substantiate the clinical efficacy of Arnica at a high potency on moderating delayed onset muscle soreness and accompanying symptoms of muscle dysfunction. Despite the findings of this study, future investigations on the clinical efficacy of homeopathic interventions should consider incorporating research strategies that emphasize differential therapeutics for each patient rather than treating a specific disease or symptom complex, such as DOMS, with a single homeopathic remedy. PMID:19674657

  20. Production of cod (Gadus morhua) muscle hydrolysates. Influence of combinations of commercial enzyme preparations on hydrolysate peptide size range.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Laura; Jervis, Les

    2002-09-11

    The complement of enzyme activities of a selection of commercial protease preparations were determined using fluorogenic substrates. Alcalase was used in combination with other commercial enzyme preparations to produce cod muscle (Gadus morhua) hydrolysates. Each muscle hydrolysate was characterized with respect to the percentage degree of hydrolysis (DH %), peptide molecular weight range, and free amino acid content. The enzyme preparations containing predominantly protease or endopeptidase activities achieved high DH % and produced significant amounts of peptides below a molecular weight of 3000. Alcalase combined with exopeptidase-rich preparations produced hydrolysates rich in low-molecular-weight peptides. Selecting combinations of enzyme preparations with complementary activity profiles could be used to manipulate the peptide molecular weight profile of hydrolysates.

  1. Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors prepared by the combination of ion implantation with pulse laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2015-07-01

    Combining semiconducting and ferromagnetic properties, dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFS) have been under intensive investigation for more than two decades. Mn doped III-V compound semiconductors have been regarded as the prototype of DFS from both experimental and theoretic investigations. The magnetic properties of III-V:Mn can be controlled by manipulating free carriers via electrical gating, as for controlling the electrical properties in conventional semiconductors. However, the preparation of DFS presents a big challenge due to the low solubility of Mn in semiconductors. Ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (II-PLM) provides an alternative to the widely used low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (LT-MBE) approach. Both ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting occur far enough from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Ion implantation introduces enough dopants and the subsequent laser pulse deposit energy in the near-surface region to drive a rapid liquid-phase epitaxial growth. Here, we review the experimental study on preparation of III-V:Mn using II-PLM. We start with a brief description about the development of DFS and the physics behind II-PLM. Then we show that ferromagnetic GaMnAs and InMnAs films can be prepared by II-PLM and they show the same characteristics of LT-MBE grown samples. Going beyond LT-MBE, II-PLM is successful to bring two new members, GaMnP and InMnP, into the family of III-V:Mn DFS. Both GaMnP and InMnP films show the signature of DFS and an insulating behavior. At the end, we summarize the work done for Ge:Mn and Si:Mn using II-PLM and present suggestions for future investigations. The remarkable advantage of II-PLM approach is its versatility. In general, II-PLM can be utilized to prepare supersaturated alloys with mismatched components.

  2. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  3. Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor DB

    2004-01-01

    Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method. Discussion Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both "internal", grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible "internal" and "external" research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress. Summary This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the "formal case study", allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity

  4. Preparation for Testing a Multi-Bay Box Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.

  5. Effects of Homeopathic Medicines on Polysomnographic Sleep of Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Related Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Baldwin, Carol M.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Homeopathy, a common form of alternative medicine worldwide, relies on subjective patient reports for diagnosis and treatment. Polysomnography offers a modern methodology for evaluating the objective effects of taking homeopathic remedies that clinicians claim exert effects on sleep quality in susceptible individuals. Animal studies have previously shown changes in non rapid eye movement sleep with certain homeopathic remedies. Methods Young adults of both sexes (ages 18–31) with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both), and a history of coffee-induced insomnia, participated in the month-long study. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of eight recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23). Subjects (N=54) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets on night 22 (double-blind) in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic remedies, Nux Vomica or Coffea Cruda. Subjects completed daily morning sleep diaries and weekly Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, as well as Profile of Mood States Scales at bedtime on polysomnography nights. Results Verum remedies significantly increased PSG total sleep time and NREM, as well as awakenings and stage changes. Changes in actigraphic and self-rated scale effects were not significant. Conclusions The study demonstrated the feasibility of using in-home all-night sleep recordings to study homeopathic remedy effects. Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same remedies. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the verum remedies. PMID:20673648

  6. Atmospheric pressure microwave sample preparation procedure for the combined analysis of total phosphorus and kjeldahl nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Collins, L W; Chalk, S J; Kingston, H M

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave digestion method has been developed for the combined analysis of total phosphorus and Kjeldahl nitrogen in complex matrices. In comparison to the digestion steps in EPA Methods 365.4 (total phosphorus) and 351.x (Kjeldahl nitrogen), this method requires less time, eliminates the need for a catalyst, and reduces the toxicity of the waste significantly. It employs a microwave-assisted digestion step, using refluxing borosilicate glass vessels at atmospheric pressure. Traditionally, this method has a time-consuming sample preparation step and generates toxic waste through the use of heavy metal catalysts. These advantages are gained by the combination of a high boiling point acid (sulfuric acid) and the application of focused microwave irradiation, which enhances the digestion process by direct energy coupling. NIST standard reference materials 1572 (citrus leaves), 1577a (bovine liver), and 1566 (oyster tissue) and tryptophan were analyzed to validate the method. Phosphorus concentrations were determined by the colorimetric ascorbic acid method outlined in EPA Method 365.3. Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were determined using EPA Method 351.1. The results of the analyses showed good precision and are in excellent agreement with the NIST published values for both elements.

  7. Unexpected effect of the vehicle (grain ethanol) of homeopathic FSH on the in vitro survival and development of isolated ovine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lartiza F; Rocha, Rebeca M P; Duarte, Ana Beatriz G; Brito, Ivina R; Silva, Gerlane M; Rodrigues, Giovanna Q; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana C S; Sales, Antônia D; Moura, Arlindo A; Wheeler, Matthew B; Rodrigues, Ana Paula R; Campello, Cláudio C; Figueiredo, José Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of medium replacement system (experiment I) and of FSH presentations (homeopathic - FSH 6cH and allopathic FSH - rFSH; experiment II) on the in vitro development, hormone production and gene expression of isolated ovine preantral follicles cultured for 6 days. In experiment I, secondary follicles were cultured in the α-MEM(+) supplemented with FSH 6cH (0.05 fg/ml) or recombinant bovine FSH (100 ng/ml) without/with daily medium addition. The homeopathic FSH treatments with/without medium addition improved (p < .05) follicular development compared to rFSH100 treatment without addition. FSH 6cH with addition showed the highest (p < .05) estradiol production. To verify whether the effects of homeopathic FSH were not due to its vehicle, experiment II was performed. The α-MEM(+) was supplemented or not with alcohol (0.2% grain ethanol, v/v), FSH 6cH or rFSH100 with daily medium addition. Surprisingly, we found that all treatments improved follicular development compared to the α-MEM(+) (p < .05). Moreover, homeopathic FSH was similar to the other treatments including its vehicle. In conclusion, its vehicle (ethanol) causes the effect of homeopathic FSH on in vitro development of isolated ovine preantral follicles.

  8. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  9. Treatment with at Homeopathic Complex Medication Modulates Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Beatriz; Abud, Ana Paula R.; de Oliveira, Carolina C.; Cardoso, Francolino; Bernardi, Raffaello Popa Di; Guimarães, Fernando S. F.; Gabardo, Juarez; de Freitas Buchi, Dorly

    2011-01-01

    A homeopathic complex medication (HCM), with immunomodulatory properties, is recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the medication induces an increase in leukocyte number. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, an extracellular matrix and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. Mice were our biological model used in this research. We now report in vivo immunophenotyping of total bone marrow cells and ex vivo effects of the medication on mononuclear cell differentiation at different times. Cells were examined by light microscopy and cytokine levels were measured in vitro. After in vivo treatment with HCM, a pool of cells from the new marrow microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry to detect any trend in cell alteration. The results showed decreases, mainly, in CD11b and TER-119 markers compared with controls. Mononuclear cells were used to analyze the effects of ex vivo HCM treatment and the number of cells showing ring nuclei, niche cells and activated macrophages increased in culture, even in the absence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokines favoring stromal cell survival and differentiation in culture were induced in vitro. Thus, we observe that HCM is immunomodulatory, either alone or in association with other products. PMID:19736221

  10. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.

  11. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively.

  12. A combined bottom-up/top-down approach to prepare a sterile injectable nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing; Wang, Yanjiao

    2014-09-10

    To prepare a uniform nanosuspension of strongly hydrophobic riboflavin laurate (RFL) allowing sterile filtration, physical modification (bottom-up) was combined with high-pressure homogenization (top-down) method. Unlike other bottom-up approaches, physical modification with surfactants (TPGS and PL-100) by lyophilization controlled crystallization and compensated for the poor wettability of RFL. On one hand, crystal growth and aggregation during freezing was restricted by a stabilizer-layer adsorbed on the drug surface by hydrophobic interaction. On the other hand, subsequent crystallization of drug in the sublimation process was limited to the interstitial spaces between solvent crystals. After lyophilization, modified drug with a smaller particle size and better wettability was obtained. When adding surfactant solution, water molecules passed between the hydrophilic groups of surface active molecules and activated the polymer chains allowing them to stretch into water. The coarse suspension was crushed into a nanosuspension (MP=162 nm) by high-pressure homogenization. For long term stability, lyophilization was applied again to solidify the nanosuspension (sorbitol as cryoprotectant). A slight crystal growth to about 600 nm was obtained to allow slow release for a sustained effect after muscular administration. Moreover, no paw-licking responses and very slight muscular inflammation demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility of this long-acting RFL injection.

  13. [Wood creosote: a historical study and its preparation in combination with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Tani, T

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of creosote have been found based on historical evidence of the medicinal uses and origins. One is wood creosote, and distillate of wood-tar containing guaiacol and creosol. The other type of creosote is coal-tar creosote, obtained from coal-tar, containing naphthalene and anthracene as the major constituents. Wood creosote was prepared for the first time in Germany in 1830 and was used for medicinal purposes. It had been listed officially in the German, American, and Japanese Pharmacopoeia as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, and external injury. In recent days, it has been deleted from the Pharmacopoeia in Western countries and not officially used for medicinal purposes. However, wood creosote is still been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and is used for the treatment of diarrhea. Since the interest of common people in herbal medicines and self-medication has been increasing, the use of wood creosote has also been modified in combination with some herbal drugs, "Seiro-gan" especially is quite popular in Japan as a self-medication for digestive trouble, including food poisoning or diarrhea.

  14. Broadband and wide-angle hybrid antireflection coatings prepared by combining interference multilayers with subwavelength structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruynooghe, Stéphane; Schulze, Marcel; Helgert, Michael; Challier, Michel; Tonova, Diana; Sundermann, Michael; Koch, Thomas; Gatto, Alexandre; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the intensity of the Fresnel reflections of optical components, subwavelength structures prepared by reactive ion etching of SiO2 thin films were combined as the outermost layer with a multilayer system made of conventional thin-film materials. A hybrid coating was thus realized, with the nanoscaled structured outermost layer expected to further improve the antireflection properties of common interference stacks. The microscopic and optical spectroscopic analysis of the subwavelength structures revealed that pillar-shaped nanostructures formed during etching exhibit low-refractive-index properties and have a depth-dependent refractive index. To take into account the refractive-index gradient in the coating design, the optical properties of the nanostructures were modeled using the effective-medium approximation. The calculated average effective refractive index turned out to be 1.11 at 500-nm wavelength. A hybrid coating was designed to minimize the residual reflectance in the 400-nm to 900-nm spectral range for BK7 glass substrate. Experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid-coating approach yields a low residual reflectance with very good omnidirectional properties, owing to the properties of the nanostructured surface.

  15. Combining contour detection algorithms for the automatic extraction of the preparation line from a dental 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Volker; Weigl, Paul; Schachtzabel, Hartmut

    2005-04-01

    Due to the increasing demand for high-quality ceramic crowns and bridges, the CAD/CAM-based production of dental restorations has been a subject of intensive research during the last fifteen years. A prerequisite for the efficient processing of the 3D measurement of prepared teeth with a minimal amount of user interaction is the automatic determination of the preparation line, which defines the sealing margin between the restoration and the prepared tooth. Current dental CAD/CAM systems mostly require the interactive definition of the preparation line by the user, at least by means of giving a number of start points. Previous approaches to the automatic extraction of the preparation line rely on single contour detection algorithms. In contrast, we use a combination of different contour detection algorithms to find several independent potential preparation lines from a height profile of the measured data. The different algorithms (gradient-based, contour-based, and region-based) show their strengths and weaknesses in different clinical situations. A classifier consisting of three stages (range check, decision tree, support vector machine), which is trained by human experts with real-world data, finally decides which is the correct preparation line. In a test with 101 clinical preparations, a success rate of 92.0% has been achieved. Thus the combination of different contour detection algorithms yields a reliable method for the automatic extraction of the preparation line, which enables the setup of a turn-key dental CAD/CAM process chain with a minimal amount of interactive screen work.

  16. Mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide: Preparation and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bohui; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    Mini-tablets are increasingly gaining attention in solid dosage form design as multiple-unit systems combining different active compounds and providing a single or combined pattern of modified release for polypharmacy or combined treatments. A combination therapy of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide achieves effective blood pressure control and reduction in adverse effects. However, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, which causes noticeable fluctuation of blood pressure and inconveniences to the patients. The present study was performed to develop a mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide independently, in which the two drugs and fraction doses were formulated into separate mini-tablets with different release patterns. The mini-tablets were prepared by a direct compression method followed by filling into capsules and the factors that affected drug release were addressed. Further, studies of the pharmacokinetics were performed in beagle dogs. Finally, in vivo-in vitro correlations of the sustained release systems and bioequivalence with conventional preparations were evaluated. The mini-tablet combination released the two drugs over 24h in vivo with a steady plasma concentration, a markedly lower Cmax, extended Tmax and better bioavailability. In conclusion, sustained releases of the two drugs were obtained with this mini-tablet combination, which offers a feasible formulation and promising development value for hypertensive patients who need long-term therapy.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Effects of Homeopathic Remedies on Multiscale Entropy and Correlation Dimension of Slow Wave Sleep EEG in Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Induced Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R.; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Methods Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stage 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-minute segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. Results MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Conclusions Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. PMID:22818237

  18. A Homeopathic Arnica Patch for the Relief of Cellulitis-derived Pain and Numbness in the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Arnica montana, belonging to the Compositae family, is a plant with a longstanding tradition of relieving pain and/or inflammation in muscles and joints and may thus represent an alternative to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, which are often ineffective or lead to a number of adverse effects. A homeopathic arnica patch (3X dilution according to the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States) was developed to alleviate pain symptoms in the back and neck muscles and joints. Case Presentation: The present case report describes the treatment outcome after administration of the arnica patch in a 55-year-old female patient with pain in the right hand and numbness in the fourth finger after cellulitis in the palmar area. The cellulitis was treated with antibiotics, but pain symptoms remained at 7 points on a 0-to-10–point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain despite intake of oral ibuprofen and oral and topical application of an arnica-containing complex homeopathic ointment. Ten arnica patches were dispensed to the patient. She cut the patch into strips to cover all painful areas of the hand and applied them at night. After 3 days, she reported a substantial decrease in pain symptoms (VAS = 1) and a marked decrease in numbness and in the size of a tender nodule on the third metacarpal area. Moreover, the patient was able to sleep through the night without being awakened by the pain. The symptoms declined further during the next 2 days. Conclusion: This case demonstrates that after a relatively short period of time, the administration of the arnica patch on the hand provided a marked reduction of pain and recovery of functionality of the hand. PMID:24278813

  19. Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, A M S; Rocha, L M; Carillo, R; Lima, L U O; Lugon, J R

    2003-10-01

    Pruritus is a frequent and difficult to treat problem in haemodialysis. This double-blind placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial assessed the role of homeopathic treatment in this situation. The code was held by the pharmacist who dispensed the medications. Pruritus was evaluated using a previously published scale. Only patients with initial values above 25% of maximum pruritus score were entered. Data were analysed after partial code break, separating the two groups of patients, but with no awareness of which one received verum or placebo. Patients were classified as responders if they had >50% reduction of pruritus score. Twenty-eight patients (16M/12F, 51 +/- 11 years of age) were entered and 20 (12M/8F, 52 +/- 8 years of age) remained for final analysis: 11 in the verum group, 9 in placebo. At entry, the mean pruritus score was 65 +/- 25% for the treated patients and 70 +/- 27% for placebo. After 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of follow-up, pruritus score were respectively: 46 +/- 29, 41 +/- 30, 42 +/- 29, and 38 +/- 33 for the treated patients and 61 +/- 29, 67 +/- 31, 64 +/- 35, and 57 +/- 39 for placebo. Reduction was statistically significant (P<0.05) at every point of observation. According to the patients' own assessment, at the end of the study period, the homeopathic treatment reduced the pruritus score by approximately 49%. Responders were more frequent in the treated group with statistical significance at 30 days (0% vs 45%, P=0.038). Homeopathic treatment may represent a worthwhile alternative to relieve pruritus in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  20. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever

    PubMed Central

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L.; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey–21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use. PMID:27493984

  1. Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: new LBM pools prepared from reserves of antisera stored frozen for two decades

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Wimberly, Ira L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and test procedures for a second batch of lyophilized LBM combination antiserum pools, A through H, used for identifying 42 enteroviruses. Each pool is selectively composed of 10 or 11 of 42 individual enterovirus equine sera so that it contains 500 antibody units of each serum component per 0.1 ml. The new pools have been constituted from equine monovalent antisera that were prepared during the period 1962-67 and then evaluated and standardized in a series of collaborative international studies. An essential aspect of preparing the new pools was ensuring that the individual sera had retained high antibody titres through the long period of storage. At the time of retesting, the original stocks of these monovalent sera had been stored frozen at -20°C for periods ranging from 16 to 20 years. PMID:2994900

  2. Rational preparation of dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenming; Liu, Lukuan; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Hong; Xie, Binze; Xu, Wanzhen

    2013-10-01

    A computational simulation method is introduced to simulate the dibenzothiophene-monomer pre-assembly system of molecular imprinted polymers. The interaction type and intensity between dibenzothiophene and monomer are discussed from the binding energy and spatial position distribution. The simulation and analysis results indicate that the amount of the function monomer is not the more the better in preparing molecular imprinted polymers. Based on the above results, a novel dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers with the favorable specific adsorption effect was prepared by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization. This combined technologies are used for preparing a desulfurization adsorbent for the first time. Various measures were selected to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent. The characterization results show that the adsorbent has suitable features for further adsorption process. A series of static adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze its adsorption performance. The adsorption process follows Elovich model by the kinetic analysis and Sips equation by the isothermal analysis. The approach we described will provide another opportunity in the deep desulfurization field.

  3. Study on Enhanced Dissolution of Azilsartan-Loaded Solid Dispersion, Prepared by Combining Wet Milling and Spray-Drying Technologies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tianshu; Sun, Yinghua; Ding, Dawei; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Rui; He, Zhonggui; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a combination method of wet milling and spray-drying technologies to prepare the solid dispersion and improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug candidates. Azilsartan (AZL) was selected as the model drug for its poor water solubility. In the study, AZL-loaded solid dispersion was prepared with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and hydroxypropyl cellulose with super low viscosity (HPC-SL) as stabilizers by using combination of wet grinding and spray-drying methods. The high AZL loading solid dispersion was then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Besides, dissolution test was carried out by the paddle method and stability investigation was also conducted. As a result, the dissolution rate of the solid dispersion tablets was found to be greater than conventional tablets, but in close agreement with market tablets. Furthermore, the formulation was shown to be stable at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% for at least 6 months, owing to its decreased particle size, morphology, and its crystal form. It was concluded that the combination of wet milling and spray-drying approaches to prepare solid dispersion would be a prospective method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  4. A New Antileishmanial Preparation of Combined Solamargine and Solasonine Heals Cutaneous Leishmaniasis through Different Immunochemical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McChesney, J. D.; Bastos, J. K.; Miranda, M. A.; Tiossi, R. F.; da Costa, J. de C.; Bentley, M. V.; Gaitan-Puch, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Little has been done during the past 100 years to develop new antileishmanial drugs. Most infected individuals live in poor countries and have a low cash income to be attractive targets to pharmaceutical corporations. Two heterosidic steroids, solamargine and solasonine, initially identified as major components of the Brazilian plant Solanum lycocarpum, were tested for leishmanicidal activity. Both alkaloids killed intracellular and extracellular Leishmania mexicana parasites more efficiently than the reference drug sodium stibogluconate. A total of 10 μM each individual alkaloid significantly reduced parasite counts in infected macrophages and dendritic cells. In vivo treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a standardized topical preparation containing solamargine (45.1%) and solasonine (44.4%) gave significant reductions in lesion sizes and parasite counts recovered from lesions. Alkaloids present different immunochemical pathways in macrophages and dendritic cells. We conclude that this topical preparation is effective and a potential new and inexpensive treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26883711

  5. Combining Electrochemical Sensors with Miniaturized Sample Preparation for Rapid Detection in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today to develop new test systems, amperometric biosensors are prominent players—best represented by the ubiquitous amperometric-based glucose sensors. Electrochemical approaches in general require little and often enough only simple hardware components, are rugged and yet provide low limits of detection. They thus offer many of the desirable attributes for point-of-care/point-of-need tests. This review focuses on investigating the important integration of sample preparation with (primarily electrochemical) biosensors. Sample clean up requirements, miniaturized sample preparation strategies, and their potential integration with sensors will be discussed, focusing on clinical sample analyses. PMID:25558994

  6. Comparison of blood plasma sample preparation methods for combined LC-MS lipidomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Rainey E; Ducrocq, Antoine J; McDougall, Danielle J; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this research was to find the most comprehensive lipid extraction of blood plasma, while also providing adequate aqueous preparation for metabolite analysis. Comparisons have been made previously of the Folch, Bligh-Dyer, and Matyash lipid extractions; furthermore, this paper provides an additional comparison of a phospholipid removal plate for analysis. This plate was used for lipid extraction rather than its intended use in lipid removal for polar analysis, and it proves to be robust for targeted lipid analysis. Folch and Matyash provided reproducible recovery over a range of lipid classes, however the Matyash aqueous layer compared well to a typical methanol preparation for polar metabolite analysis. Thus, the Matyash method is the best choice for an untargeted biphasic extraction for metabolomics and lipidomics in blood plasma.

  7. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  8. Gestodene: a review of its pharmacology, potency and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Archer, David F

    2014-04-01

    Combined progestin-estrogen pills are an established and reliable contraceptive option used by women worldwide. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing the progestins--gestodene, desogestrel or norgestimate--were developed to minimize androgenic side effects and are considered an effective, well-tolerated contraceptive option. Gestodene achieves contraceptive efficacy with the lowest dose of any progestin in a COC, and has an established and favorable short- and long-term tolerability profile. In this review we present an overview of the pharmacology, potency and tolerability of gestodene.

  9. Hydrothermal preparation of diatomaceous earth combined with calcium silicate hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hirotaka; Ishida, Emile Hideki

    2011-01-30

    A novel composite for the removal of color in waste water was prepared by subjecting slurries consisting diatomaceous earth and slaked lime to a hydrothermal reaction at 180 °C. Subsequently, calcium silicate hydrate gels covered the surface of diatomaceous earth due to the reaction between the amorphous silica of diatomaceous earth and slaked lime. The formation of calcium silicate hydrate gels led to an increase in the specific surface area. The composites showed higher methylene blue adsorption capacity compared with diatomaceous earth. The improved adsorption capacity of the composites depended on the amount of the calcium silicate hydrate gels and their silicate anion chain-lengths.

  10. Simultaneous preparation of naturally abundant and rare catechins by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guobin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Songbai

    2014-05-15

    Simultaneous preparation of naturally rare catechins, EGC and EC, has been realized by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography. In addition, simultaneous preparation of the four catechins, EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC in green tea extract has also been achieved by HSCCC under the normal phase and the reversed phase modes. The identity of the catechins was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and quantification of the catechins was performed by HPLC-DAD. In a typical HSCCC separation, 27.2 mg 98.8% EGCG, 14.1 mg 94.7% EGC, and 9.3 mg 97.5% EC were obtained. This new method is efficient, time-saving and valuable for biological studies.

  11. PVA/CM-chitosan/honey hydrogels prepared by using the combined technique of irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, M. J.; Sheikh, N.; Afarideh, H.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogels with three components, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), carboxymethylate chitosan (CM-chitosan) and honey have been prepared by using radiation method and radiation followed by freeze-thawing cycles technique (combinational method). The solid concentration of the polymer solution is 15 wt% and the ratios of PVA/CM-chitosan/honey are 10/1.5/3.5, 10/2/3, 10/3/2, and 10/3.5/1.5. The applied irradiation doses are 25, 30 and 40 kGy. Various tests have been done to evaluate the hydrogel properties to produce materials to be used as wound dressing. The results show that combinational method improves the mechanical strength of hydrogels while it has no significant effect on the water evaporation rate of gels. The combinational method decreases the swelling of hydrogels significantly, albeit this parameter is still acceptable for wound dressing. Microbiological analyses show that the hydrogel prepared by both methods can protect the wound from Escherichia coli bacterial infection. The wound healing test shows the good performance of the gels in mice.

  12. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  13. Preparation of fenofibrate nanoparticles by combined stirred media milling and ultrasonication method.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetankumar M; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Murthy, Z V P

    2014-05-01

    The production of fenofibrate nanoparticles combining stirred media milling and ultrasonication method was investigated in the current work. The fenofibrate drug sample was first wet milled in stirred media mill for different times and subsequently processed by ultrasonication. The effects of ultrasonication time, power on final product particle sizes were studied. The pre milling by stirred media milling was resulted into reduction of comminution resistance of material. Subsequent treatment by ultrasonication produced smaller particles than obtained by stirred media milling alone. The resulting nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent stability as investigated by particle size, zeta potential, and multiple light scattering measurement techniques. Further, qualities of nanoparticles obtained by combined approach were characterized by TEM and XRD analysis.

  14. Preparation and properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on sandblasted pure titanium by a combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Zhao, Xing-Chuan; He, Kun; Yuan, Y F; Li, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Ni

    2014-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is one of the most applicable methods to produce bioceramic coating on a dental implant and sandblasting is a primary technique to modify metal surface properties. This study aims to deposit bioceramic Ca- and P-containing coatings on sandblasted commercially pure titanium by PEO technique to improve its bioactive performance. The time-dependent modified surfaces are characterized in terms of their microstructure, phase, chemical composition, mechanical properties and bioactivities. The results show that the combination-treated coating exhibits better properties than the PEO-treated one, especially in bioactivities, as evidenced by the HA formation after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 5 days and the cell viability after seeding for 1 or 3 days. The enhancement of the modified surface is attributed to a combination of the mechanical sandblasting and the microplasma oxidation.

  15. Combining rimonabant and fentanyl in a single entity: preparation and pharmacological results

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fernández, Cristina; Callado, Luis F; Girón, Rocío; Sánchez, Eva; Erdozain, Amaia M; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Morales, Paula; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Goya, Pilar; Meana, J Javier; Martín, M Isabel; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Based on numerous pharmacological studies that have revealed an interaction between cannabinoid and opioid systems at the molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral levels, a new series of hybrid molecules has been prepared by coupling the molecular features of two wellknown drugs, ie, rimonabant and fentanyl. The new compounds have been tested for their affinity and functionality regarding CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid and μ opioid receptors. In [35S]-GTPγS (guanosine 5′-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) binding assays from the post-mortem human frontal cortex, they proved to be CB1 cannabinoid antagonists and μ opioid antagonists. Interestingly, in vivo, the new compounds exhibited a significant dual antagonist action on the endocannabinoid and opioid systems. PMID:24591816

  16. Combining rimonabant and fentanyl in a single entity: preparation and pharmacological results.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Cristina; Callado, Luis F; Girón, Rocío; Sánchez, Eva; Erdozain, Amaia M; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Morales, Paula; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Goya, Pilar; Meana, J Javier; Martín, M Isabel; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Based on numerous pharmacological studies that have revealed an interaction between cannabinoid and opioid systems at the molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral levels, a new series of hybrid molecules has been prepared by coupling the molecular features of two wellknown drugs, ie, rimonabant and fentanyl. The new compounds have been tested for their affinity and functionality regarding CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid and μ opioid receptors. In [(35)S]-GTPγS (guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) binding assays from the post-mortem human frontal cortex, they proved to be CB1 cannabinoid antagonists and μ opioid antagonists. Interestingly, in vivo, the new compounds exhibited a significant dual antagonist action on the endocannabinoid and opioid systems.

  17. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Iris S.; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel; Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester

    2015-08-01

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans. CuO NPs ( 7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole-CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole-CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  18. Calibration and scaling of GRACE, GOCO03S and classical hydrosphere models for further model combination preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birylo, Monika; Kuczynska-Siehien, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Equivalent water thickness (EWT) observation is a crucial part of a water cycle monitoring. A phenomenon which is going to be analyzed is an elementary natural issue. Monitoring and understanding of the water cycle phenomenon is an important part of economy, can provide a possibility of drought and flood prediction, atmosphere monitoring, river state, storage of drink water. Evaluating a method of a modern, effective and accurate water cycle monitoring will give an opportunity to prevent many disasters. Authors will test a new hydrosphere model that will be a combination of gradiometric and classical hydrosphere models. A sample area will be a territory of Poland, but an idea is to evaluate a method that can be used globally. Two satellite models will give a modern, almost in real-time presentation, while classical models will give details. The aim of the paper is to calibrate and scale to the same level all mentioned models as a basis for further model combination preparation.

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles for combined drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia: From preparation to in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Mora, Vanessa; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; González-Gómez, Álvaro; Sanz, Beatriz; Román, Julio San; Goya, Gerardo F; Hernández, Rebeca; Mijangos, Carmen

    2017-02-10

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) ionically crosslinked with tripolyphosphate salts (TPP) were employed as nanocarriers in combined drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia (MH) therapy. To that aim, three different ferrofluid concentrations and a constant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) concentration were efficiently encapsulated to yield magnetic CSNPs with core-shell morphology. In vitro experiments using normal cells, fibroblasts (FHB) and cancer cells, human glioblastoma A-172, showed that CSNPs presented a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and that they were successfully uptaken into both cell lines. The application of a MH treatment in A-172 cells resulted in a cell viability of 67-75% whereas no significant reduction of cell viability was observed for FHB. However, the A-172 cells showed re-growth populations 4h after the application of the MH treatment when CSNPs were loaded only with ferrofluid. Finally, a combined effect of MH and 5-FU release was observed with the application of a second MH treatment for CSNPs exhibiting a lower amount of released 5-FU. This result demonstrates the potential of CSNPs for the improvement of MH therapies.

  20. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-03-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8-1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement-alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate-hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement-alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone.

  1. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  2. Preparation and characterization of rifampicin-PLGA microspheres/sodium alginate in situ gel combination delivery system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunhui; Feng, Hanzhou; Zhu, Chunyan

    2012-06-15

    We prepared a complex drug delivery system consisted of rifampicin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in combination with sodium alginate in situ gel. The microspheres were obtained by using a solvent evaporation method, the mean diameter was 1.748 μm and the span of particle distribution was 0.78. The combination delivery system was obtained by adding microspheres to sodium alginate solution followed by physically mixing. In an in vitro study of drug release monitored for 11 days, the release of rifampicin from combination delivery system was slower than microspheres. The cumulative release percent of rifampicin from combination delivery system was 91.83 ± 1.26%, which was lower than 97.36 ± 3.41% of rifampicin released from microspheres. An in vivo fluorescence imaging study suggests that the gel adhered to lungs within 24h, and microspheres stayed in lungs at least for 504 h (21 days). In vivo drug release study indicates that the maximum local rifampicin concentration in lungs was 48.60 ± 15.67 μg mL(-1) 5h after administration. After 21 days, the local rifampicin concentration was 0.81±0.14μgmL(-1), which was above the minimum inhibitory concentration of rifampicin. The combination delivery system significantly prolonged RFP release compared to microspheres, from which RFP released could only be detected for 10 days. This approach to control the release of rifampicin using PLGA microspheres/in situ gel combination delivery system in conjunction with interventional technology is useful for improving anti-tuberculosis treatment effectiveness for patients.

  3. Ameliorating effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Homeopathic remedy

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Soumyajit; Ali, Kazi M.; Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Syzygium jambolanum (S jambolanum) is widely used in homeopathy for treating patients with diabetes mellitus. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the remedial effect of homeopathic drug S jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders on streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes induction in Wistar strain rat was performed as per standard method using streptozotocin at the dose of 4 mg/100 gm body weight. Activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in hepatic tissue, and glycogen content in hepatic and muscular tissues were assessed biochemically following the standard protocols. Serum lipid profile level and activities of GOT and GPT in serum were measured as per standard method using specific kits. Results: The homeopathic drug, mother tincture of S jambolanum significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved carbohydrate metabolic key enzyme activities in hepatic tissue i.e., hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic rats. Alongside, serum lipid profile biomarkers i.e., triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly ameliorated in homeopathic drug supplemented diabetic animals in compared with the untreated diabetic animal. Side by side, the S jambolanum has the capacity to attenuate diabetes induced hepatic injury in model animal, which has been assessed here by the recovery of GOT and GPT activities in serum of drug treated diabetic animal. Conclusion: The result of the present study indicated that the homeopathic drug S jambolanum (mother tincture) has a protective effect on diabetic induced carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in STZ-induced diabetic animal. PMID:23633838

  4. Homeopathic mistletoe adverse reaction mimics nodal involvement in (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P; Sánchez, R; Mut, T; Balaguer, D; Latorre, I; Rodríguez, H

    Some patients use complementary medicine. We present a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma, scanned with (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of response after chemotherapy, who was self-administering mistletoe as a homeopathic medicine product. The careful review of the images of the entire scan and patient collaboration in anamnesis were crucial to avoid a false positive result. A review of the published scientific data on the effects of mistletoe is also presented.

  5. Changes in chronic low back pain and cardiovascular risk factors using a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin–based weight loss program: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W.; Strauchman, Megan N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the changes in body weight and biochemical markers in a patient who completed a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin protocol. Case Report A 52-year-old man reported to an integrative medical center (including chiropractic and osteopathic physicians) for chronic low back pain. The patient reported a 20-year history of chronic, episodic low back pain. A course of spinal manipulative therapy was delivered; however, because of the lack of resolution of symptoms, a radiographic examination was performed, the result of which was essentially normal. Laboratory studies demonstrated hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, uricemia, and elevated blood glucose. A dietary change in treatment approach was selected. Intervention and Outcome The patient was instructed to take 10 drops of a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin product under the tongue 5 times daily. His total daily energy (calorie) was limited for the first 30 days of the program while on the homeopathic product. After 4 months, the patient lost a total of 71 lb, pain and disability scores improved, and reductions in serum cardiovascular markers were noted. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that weight loss seemed to affect the patient's chronic low back pain and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22654693

  6. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg–Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    Summary This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg–Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg–Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials. PMID:25161858

  7. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg-Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Sampieri, Alvaro; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg-Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg-Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.

  8. Characteristics of yogurt-like products prepared from the combination of skim milk and soymilk containing saccharified-rice solution.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong June; Oh, Sejong; Ku, Kyung Hyung; Mok, Chulkyoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Imm, Jee-Young

    2005-02-01

    Yogurt-like products were prepared from a combination of skim milk and soymilk (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) containing saccharified-rice solution by lactic fermentation of four different cultures. The ratio of skim milk and soy milk had no significant effect on titratable acidity, while the type and nature of culture used for fermentation affected the titratable acidity. Lower syneresis was observed in soy-based yogurt, and both the hardness and springiness of curd increased as the proportion of soymilk in the substrate increased. Skim milk-based yogurt had higher resistance to shear force with higher yield stress. The sensory quality of yogurt produced from mixed culture had higher preference compared with that produced from a single culture (Streptococcus thermophilus). There was no significant difference in texture and overall acceptability among yogurts produced from mixed substrates and skim milk-based yogurt.

  9. PREPARATION OF FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE-LABELED GAMMA-GLOBULIN BY DIALYSIS, GEL FILTRATION, AND IONEXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY IN COMBINATION.

    PubMed

    DEDMON, R E; HOLMES, A W; DEINHARDT, F

    1965-03-01

    Dedmon, Robert E. (Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, Ill.), Albert W. Holmes, and Friedrich Deinhardt. Preparation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled gamma-globulin by dialysis, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography in combination. J. Bacteriol. 89:734-739. 1965.-Antiviral immune gamma-globulins isolated from rabbit and guinea pig sera were labeled through dialysis membranes with fluorescein isothiocyanate and purified in several ways to eliminate nonspecific staining. Gel filtration of the conjugate with Sephadex G-25 coarse beads followed by column fractionation with diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex yielded consistently highly specific staining materials. Fluorescein-protein ratios varied between 1.0 and 4.0. This technique has proved to be simple and reliable, and is less time-consuming than previous techniques.

  10. Combined effects of raw materials and solvent systems on the preparation and properties of regenerated cellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinghuan; Guan, Ying; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xueming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2015-09-05

    To investigate the combined effects of materials and solvents on the preparation, structural and mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers, four cellulosic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cotton linter pulp, bamboo pulp and bleached softwood sulfite dissolving pulp) and six non-derivative solvents (NaOH/urea aqueous solution, N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride, N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) were used to prepare fibers with wet spinning method. The results showed that the dissolvability of solvent was the determining factor in cellulose dissolution, and the dissolving time was influenced by the raw materials' properties, such as molecular weight, exposed area and hemicellulose content. The crystallinity and elongation at break of the fibers were almost fixed and not affected by the materials and solvents. However, the tensile strength of the fibers was directly proportional to the molecular weight of the raw materials, and varied with the type of solvents through cellulose degradation.

  11. Combined Skin Moisturization of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer®. The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products. PMID:26557021

  12. Preparation of low galactose yogurt using cultures of Gal(+) Streptococcus thermophilus in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Anbukkarasi, Kaliyaperumal; UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rameshwar

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important lactic starter used in the production of yogurt. Most strains of S. thermophilus are galactose negative (Gal(-)) and are able to metabolize only glucose portion of lactose and expel galactose into the medium. This metabolic defect leads to the accumulation of free galactose in yogurt, resulting in galactosemia among consumers. Hence there is an absolute need to develop low galactose yogurt. Therefore, in this study, three galactose positive (Gal(+)) S. thermophilus strains from National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) viz. NCDC 659 (AJM), NCDC 660 (JM1), NCDC 661 (KM3) and a reference galactose negative (Gal(-)) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used for preparation of low galactose yogurt. In milk fermented using S. thermophilus isolates alone, NCDC 659 released less galactose (0.27 %) followed by NCDC 661 (0.3 %) and NCDC 660 (0.45 %) after 10 h at 42 °C. Milk was fermented in combination with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04, in which NCDC 659 released least galactose upto 0.49 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %) and NCDC 660 (0.60 %) than reference Gal(-) NCDC 218(0.79 %). Low galactose yogurt was prepared following standard procedure using Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates and Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04 in 1:1 ratio. Among which low galactose yogurt by NCDC 659 combination contained less galactose 0.37 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %), NCDC 660 (0.65 %) and reference Gal(-) NCDC 218 (0.98 %) after 4 h of fermentation. This study clearly reveals that Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates can be paired with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus for developing low galactose yogurt.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P < .0001); still the latter need to be made aware and knowledgeable to curtail the ever-increasing burden of diabetes.

  14. Preparation and characterization of paclitaxel nanosuspension using novel emulsification method by combining high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Xiuhua; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Yin

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative, more bio-available, better tolerated paclitaxel nanosuspension (PTXNS) for intravenous injection in comparison with commercially available Taxol(®) formulation. In this study, PTXNS was prepared by emulsification method through combination of high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization, followed by lyophilization process for intravenous administration. The main production parameters including volume ratio of organic phase in water and organic phase (Vo:Vw+o), concentration of PTX, content of PTX and emulsification time (Et), homogenization pressure (HP) and passes (Ps) for high pressure homogenization were optimized and their effects on mean particle size (MPS) and particle size distribution (PSD) of PTXNS were investigated. The characteristics of PTXNS, such as, surface morphology, physical status of paclitaxel (PTX) in PTXNS, redispersibility of PTXNS in purified water, in vitro dissolution study and bioavailability in vivo were all investigated. The PTXNS obtained under optimum conditions had an MPS of 186.8 nm and a zeta potential (ZP) of -6.87 mV. The PTX content in PTXNS was approximately 3.42%. Moreover, the residual amount of chloroform was lower than the International Conference on Harmonization limit (60 ppm) for solvents. The dissolution study indicated PTXNS had merits including effect to fast at the side of raw PTX and sustained-dissolution character compared with Taxol(®) formulation. Moreover, the bioavailability of PTXNS increased 14.38 and 3.51 times respectively compared with raw PTX and Taxol(®) formulation.

  15. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %).

  16. Preparation of lovastatin matrix sustained-release pellets by extrusion-spheronization combined with microcrystal dispersion technique.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Shi, Bo; Cai, Cuifang; Tang, Xing

    2011-11-01

    The poorly water-soluble drug lovastatin (LVA) is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase and has a slow dissolution rate. In this study, a microcrystal dispersion (MCD) technique was used in the preparation of LVA to increase its dissolution rate and then combining with an extrusion-spheronization method, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) matrix sustained-release pellets containing LVA-MCD were developed and characterized in vitro. Photomicrographs indicated that LVA-MCD existed as fine crystals, of which the mean particle size was reduced from 65.75 μm to 3.97 μm and the dried LVA-MCD powders released completely within 2 hours. SEM results during the release process showed that pellets possessed a matrix structure and after the dissolution test, this matrix structure became loose and porous. The release of LVA was fast and complete, and accumulated release by the optimal formulation was: 0.5 h (20.23 ± 3.40%), 2 h (56.87 ± 2.85%), 4 h (78.71 ± 3.42%), and 8 h (96.81 ± 3.30%). The 3 months accelerating test at 40°C and 75% RH demonstrated that drug release of pellets was not changed and drug degradation was less than 1%. Thus, a novel MCD process with MCC matrix was feasible and effective to get complete release without a lag time for the poorly water soluble drug, LVA, with high stability.

  17. Scanning tunneling microscope investigations of organic heterostructures prepared by a combination of self-assembly and molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, R.; Toerker, M.; Fritz, T.; Schmitz-Hübsch, T.; Sellam, F.; Leo, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report the realization of organic-organic heteroepitaxy by combining liquid-phase self-assembly with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) gas-phase molecular beam epitaxy. As a model system, we have used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared by exposing an Au(111)-mica substrate to a dilute solution of decanethiol in ethanol, with subsequent evaporation of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) dye molecules. The well-known (3×3)R30° superstructure of almost upright standing molecules after chemisorption is replaced by the 11.5×3 (33.2 Å) pin-stripe phase with flat lying molecules when the samples are annealed in UHV and coverage decreases. The deposition of PTCDA induces reordering and displacement in the decanethiol SAM. Additional to the 33.2 Å periodicity, the previously reported 22 Å thiol stripe phase can be observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Several PTCDA structures are observed: single and double rows of PTCDA that grow along decanethiol stripes on top of the flat-lying alkane chain groups, as well as densely packed PTCDA monolayer domains embedded into the thiol layer. These exhibit the well-known herringbone structure or a novel square lattice structure. We have also investigated thicker PTCDA islands and observed molecular resolution for a thickness of several monolayers. The structure of the three-dimensional islands can be identified as the α bulk modification.

  18. [Changes in physico-chemical parameters of homeopathic remedies ferrum metallicum CH6 and ferrum metallicum CH30 after exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity].

    PubMed

    Mendez, N M

    2005-01-01

    It is considered the microwaves electromagnetic radiation do not affect the materials, alive or not, when used in low power. In high power, the interaction effects would be the material warming (thermal effect). However, in the last years, the studies about electromagnetic radiation with low power (non thermal effect) in the human being have been increasing. It was found out the electromagnetic radiation, even with low power, can affect the living organisms and biosubstratum. In the present work the influence of electromagnetic radiation (2.45 GHz 500 W/cm2), on physical and chemical parameters of the homeopathic pharmaceutics products in shown.

  19. Multiple nanoemulsion system for an oral combinational delivery of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pangeni, Rudra; Choi, Sang Won; Jeon, Ok-Cheol; Byun, Youngro; Park, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a third-generation cisplatin analog that has been approved as first-line chemotherapy in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of resectable and advanced colorectal cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of oral OXA and 5-FU is limited by their low bioavailability due to poor membrane permeability. The aim of the present study was to develop an oral delivery system for OXA and 5-FU. We constructed an ion-pairing complex of OXA with a deoxycholic acid derivative (Nα-deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester, DCK) (OXA/DCK) as a permeation enhancer. Next, we prepared multiple water-in-oil-in-water nanoemulsions incorporating OXA/DCK and 5-FU to enhance their oral absorption. To evaluate their membrane permeability, we assessed in vitro permeabilities of OXA/DCK and 5-FU through an artificial intestinal membrane and Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, oral bioavailability in rats and tumor growth inhibition in the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell (CT26)-bearing mouse model were investigated after oral administration of nanoemulsion containing OXA/DCK and 5-FU. The droplet size of the optimized nanoemulsion was 20.3±0.22 nm with a zeta potential of −4.65±1.68 mV. In vitro permeabilities of OXA/DCK and 5-FU from the nanoemulsion through a Caco-2 cell monolayer were 4.80- and 4.30-fold greater than those of OXA and 5-FU, respectively. The oral absorption of OXA/DCK and 5-FU from the nanoemulsion also increased significantly, and the resulting oral bioavailability values of OXA/DCK and 5-FU in the nanoemulsive system were 9.19- and 1.39-fold higher than those of free OXA and 5-FU, respectively. Furthermore, tumor growth in CT26 tumor-bearing mice given the oral OXA/DCK- and 5-FU-loaded nanoemulsion was maximally inhibited by 73.9%, 48.5%, and 38.1%, compared with tumor volumes in the control group and the oral OXA and 5-FU groups, respectively. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a nanoemulsion incorporating OXA/DCK and

  20. Purification of six lignans from the stems of Schisandra chinensis by using high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Guohui; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-11-01

    A method for the preparative purification of lignans from Schisandra chinensis was established using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The crude extracts obtained from S. chinensis by using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. A two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v) was used for HSCCC, and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) was used for preparative HPLC. The results obtained using HSCCC were compared with those obtained using preparative HPLC, and their advantages were further integrated to improve the separation efficiency. Six known lignans were identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR analyses; the purities of all the compounds were more than 91%.

  1. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of metoprolol tartrate sustained-release pellets using hot melt extrusion combined with hot melt coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Li, Juan; Shan, Wei-Guang

    2017-02-09

    The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate metoprolol tartrate sustained-release pellets. Cores were prepared by hot melt extrusion and coated pellets were prepared by hot melt coating. Cores were found to exist in a single-phase state and drug in amorphous form. Plasticizers had a significant effect on torque and drug content, while release modifiers and coating level significantly affected the drug-release behavior. The mechanisms of drug release from cores and coated pellets were Fickian diffusion and diffusion-erosion. The coated pellets exhibited sustained-release properties in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Physician practicing preferences for conventional or homeopathic medicines in elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders in the EPI3-MSD cohort

    PubMed Central

    Danno, Karine; Joubert, Clementine; Duru, Gerard; Vetel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    patients consulting a conventional practice general practitioner. In contrast, analgesic use and MSD evolution were similar in the three groups. Consulting a homeopathic physician for MSD management does not appear to represent a loss of therapeutic opportunity, and decreases the use of NSAIDs. PMID:25298739

  4. An investigation and characterization on alginate hydogel dressing loaded with metronidazole prepared by combined inotropic gelation and freeze-thawing cycles for controlled release.

    PubMed

    Sarheed, Omar; Rasool, Bazigha K Abdul; Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Aziz, Uday Sajad

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined Ca(2+) cross-linking and freeze-thawing cycle method on metronidazole (model drug) drug release and prepare a wound film dressing with improved swelling property. The hydrogel films were prepared with sodium alginate (SA) using the freeze-thawing method alone or in combination with ionotropic gelation with CaCl2. The gel properties such as morphology, swelling, film thickness, and content uniformity and in vitro dissolution profiles using Franz diffusion cell were investigated. The cross-linking process was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In vitro protein adsorption test, in vivo wound-healing test, and histopathology were also performed. The hydrogel (F2) composed of 6% sodium alginate and 1% metronidazole prepared by combined Ca(2+) cross-linking and freeze-thawing cycles showed good swelling. This will help to provide moist environment at the wound site. With the in vivo wound-healing and histological studies, F2 was found to improve the wound-healing effect compared with the hydrogel without the drug, and the conventional product.

  5. Preparation of transparent oxyapatite ceramics by combined use of freeze-drying and spark-plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Chesnaud, A; Bogicevic, C; Karolak, F; Estournès, C; Dezanneau, G

    2007-04-21

    Lanthanum silicate oxyapatites, ion-conducting materials presenting a strong aversion against densification, have been obtained in the form of dense transparent ceramics, by combining the beneficial use of freeze-drying and spark plasma sintering methods.

  6. Plant for preparing and hydrogenating fossil fuels to prepare products low in sulfur content, and employment of these products for combined generation of the electric current and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, E.; Knizia, K.

    1986-07-01

    A plant is described for producing solid and gaseous desulfurizing fossil fuels for use in a gas turbine power plant and a steam power plant for electric power generation. The plant consists of operatively interconnected components including sequentially in combination: crusher means for crushing the fuel to a particle size not to exceed 0.1 mm., a vapor separator, means for supplying hot, substantially inert, flue gas to the crusher means to convey the crushed fuel to the separator with simultaneous evaporation of moisture therefrom, a preoxidation station, means to convey the fuel to the preoxidation station, means to convey the fuel to the preoxidation station, means to supply heated air to the preoxidation station to oxidize the fuel, a separator for separating the air from the oxidized fuel, a reaction chamber station and means to supply the chamber with the pre-oxidized fuel and in which chamber the gas content of the fuel is adjusted, means for supplying steam to the reaction chamber station to hydrolyze the fuel, a separator station past the reaction chamber station to separate the oxidized fuel from gas, an additional gas driven conveyor and distributor means for distributing the solid product from the reaction chamber station to the steam generator plant, means for extensively desulfurized gas leaving the separator from the reaction chamber station, distributor means for distributing the desulfurized gas to the gas turbine power plant and at least a portion of the gas to the steam generator plant.

  7. Combination of an optic system and Er:YAG laser in root canal preparation: study in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Cisternino, Aurelia; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The effect of Er:YAG laser in debris removing after conventional root preparation was tested by optical system in vivo and scanning electron microscope in vitro. The root canal of fifty permanent molars was cleaned in vivo and Er:YAG laser treated. Flexiscope system was used to evaluate the efficacy of laser cleansing at the different stages of endodontic therapy. Forty permanent teeth, extracted for orthodontic or periodontal purposes, were treated in vitro using the same technique an instruments. The in vitro treated teeth were also examined under the SEM. The result of our investigation show an effective improvement of the cleansing of the endodontic surface from pulpal remaining and a smear layer after laser irradiation in vivo and in vitro. The use of Er:YAG laser in organic debris removing and the consequent optical system analysis of the quality of root preparation in vivo seem to be a reliable technique particularly useful in clinical application.

  8. Differentiation of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in staphylococcal isolates from prepared and frozen foods by combined arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction and DNA probe.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Maria G; Jordano, Rafael; Aranda, Emilio; Benito, Maria J; Córdoba, Juan J

    2003-06-01

    In prepared and frozen flamenquín and hake fish fingers Staphylococcus aureus as sanitary hazards have been detected. In the present work, a combined method that includes an arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and a mixed DNA probe hybridisation designed for the enterotoxigenic genes sea, seb, sec, and sed will be assayed to differentiate enterotoxigenic S. aureus from other staphylococcal species isolated during the processing of prepared and frozen foods. From the protocols tested for the AP-PCR, the highest number of amplification bands showing the best resolution was achieved at 30 degrees C annealing and 35 degrees C extension temperatures. Several staphylococci identified by a biochemical test as S. aureus showed in the AP-PCR analysis different banding patterns to the references S. aureus. The isolates, were investigated by slot blot hybridisation for genes encoding A, B, C, and D staphylococcal enterotoxins to determine their enterotoxigenic potential. Several isolates characterised by the AP-PCR analysis as S. aureus hybridised with the DNA probe mixture. The combined AP-PCR and DNA probe hybridisation assayed was able to differentiate toxigenic S. aureus from other staphylococcal species from prepared and frozen foods. This method could be considered as microbial quality assurance in these products.

  9. A Homeopathic Arnica Patch for the Relief of Cellulitis-derived Pain and Numbness in the Hand.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Elisabeth; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2012-05-01

    大拿山金车 (Arnica montana)是一 种菊 (Compositae) 科植物,在用 于缓解肌肉和关节疼痛和/或炎 症方面具有悠久历史,因此有望 成为非甾体类抗炎药的替代品, 而这些非甾体类抗炎药往往效果 不佳或容易导致许多负面作用。 顺势山金车药贴(根据《美国顺 势疗法药典》(Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States) 3 倍稀释)已开发用于缓解背部和 颈部肌肉及关节疼痛症状。案例简报: 此案例报告描述了一 位 55 岁的女性患者因手掌部位患 蜂窝织炎而出现右手疼痛,第四 指麻痹后,接受山金车药贴治疗 的效果。她曾接受抗生素治疗蜂 窝组织炎,但即使口服布洛芬并 口服及局部外用含山金车的复合 顺势疗法的产品,疼痛症状仍维 持在视觉模拟量表 (visual analog scale, VAS)(将疼痛分为 0 至 10 级)中的 7 级。医生向该患者配发了十张山金车 药贴。她将药贴裁成条状贴在手 上所有疼痛的部位,并在夜间用 药。3 天后,她报告疼痛症状大为 减轻 (VAS = 1) 且麻木的症状和 第三掌骨部位疼痛结节的大小均 显著减小。此外,该患者还能够 彻夜安睡而不被疼醒。在接下来 的 2 天里,症状进一步缓解。 结论: 此案例证实,在患者手上 施用山金车药贴后,经过相对较 短的时间,可显著减轻疼痛并恢 复手部功能。

  10. A Comparative Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Children with Sleep Disorders and Restlessness

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Miek C.; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Verwer, Cynthia; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 in children with sleep disorders for ≥ one month compared to glycine. Children ≤ six years old received either ZinCyp-3-02 (N = 89) or comparator glycine (N = 90). After treatment for 28 days, total sleep-disorder-associated complaints severity scores decreased in both groups from median 7.0 (out of maximum 11.0) points to 2.0 (ZinCyp-3-02) and 4.0 (glycine) points, respectively, with overall higher odds of showing improvement for ZinCyp-3-02 (odds ratio: 4.45 (95% CI: 2.77–7.14), p < 0.0001, POM overall treatment related effect). Absence of individual complaints (time to sleep onset, difficulties maintaining sleep, sleep duration, troubled sleep (somniloquism), physical inactivity after awakening, restlessness for unknown reason, and sleep disorders frequency) at study end were significantly higher with ZinCyp-3-02 (all p values < 0.05). More children with ZinCyp-3-02 were totally free of complaints (p = 0.0258). Treatment effectiveness (p < 0.0001) and satisfaction assessments (p < 0.0001) were more favorable for ZinCyp-3-02. Few nonserious adverse drug reactions were reported (ZinCyp-3-02: N = 2, glycine: N = 1) and both treatments were well tolerated. Treatment with the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 was found to be safe and superior to the comparator glycine in the treatment of sleep disorders in children. PMID:27242915

  11. Relative Apoptosis-inducing Potential of Homeopa-thic Condurango 6C and 30C in H460 Lung Cancer Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Kumar Saha, Santu; Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In homeopathy, it is claimed that more homeopathically-diluted potencies render more protective/curative effects against any disease condition. Potentized forms of Condurango are used successfully to treat digestive problems, as well as esophageal and stomach cancers. However, the comparative efficacies of Condurango 6C and 30C, one diluted below and one above Avogadro’s limit (lacking original drug molecule), respectively, have not been critically analyzed for their cell-killing (apoptosis) efficacy against lung cancer cells in vitro, and signalling cascades have not been studied. Hence, the present study was undertaken. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) assays were conducted on H460-non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by using a succussed ethyl alcohol vehicle (placebo) as a control. Studies on cellular morphology, cell cycle regulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers were studied. The observations were done in a “blinded” manner. Results: Both Condurango 6C and 30C induced apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at subG0/G1 and altered expressions of certain apoptotic markers significantly in H460 cells. The drugs induced oxidative stress through ROS elevation and MMP depolarization at 18-24 hours. These events presumably activated a caspase-3-mediated signalling cascade, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence studies at a late phase (48 hours) in which cells were pushed towards apoptosis. Conclusion: Condurango 30C had greater apoptotic effect than Condurango 6C as claimed in the homeopathic doctrine. PMID:25780691

  12. Combining Organometallic Reagents, the Sulfur Dioxide Surrogate DABSO, and Amines: A One-Pot Preparation of Sulfonamides, Amenable to Array Synthesis**

    PubMed Central

    Deeming, Alex S; Russell, Claire J; Willis, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for the synthesis of sulfonamides through the combination of an organometallic reagent, a sulfur dioxide equivalent, and an aqueous solution of an amine under oxidative conditions (bleach). This simple reaction protocol avoids the need to employ sulfonyl chloride substrates, thus removing the limitation imposed by the commercial availability of these reagents. The resultant method allows access to new chemical space, and is also tolerant of the polar functional groups needed to impart favorable physiochemical properties required for medicinal chemistry and agrochemistry. The developed chemistry is employed in the synthesis of a targeted 70 compound array, prepared using automated methods. The array achieved a 93 % success rate for compounds prepared. Calculated molecular weights, lipophilicities, and polar surface areas are presented, demonstrating the utility of the method for delivering sulfonamides with drug-like properties. PMID:25431118

  13. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Zn1-x Co x O prepared by sol—gel and hydrothermal method combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongde, Hao; Legui, Zhou; Jun, Li; Zuoqi, Hu

    2016-11-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO powder samples were prepared by sol—gel and hydrothermal method combined. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD patterns show that all the samples have a single pure phase with wurtzite structure suggesting that Co2+ occupied Zn2+ sites in the ZnO crystal lattice. SEM images show that crystal grains of cobalt-doped ZnO are hexagonal cone or spheroidal. EPR pattern shows that all of the samples possess oxygen vacancy. Measurement of magnetism indicates that all the samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) embedded in a dominant diamagnetic or paramagnetic signal. The dominant signal turns from diamagnetic to paramagnetic with the increase of Co concentration. The magnetic behavior can attribute to defects and Co doping. Project supported by the 46th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (No. 0231182346).

  14. Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst prepared by supercritical fluid combination technique and its application in degradation of acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts were synthesized by supercritical fluid combination technique, consisting of sol-gel method and supercritical fluid drying. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of acrylic acid. The results indicated that the Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite catalysts prepared by this novel technique showed significant improvement in catalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 or Fe2O3/TiO2 catalysts prepared by traditional drying. Both infrared and ultraviolet spectrum of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts shift a little to lower wavelength indicating that the absorption threshold of Fe doped nanocomposite photocatalysts shift into the visible light region. This phenomenon was also attested by the photocatalytic degradation test under visible light.

  15. Combining Chemical Information Literacy, Communication Skills, Career Preparation, Ethics, and Peer Review in a Team-Taught Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lou Baker; Seybold, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The widely acknowledged need to include chemical information competencies and communication skills in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum can be accommodated in a variety of ways. We describe a team-taught, semester-length course at Wright State University which combines chemical information literacy, written and oral communication skills,…

  16. Preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets by a combined chemical and hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Long, Donghui; Li, Wei; Ling, Licheng; Miyawaki, Jin; Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2010-10-19

    Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets were prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide in the presence of hydrazine and ammonia at pH of 10. The effect of hydrothermal temperature on the structure, morphology, and surface chemistry of as-prepared graphene sheets were investigated though XRD, N(2) adsorption, solid-state (13)C NMR, SEM, TEM, and XPS characterizations. Oxygen reduction and nitrogen doping were achieved simultaneously under the hydrothermal reaction. Up to 5% nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with slightly wrinkled and folded feature were obtained at the relative low hydrothermal temperature. With the increase of hydrothermal temperature, the nitrogen content decreased slightly and more pyridinic N incorporated into the graphene network. Meanwhile, a jellyfish-like graphene structure was formed by self-organization of graphene sheets at the hydrothermal temperature of 160 °C. Further increase of the temperature to 200 °C, graphene sheets could self-aggregate into agglomerate particles but still contained doping level of 4 wt % N. The unique hydrothermal environment should play an important role in the nitrogen doping and the jellyfish-like graphene formation. This simple hydrothermal method could provide the synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets in large scale for various practical applications.

  17. Release of bacteriocins from nanofibers prepared with combinations of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).

    PubMed

    Heunis, Tiaan; Bshena, Osama; Klumperman, Bert; Dicks, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and bacteriocin ST4SA produced by Enterococcus mundtii, were electrospun into nanofibers prepared from different combinations of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Both peptides were released from the nanofibers with a high initial burst and retained 88% of their original antimicrobial activity at 37 °C. Nanofibers have the potential to serve as carrier matrix for bacteriocins and open a new field in developing controlled antimicrobial delivery systems for various applications.

  18. A fast ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic method for qualification and quantification of pharmaceutical combination preparations containing paracetamol, acetyl salicylic acid and/or antihistaminics.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Sacré, P Y; Baudewyns, S; Courselle, P; De Beer, J

    2011-09-10

    A fully validated UHPLC method for the identification and quantification of pharmaceutical preparations, containing paracetamol and/or acetyl salicylic acid, combined with anti-histaminics (phenylephrine, pheniramine maleate, diphenhydramine, promethazine) and/or other additives as quinine sulphate, caffeine or codeine phosphate, was developed. The proposed method uses a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient using an ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 as aqueous phase and methanol as organic modifier. The obtained method was fully validated based on its measurement uncertainty (accuracy profile) and robustness tests. Calibration lines for all components were linear within the studied ranges. The relative bias and the relative standard deviations for all components were respectively smaller than 1.5% and 2%, the β-expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of 10% and the relative expanded uncertainties were smaller than 5% for all of the considered components. A UHPLC method was obtained for the identification and quantification of these kind of pharmaceutical preparations, which will significantly reduce analysis times and workload for the laboratories charged with the quality control of these preparations.

  19. Cardioprotection by combination of three compounds from ShengMai preparations in mice with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Fan, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yu; Pang, Lizhi; Ma, Xiaonan; Song, Meijia; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    GRS is a drug combination of three active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ruscogenin and schisandrin. It derived from the well-known TCM formula ShengMai preparations, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinic. The present study explores the cardioprotective effects of GRS on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury compared with ShengMai preparations and investigates the underlying mechanisms. GRS treatment significantly attenuated MI/R injury and exhibited similar efficacy as Shengmai preparations, as evidenced by decreased myocardium infarct size, ameliorated histological features, the decrease of LDH production and improved cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Mechanistically, GRS alleviated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway as reflected by inhibition of caspase-3 activity, normalization of Bcl-2/Bax levels and improved mitochondrial function. Moreover, GRS prevented cardiomyocytes mitochondrial fission and upregulated AMPKα phosphorylation. Interestingly, AMPK activation prevented hypoxia and reoxygenation induced mitochondrial fission in cardiomyocytes and GRS actions were significantly attenuated by knockdown of AMPKα. Collectively, these data show that GRS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and modulating AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical applications and potential therapeutic strategy for MI/R injury. PMID:27869201

  20. Preparation of highly photocatalytic active CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by combining chemical bath deposition and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Wang, Lili; Hu, Tianyu; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-15

    CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared from Cd and Ti (1:1 M ratio) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS) method. A series of nanocomposites with different morphologies and activities were prepared by varying the reaction time in the MAHS (2, 4, and 6 h). The crystal structure, morphology, and surface physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements. The results show that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} and hexagonal CdS phases with strong absorption in the visible region. The surface morphologies changed slightly with increasing microwave irradiation time, while the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area increased remarkably. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated under UV light and simulated sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) composites prepared by the MAHS method was higher than those of CdS, P25, and other CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) nanocomposites significantly affected the UV and microwave-assisted photocatalytic degradation of different dyes. To elucidate the photocatalytic reaction mechanism for the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites, controlled experiments were performed by adding different radical scavengers. - Graphical abstract: CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared using CTAB by CBD combined with MAHS method. In addition, with increasing microwave irradiation time, the morphology of CdS/TiO{sub 2} changed from popcorn-like to wedge-like structure. - Highlights: • The CdS/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by CBD combined with MAHS two-step method under CTAB. • The morphologies of as-samples were different with the time of

  1. Comparison of clinical efficacy between 3-day combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation treatment and 10-day amoxicillin treatment in children with pharyngolaryngitis or tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Haruo; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Inoue, Nobue; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Himi, Kyoko; Kurosaki, Tomomichi

    2013-02-01

    The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.

  2. A Combination of Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Cellulose Nanofibers for the Preparation of A Nanocomposite with High Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Sun, Jiajia; Yao, Yimin; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-04-12

    With the current development of modern electronics towards miniaturization, high-degree integration and multi-functionalization, considerable heat is accumulated, which results in the thermal failure or even explosion of modern electronics. The thermal conductivity of materials has thus attracted much attention in modern electronics. Although polymer composites with enhanced thermal conductivity are expected to address this issue, achieving higher thermal conductivity (above 10 W m-1 K-1) at filler loadings below 50.0 wt% remains challenging. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers that exhibits high thermal conductivity (21.39 W m-1 K-1) at 25.0 wt% boron nitride nanotubes. Such high thermal conductivity is attributed to the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers, the one-dimensional structure of boron nitride nanotubes, and the reduced interfacial thermal resistance due to the strong interaction between the boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers. Using the as-prepared nanocomposite as a flexible printed circuit board, we demonstrate its potential usefulness in electronic device-cooling applications. This thermally conductive nanocomposite has promising applications in thermal interface materials, printed circuit boards or organic substrates in electronics and could supplement conventional polymer-based materials.

  3. Microstructure and characteristic properties of gelatin/chitosan scaffold prepared by a combined freeze-drying/leaching method.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Abbasi, F; Khoshfetrat, A B; Ghaleh, H

    2013-10-01

    A combined freeze-drying and particulate leaching method for scaffold synthesis showed an improvement in the horizontal microstructure of the gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. Type and concentration of the cross-linking agent, freezing temperature, concentration of the polymeric solution and gelatin/chitosan weight ratio were the variables affecting the scaffold properties. Assessment of the tensile properties of the scaffolds revealed that for a scaffold with 50% chitosan, glutaraldehyde, as a cross-linking agent, created much tighter polymeric network compared to N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC). However, in the case of gelatin scaffolds, EDC was identified as the stronger cross-linker. Compressive behavior of the scaffolds satisfied formulations obtained from the theoretical modeling of the low-density, elastomeric foams. The investigation of the scaffold degradation indicated that the increase in the mechanical strength of the scaffolds would not always reduce their degradation rate.

  4. Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy

  5. Preparation of human milk fat substitutes from palm stearin with arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid: combination of enzymatic and physical methods.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Jian-Hua; Jin, Qing-Zhe; Liu, Yuan-Fa; Tao, Guan-Jun; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Xing-Guo

    2012-09-19

    Human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs) were prepared by a two-step process, namely, Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of interesterified high-melting palm stearin with fatty acids from rapeseed oil and blending of the enzymatic product with the selected oils on the basis of the calculation model. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of palm stearin/fatty acids 1:10, 60 °C, 8% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 4 h, and 3.5% water content (wt % of enzyme); the enzymatic product contained 39.6% palmitic acid (PA), 83.7% of the fatty acids at sn-2 position were PA (sn-2 PA), and the distribution probability of PA at the sn-2 position among total PA (% sn-2 PA) was 70.5%. With the fatty acid profiles of human milk fat (HMF) as a preferable goal, a physical blending model was established for the second step to guarantee the maximum addition of selected oils. Based on the model prediction, a desirable formula constituted enzymatic product/rapeseed oil/sunflower oil/palm kernel oil/algal oil/microbial oil at a mole ratio of 1:0.28:0.40:0.36:0.015:0.017, and the final product had PA content, sn-2 PA, and %sn-2 PA at 23.5, 43.1, and 61.1%, respectively. The contents of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were 0.4 and 0.3%, respectively. Relying on the total and sn-2 fatty acid compositions of HMF and "deducting score" principle, the score for the similarity between the final product and HMF was scaled as 89.2, indicating the potential as a fat substitute in infant formulas.

  6. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedles Prepared from “Super Swelling” Polymers Combined with Lyophilised Wafers for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; McCrudden, Maelíosa T. C.; Zaid Alkilani, Ahlam; Larrañeta, Eneko; McAlister, Emma; Courtenay, Aaron J.; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; McCarthy, Helen O.; Kett, Victoria L.; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Al-Zahrani, Sharifa; Woolfson, A. David

    2014-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays prepared from “super swelling” polymeric compositions. We produced a microneedle formulation with enhanced swelling capabilities from aqueous blends containing 20% w/w Gantrez S-97, 7.5% w/w PEG 10,000 and 3% w/w Na2CO3 and utilised a drug reservoir of a lyophilised wafer-like design. These microneedle-lyophilised wafer compositions were robust and effectively penetrated skin, swelling extensively, but being removed intact. In in vitro delivery experiments across excised neonatal porcine skin, approximately 44 mg of the model high dose small molecule drug ibuprofen sodium was delivered in 24 h, equating to 37% of the loading in the lyophilised reservoir. The super swelling microneedles delivered approximately 1.24 mg of the model protein ovalbumin over 24 h, equivalent to a delivery efficiency of approximately 49%. The integrated microneedle-lyophilised wafer delivery system produced a progressive increase in plasma concentrations of ibuprofen sodium in rats over 6 h, with a maximal concentration of approximately 179 µg/ml achieved in this time. The plasma concentration had fallen to 71±6.7 µg/ml by 24 h. Ovalbumin levels peaked in rat plasma after only 1 hour at 42.36±17.01 ng/ml. Ovalbumin plasma levels then remained almost constant up to 6 h, dropping somewhat at 24 h, when 23.61±4.84 ng/ml was detected. This work represents a significant advancement on conventional microneedle systems, which are presently only suitable for bolus delivery of very potent drugs and vaccines. Once fully developed, such technology may greatly expand the range of drugs that can be delivered transdermally, to the benefit of patients and industry. Accordingly, we are currently progressing towards clinical evaluations with a range of candidate molecules. PMID:25360806

  7. Efficacies of Nisin A and Nisin V Semipurified Preparations Alone and in Combination with Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Karen; O'Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    The food-borne pathogenic bacterium Listeria is known for relatively low morbidity and high mortality rates, reaching up to 25 to 30%. Listeria is a hardy organism, and its control in foods represents a significant challenge. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the bacteriocin nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of semipurified preparations (SPP) containing either nisin A or an enhanced bioengineered derivative, nisin V, alone and in combination with low concentrations of the essential oils thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, to control Listeria monocytogenes in both laboratory media and model food systems. Combinations of nisin V-containing SPP (25 μg/ml) with thymol (0.02%), carvacrol (0.02%), or cinnamaldehyde (0.02%) produced a significantly longer lag phase than any of the essential oil-nisin A combinations. In addition, the log reduction in cell counts achieved by the nisin V-carvacrol or nisin V-cinnamaldehyde combinations was twice that of the equivalent nisin A-essential oil treatment. Significantly, this enhanced activity was validated in model food systems against L. monocytogenes strains of food origin. We conclude that the fermentate form of nisin V in combination with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde offers significant advantages as a novel, natural, and effective means to enhance food safety by inhibiting food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. PMID:25662980

  8. Combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase microextraction: An efficient hyphenated sample preparation method.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Mossaddegh, Mehdi

    2016-09-30

    Two well-known microextraction methods, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), were combined, resulting in as an encouraging method. The method, named DLLME-SPME, was performed based on total vaporization technique. For the DLLME step, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and acetonitrile were used as extraction and disperser solvents, respectively. Halloysite nanotubes-titanium dioxide was used as the fiber coating in the SPME step. The method was applied for the extraction of diazinon and parathion (as the test compounds) in environmental water samples and fruit juices, and gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry was used as the determination apparatus. Desorption temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and the volume of the extracting solvent in the DLLME step were optimized as the effective parameters on the extraction efficiency. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day were found to be 4-7% and 6-8% for diazinon and parathion, respectively. Also, the RSDs of inter-day were 7-9% and 8-10% for diazinon and parathion, respectively. The limits of quantification and detection were obtained to be 0.015 and 0.005μgL(-1) for diazinon, and 0.020 and 0.007μgL(-1) for parathion. A good linearity range (r(2)˃0.993) was obtained in the range of 0.015-3.000 and 0.020-3.000μgL(-1) for diazinon and parathion, respectively. The high enrichment factors were obtained as 3150 and 2965 for diazinon and parathion, respectively. This method showed high sensitivity with good recovery values (between 87 and 99%) for the extraction of target analytes in the real samples. Overall, the results revealed that the developed DLLME-SPME method had better extraction efficiency than DLLME and SPME alone.

  9. Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment

  10. EVALUATION OF A COMBINATION OF A UNANI PHARMACOPEAL PREPARATION (ITRIFAL USTUKHUDOOS) WITH CLOVES (QARANFAL) IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS – A PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Asif; Khan, A.B.; Siddiqui, M.Y.; Latafat, T.; Kidwai, T.

    2003-01-01

    Allergic Rhinitis is typically characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, nasal, conjunctival & pharyngeal itching and lacrimation all occurring in a temporal relation to allergen exposure. The peak incidence of this disease occurs in childhood and adolescence, with most of the cases belonging to the atopic category. There is a high incidence of patients of allergic rhinitis attending the outdoor sections of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College Hospital. Many of them are dissatisfied with conventional anti-histaminic drugs. An open study was carried out on 20 such patients aged between 15 to 50 years to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a unani pharmacopeal preparation [Itrifal ustukhudoos] added with cloves [qaranfal]. Preliminary clinical study showed promising results. The study is into the next phase in which a comparative double-blind trial is being conducted with this combination and Allegra (Fexofenadine hydrochloride). PMID:22557103

  11. Polysialylated N-Glycans Identified in Human Serum Through Combined Developments in Sample Preparation, Separations and Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kronewitter, Scott R.; Marginean, Ioan; Cox, Jonathan T.; Zhao, Rui; Hagler, Clay D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Carlson, Timothy S.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Camp, David G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-02

    The N-glycan diversity of human serum glycoproteins, i.e. the human blood serum N-glycome, is complex due to the range of glycan structures potentially synthesizable by human glycosylation enzymes. The reported glycome, however, is limited by methods of sample preparation, available analytical platforms, e.g., based upon electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and software tools for data analysis. In this report, several improvements have been implemented in sample preparation and analysis to extend ESI-MS glycan characterization and to provide an improved view of glycan diversity. Sample preparation improvements include acidified, microwave-accelerated, PNGase F N-glycan release, and sodium borohydride reduction were optimized to improve quantitative yields and conserve the number of glycoforms detected. Two-stage desalting (during solid phase extraction and on the analytical column) increased the sensitivity by reducing analyte signal division between multiple reducing-end-forms or cation adducts. On-line separations were improved by using extended length graphitized carbon columns and adding TFA as an acid modifier to a formic acid/reversed phase gradient which provides additional resolving power and significantly improved desorption of both large and heavily sialylated glycans. To improve MS sensitivity and provide gentler ionization conditions at the source-MS interface, subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) has been utilized. When method improvements are combined together with the Glycomics Quintavariate Informed Quantification (GlyQ-IQ) recently described1 these technologies demonstrate the ability to significantly extend glycan detection sensitivity and provide expanded glycan coverage. We demonstrate application of these advances in the context of the human serum glycome, and for which our initial observations include detection of a new class of heavily sialylated N-glycans, including polysialylated N-glycans.

  12. Hypertonic Glucose Combined with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy to Prepare Wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection for Skin Grafting: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai; Hong, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Soft tissue losses from acute or chronic trauma are a challenge for surgeons. To explore a method to expedite granulation tissue formation in preparation for a split-thickness skin graft (STSG), the medical records of 3 patients - 2 adult men with wounds related to trauma injury and 1 infant with necrotizing fasciitis, all infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - were reviewed. All wounds were surgically debrided and managed by applying gauze soaked in 50% glucose followed by continuous negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) before definitive skin grafting. NPWT pressure was applied at -80 mm Hg for the 2 adult males (ages 39 and 25 years) and -50 mm Hg for the 7-month-old male infant. The dressings were changed every 2 to 3 days. No adverse events occurred, and wounds were successfully closed with a STSG after an average of 7 days. In 1 case, NPWT was able to help affix dressings in a difficult-to-dress area (genital region). The combination of hypertonic glucose and hand-made, gauze-based NPWT was found to be safe, well-tolerated, and effective in preparing the wound bed for grafting. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are needed to compare the safety, effectiveness, and efficacy of this method to other treatment approaches for P. aeruginosa-infected wounds.

  13. Black tea volatiles fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry combined with high concentration capacity sample preparation techniques: Toward a fully automated sensomic assessment.

    PubMed

    Magagna, Federico; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-06-15

    Tea prepared by infusion of dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, is the second world's most popular beverage, after water. Its consumption is associated with its chemical composition: it influences its sensory and nutritional quality addressing consumer preferences, and potential health benefits. This study aims to obtain an informative chemical signature of the volatile fraction of black tea samples from Ceylon by applying the principles of sensomics. In particular, several high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation techniques were tested in combination with GC×GC-MS to investigate chemical signatures of black tea volatiles. This platform, using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with multicomponent fiber as sampling technique, recovers 95% of the key-odorants in a fully automated work-flow. A group 123 components, including key-odorants, technological and botanical tracers, were mapped. The resulting 2D fingerprints were interpreted by pattern recognition tools (i.e. template matching fingerprinting and scripting) providing highly informative chemical signatures for quality assessment.

  14. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  15. Preparation and characterization of uniform nanosized cephradine by combination of reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; Shen, Zhigang; Yang, Yan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2005-09-14

    In this work, a novel direct method, which was combined with reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment, had been developed to prepare nanosized cephradine with narrow particle size distribution. Compared with commercial crude cephradine, the prepared cephradine showed a significant decrease in particle size, a significant increase in the specific surface area and shorter dissolving time when used for injection. The characteristic particle size was between 200-400 nm. The specific surface area increased from 2.95 to 10.87 m2/g after micronization. When the amount of L-arginin decreased from 0.25 to 0.18 g, the mixture of nanosized cephradine and L-arginine could still dissolve in 1 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the physical characteristics and molecular states remained unchanged after the recrystallization process. This method had potential application in industrial fields because of its low cost, efficient processing and the ease of scaling-up.

  16. Development of an HPLC-UV Method for the Analysis of Drugs Used for Combined Hypertension Therapy in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kepekci Tekkeli, Serife Evrim

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective HPLC-UV method was developed for the determination of antihypertensive drug substances: amlodipine besilat (AML), olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), valsartan (VAL), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in pharmaceuticals and plasma. These substances are mostly used as combinations. The combinations are found in various forms, especially in current pharmaceuticals as threesome components: OLM, AML, and HCT (combination I) and AML, VAL, and HCT (combination II). The separation was achieved by using an RP-CN column, and acetonitrile-methanol-10 mmol orthophosphoric acid pH 2.5 (7 : 13 : 80, v/v/v) was used as a mobile phase; the detector wavelength was set at 235 nm. The linear ranges were found as 0.1-18.5  μ g/mL, 0.4-25.6  μ g/mL, 0.3-15.5  μ g/mL, and 0.3-22  μ g/mL for AML, OLM, VAL, and HCT, respectively. In order to check the selectivity of the method for pharmaceutical preparations, forced degradation studies were carried out. According to the validation studies, the developed method was found to be reproducible and accurate as shown by RSD ≤6.1%, 5.7%, 6.9%, and 4.6% and relative mean error (RME) ≤10.6%, 5.8%, 6.5%, and 6.8% for AML, OLM, VAL, and HCT, respectively. Consequently, the method was applied to the analysis of tablets and plasma of the patients using drugs including those substances.

  17. Facile preparation of carbon coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a combined reduction/CVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Tristao, Juliana C.; Oliveira, Aline A.S.; Ardisson, Jose D.; Dias, Anderson; Lago, Rochel M.

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are prepared by a one step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a CVD process of using methane. Analyses show that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is reduced by methane to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with amorphous carbon. These materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water and can be used as adsorbents, catalyst supports and rapid coagulation systems. Research highlights: {yields} Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with a very thin layer of amorphous carbon (4 wt%). {yields} Combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a Chemical Vapor Deposition process using methane. {yields} Nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm. {yields} Uses as adsorbent, catalyst support and rapid coagulation systems. -- Abstract: In this work, we report a simple method for the preparation of magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a single step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a Chemical Vapor Deposition process using methane. The temperature programmed reaction monitored by Moessbauer, X-ray Diffraction and Raman analyses showed that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is directly reduced by methane at temperatures between 600 and 900 {sup o}C to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with up to 4 wt% of amorphous carbon. These magnetic materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water, i.e., a settled material composed of large magnetic particles and a suspended material composed of nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Different uses for these materials, e.g., adsorbents, catalyst supports, rapid coagulation systems, are proposed.

  18. Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jingzhou; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Wang, Aiying

    2017-02-01

    Ti2AlN belongs to a family of ternary nano-laminate alloys known as the MAX phases, which exhibit a unique combination of metallic and ceramic properties. In the present work, the dense and high-stability Ti2AlN coating has been successfully prepared through the combined cathodic arc/sputter deposition, followed by heat post-treatment. It was found that the as-deposited Ti-Al-N coating behaved a multilayer structure, where (Ti, N)-rich layer and Al-rich layer grew alternately, with a mixed phase constitution of TiN and TiAlx. After annealing at 800 °C under vacuum condition for 1.5 h, although the multilayer structure still was found, part of multilayer interfaces became indistinct and disappeared. In particular, the thickness of the Al-rich layer decreased in contrast to that of as-deposited coating due to the inner diffusion of the Al element. Moreover, the Ti2AlN MAX phase emerged as the major phase in the annealed coatings and its formation mechanism was also discussed in this study. The vacuum thermal analysis indicated that the formed Ti2AlN MAX phase exhibited a high-stability, which was mainly benefited from the large thickness and the dense structure. This advanced technique based on the combined cathodic arc/sputter method could be extended to deposit other MAX phase coatings with tailored high performance like good thermal stability, high corrosion and oxidation resistance etc. for the next protective coating materials.

  19. Adhesive-tape recovery combined with molecular and microscopic testing for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on experimentally contaminated fresh produce and a food preparation surface.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica; Macarisin, Dumitru; Bauchan, Gary

    2013-04-01

    A proof of concept study was conducted to determine if transparent double-sided adhesive tape could be used to recover and detect [by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA)] Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on fresh produce and on a food preparation surface. Oocysts were applied on the surface of ten apples, ten peaches, eight cucumbers, and eight tomatoes within circles drawn with a permanent marker. Approximately 18 h later, skin excised from three uncontaminated and three contaminated circles from each piece of produce was subjected to PCR. Pieces of transparent double-sided adhesive tape were lightly pressed onto the surface of three other contaminated circles and examined by PCR. Other pieces of adhesive tape were pressed against the surfaces of three other circles and examined by IFA. At concentrations of 100 and 50 oocysts per circle, every produce item examined by PCR of contaminated excised skin was found positive, and every item examined by adhesive tape subjected to PCR and IFA was found positive, except one. At ten oocysts per circle, every produce item was found positive by PCR of contaminated excised skin, and all apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes were found positive by adhesive tape subjected to IFA. Detection of low numbers of oocysts on peaches by IFA examination of adhesive tape was problematic because trichomes that cover peaches and impart the fuzzy surface partially restrict the tape from reaching some areas where oocysts adhere. Tape combined with IFA was successful in recovering and identifying oocysts from six areas of laminate countertop where the oocysts had been applied and allowed to dry for 30-60 min. These are the first findings to demonstrate that adhesive tape can be used to recover and identify a protozoan parasite from fresh produce and from a laminate food preparation surface.

  20. The high water solubility of inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD prepared and characterized by the emulsion solvent evaporation and the freeze drying combination method.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Wu, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiuhua; Li, Yong; Zhong, Chen; Zhang, Yin

    2014-12-30

    This study selected γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) as the inclusion material and prepared inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD by the emulsion solvent evaporation and the freeze drying combination method to achieve the improvement of the solubility and oral bioavailability of taxifolin. We selected ethyl acetate as the oil phase, deionized water as the water phase. The taxifolin emulsion was prepared using adjustable speed homogenate machine in the process of this experiment, whose particle size was related to the concentration of taxifolin solution, the volume ratio of water phase to oil phase, the speed and time of homogenate. We knew through the single-factor test that, the optimum conditions were: the concentration of taxifolin solution was 40 mg/ml, the volume ratio of water phase to oil phase was 1.5, the speed of homogenate was 5,000 rpm, the homogenate time was 11 min. Taxifolin emulsion with a MPS of 142.5 nm was obtained under the optimum conditions, then the high-concentration taxifolin solution (3mg/ml) was obtained by the rotary evaporation process. Finally, the inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD was prepared by vacuum freeze-dry. The characteristics of the inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD were analyzed using SEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, and TG. The FTIR results analyzed the interaction of taxifolin and γ-CD and determined the molecular structure of the inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD. The analysis results of XRD, DSC and TG indicated that the inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD was obtained and showed significantly different characteristics with taxifolin. In addition, dissolving capability test, antioxidant capacity test, solvent residue test were also carried out. The experimental datas showed that the solubility of inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD at 25°C and 37°C were about 18.5 times and 19.8 times of raw taxifolin, the dissolution rate of inclusion complex of taxifolin-γ-CD were about 2.84 times of raw taxifolin, the bioavailability of

  1. The preparation of a new self-made microbubble-loading urokinase and its thrombolysis combined with low-frequency ultrasound in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ya-Wen; Jing, Bo-Bin; Li, Ying-Xue; Liao, Yi-Ran; Kang, Xiao-Ning; Zang, Wei-Jin; Wang, Bing

    2011-11-01

    Urokinase (uPA) is used widely for thrombosis therapy in the clinic. However, ways to minimize its adverse effect of hemorrhage are still being studied. As a new technique for the local delivery of genes and drugs, ultrasound (US) contrast agents, microbubbles (MBs), have been mentioned. The purpose of this study is to explore a more efficacious and safer thrombolytic method by preparing three groups of self-made microbubble-loading uPA (uPA-MBs) (1 uPA-MBs, 5 uPA-MBs and 10 uPA-MBs) using freeze-drying methods and measuring their thrombolysis when combined in vitro with low-frequency US. The results showed the mean concentration, mean diameter, pH value and encapsulation efficiency of uPA of the three groups of uPA-MBs were approximately 2.08-2.82 × 10(8)/mL, ∼3.13 μm, 6.89-6.99 and from (78.08% ± 0.57%) to (57.23% ± 0.94%), respectively. Under US exposure, the loaded uPA demonstrated bioactivity by agarose fibrin plate and in vitro thrombolysis of the three uPA-MBs also showed higher effects than in the group of those who received uPA-MBs alone, the control group or the US group. In conclusion, the physiochemical properties of these self-made uPA-MBs are suitable for intravenous administration but 1 uPA-MB and 5 uPA-MBs are better than 10 uPA-MBs. uPA-MBs combined with US can decrease the in vitro dosage of uPA for thrombolysis.

  2. Combinative application of pH-zone-refining and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for preparative separation of caged polyprenylated xanthones from gamboge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Baojun; Tan, Hongsheng; Xiu, Yanfeng; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-02-01

    An efficient method for the preparative separation of four structurally similar caged xanthones from the crude extracts of gamboge was established, which involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for the first time. pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was performed with the solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (7:3:8:2, v/v/v/v), where 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was added to the upper organic stationary phase as a retainer and 0.03% triethylamine was added to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. From 3.157 g of the crude extract, 1.134 g of gambogic acid, 180.5 mg of gambogenic acid and 572.9 mg of a mixture of two other caged polyprenylated xanthones were obtained. The mixture was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography with a solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:10:5, v/v/v/v) and n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (8:2:6:4,v/v/v/v), yielding 11.6 mg of isogambogenic acid and 10.4 mg of β-morellic acid from 218.0 mg of the mixture, respectively. The purities of all four of the compounds were over 95%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the chemical structures of the four compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The combinative application of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography shows great advantages in isolating and enriching the caged polyprenylated xanthones.

  3. Ordered silicon nanowire arrays prepared by an improved nanospheres self-assembly in combination with Ag-assisted wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guobin; Westphalen, Jasper; Drexler, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Dellith, Jan; Dellith, Andrea; Andrä, Gudrun; Falk, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    An improved Langmuir-Blodgett self-assembly process combined with Ag-assisted wet chemical etching for the preparation of ordered silicon nanowire arrays is presented in this paper. The new process is independent of the surface conditions (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) of the substrate, allowing for depositing a monolayer of closely packed polystyrene nanospheres onto any flat surface. A full control of the morphology of the silicon nanowire is achieved. Furthermore, it is observed that the formation of porous-Si at the tips of the nanowires is closely related to the release of Ag nanoparticles from the Ag mask during the etching, which subsequently redeposit on the surface initially free of Ag, and these Ag nanoparticles catalyze the etching of the tips and lead to the porous-Si formation. This finding will help to improve the resulting nano- and microstructures to get them free of pores, and renders it a promising technology for low-cost high throughput fabrication of specific optical devices, photonic crystals, sensors, MEMS, and NEMS by substituting the costly BOSCH process. It is shown that ordered nanowire arrays free of porous structures can be produced if all sources of Ag nanoparticles are excluded, and structures with aspect ratio more than 100 can be produced.

  4. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Yang, Hsi-Wen; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h.

  5. Combined application of macroporous resin and high speed counter-current chromatography for preparative separation of three flavonoid triglycosides from the leaves of Actinidia valvata Dunn.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liping; Xin, Hailiang; Su, Yonghua; Zheng, Guoyin; Ling, Changquan

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the combined techniques of macroporous resin column chromatography and high speed counter-current chromatography were applied for preparative separation of flavonoid triglycosides from the leaves of Actinidia valvata Dunn, a famous Chinese medicinal herb. Twelve kinds of macroporous resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests. HPD-300 resin showed the maximum effectiveness and thus was selected for the first cleaning-up, in which 20% ethanol was used to remove the undesired constituents and 60% ethanol to elute the targets. The crude extract was then purified by high speed counter-current chromatography with the solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3 and 4:1:5, v/v). Three flavonoid triglycosides, namely, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-(4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-(2,4-di-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside, were obtained. The purities of the separated compounds were all over 95% as determined by HPLC area normalization method. Their chemical structures were confirmed by UV, MS, NMR, and the standards.

  6. Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David; Kranbuehl, David; Espuche, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors. PMID:28335316

  7. Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David; Kranbuehl, David; Espuche, Eliane

    2016-10-18

    This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors.

  8. Effect of combined ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment on enzymatic preparation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from native collagenous materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhao; Ma, Liang; Cai, Luyun; Liu, Yi; Li, Jianrong

    2017-05-01

    The combined effect of ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment for the hydrolysis of native collagenous materials and release of ACE inhibitory peptides was investigated. The ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment of pig skin could accelerate the release of the ACE inhibitory peptides from the triple helix of collagen in early stages of hydrolysis. Furthermore, the pretreatment could also accelerate collapse of the triple helix and release more ACE inhibitory peptides during hydrolysis than collagen samples left untreated. Compared to untreated and alkali pretreated samples, the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could decrease the thermostability of pig skin significantly (P<0.05) because the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could weaken hydrogen bonds and break parts of covalent bonds in collagen, leading to damage of the triple helical structure in collagen. Therefore, the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could damage the triple helical structure of collagen in native collagenous materials and expose more inner sites for subsequent hydrolysis, and it could be a potential way to prepare ACE inhibitory peptides effectively from collagen-rich raw material.

  9. Preparation of a new composite combining strengthened β-tricalcium phosphate with platelet-rich plasma as a potential scaffold for the repair of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHENGGONG; ZHONG, DA; ZHOU, XING; YIN, KE; LIAO, QIANDE; KONG, LINGYU; LIU, ANSONG

    2014-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are commonly used in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, a new composite combining strengthened β-TCP and PRP was prepared and its morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and material testing. The biocompatibility was evaluated by measuring the adhesion rate and cytotoxicity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite had an appearance like the fungus Boletus kermesinus with the PRP gel distributed on the surface of the micropores. The maximum load and load intensity were 945.6±86.4 N and 13.1±0.5 MPa, which were significantly higher than those of β-TCP (110.1±14.3 N and 1.6±0.2 MPa; P<0.05). The BMSC adhesion rate on the strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite was >96% after 24 h, with a cell cytotoxicity value of zero. SEM micrographs revealed that following seeding of BMSCs onto the composite in high-glucose Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium culture for two weeks, the cells grew well and exhibited fusiform, spherical and polygonal morphologies, as well as pseudopodial connections. The strengthened β-TCP/PRP composite has the potential to be used as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering due to its effective biocompatibility and mechanical properties. PMID:25187800

  10. Recent development of single preparations and fixed-dose combination tablets for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus : A comprehensive summary for antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwen; Lian, He

    2016-06-01

    As a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) has become a major threat to human health. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive disorders induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, the treatment of NIDDM is still challenging. Although antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action have been used clinically, different degrees of undesirable glucose control and the incidences of a variety of side effects, including hypoglycemia, cardiovascular complications and weight gain require the better treatment options. This article has overviewed the current literature about commercially available antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action in the treatment of NIDDM, and summarized the published data regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of currently available single preparations and fixed-dose combinations, aiming to provide important information for the development and application of antidiabetic drugs in the future. The literature search from 1989 to 2015 was conducted by PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, American Diabetes Association, and U.S. FDA Drugs databases.

  11. A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. H.; Tu, J. P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, W. K.; Huang, H.

    2008-11-01

    A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO4+1 mM HClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively.

  12. CH3NH3PbI3 films prepared by combining 1- and 2-step deposition: how crystal growth conditions affect properties.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Chen, Mu; Whittaker, Eric; Hamilton, Bruce; Aristidou, Nicholas; Ramadan, Simko; Gholinia, Ali; Haque, Saif A; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2017-02-24

    Perovskite solar cells continue to attract strong attention because of their unprecedented rate of power conversion efficiency increase. CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) is the most widely studied perovskite. Typically one-step (1-s) or two-step (2-s) deposition methods are used to prepare MAPbI3 films. Here, we investigate a new MAPbI3 film formation method that combines 1-s and 2-s deposition (termed 1 & 2-s) and uses systematic variation of the stoichiometric mole ratio (x) for the PbI2 + xMAI solutions employed. The PbI2 + xMAI solutions were used to deposit precursor films that were subsequently dipped in MAI solution as a second step to produce the final MAPbI3 films. The morphologies of the 1 & 2-s MAPbI3 films consisted of three crystal types: tree-like microcrystals (≫1 μm), cuboid meso-crystals (∼0.1-1 μm) and nanocrystals (∼50-80 nm). Each crystal type and their proportions were controlled by the value for x. The new 1 & 2-s deposition method produced MAPbI3 films with tuneable optoelectronic properties that were related to those for the conventional 1-s and 2-s films. However, the 1 & 2-s film properties were not simply a combination of those for the 1-s and 2-s films. The 1 & 2-s films showed enhanced light scattering and the photoluminescence spectra displayed a morphologically-dependent red-shift. The unique morphologies for the 1 & 2-s films also strongly influenced PbI2 conversion, power conversion efficiency, hysteresis and recombination. The trends for the performance parameters and hysteresis were compared for devices constructed using spiro-MeOTAD and P3HT and were similar. The 1 & 2-s method should apply to other perovskite formulations and the new insights concerning MAPbI3 crystal growth conditions, morphology and material properties established in this study should also be transferable.

  13. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  14. Individualized Homeopathic Treatment and Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women (HOMDEP-MENOP Study): A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity) were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). Results After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points). Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale. Conclusion Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo

  15. Preparation of Au-Pt nanostructures by combining top-down with bottom-up strategies and application in label-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of NMP22.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongying; Gao, Picheng; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-02-01

    A novel label-free amperometric immunosensor for sensitive detection of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) was developed based on Au-Pt bimetallic nanostructures, which were prepared by combining top-down with bottom-up strategies. Nanoporous gold (NPG) was prepared by "top-down" dealloying of commercial Au/Ag alloy film. After deposition of NPG on an electrode, Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) were further decorated on NPG by "bottom-up" electrodeposition. The prepared bimetallic nanostructures combine the merits of both NPG and PtNPs, and show a high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The label-free immunosensor was constructed by directly immobilizing antibody of NMP22 (anti-NMP22) on the surface of bimetallic nanostructures. The immunoreaction induced amperometric response could be detected and negatively correlated to the concentration of NMP22. Bimetallic nanostructure morphologies and detection conditions were investigated to obtain the best sensing performance. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.01ng/mL to 10ng/mL and a detection limit of 3.33pg/mL were obtained. The proposed immunosensor showed high sensitivity, good selectivity, stability, reproducibility, and regeneration for the detection of NMP22, and it was evaluated in urine samples, receiving satisfactory results.

  16. Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering with dc and rf powers applied in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ohtani, Yuusuke; Miyata, Toshihiro; Kuboi, Takeshi

    2007-07-15

    A newly developed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-film magnetron-sputtering deposition technique that decreases resistivity, improves resistivity distribution, and produces high-rate depositions has been demonstrated by dc magnetron-sputtering depositions that incorporate rf power (dc+rf-MS), either with or without the introduction of H{sub 2} gas into the deposition chamber. The dc+rf-MS preparations were carried out in a pure Ar or an Ar+H{sub 2} (0%-2%) gas atmosphere at a pressure of 0.4 Pa by adding a rf component (13.56 MHz) to a constant dc power of 80 W. The deposition rate in a dc+rf-MS deposition incorporating a rf power of 150 W was approximately 62 nm/min, an increase from the approximately 35 nm/min observed in dc magnetron sputtering with a dc power of 80 W. A resistivity as low as 3x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and an improved resistivity distribution could be obtained in AZO thin films deposited on substrates at a low temperature of 150 deg. C by dc+rf-MS with the introduction of hydrogen gas with a content of 1.5%. This article describes the effects of adding a rf power component (i.e., dc+rf-MS deposition) as well as introducing H{sub 2} gas into dc magnetron-sputtering preparations of transparent conducting AZO thin films.

  17. Preparation of Nanoporous MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by Combined Utilization of Sol-Gel Process and Combustion of Biorenewable Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hörtz, Christian; Ladd, Danielle M.; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particulates with high porosities were successfully prepared from sol-gel reactions, solvent exchange with castor oil and subsequent combustion and calcination at 700 °C. The products were crystalline and semitransparent. Changes in the metal precursor concentrations allowed control of pore volumes from 0.7 to 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore sizes from 14 to 19 nm. The specific surface areas are about 200 m{sup 2}/g regardless of the precursor concentrations. After heating at 1000 °C for 10 hours, the products kept about 70% of their original pore volume and about 60% of the original surface area. Heating at 1100 °C caused a drastic reduction of pore volume and surface area to 40 and 36%, respectively, as the average particle size increased to 23 nm.

  18. Development of sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plants by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction combined with molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Li, Yuanwen; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2011-04-01

    A novel sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plant samples was developed by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) followed by molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure. The method was based on two steps. In the first one, conventional solvent extraction was replaced by VMAE for extraction of auxins from plant tissues. This step provided efficient extraction of 3-indole acetic acid (IAA) from plant with dramatically decreased extraction time, furthermore prevented auxins from degradation by creating a reduced oxygen environment under vacuum condition. In the second step, the raw extract of VMAE was further subjected to a clean-up procedure by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads. Owing to the high molecular recognition ability of the magnetic MIP beads for IAA and 3-indole-butyric acid (IBA), the two target auxins in plants can be selectively enriched and the interfering substance can be eliminated by dealing with a magnetic separation procedure. Both the VMAE and the molecularly imprinted clean-up conditions were investigated. The proposed sample preparation method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatogram and fluorescence detection for determination of IAA and IBA in peas and rice. The detection limits obtained for IAA and IBA were 0.47 and 1.6 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation were 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The IAA contents in pea seeds, pea embryo, pea roots and rice seeds were determined. The recoveries were ranged from 70.0% to 85.6%. The proposed method was also applied to investigate the developmental profiles of IAA concentration in pea seeds and rice seeds during seed germination.

  19. Isolation of α-linolenic acid biohydrogenation products by combined silver ion solid phase extraction and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Meadus, W J; Mapiye, C; Vahmani, P; López-Campos, Ó; Duff, P; Rolland, D C; Church, J S; Dugan, M E R

    2015-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids typically found in cattle feed include linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). In the rumen, microbes metabolize these resulting in the formation of biohydrogenation products (BHP), which can be incorporated into meat and milk. Bioactivities of LA-BHP, including conjugated linoleic acid (cis (c) 9,trans (t) 11-18:2 and t10,c12-18:2) and trans fatty acid isomers (t9-, t10- and t11-18:1) have been investigated, but effects of several BHP unique to ALA have not been extensively studied, and most ALA-BHP are not commercially available. The objective of the present research was to develop methods to purify and collect ALA-BHP using silver ion (Ag(+)) chromatography in sufficient quantities to allow for convenient bioactivity testing in cell culture. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue from a cow enriched with ALA-BHP by feeding flaxseed. These were applied to Ag(+)-solid phase extraction, and eluted with hexane with increasing quantities of acetone (1, 2, 10, 20%) or acetonitrile (2%) to pre-fractionate FAME based on degree of unsaturation and double bond configuration. Fractions were collected, concentrated and applied to semi-preparative Ag(+)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the isolation and collection of purified isomers, which was accomplished using isocratic elutions with hexane containing differing amounts of acetonitrile (from 0.015 to 0.075%). Purified trans-18:1 isomers collected ranged in purity from 88 to 99%. Purity of the ALA-BHP dienes collected, including c9,t13-18:2, t11,c15-18:2 and t10,c15-18:2, exceeded 90%, while purification of other dienes may require the use of other complementary procedures (e.g. reverse phase HPLC).

  20. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  1. Highly efficient proteome analysis with combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing and identification by μRPLC-MS/MS with serially coupled long microcolumn.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dingyin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of proteome analysis, a strategy with the combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing, peptide separation by μRPLC with serially coupled long microcolumn and protein identification by ESI-MS/MS was proposed. By preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing technique, proteins extracted from whole cell lysates of Escherichia coli were fractionated into five chambers divided by isoelectric membranes, respectively with pH range from 3.0 to 4.6, 4.6 to 5.4, 5.4 to 6.2, 6.2 to 7.0 and 7.0 to 10.0. Compared to the traditional on-gel IFF, the protein recovery could be obviously improved to over 95%. Subsequently, the enriched and fractionated proteins in each chamber were digested, and further separated by a 30-cm long serially coupled RP microcolumn. Through the detection by ESI-MS/MS, about 200 proteins were identified in each fraction, and in total 835 proteins were identified even with one-dimensional μRPLC-MS/MS system. All these results demonstrate that by such a combination strategy, highly efficient proteome analysis could be achieved, not only due to the in-solution protein enrichment and pre-fractionation with improved protein recovery but also owing to the increased separation capacity of serially coupled long μRPLC columns.

  2. Optical and structural properties of microcrystalline GaN on an amorphous substrate prepared by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  3. Optical and Structural Properties of Microcrystalline GaN on an Amorphous Substrate Prepared by a Combination of Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  4. Combined Thermochromic And Plasmonic: Optical Responses In Novel Nanocomposite Au-VO{sub 2} Films Prepared By RF Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, J. B. Kana; Ndjaka, J. M.; Manyala, N.; Nemraoui, O.; Beye, A. C.; Maaza, M.

    2008-09-23

    We prepared gold/Vanadium dioxide nanocomposites thin films by the rf reactive inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering (ICMS) for the first time and report their enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) tunable shift reversibility. ICMS has been attracting much attention for its ability for uniform coating of three-dimensional objects and high-rate deposition of dielectric materials. To investigate the optical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in an active matrix (VO{sub 2}) composite film was synthesized on corning glass substrates for several substrate temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 600 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that the Au and VO{sub 2} were well crystallized. The optical transmission properties were measured from 300nm to 1100nm and the absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au nanoparticles were observed. Under external temperature stimuli, the tunable reversibility of the SPR shift was observed when the nanocomposites temperature varies from 20 deg. C to 100 deg. C. The enhancement of this shift of SPR was observed as the substrate temperature increases and it was found that the shift of SPR increased rapidly with increasing substrate temperature but then remained constant at {approx}57 nm for substrate temperature higher than 500 deg. C.

  5. Combined Thermochromic And Plasmonic: Optical Responses In Novel Nanocomposite Au-VO2 Films Prepared By RF Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kana, J. B. Kana; Ndjaka, J. M.; Manyala, N.; Nemraoui, O.; Beye, A. C.; Maaza, M.

    2008-09-01

    We prepared gold/Vanadium dioxide nanocomposites thin films by the rf reactive inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering (ICMS) for the first time and report their enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) tunable shift reversibility. ICMS has been attracting much attention for its ability for uniform coating of three-dimensional objects and high-rate deposition of dielectric materials. To investigate the optical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in an active matrix (VO2) composite film was synthesized on corning glass substrates for several substrate temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C. The X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that the Au and VO2 were well crystallized. The optical transmission properties were measured from 300nm to 1100nm and the absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au nanoparticles were observed. Under external temperature stimuli, the tunable reversibility of the SPR shift was observed when the nanocomposites temperature varies from 20 °C to 100 °C. The enhancement of this shift of SPR was observed as the substrate temperature increases and it was found that the shift of SPR increased rapidly with increasing substrate temperature but then remained constant at ˜57 nm for substrate temperature higher than 500 °C.

  6. Comparative study on the acceptability of two modern monophasic oral contraceptive preparations: 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined with 150 microgram desogestrel or 75 microgram gestodene.

    PubMed

    Zichella, L; Sbrignadello, C; Tomassini, A; Di Lieto, A; Montoneri, C; Zarbo, G; Mancone, M; Pietrobattista, P; Bertoli, G; Perrone, G

    1999-01-01

    Cycle control and tolerability of two monophasic oral contraceptive pills containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with either 150 microg desogestrel (DSG) or 75 microg gestodene (GSD) were compared in women starting oral contraception. A minimum of 200 healthy women at risk for pregnancy were to be treated for a total of 6 cycles per patient in a prospective, randomized open parallel-group multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized, 115 to DSG/EE and 126 to GSD/EE. Compliance to the study preparation was high (around 95%) in both groups and no pregnancies occurred during the study. Cycle control was excellent; there were no differences between the two groups with regard to incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding or duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeding. Side-effects were mild and in general comparable in the two groups. Both at baseline and during treatment, a higher proportion of women taking GSD/EE complained about breast tenderness. This resulted in more early withdrawals because of breast tenderness in the GSD/EE group. It was concluded that monophasic DSG/EE and GSD/EE are equally effective, have similar cycle control and both are generally well tolerated.

  7. Preparation and selective recognition of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber combined with molecularly imprinted polymers for the extraction of parabens in soy sample.

    PubMed

    He, Juan; Chen, Si; Jiang, Yili; Shen, Yanzheng; Zhu, Jing; Wei, Hongliang; Zhang, Hongxia; Lu, Kui

    2012-01-01

    A prepared molecularly imprinted polymer with ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate as template molecule was applied for the first time to a homemade solid-phase microextraction fiber. The molecularly imprinted polymer-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Various parameters were investigated, including extraction temperature, extraction time, and desorption time. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the molecularly imprinted polymer-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber exhibited higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward parabens compared with the nonimprinted polymer-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber and commercial fibers. The molecularly imprinted polymer-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber was tested using gas chromatography to determine parabens, including methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate, and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate. The linear ranges were 0.01-10 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient above 0.9943. The detection limits (under signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were below 0.30 μg/L. The fiber was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of three parabens in spiked soy samples with satisfactory recoveries of 95.48, 97.86, and 92.17%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=6) were within 2.83-3.91%. The proposed molecularly imprinted polymer-coated solid-phase microextraction method is suitable for selective extraction and determination of trace parabens in food samples.

  8. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of a freeze-dried formulation of a novel combined multivalent whole-cell/B-subunit oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Borde, Annika; Ekman, Annelie; Larsson, Anette; Carlin, Nils; Holmgren, Jan; Tobias, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    A promising liquid killed multivalent whole-cell plus enterotoxin B-subunit oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the primary cause of diarrhea among children in low-income countries and travelers to these areas, has recently been developed and tested in preclinical and phase-I and phase-II clinical studies. The vaccine contains killed E. coli bacteria over-expressing the main ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CFA/I, CS3, C5 and C6, and a recombinant enterotoxin B subunit protein (LCTBA) given together with a recently developed enterotoxin-derived adjuvant, dmLT. A dry-powder vaccine formulation should be advantageous especially for use in low-income countries. Here we describe a method to produce a dry-powder formulation by freeze-drying of the vaccine using inulin as stabilizer. Although not completely preventing aggregation of bacteria during freeze-drying, the stabilizer provided both improved overall bacterial morphology and almost complete recovery of the CF and B subunit antigens. Most importantly, oral-intragastric immunization of mice with the freeze-dried vaccine together with dmLT adjuvant elicited strong intestinal mucosal and serum antibody responses against all vaccine antigens, which were comparable to those achieved with the liquid vaccine. Our results indicate the feasibility to use freeze-drying with inulin as stabilizer for preparing a dry-powder formulation of the novel ETEC vaccine with retained oral-mucosal immunogenicity compared to the liquid formulation.

  9. Preparation and improved photocatalytic activity of mesoporous WS{sub 2} using combined hydrothermal-evaporation induced self-assembly method

    SciTech Connect

    Vattikuti, S.V. Prabhakar Byon, Chan Reddy, Ch. Venkata

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • One-step method for synthesis of mesoporous WS{sub 2} was proposed. • Role of CTAB surfactant on formation of mesoporous WS{sub 2} was elucidated. • Possible growth mechanism of the mesoporous structure is also reported. • 0.1 wt% mesoporous WS{sub 2} catalyst exhibited high photocatalytic activity under UV light. - Abstract: In this paper, we report mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a crystalline network that were synthesized using CTAB as a structure-directing agent via self-assembly induced by hydrothermal and thermal evaporation. Powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of WS{sub 2} structures. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the as-prepared mesoporous frameworks. The mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets have a surface area of 197 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. A possible growth mechanism is reported for these mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets. The mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets demonstrate high photocatalytic activity. Among different concentrations, 0.1 wt% mesoporous WS{sub 2} shows superior catalytic activity compared to pristine WS{sub 2} nanosheets.

  10. Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xin; He Junhui

    2009-06-03

    Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

  11. Development of HPTLC-UV absorption densitometry method for the analysis of alprazolam and sertraline in combination and its application in the evaluation of marketed preparations.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, K; Venisetty, R K; Yellu, N R; Keshetty, S; Pai, M G

    2007-09-01

    A new simple, sensitive, and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the estimation of alprazolam and sertraline in combination is developed using silica gel plates with fluorescent indicators. The system is equipped with an automated sample applicator, and the detection was performed at 254 nm by using UV absorption densitometry. The mobile phase consists of carbon tetrachloride, methanol, acetone, and ammonia in the ratio 12:3:5:0.1. The retention factor values for alprazolam and sertraline are found to be 0.52 and 0.70, respectively. The limit of detection of alprazolam and sertraline in the mixture of given proportion is observed to be 0.05 microg/mL and 2.5 microg/mL and the limit of quantitation is 0.2 microg/mL and 10 microg/mL, respectively. The method has shown good linearity in the range of 0.2 microg/mL to 0.65 pg/mL for alprazolam (R2 > 0.9953) and 10 pg/mL to 32.5 microg/mL for sertraline (R2 > 0.9942). The intra- and inter-assay (n=5) variations in the linear range are less than 4% for alprazolam and 6% for sertraline. Three pharmaceutical products containing this combination are analyzed to test the applicability of the new method. The percentage of alprazolam and sertraline in the tablets studied range from 97.7% to 102.82% and 96.5% to 99.9%, respectively.

  12. The study on the preparation and characterization of gene-loaded immunomagnetic albumin nanospheres and their anti-cell proliferative effect combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on GLC-82 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Hou, Xinxin; Lin, Mei; Wang, Ling; Li, Hongbo; Yuan, Chenyan; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most common malignant tumors, the clinical and socio-economic consequences of lung cancer are significant. Currently, surgery is the main treatment strategy for this disease, but the survival rates of lung cancer patients are not ideal due to the high recurrence rate of the disease. Therefore, many researchers are exploring new specific therapeutic methods that are highly curative and minimally cytotoxic to healthy tissues. To this end, albumin nanospheres simultaneously were loaded with super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (as gene vector and anticancer gene), and plasmid pDONR223-IFNG, and modified with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab as therapy. Targeting agents, namely gene-loaded immunomagnetic albumin nanospheres (cetuximab [C225]-IFNG-IMANS), were prepared for targeted lung carcinoma cells (GLC-82 cell lines). Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the C225-IFNG-IMANS were successfully prepared, and the ability of the nanospheres to target GLC-82 cells in vitro was confirmed by Prussian blue staining, immunofluorescence experiments, and magnetic resonance imaging. Transfection photographs and agarose gel electrophoresis proved that pDONR223-IFNG could be encased in the albumin nanospheres. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that the combination therapy group had significantly more therapeutic effects on GLC-82 cells than other therapy groups. A flow cytometry assay showed that the apoptotic index of the combined treatment group was 67.68%, whereas the indices of the C225 group, gene therapy group, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia group were 12.2%, 16.34%, and 20.04% respectively. Therefore, the combination of thermal treatment, molecular targeted treatment, and gene treatment synergistically targets GLC-82 cells, and the use of C225-IFNG-IMANS as a gene or drug carrier offers a novel and promising approach for the treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Radiolabeled Antibody Recruiting Small Molecules That Target Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for Combined Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Genady, Afaf R; Janzen, Nancy; Banevicius, Laura; El-Gamal, Mahmoud; El-Zaria, Mohamed E; Valliant, John F

    2016-03-24

    The feasibility of developing a single agent that can deliver radioactive iodine and also direct cellular immune function by engaging endogenous antibodies as an antibody-recruiting small molecule (ARM) was determined. A library of new prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-binding ligands that contained antibody-recruiting 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) groups and iodine were synthesized and screened in vitro and in vivo. A lead compound (9b) showed high affinity for PSMA and the ability to bind anti-DNP antibodies. Biodistribution studies of the iodine-125 analogue showed 3% ID/g in LNCaP xenograft tumors at 1 h postinjection with tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 10:1 and 44:1, respectively. The radiolabeled analogue was bound and internalized by LNCaP cells, with both functions blocked using a known PSMA inhibitor. A second candidate showed high tumor uptake (>10% ID/g) but had minimal binding to anti-DNP antibodies. The compounds reported represent the first examples of small molecules developed specifically for combination immunotherapy and radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  14. Honeycomb Films with Core-Shell Dispersed Phases Prepared by the Combination of Breath Figures and Phase Separation Process of Ternary Blends.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, A; de León, A S; Rodríguez-Hernández, J; Muñoz-Bonilla, A

    2017-03-21

    Herein, we propose a strategy to fabricate core-shell microstructures ordered in hexagonal arrays by combining the breath figures approach and phase separation of immiscible ternary blends. This simple strategy to fabricate these structures involves only the solvent casting of a ternary polymer blend under moist atmosphere, which provides a facile and low-cost fabrication method to obtain the porous structures with a core-shell morphology. For this purpose, blends consisting of polystyrene (PS) as a major component and PS40-b-P(PEGMA300)48 amphiphilic copolymer and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as minor components were dissolved in tetrahydrofuran and cast onto glass wafers under humid conditions, 70% of relative humidity. The resulting porous morphologies were characterized by optical and confocal Raman microscopy. In particular, confocal Raman results demonstrated the formation of core-shell morphologies into the ordered pores, in which the PS forms the continuous matrix, whereas the other two phases are located into the cavities (PDMS is the core while the amphiphilic copolymer is the shell). Besides, by controlling the weight ratio of the polymer blends, the structural parameters of the porous structure such as pore diameter and the size of the core can be effectively tuned.

  15. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  16. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%.

  17. Preparation of high-quality colloidal mask for nanosphere lithography by a combination of air/water interface self-assembly and solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Geng, Chong; Zheng, Lu; Ma, Zhaohui; Tan, Tianya; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yan, Qingfeng; Shen, Dezhong

    2012-08-28

    Nanosphere lithography (NSL) has been regarded as an inexpensive, inherently parallel, high-throughput, materials-general approach to the fabrication of nanoparticle arrays. However, the order of the resulting nanoparticle array is essentially dependent on the quality of the colloidal monolayer mask. Furthermore, the lateral feature size of the nanoparticles created using NSL is coupled with the diameter of the colloidal spheres, which makes it inconvenient for studying the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles. In this work, we demonstrate a facile approach to the fabrication of a large-area, transferrable, high-quality latex colloidal mask for nanosphere lithography. The approach is based on a combination of the air/water interface self-assembly method and the solvent-vapor-annealing technique. It enables the fabrication of colloidal masks with a higher crystalline integrity compared to those produced by other strategies. By manipulating the diameter of the colloidal spheres and precisely tuning the solvent-vapor-annealing process, flexible control of the size, shape, and spacing of the interstice in a colloidal mask can be realized, which may facilitate the broad use of NSL in studying the size-, shape-, and period-dependent optical, magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties of nanomaterials.

  18. Influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of SnS2 films prepared by PECVD method combined with solid sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengming; Wang, Shicai; Chen, Junfeng; Liu, Pei; Chen, Ming; Xiong, Hao; Guo, Fu; Liu, Minghai

    2014-09-01

    Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method combined with solid sources, in which SnCl4·5H2O and Na2S2O3 were used as the tin and sulfur sources, respectively. Nano-sheet and nano-flower structure SnS2 films were obtained under different experimental conditions. The nano-sheet SnS2 films were built by irregular nanoplates with 400 ± 100 nm in length and 10 nm in thickness. And the nano-flower SnS2 films consisted of uniform nano-flowers in size with the diameter being around 1 μm. The influence of different substrates, the annealing treatment and the substrate temperature on the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties of the SnS2 films were systemically discussed. The results show that the crystal structure and surface morphology have some differences in the films deposited on different substrates. After annealing treatment, the crystallinity of the SnS2 films increases, and at the same time, the internal stress reduces. However, there is no change in the stress direction. The surface morphology of the films turns into nano-flower from nano-sheet when the substrate temperature increases. The corresponding optical band gaps of the films are 2.68, 2.86, and 2.95 eV, which all show significant blue shift mainly due to the quantum confinement effect.

  19. Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining

    2014-09-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  20. Apprentice Preparation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Donna; And Others

    An apprenticeship preparation program was conducted at Arctic College, Eskimo Point, Northwest Territories, Canada, to overcome young people's educational limitations by offering professional training in a vocational area followed by a combination of work experience and academic upgrading. The academic upgrading stressed computer-assisted…

  1. Preparation of porous aromatic framework/ionic liquid hybrid composite coated solid-phase microextraction fibers and their application in the determination of organochlorine pesticides combined with GC-ECD detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingxue; Chen, Gang; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Weihong; Jia, Qiong

    2016-01-07

    A novel hybrid material incorporating porous aromatic frameworks and an ionic liquid, 1-(triethoxy silyl)propyl-3-aminopropyl imidazole hexafluorophosphate, was prepared as solid-phase microextraction coating and employed for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides. Combining the advantages of porous aromatic frameworks and an ionic liquid, the fiber exhibited a high adsorption capacity for organochlorine pesticides. Under optimized experimental conditions, enhancement factors of 247-1696 were obtained with good linearity in the range of 1-500 μg L(-1). The detection limits and quantification limits were determined to be in the range of 0.11-0.29 μg L(-1) and 0.35-0.93 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations for six replicates of organochlorine pesticides were in the range of 4.4%-7.2% and 5.7%-10.1% for one fiber and fiber-to-fiber, respectively. By coupling with a gas chromatography-electron capture detector, the novel fiber was successfully used for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in juice and milk samples with recoveries of 76.1%-121.3%.

  2. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  3. Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of a combination delivery system based on hyaluronic acid/jeffamine hydrogel loaded with PHBV/PLGA blend nanoparticles for prolonged delivery of Teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Bahari Javan, Nika; Montazeri, Hamed; Rezaie Shirmard, Leila; Jafary Omid, Nersi; Barbari, Ghullam Reza; Amini, Mohsen; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid

    2017-04-01

    In the current study, biodegradable PHBV/PLGA blend nanoparticles (NPs) containing Teriparatide were loaded in hyaluronic acid/jeffamine (HA-JEF ED-600) hydrogel to prepare a combination delivery system (CDS) for prolonged delivery of Teriparatide. The principal purpose of the present study was to formulate an effective and prolonged Teriparatide delivery system in order to reduce the frequency of injection and thus enhance patient's compliance. Morphological properties, swelling behaviour, crosslinking efficiency and rheological characterization of HA-JEF ED-600 hydrogel were evaluated. The CDS was acquired by adding PHBV/PLGA NPs to HA-JEF ED-600 hydrogel simultaneously with crosslinking reaction. The percentage of NPs incorporation within the hydrogel as well as the loading capacity and morphology of Teriparatide loaded CDS were examined. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that Teriparatide remains stable after processing. The release profile represented 63% Teriparatide release from CDS within 50days with lower burst release compared to NPs and hydrogel. MTT assay was conducted by using NIH3T3 cell line and no sign of reduction in cell viability was observed. Based on Miller and Tainter method, LD50 of Teriparatide loaded CDS was 131.8mg/kg. In vivo studies demonstrated that Teriparatide loaded CDS could effectively increase serum calcium level after subcutaneous injection in mice. Favourable results in the current study introduced CDS as a promising candidate for controlled delivery of Teriparatide and pave the way for future investigations in the field of designing prolonged delivery systems for other peptides and proteins.

  4. Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In "Orange Juice or Orange Drink?," the authors provided evidence that many students are receiving credit for courses with little indication that they have learned the content implied by the course titles (Dougherty, Mellor, & Jian, 2006). Yet in pursuit of the goal of preparing all students for college and careers, many policymakers…

  5. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    PubMed

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  6. Bowel Preparation before Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anjali S.; Kelleher, Deirdre C.; Sigle, Gavin W.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical bowel preps were initially thought to decrease the bacterial load of the colon and therefore decrease infection. Traditional bowel preps include osmotic, laxative, and combination regimen. Data demonstrate that mechanical bowel preps are generally equivalent; however, the addition of oral antibiotics may further reduce the risk of infection. Recent data suggest that mechanical bowel preparations may not be necessary, and that dietary restrictions before surgery may also be obsolete. In this review, the authors address the types of mechanical bowel preparations (MBPs), differences in outcomes between MBPs, the role of oral antibiosis and enemas, the benefits of no MBP, and dietary preparations for elective colon and rectal surgery. PMID:24436665

  7. Fine-sized LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders prepared by combined process of gas-phase reaction and solid-state reaction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    The Ni-rich precursor powders with spherical shape and filled morphologies were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solution with citric acid, ethylene glycol and a drying control chemical additive. The precursor powders with controlled morphologies formed the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size by solid-state reaction with lithium hydroxide. However, the cathode powders prepared from the spray solution without additives had irregular morphologies and were large in size. The precursor powders with hollow and porous morphologies formed cathode powders with irregular and aggregated morphologies. The composition ratios of the nickel, cobalt and manganese components were maintained in the as-prepared, precursor and cathode powders. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size tested at a temperature of 55 °C under a constant current density of 0.5 C was 215 mAh g -1. The discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders decreased to 81% of the initial value after 30 cycles.

  8. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  9. Determination of chemical oxygen demand in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples using a novel method combining solid dilutions as a preparation step followed by optimized closed reflux and colorimetric measurement.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Arias, Joan; Rodríguez-Abalde, Angela; Romero-Merino, Eva; Flotats, Xavier

    2012-07-03

    This paper reports the development of an innovative sample preparation method for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples, with high suspended solids and COD concentrations, using an optimized closed reflux colorimetric method. The novel method, named solid dilution (SD), is based on a different technique of sample preparation, diluting the sample with magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) previous to COD determination. With this, it is possible to obtain a solid homogeneous mixture much more easily analyzable. Besides, a modification of concentration and ratio of reagents was optimized to make the closed reflux colorimetric method suitable for complex substrates with COD levels ranging from 5 to 2500 g O(2) kg(-1) TS. The optimized method has been tested with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) as primary solid standard and using different solid or semiliquid substrates like pig slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge, among others. Finally, the optimized method (SD/SM-CRC) was intensively tested in comparison to the standard titrimetric method (SM-ORT) using different certified reference materials (CRM). The developed method was found to give higher accuracy, 1.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs 10.4%, and bias of 2.8% vs 8.0%, in comparison to the standard open reflux titrimetric method.

  10. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-04-29

    A process for the preparation of gas oil from residual oils by combination of two stages of thermal cracking, cyclone separation, vacuum distillation, deasphalting, atmospheric distillation, and recycling of certain streams.

  11. High throughput sample preparation in combination with gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS): a smart procedure for (ultra)trace analysis of brominated flame retardants in fish.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Kamila; Cajka, Tomas; Sandy, Chris; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana

    2013-02-15

    In this study, gas chromatography (GC) coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) operated in electron ionisation mode (EI) has been shown to be an effective tool for the (ultra)trace analysis of several representative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), etc. in complex food and environmental matrices. Using this type of instrumentation, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the instrumental analysis was achieved. In addition to GC-MS/MS (EI), a GC-MS method employing QqQ as a single quadrupole in negative chemical ionisation (NCI) mode was also developed, as this technique might be preferred for those compounds where EI did not provide suitable (intensive enough) mass transitions (e.g., decabromodiphenyl ethane). Following the development of the GC-MS/MS method, a substantial simplification of the sample preparation method was achieved by employing an ethyl acetate QuEChERS-based extraction followed by silica minicolumn clean-up. Using this novel approach, six samples may be prepared in approx. one hour, thus significant time savings were achieved compared to routinely used methods. In addition, the method employs the reduced amounts of organic solvent and other chemicals. Under the optimised conditions, recoveries of all target analytes using both GC-MS/MS (EI) and GC-MS (NCI) were within the range of 70-119% and repeatabilities of the analytical procedure were ≤ 16% at all three spiking levels (0.1, 1 and 5 μg kg(-1)). Regarding quantification limits (LOQs), as expected, a single quadruple operated in NCI provided significantly lower LOQs compared to EI. However, using the triple quadrupole mass analyser, comparable LOQs were achieved for both methods (0.005-1 μg kg(-1) and 0.005-0.1 μg kg(-1) for GC-MS/MS (EI) and GC-MS (NCI), respectively). Moreover, when highly selective mass transitions in GC-MS/MS (EI) were used for

  12. Preparation of nanostructured La0.7Ca0.3-xBaxMnO3 ceramics by a combined sol-gel and spark plasma sintering route and resulting magnetocaloric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, F.; Regaieg, Y.; Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A.; Lecoq, H.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Sicard, L.

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes an original, easy to achieve and inexpensive route to synthesize manganite ceramics for magnetic refrigeration, combining sol-gel chemistry to Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The target La0.7Ca0.3-xBaxMnO3 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds are obtained as single phases which crystallize in the orthorhombic structure (Pnma space group). SPS allows a quick sintering at a relatively low temperature (700 °C in this work) compared to the conventional solid state method (≥1100 °C), leading to densified ultrafine grained pellets (85% of compactness). Magnetic studies show that Ba substitution does not affect significantly the relative cooling power (RCP) of these manganites, while it increases their Curie temperature (TC) by several tens of degrees. Typically, RCP values ranging between 267 and 270 J/kg (for a magnetic field change of 5 T) and TC between 205 and 245 K were measured when x was increased from 0 to 0.2, respectively. These results combined to the fact that the synthesis route is economically advantageous makes the obtained ceramics interesting as active refrigerants for magnetic refrigeration technology below room temperature.

  13. The S228P Mutation Prevents in Vivo and in Vitro IgG4 Fab-arm Exchange as Demonstrated using a Combination of Novel Quantitative Immunoassays and Physiological Matrix Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, John-Paul; Vetterlein, Olivia; Jose, Joby; Peters, Shirley; Kirby, Hishani

    2015-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin G isotype 4 (IgG4) antibodies (Abs) are potential candidates for immunotherapy when reduced effector functions are desirable. IgG4 Abs are dynamic molecules able to undergo a process known as Fab arm exchange (FAE). This results in functionally monovalent, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) with unknown specificity and hence, potentially, reduced therapeutic efficacy. IgG4 FAE is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 Abs. To date, the mechanism of FAE is not entirely understood and studies measuring FAE in ex vivo matrices have been hampered by the presence and abundance of endogenous IgG4 wild-type (WT) Abs. Using representative humanized WT IgG4 monoclonal Abs, namely, anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF, and a core-hinge stabilized serine 228 to proline (S228P) anti-IL-6 IgG4 mutant, it is demonstrated for the first time how anti-IgG4 affinity chromatography can be used to prepare physiologically relevant matrices for assessing and quantifying FAE. A novel method for quantifying FAE using a single MSD immunoassay is also reported and confirms previous findings that, dependent on the redox conditions, the S228P mutation can prevent IgG4 FAE to undetectable levels both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the findings and novel methodologies will allow researchers to monitor and quantify FAE of their own IgG4 molecules in physiologically relevant matrices. PMID:25568323

  14. The S228P mutation prevents in vivo and in vitro IgG4 Fab-arm exchange as demonstrated using a combination of novel quantitative immunoassays and physiological matrix preparation.

    PubMed

    Silva, John-Paul; Vetterlein, Olivia; Jose, Joby; Peters, Shirley; Kirby, Hishani

    2015-02-27

    Human immunoglobulin G isotype 4 (IgG4) antibodies (Abs) are potential candidates for immunotherapy when reduced effector functions are desirable. IgG4 Abs are dynamic molecules able to undergo a process known as Fab arm exchange (FAE). This results in functionally monovalent, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) with unknown specificity and hence, potentially, reduced therapeutic efficacy. IgG4 FAE is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 Abs. To date, the mechanism of FAE is not entirely understood and studies measuring FAE in ex vivo matrices have been hampered by the presence and abundance of endogenous IgG4 wild-type (WT) Abs. Using representative humanized WT IgG4 monoclonal Abs, namely, anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF, and a core-hinge stabilized serine 228 to proline (S228P) anti-IL-6 IgG4 mutant, it is demonstrated for the first time how anti-IgG4 affinity chromatography can be used to prepare physiologically relevant matrices for assessing and quantifying FAE. A novel method for quantifying FAE using a single MSD immunoassay is also reported and confirms previous findings that, dependent on the redox conditions, the S228P mutation can prevent IgG4 FAE to undetectable levels both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the findings and novel methodologies will allow researchers to monitor and quantify FAE of their own IgG4 molecules in physiologically relevant matrices.

  15. Analysis of phytohormones in vermicompost using a novel combinative sample preparation strategy of ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Teo, Chee How; Yew, Yan Ru; Ge, Liya; Chen, Xin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2015-07-01

    Vermicompost (VC), a widely used premium organic fertilizer, is the by-product of symbiotic interactions between earthworms and microorganisms living within them. It has been postulated that phytohormones are plausible "magic compounds" in VC that are responsible for making them such good fertilizers. Thus, a novel approach involving ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed as a fast and efficient sample preparation method to screen for different classes of phytohormones in VC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Nine phytohormones from three different classes, including trans-zeatin (tZ), kinetin (K), N(6)-[2-isopentyl]adenine (iP), N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-isopentenyladenosine (iPR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 4-[3-indolyl]butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and (+)-abscisic acid (ABA), were simultaneously screened. The extraction parameters influencing UAE efficiency were optimized to provide comparable recovery to the conventional mix-stirring (MSt) method. The optimized UAE method was subsequently applied on the analysis of phytohormones in VC, i.e. phytohormone extract was further pre-concentrated and purified using C18 and MCX SPE cartridges prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The following phytohormones, namely iP, iPR and IAA, were detected and quantified to be 0.49, 0.53, 79.78ngg(-1), respectively; tZ was found to be below the limit of quantitation. Recoveries of 10.2%, 9.1%, 18.9% and 0.3% for tZ, iP, iPR and IAA were obtained. This is one of the few reported works for the successful detection and quantitation of cytokinins and auxins in VC, that provided the key empirical evidence to explain the growth efficacy of applying VC in promoting plant growth. Additionally, this pioneering work could potentially be applicable for the analysis of other types of organic fertilizers such as composts and activated composted materials awaiting phytohormone analyzes for

  16. Preparation of PEGylated polymeric nanoprobes with aggregation-induced emission feature through the combination of chain transfer free radical polymerization and multicomponent reaction: Self-assembly, characterization and biological imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qing; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Jiang, Ruming; Xu, Dazhuang; Huang, Hongye; Dai, Yanfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    Self-assembly of amphiphilic luminescent copolymers is a general route to fabricate fluorescent polymeric microparticles (FPMs). In this work, the FPMs with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature were fabricated via the combination of the chain transfer free radical polymerization and "one-pot" multicomponent reaction, which conjugated the aldehyde-containing AIE active dye AIE (CHO-An-CHO) and amino-terminated hydrophilic polymer (ATPPEGMA) using mercaptoacetic acid (MTA) as the "lock" molecule. The structure, chemical compositions, optical properties as well as biological properties of the PPEGMA-An-PPEGMA FPMs were characterized and investigated by means of a series of techniques and experiments in detail. We demonstrated the final copolymers showed amphiphilic properties, strong yellow fluorescence and high water dispersibility. Biological evaluation suggested that PPEGMA-An-PPEGMA FPMs possess low cytotoxicity and can be used for cell imaging. More importantly, many other AIE active FPMs are expected to be fabricated using the similar strategy because of the good substrate and monomer applicability of the multicomponent reaction and chain transfer living radical polymerization. Therefore, we could conclude that the strategy described in this work should be of great interest for fabrication of multifunctional AIE active nanoprobes for biomedical applications.

  17. Analgesic combinations

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    When the pathophysiology of a medical condition is multi-modal, i.e., related to multiple physiological causes or mediated by multiple pathways, the optimal strategy can be to use a drug or a combination of drugs that contribute multiple mechanisms to the therapeutic endpoint. In such situations, a rational multi-modal approach can also result in the fewest adverse effects. We discuss the quantitative analysis of multi-modal action using the treatment of pain as a practical example and give examples of its application to some widely used analgesic drugs. PMID:20338825

  18. Research Preparation in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses research preparation for graduate students. A major assumption is that preparation needs to be differentiated based on a student's goals. Since this is a personal proposal for research preparation, based on experience and the literature, I begin the article providing my perspective since that frames what follows. The next…

  19. Preparing School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews five publications that provide a sampling of current perspectives on the preparation of school leaders. Joseph Murphy's "Preparation for the School Principalship: The United States' Story" traces the history of leadership preparation programs in the United States from the 19th century to the present. David L. Clark's "Searching…

  20. [Clinical trial of the combined contraceptive preparation, Ovidon].

    PubMed

    Nalbanski, B

    1979-01-01

    The efficacy of a new estrogen-progestin contraceptive agent Ovidon was evaluated in 65 women. The women were taking the contraceptive for 47 cycles (each Ovidon pill contained 0.25 mg of D-norgestrel and 0.05 mg of ethinyl estradiol). Prior to the Ovidon treatment, 15 women did not use any contraceptive agents or devices, 5 used hormonal contraceptives, 2 used IUDs, 4 used mechanical devices, 20 practiced coitus interraptus, and 9 used a biological method. Ovidon administration provided a 100% contraceptive effect. Side effects of Ovidon included fatigue (15 women), headache (4), irritability (3), fullness of the breast (27), hemorrhage (12), vaginal discharge (6), and changes in libido (22). Ovidon administration did not induce amenorrhea. A 1-3 kg weight gain was observed in 5 women. Laboratory studies showed no changes in hemoglobin levels, leukocyte count, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase levels. These findings indicated the safety and contraceptive efficacy of Ovidon.

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. [Amino acid exchange in paeci lomycosis-complicated echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Akhmedov, Iu M; Gasparian, É R; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Chebyshev, N V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Zuev, S S; Shcheglova, T A; Gabchenko, A K; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors have detected atypical paecilomycosis-associated myocarditis with impaired amino acid exchange and pain syndrome for the first time. At first, pain occurs in the chest and radiates into the axilla, to the left arm to the finger tips, by paralyzing the arm. In some patients, pain manifests itself in both arms with radiation to the belly, by accompanying by fainting. The skin is wet, cold; the pulse is frequent and of poor volume and difficult-to-count. Heart pain spreads into the armpit and down the arm, by making the fingers numb. Attempts to use current analgesics (movalis, sirdalud, nimesil, morphine) in combination with fungicides (diflucan, mycosist, orungal) have failed to yield positive results. The homeopathic drug Latrodectus mactans, prepared from caracurt venom, in combination with the authors' designed diet and other homeopathic agents have relieved pain syndrome and normalized amino acid exchange, which offered possibilities for successful surgical treatment for echinococcosis with later recovery.

  3. Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro; Shirataki, Ritsuko

    2012-09-15

    The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46

  4. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination; BCP - combination ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most ...

  5. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  6. Preparation of polyphosphazenes: a tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    Rothemund, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Poly(organo)phosphazenes are a family of inorganic molecular hybrid polymers with very diverse properties due to the vast array of organic substituents possible. This tutorial review aims to introduce the basics of the synthetic chemistry of polyphosphazenes, detailing for readers outside the field the essential knowledge required to design and prepare polyphosphazenes with desired properties. A particular focus is given to some of the recent advances in their chemical synthesis which allows not only the preparation of polyphosphazenes with controlled molecular weights and polydispersities, but also novel branched architectures and block copolymers. We also discuss the preparation of supramolecular structures, bioconjugates and in situ forming gels from this diverse family of functional materials. This tutorial review aims to equip the reader to prepare defined polyphosphazenes with unique property combinations and in doing so we hope to stimulate further research and yet more innovative applications for these highly interesting multifaceted materials. PMID:27314867

  7. Preparation of zinc orthotitanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

  8. Study Blasts Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    A far-reaching study offers a damning assessment of the programs that prepare most of the nation's principals and superintendents. Led by Arthur E. Levine, the president of Teachers College, Columbia University, the report says most university-based preparation programs for administrators range in quality from "inadequate to appalling." The…

  9. [Preparation of antineoplastic agents].

    PubMed

    Descoutures, J-M

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the preparation of antineoplastic agents has tended to be centralized in the hospital pharmacy for two main reasons: to enable better protection for the staff, to enable better safety for the patient. The consequences of this organization have led to standardization of techniques, implementation of a quality system and also a better use of antineoplastic agents. After protocols have been standardized by the physician and validated by the pharmacist, four main steps are necessary: phamaceutical validation of the prescription, preparation of IV admixtures according to a production file, control of the final product, dispatching of the preparation to the patient. Computer-controlled processes guarantee the safety of these different steps. The centralized preparations are made either with a vertical laminar flow hood or with an isolator. With the implementation of the National Cancer Plan, antineoplastic agents for patients on home treatments will also be prepared in centralized hospital pharmacies.

  10. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  11. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  12. Instruments for preparation of heterogeneous catalysts by an impregnation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yusuke; Akita, Tomoki; Ueda, Atsushi; Shioyama, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuhiko

    2005-06-15

    Instruments for the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts in powder form have been developed. The instruments consist of powder dispensing robot and an automated liquid handling machine equipped with an ultrasonic and a vortex mixer. The combination of these two instruments achieves the catalyst preparation by incipient wetness and ion exchange methods. The catalyst library prepared with these instruments were tested for dimethyl ether steam reforming and characterized by transmission electron microscopy observations.

  13. Ureilite Thin Section Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R.; Righter, K.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing thin and thick sections of ureilite type meteorites is a challenge that can confound even the most experienced section preparer. A common characteristic of these samples is the presence of carbon phases, particularly nanodiamonds, in the matrix along silicate grain boundaries, fractures, and cleavage plains [1]. The extreme hardness of the nanodiamonds presents a challenge to the section preparer in the form of high surface relief on the section. This hard material also causes considerable wear and tear on equipment and materials that are used for making the sections. These issues will be discussed and potentially helpful measures will be presented.

  14. [Clinical experimental test and equilibrimetric measurements of the therapeutic action of a homeopathic drug consisting of ambra, cocculus, Conium and mineral oil in the diagnosis of vertigo and nausea].

    PubMed

    Claussen, C F; Bergmann, J; Bertora, G; Claussen, E

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a study by means of a modern neurotological technique for investigating the action and the site of action of an antivertiginous drug. The sensory motor tests are able to discriminate the sites of the lesions in the equilibrium regulating system, i.e., peripheral vestibular system, lower brainstem regulating system, upper brainstem nystagmus generating system and supratentorial system. Acoustic brainstem evoked potentials add information. A sample of 40 vertigo and nausea patients was treated by a combined drug, containing cocculus D4 210 mg, conium D3 30 mg, ambra D6 30 mg, mineral oil D8 30 mg (Vertigo-heel). The patients received 3 tablets 3 times per day during 14 days. An initial investigation was performed just before starting the treatment. A second directly followed the therapy. By subjective self-rating 57.5% of the patients reported on an improvement after the intake of Vertigoheel. Statistical evaluations showed that the different vertigo and nausea symptoms as well as the trigger mechanisms of vertigo and nausea (i.e. getting up, turning the head or gazing aside), highly significantly improved due to the therapy. The objective sensory motor tests showed a highly significant improvement in the monaural caloric butterfly chart as well as in the vestibulospinal head and body sway. The site of the action of Vertigoheel is in the brainstem and the Medulla oblongata, especially the middle longitudinal fascicle (MLF). The localisation in this area can be stressed by the investigation with acoustically brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Building Principal Preparation Programs on Theory, Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    This paper advocates that principal preparation programs should be designed on traditional bases. By reviewing existing literature, this article suggests that exemplary principal preparation programs should be founded on a combination of research data, theory, and practice or craft knowledge, and that the contributions of each should be made…

  16. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  17. The Preparation of Lucigenin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiet, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines and discusses procedures for the preparation of lucigenin, a powerfully chemiluminescent compound. Major techniques (requiring three 4-hour sessions) involving nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, reductive coupling, and oxidation reactions include steam distillation, decolorization…

  18. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuker, J.H.; De H.H.; Kwant, P.B.

    1980-01-15

    A process for preparing light distillate fractions and medicinal oil from heavy hydrocarbon oils comprises two-stage hydrocracking, fractionation distillation and catalytic hydrotreatment of at least part of the fractionation residue.

  19. Preparing for Extremes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Describes some basic maintenance and proper preparations for changing weather that can help keep school bus operations moving. Provides advice on diesel engine usage that can lengthen engine life and maintain all weather performance is provided. (GR)

  20. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  2. Precise and automated microfluidic sample preparation.

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Robert W.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Mosier, Bruce P.; Harnett, Cindy K.

    2004-07-01

    Autonomous bio-chemical agent detectors require sample preparation involving multiplex fluid control. We have developed a portable microfluidic pump array for metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1-100 {micro}L/min. Each pump is composed of an electrokinetic (EK) pump and high-voltage power supply with 15-Hz feedback from flow sensors. The combination of high pump fluid impedance and active control results in precise fluid metering with nanoliter accuracy. Automated sample preparation will be demonstrated by labeling proteins with fluorescamine and subsequent injection to a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) chip.

  3. Holographic Combiners for Head-Up Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    AFAL-TR-77 -110 S HOLOGRAPHIC COMBINERS FOR HEAD-UP DISPLAYS S Radar and Optics Division Environmental Research Institute of Michigan P.O. Box 8618...to 200. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(RWihen Data Entered) FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Radar and Optics Division of the...with fringes parallel to the surface......31 Figure 13. Raytrace through the F-4 HUD with a holographic combiner

  4. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  5. Preparation of B-trichloroborazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of preparing B-trichloroborazine. Generally, the method includes the combination of gaseous boron trichloride in an anhydrous aprotic organic solvent followed by addition of excess gaseous ammonia at ambient temperature or below. The reaction mixture is heated to about 100 to 140 C followed by cooling, removal of the solid ammonium chloride at ambient temperature, distillation of the solvent under vacuum if necessary at a temperature of up to about 112 C, and recovery of the B-trichloroborazine. Solvents include toluene, benzene, xylene, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated aromatic compounds, or mixtures thereof. Toluene is a preferred solvent. The process provides a convenient synthesis of a material which often decomposes on standing. B-trichloroborazine is useful in a number of chemical reactions, and particularly in the formation of high temperature inorganic polymers and polymer precursors.

  6. The Prepared Mind.

    PubMed

    Garber, Susan L

    Every day, in clinics and hospitals around the world, occupational therapists care for patients with serious problems requiring viable solutions. Each patient is unique, and his or her problem does not necessarily correspond to existing practice models. Practitioners must adapt standard approaches to provide effective outcomes, yet problems exist for which few or no beneficial approaches have been identified. Such clinical issues require solutions to be generated de novo from the practitioner's body of knowledge and past experience. Yet, no single new intervention can be used without prior validation of its efficacy. Only a therapist with a prepared mind can accept such challenges, recognize what is known and not yet known, design studies to acquire that needed knowledge, and translate it into successful clinical treatment strategies. The occupational therapist with a prepared mind is one willing to seize unexpected opportunities and construct new paradigms of practice. Innovation through scientific inquiry requires a prepared mind.

  7. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.

    1984-05-17

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting oraganic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous, especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  8. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-yin

    1985-01-01

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting organic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  9. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  10. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  11. Preparing a poster.

    PubMed

    White, Adrian; White, Leon

    2003-06-01

    Well prepared posters are an effective means to communicate a simple message and stimulate discussion. A good poster requires considerable effort in identifying the vital ingredients and rejecting any superfluous material. The conventional structure for papers and abstracts is a suitable basis for posters on many subjects, with modification if necessary. Suitable topics include clinical trials, surveys, qualitative studies and case reports. Suggestions are made for contents that should be considered for each section. Careful planning of size, shape, flow and content will save time in preparation, and several technical graphical points are made, which may improve the attractiveness and readability of the poster.

  12. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Morton; Winchell, Harry S.

    1977-01-04

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  14. Preparing Youth for Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, William J., S. J.

    1985-01-01

    College and universities are failing to prepare the young for the responsibilities of marriage and the family. Major problems of the young on the way to marriage relate to false expectations, inability to communicate, permanent commitment, and money management. How higher education can meet this challenge is discussed. (RM)

  15. Preparing Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others

    Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…

  16. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  17. Method for preparing superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgren, Shelley D.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor having an equiaxed fine grain beta-tungsten crystalline structure found to have improved high field critical current densities is prepared by sputter-depositing superconductive material onto a substrate cooled to below 200.degree. C. and heat-treating the deposited material.

  18. Preparation of graphitic articles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Nemer, Martin; Weigle, John C.

    2010-05-11

    Graphitic structures have been prepared by exposing templates (metal, metal-coated ceramic, graphite, for example) to a gaseous mixture that includes hydrocarbons and oxygen. When the template is metal, subsequent acid treatment removes the metal to yield monoliths, hollow graphitic structures, and other products. The shapes of the coated and hollow graphitic structures mimic the shapes of the templates.

  19. Test Preparation: Your Role

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about preparations needed for specific tests on web sites like Lab Tests Online. However, you should always follow your healthcare ... may sometimes be elaborated on further on "The Test" tab. However, be sure ... on this or any other web site, as different labs may have varying testing ...

  20. Preparing for Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    There were a few raised eyebrows when the Association of Colleges (AoC) appointed Martin Doel, an Air Commodore with almost 30 year's service in the Royal Air Force (RAF) but little direct experience of college culture, as its new Chief Executive. As he prepares to take the helm next month, Doel, while acknowledging the challenges ahead, is…

  1. Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

  2. Preparing for Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. Preparing for Childbirth Getting ready for a multiple birth may seem overwhelming, and concerns about pre-term labor can be additional burdens for you to bear. The best reassurance is knowing that you have a network of support around you: capable doctors, a caring ...

  3. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  4. The Preparation of Ferrocene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, F. R.; Temple-Nidd, G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the preparation of a compound that is of particular interest because of its sandwich structure in which the metal atom is sandwiched between two planar C5H5-rings. Sublimation results in the formation of long thin plate-like crystals. (GS)

  5. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  6. Preparation of uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Ralph A.; Tennery, Victor J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride.

  7. Essentials of surface preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This book presents the latest and most effective surface preparation techniques through a compilation of 15 standards (including NACE/SSPC joint standards), articles, and reports. The book is conveniently sold in a looseleaf, tabbed binder so other material can be added. The four sections included cover Abrasive Blasting; Surface Contamination and Cleanliness; Profile, Finishing, Inspection, and Performance; and Concrete and Metallic Coatings.

  8. Cooperative Robot Teams Applied to the Site Preparation Task

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, LE

    2001-06-15

    Prior to human missions to Mars, infrastructures on Mars that support human survival must be prepared. robotic teams can assist in these advance preparations in a number of ways. This paper addresses one of these advance robotic team tasks--the site preparation task--by proposing a control structure that allows robot teams to cooperatively solve this aspect of infrastructure preparation. A key question in this context is determining how robots should make decisions on which aspect of the site preparation t6ask to address throughout the mission, especially while operating in rough terrains. This paper describes a control approach to solving this problem that is based upon the ALLIANCE architecture, combined with performance-based rough terrain navigation that addresses path planning and control of mobile robots in rough terrain environments. They present the site preparation task and the proposed cooperative control approach, followed by some of the results of the initial testing of various aspects of the system.

  9. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Brice{hacek over }o, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  10. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  11. Ultra-Fast Sample Preparation for High-Throughput Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Hixson, Kim K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-21

    Sample preparation oftentimes can be the Achilles Heel of any analytical process and in the field of proteomics, preparing samples for mass spectrometric analysis is no exception. Current goals, concerning proteomic sample preparation on a large scale, include efforts toward improving reproducibility, reducing the time of processing and ultimately the automation of the entire workflow. This chapter reviews an array of recent approaches applied to bottom-up proteomics sample preparation to reduce the processing time down from hours to minutes. The current state-of-the-art in the field uses different energy inputs like microwave, ultrasound or pressure to perform the four basic steps in sample preparation: protein extraction, denaturation, reduction and alkylation, and digestion. No single energy input for enhancement of proteome sample preparation has become the universal gold standard. Instead, a combination of different energy inputs tend to produce the best results. This chapter further describes the future trends in the field such as the hyphenation of sample preparation with downstream detection and analysis systems. Finally, a detailed protocol describing the combined use of both pressure cycling technology and ultrasonic energy inputs to hasten proteomic sample preparation is presented.

  12. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  13. Preparing for evil.

    PubMed

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact.

  14. [Microflora of spiruline preparations].

    PubMed

    Jacquet, J

    1975-01-01

    A study, by direct microscopic examination and cultures, shows that the microflore which accompanies the spirulines preparations, varies as the origin and the technologie treatment quality. The main species are bacillacees; then, come faecal streptococcus which are the best contaminations indicators; enterobacteries, yeasts, moulds spores, are exceptional. Dry products as getting old, entail a great decrease of all the species, the anaerobies being more resistant.

  15. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  16. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  17. Preparation for Death

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for death is a physical, psychosocial and spiritual process needing the active participation of both patient and physician. Physicians' denial of death leads to unrelieved symptoms, inappropriate treatment, and poor communication in the care of the terminally ill. This paper discusses strategies to minimize the effect of denial describing a goal-setting approach to terminal care and the use of quality of life indices. Several principles are presented on how to tell bad news to patients. PMID:21289837

  18. Combine User's Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reegen, P.

    2011-12-01

    Combine is an add-on to SigSpec and Cinderella. A SigSpec result file or a file generated by Cinderella contains the significant sinusoidal signal components in a time series. In this file, Combine checks one frequency after the other for being a linear combination of previously examined frequencies. If this attempt fails, the corresponding frequency is considered "genuine". Only genuine frequencies are used to form linear combinations subsequently. A purely heuristic model is employed to assign a reliability to each linear combination and to justify whether to consider a frequency genuine or a linear combination.

  19. A cognitive behavioral course for at-risk senior nursing students preparing to take the NCLEX.

    PubMed

    Poorman, Susan G; Mastorovich, Melissa L; Liberto, Terri L; Gerwick, Michele

    2010-01-01

    For some nursing students, the stress of preparing for and taking the NCLEX can lead to maladaptive behaviors such as poor test performance and inadequate preparation. A different approach to NCLEX preparation for at-risk seniors is described. A 3-credit course that combines cognitive behavioral techniques, metacognitive strategies, test-taking strategies, and simulated NCLEX experience with practice questions is presented. Students also develop an individualized plan of preparation from graduation until they take the NCLEX.

  20. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-06-08

    Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  1. Preparation of ring resonator based on PDMS using laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandura, D.; Pudis, D.; Gaso, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present preparation process of ring resonator in racetrack configuration based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). 3D laser lithography in combination with imprinting technique was used to pattern photoresist layer as a master for imprinting process. In the next step, PDMS ring resonator was imprinted and filled with core PDMS. Finally, morphological properties of prepared device were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope and transmission spectrum measurements were performed.

  2. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  3. Preparation System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.

  4. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  5. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  6. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    DOEpatents

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  7. Automated wire preparation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Deborah J.

    The first step toward an automated wire harness facility for the aerospace industry has been taken by implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 into the wire harness preparation area. An overview of the Wire Vektor 2000 is given, including the facilities for wire cutting, marking, and transporting, for wire end processing, and for system control. Production integration in the Wire Vektor 2000 system is addressed, considering the hardware/software debug system and the system throughput. The manufacturing changes that have to be made in implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 are discussed.

  8. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  9. Silicon surface preparation for III-V molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiomanana, K.; Bahri, M.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Largeau, L.; Cerutti, L.; Mauguin, O.; Castellano, A.; Patriarche, G.; Tournié, E.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a silicon substrate preparation for III-V molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). It combines sequences of ex situ and in situ treatments. The ex situ process is composed of cycles of HF dip and O2 plasma treatments. Ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy performed after each step during the substrate preparation reveal surface cleaning and de-oxidation. The in situ treatment consists in flash annealing the substrate in the MBE chamber prior to epitaxial growth. GaSb-based multiple quantum well heterostructures emitting at 1.55 μm were grown by MBE on Si substrates prepared by different methods. Structural characterizations using XRD and TEM coupled with photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates the efficiency of our preparation process. This study thus unravels a simple and reproducible protocol to prepare the Si surface prior to III-V MBE.

  10. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  11. Preparing for Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Kenneth L.; Hutt, Roger W.

    This instructional guide for an entrepreneurship program of study in secondary schools is a teacher's manual combined with the essential learning activities for students. The 13 units--also appropriate for use at postsecondary or adult levels--may be used as a one-semester course, or in part, or in their entirety as supplements and hands-on…

  12. Data Breach Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Belangia, David Warren

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  13. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity.

  14. Method to prepare Semtex

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  15. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  16. Combination opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S

    2008-01-01

    Although there is no "ideal analgesic," scientists and clinicians alike continue to search for compounds with qualities which may approach the "ideal analgesic." Characteristics of an "ideal" analgesic may include: the agent is a full agonist providing optimal/maximal analgesia for a wide range/variety of pain states (e.g., broad spectrum analgesic activity), it does not exhibit tolerance, it produces no unwanted effects and minimal adverse effects, it has no addictive potential, it does not facilitate pain/hyperalgesia, it has a long duration, it has high oral bioavailability, it is not vulnerable to important drug interactions, it is not significantly bound to plasma proteins, it has no active metabolites, it has linear kinetics, and it is eliminated partly by hydrolysis to an inactive metabolite (without involvement of oxidative and conjugative enzymes). Investigators have concentrated on ways to alter existing analgesics or to combine existing analgesic compounds with compounds which may improve efficacy over time or minimize adverse effects. The addition of an analgesic with a second agent (which may or may not also be an analgesic) to achieve a "combination analgesic" is a concept which has been exploited for many years. Although there may be many reasons to add 2 agents together in efforts to achieve analgesia, for purposes of this article - reasons for combining an opioid with a second agent to produce a combination opioid analgesic may be classified into 6 major categories: 1.) combinations to prolong analgesic duration; 2.) combinations to enhance or optimize analgesic efficacy (e.g., analgesic synergy); 3.) combinations to diminish or minimize adverse effects; 4.) combinations to diminish opioid effects which are not beneficial (or contrariwise to or enhance beneficial opioid effects); 5.) combinations to reduce opioid tolerance/opioid-induced hyperalgesia; and 6.) combinations to combat dependency issues/addiction potential/craving sensations

  17. Preparation of superhydrophobic silicon oxide nanowire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Janel, Sébastien; Addad, Ahmed; Blossey, Ralf; Gengembre, Léon; Payen, Edmond; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2007-02-13

    The paper reports on the preparation of superhydrophobic amorphous silicon oxide nanowires (a-SiONWs) on silicon substrates with a contact angle greater than 150 degrees by means of surface roughness and self-assembly. Nanowires with an average mean diameter in the range 20-150 nm and 15-20 microm in length were obtained by the so-called solid-liquid-solid (SLS) technique. The porous nature and the high roughness of the resulting surfaces were confirmed by AFM imaging. The superhydrophobicity resulted from the combined effects of surface roughness and chemical modification with fluorodecyl trichlorosilane.

  18. The Current Techniques for Preparing Bioglass Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yafan; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang

    Bioglasses are promising alternatives as biomedical materials to repair or replace damaged parts of bones because of its good bioactivity and biocompatibility. It is possible to combine the bone-bonding ability of the bioglass surface with the high mechanical properties of the metallic substrate though the coating of metallic implants with bioglass. The principles and characteristics of some coating techniques, including sintering, plasma spray, sol-gel, electrophoresis deposition, ion beam assisted deposition and pulsed laser deposition, are introduced. Their current applications in preparing bioglass coatings are reviewed in detail. The future application trends are also reviewed.

  19. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-nan; Hou, Chang-jun; Huo, Dan-qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-bao; Lei, Jin-can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  20. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  1. Embodied conceptual combination.

    PubMed

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature.

  2. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  3. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  4. How to prepare a successful operating permit

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J.L. ); Hoffnagle, G.F. ); Walata, S. III )

    1993-04-01

    Thorough and organized procedures streamline a cumbersome task - writing an acceptable air operating permit. Variations in state laws combined with strict new federal criteria make this task a maze of bureaucracy, forms, public intervention, process operability/profitability and feasible emission-control technology. Eleven steps organize all information required by federal/state laws. To be successful, facilities should collect the necessary data and start planning now. The 11 steps in the process are: identify each source; evaluate emissions; decide major source status; determine practical emission limitation(s); determine compliance; if necessary, propose compliance schedule; propose measurement/recordkeeping; combine each source into permit(s); calculate fees; file application; and prepare for hearing. This paper describes the process.

  5. Intranasal scopolamine preparation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Cintron, Nitza M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A new method and preparation for intranasal delivery of scopolamine provides a safe and effective treatment for motion sickness and other conditions requiring anticholinergic therapy. The preparation can be in the form of aqueous nasal drops, mist spray, gel or oinment. Intranasal delivery of scopolamine has similar bioavailability and effect of intravenous delivery and is far superior to oral dosage. Scopolamine is prepared in a buffered saline solution at the desired dosage rate for effective anticholinergic response.

  6. Preparing the Teacher of Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggested ways of planning and conducting high quality teacher preparation programs are discussed under major headings of student selection, sequential courses and experiences, and program design. (HD)

  7. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  8. Sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Hill, V A

    1993-12-01

    Evidentiary false positives are caused by passive exposure to drugs in the environment rather than by active use of drugs. The avoidance of such positives is essential for both hair and urine analysis. Hair analysis enjoys the advantage over urinalysis in having a number of approaches for making this distinction. These include: methylene blue staining of the hair specimen for selecting the appropriate wash solvent; application of hair digestion techniques for the complete release of chemically unaltered analytes; the determination of three diagnostic ratios from wash and digestion data; the measurement of metabolite:drug ratios; the use of cut-off levels setting the limits for passive endogenous drug exposure; reproducibility of results (including segmental analysis) with a newly collected hair specimen; and the reporting of results as either negative, positive, or contaminated. Our sample preparation procedures have been effectively applied to the analyses of nearly 200,000 specimens, i.e. to approximately one million drug analyses for cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, phencyclidine or marijuana. On the basis of this experience we conclude that hair analysis is a safe and effective method for workplace drug testing.

  9. Technology in Teacher Preparation: Preparing Teachers for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillingham, Mark G.; Topper, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Presents four possible solutions to the problem of preparing teachers for the future and using technology in classrooms: a single course approach; technology infusion; student performance, that puts responsibility of technology knowledge on the student; and case based. Provides an example of technology in teacher preparation at Michigan State…

  10. Study of Effort to Exclude Planned Parenthood from Participation in Combined Federal Campaign. Report Prepared by the Staff of the Subcommittee on Civil Service of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. House of Representatives, 98th Congress, 1st Session. Committee Print No. 98-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    Presented in this report is an account of the attempt made by the Director of the United States Office of Personnel Managment (OPM) to exclude the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) from participation in the Combined Federal Campaign (CFC). The CFC is the annual charitable fundraising drive conducted among federal employees and…

  11. Synergistic combinations of polymyxins

    PubMed Central

    Lenhard, Justin R.; Nation, Roger L.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has necessitated the therapeutic use of colistin and polymyxin B. However, treatment failures with polymyxin monotherapies and the emergence of polymyxin resistance have catalysed the search for polymyxin combinations that synergistically kill polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant organisms. This mini-review examines recent (2011–2016) in vitro and in vivo studies that have attempted to identify synergistic polymyxin combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. Clinical evidence for the use of combination regimens is also discussed. PMID:27865626

  12. Skin regeneration after chemical burn under the effect of taxifolin-based preparations.

    PubMed

    Shubina, V S; Shatalin, Yu V

    2012-11-01

    We studied the effect of liposome preparation containing taxifolin oligomers and taxifolin conjugates with carbonyl compounds on skin regeneration after chemical burn. The preparations containing flavonoid conjugates intensified regeneration processes and reparation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands after chemical burn. The preparation based on taxifolin conjugate with acetaldehyde was most effective; its activity was comparable with that of the wound-healing preparation Olasol. Taxifolin conjugates with carbonyl compounds can be used for the creation of combined wound- and burn-healing preparations.

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Edward; Pross, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of certain herbal and homeopathic preparations on symptoms, lymphocyte markers, and cytotoxic function of the lymphocytes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, we studied six outpatients diagnosed with the disease by their family physicians. Patients were given herbal and homeopathic preparations after a 3-week symptom-recording period. After treatment, symptoms were again recorded. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment. None of the values showed any significant change after treatment. PMID:21221272

  14. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability.

  15. Preparation and characterization of polyphenol-modified gelatin products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated the effectiveness of enzymatic and chemical modification of waste protein from leather, used alone or in combination with protein from the dairy industry, in preparation of fillers for leather treatment. We are continuing to build on these techniques to make products from susta...

  16. Preparation and characterization of polyphenol-modified gelatin products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated the effectiveness of enzymatic and chemical modification of waste protein from leather, used alone or in combination with protein from the dairy industry, in preparation of fillers for leather treatment. As we continue our research into use of sustainable resources, we are buil...

  17. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    PubMed

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  18. Professional Identity Perceptions of Dual-Prepared Art Therapy Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feen-Calligan, Holly R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of the development of professional identity in art therapists who also prepare as counselors. Graduates from one university's two distinct master's degree programs were interviewed: (a) art therapy (n = 9) and (b) art therapy combined with counseling (n = 11). Most participants regardless of their degree…

  19. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications called ... and nervous system respond to pain. Hydrocodone relieves cough by decreasing activity in the part of the ...

  20. Optimally combined confidence limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot, P.; Le Diberder, F.

    1998-02-01

    An analytical and optimal procedure to combine statistically independent sets of confidence levels on a quantity is presented. This procedure does not impose any constraint on the methods followed by each analysis to derive its own limit. It incorporates the a priori statistical power of each of the analyses to be combined, in order to optimize the overall sensitivity. It can, in particular, be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several analyses searching for the Higgs boson in different decay channels, with different selection efficiencies, mass resolution and expected background. It can also be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several experiments (e.g. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, at LEP 2) independently of the method followed by each of these experiments to derive their own limit. A method to derive the limit set by one analysis is also presented, along with an unbiased prescription to optimize the expected mass limit in the no-signal-hypothesis.

  1. Preparation and Analysis of RNA Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization of RiboNucleic Acids (RNA) was studied from the standpoint of mechanisms of crystal growth in three tasks: (1) preparation of high-quality crystals of oligonuclotides for X-ray diffraction, (2) finding pathways to the growth of high-quality crystals for X-ray diffraction and (3) investigation of mechanisms of action of inertial acceleration on crystal growth. In these tasks: (1) RNA crystals were prepared and studied by X-ray diffraction; (2) a pathway to high-quality crystals was discovered and characterized; a combination of kinetic and equilibrium factors could be optimized as described below; and (3) an interplay between purity and gravity was found in a combination of space and ground experiments with nucleic acids and proteins. Most significantly, the rate of concentration of precipitant and RNA can be controlled by membrane-based methods of water removal or by diffusion of multivalent cations across an interface stabilized by a membrane. Oligonucleotide solutions are electrokinetically stabilized colloids, and crystals can form by the controlled addition of multivalent cations.

  2. Combining multipole data

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1987-03-01

    The problem of combining the information from three sets of magnetic field data for dipole magnets is addressed. Three methods for combining multipole data are described which may be useful under possibly different assumptions: multipole feeddown, expansion in orthogonal functions, and fictitious sources. The methods of multipole feeddown and sources were both tried on the magnet data, with the result that the method of sources worked well. (LEW)

  3. Bilateral combined laryngocele

    PubMed Central

    Suqati, Abrar A.; Alherabi, Ameen Z.; Marglani, Osama A.; Alaidarous, Tariq O.

    2016-01-01

    Laryngocele is an uncommon condition that represents a benign dilatation of the laryngeal saccule with air and/or fluid, arising in the region of the laryngeal ventricle. Laryngoceles, or laryngomucocele can be classified as internal, or combined. The aim of presenting this rare case of a bilateral combined laryngocele, are to emphasize the importance of diagnostic laryngoscopy in upper airway pathologies evaluation, increase awareness in the general otolaryngologist community, and to highlight the external surgical method. PMID:27464869

  4. Hurricanes : get prepared !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauroy, Maëlle

    2013-04-01

    Living in France, near Paris, we have the chance not to be exposed to natural hazards. But on TV we can see, almost every year, geological disasters affecting people from all around the world. Sometimes it also affects us indirectly. For example, the Icelandic volcanic eruption of 2010 prevented some of my students to go on holidays because of the air travel disruption. Since then, every year, we study a natural disaster that has just made the headlines. This topic is of great interest for students because it is connected with their everyday life, with what they see on the news at that time. This year, they were amazed that a city as New York could be struck so violently by a hurricane. Understanding the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of such an event made them think about how to educate people and warn them in case of a hurricane. As a matter of fact, history teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness and preparation are common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing the vulnerability and what actions people should take, it is possible to reduce the effects of a hurricane disaster. They designed posters, showing how a hurricane form, the risks and what to do in case of a hurricane alert. They used TV news broadcasts and educational videos as well as videos from the National Hurricane Center [of the United-States]. Later, they tried to model the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of storm surge, high winds and inland flooding on a coastal area. They filmed their experiments in order to create an interactive exhibition on hurricanes, to be displayed in the school library for other students.

  5. Preparative cell electrophoresis at 1 and 0 gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Oss, C. J.; Bronson, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is attempted to show that the use of heavy water (D2O) as starting cushion for the cells combines the advantages of the required density difference, with no lasting biochemical or physiochemical influence on the cells. Phosphate buffers of low ionic strength were prepared in distilled water or heavy water. A vertical starch gel electrophoresis was used to support a cylindrical polystyrene electrophoresis tube used for lymphocyte separations, 25 cm in length and 0.75 cm I.D., prepared from a 10 ml disposable pipet. Erythrocyte separations were carried out in a jacketed rectangular plexiglas chamber. It is pointed out that the described preparative D2O gradient electrophoresis method cannot be readily used for the measurement of electrophoretic mobilities for analytical purposes. However, for the preparative separation of cells with only slightly different electrokinetic properties the method appears promising, simple, and entirely inocuous to the cells.

  6. Clinical Teacher Preparation: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Betty Lou; Villaume, Susan Kidd

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how teacher preparation programs have developed from the mid-1800s to present day, emphasizing changes in the clinical component. Drawing from the history of teacher education from the normal schools of the 19th century to present-day interest in clinically based preparation, we first review the migration of teacher…

  7. Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    Small, sometimes multi-cultural, rural schools need specialized preservice teacher education programs to prepare teachers. After outlining the classroom, school, and sociocultural characteristics affecting a teacher's success and survival in a rural community, this paper discusses the apparent lack of rural content in teacher preparation programs…

  8. Retaining Teachers: How Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors studied how various aspects of teacher preparation affect the retention of new teachers--specifically mathematics and science teachers. They found that the preparation of new mathematics and science teachers differs from that of other new teachers in various respects, but factors…

  9. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  10. Preparing a Research Journal Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how to write a research journal article through a review in three sections: (1) preparing to write, (2) preparing the contents, and (3) evaluating the article. Suggests important questions to be asked when critiquing educational research. Explains the decision-making process used to decide what articles are published. (LRA)

  11. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  12. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  13. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  14. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  15. Multisegment coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Tucker, Steve D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, Tony G.; Warren, Mial E.; Gruetzner, James K.; Rosenthal, R. R.; Bentley, A. E.

    1995-08-01

    Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combining a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam's pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.

  16. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.

  17. Combustor with fuel preparation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelina, Joseph (Inventor); Myers, Geoffrey D. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Ram (Inventor); Reynolds, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An annular combustor having fuel preparation chambers mounted in the dome of the combustor. The fuel preparation chamber comprises an annular wall extending axially from an inlet to an exit that defines a mixing chamber. Mounted to the inlet are an air swirler and a fuel atomizer. The air swirler provides swirled air to the mixing chamber while the atomizer provides a fuel spray. On the downstream side of the exit, the fuel preparation chamber has an inwardly extending conical wall that compresses the swirling mixture of fuel and air exiting the mixing chamber.

  18. Orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent E

    2014-11-01

    Orthodontic preparation is critical to the success of orthognathic surgery. Recognition and correction of existing dental compensations allows full correction of skeletal discrepancies. Presurgical orthodontic goals are important to define at the start of treatment and may not always include complete arch leveling or space closure, or ideal interdigitation. Orthodontic preparation dictates the skeletal movements that are possible at the time of surgery. Different malocclusion types have characteristic dental compensations that can be identified and described. Proper planning, monitoring, and communication between surgeon and orthodontist are critical to avoid potential pitfalls in the orthodontic preparation.

  19. Preparing for climate change.

    PubMed

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed.

  20. Initial and Ongoing Teacher Preparation and Support: Current Problems and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Harold A.

    2013-01-01

    The effective initial preparation and ongoing support of teachers of students who are deaf and hard of hearing has always been a difficult and controversial task. Changes in student demographic characteristics and educational settings, combined with the rapidly diminishing number and diversity of deaf education teacher preparation (DETP) programs,…

  1. 14 CFR 133.47 - Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual... ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Airworthiness Requirements § 133.47 Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual. The applicant must prepare a Rotorcraft-Load Combination Flight Manual and submit it for...

  2. Preparing teachers for ambitious and culturally responsive science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-03-01

    Communities, schools and classrooms across North America are becoming more ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse, particularly in urban areas. Against this backdrop, underrepresentation of certain groups in science continues. Much attention has been devoted to multicultural education and the preparation of teachers for student diversity. In science education, much research has focused on classrooms as cultural spaces and the need for teachers to value and build upon students' everyday science knowledge and ways of sense-making. However it remains unclear how best to prepare science teachers for this kind of culturally responsive teaching. In attempting to envision how to prepare science teachers with cross-cultural competency, we can draw from a parallel line of research on preparing teachers for ambitious science instruction. In ambitious science instruction, students solve authentic problems and generate evidence and models to develop explanations of scientific phenomenon, an approach that necessitates great attention to students' thinking and sense-making, thus making it applicable to cultural relevance aims. In addition, this line of research on teacher preparation has developed specific tools and engages teachers in cycles of reflection and rehearsal as they develop instructional skills. While not addressing cross-cultural teaching specifically, this research provides insights into specific ways through which to prepare teachers for culturally responsive practices. In my presentation, I will report on efforts to join these two areas of research, that is, to combine ideas about multicultural science teacher preparation with what has been learned about how to develop ambitious science instruction. This research suggests a new model for urban science teacher preparation--one that focuses on developing specific teaching practices that elicit and build on student thinking, and doing so through cycles of individual and collective planning, rehearsal

  3. Radiation Combined Injury: DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Autophagy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    combined injured-mice, Bacillus and Lactobacillus were isolated within the first 8 d after radiation combined injury. The data imply that mice...Gy followed immediately by 15% total body surface skin-wound trauma. Ileal lysates were prepared 7 d after sham-treatment (Sham), wound- ing (Wound...secretion and increased risk of infection; and ( d ) delayed wound healing—often double the healing time of wounding alone. Since the mechanisms of

  4. Workbook-Text Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eddie

    1982-01-01

    "Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

  5. Klystron-linac combination

    DOEpatents

    Stein, W.E.

    1980-04-24

    A combination klystron-linear accelerator which utilizes anti-bunch electrons generated in the klystron section as a source of electrons to be accelerated in the accelerator section. Electron beam current is controlled by second harmonic bunching, constrictor aperture size and magnetic focusing. Rf coupling is achieved by internal and external coupling.

  6. Coherently combining antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  7. Sentence-Combining Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Judy O'Neal

    1978-01-01

    Sample sentence-combining lessons developed to accompany the first-year A-LM German textbook are presented. The exercises are designed for language manipulation practice; they involve breaking down more complex sentences into simpler sentences and the subsequent recombination into complex sentences. All language skills, and particularly writing,…

  8. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  9. ILSE combiner study

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K.

    1994-03-01

    In a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) driver, the beam energy and current are increased several orders of magnitude from the injector to the final focus system. At low and high energy stages of the driver, electrostatic and magnetic focusing transport channels, respectively, can be used. At the electric-to-magnetic transition point, the beams may be combined to reduce the transverse dimensions of the system, which could have significant impact on the driver cost. In a presently envisioned combiner, four beams are brought together transversely into a single transport channel. A matching section follows the combiner in order to provide a smooth transition to the subsequent magnetic transport channel. This report summarizes a conceptual design study of possible combiner configurations for the proposed Introduction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE). The conceptual design study includes subjects such as the expected technical difficulties, predicted emittance growth, particle loss, effect of geometric and chromatic aberrations, and the sensitivity of emittance growth on the initial beam position and angle errors.

  10. Sentence Combining and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    Research on the effects of two modes of sentence combining instruction on writing skills was conducted from 22 September through 17 December 1976, at Evans School in Tempe, Arizona. Subjects were 40 students in two fifth grade classes designated the individualized class and the group class. The individualized class followed a sentence combining…

  11. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  12. The Preparation for Life Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "The Preparation for Life Curriculum" (Wilcox, Dunn, Lavercombe and Burn, 1984), which is a case study of a British career education curriculum development project in four secondary schools. (JDH)

  13. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... imagery Trying other distractions, such as listening to music through headphones, if allowed When possible, let your ... MA, Chorney JM, Mayes L. Web-based tailored intervention for preparation of parents and children for outpatient ...

  14. Preparing for Time after Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernau, C.

    1983-01-01

    One important area of activities for which retiring workers could be prepared is undoubtedly that which lies in the field of social services in which trade unions everywhere are increasingly engaged. (SSH)

  15. Polymer Preparations in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Gary M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes six laboratory procedures for preparing polymers which have been used in a course for undergraduate industrial arts students, who have a concentration in plastics technology but have not taken more than one year of college chemistry. (BT)

  16. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  17. Characterisation of the surface of freshly prepared precious metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stewart F; Adroja, Devashibhai; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica; Tischer, Markus; Möbus, Konrad; Wieland, Stefan D; Albers, Peter

    2016-07-14

    A combination of electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron spectroscopies and computational methods has provided new insights into the species present on the surface of freshly prepared precious metal catalysts. The results show that in all cases, at least half of the surface is metallic or nearly so, with the remainder covered by oxygen, largely as hydroxide. Water is also present and is strongly held; weeks of pumping under high vacuum is insufficient to remove it. The hydroxyls are reactive as shown by their reaction with or displacement by CO and can be removed by hydrogenation. This clearly has implications for how precious metal catalysts are activated after preparation.

  18. Process for Preparing Epoxy-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One-pot reaction process for preparing epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels comprising the reaction of at least one silicon compound selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilanes, orthosilicates and combination thereof in any ratio with effective amounts of an epoxy monomer and an aminoalkoxy silane to obtain an epoxy monomer-silica sol in solution, subsequently preparing an epoxy-monomer silica gel from said silica sol solution followed by initiating polymerization of the epoxy monomer to obtain the epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogel.

  19. 21 CFR 206.10 - Code imprint required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification than a symbol or logo by itself. Homeopathic drug products are required only to bear an imprint... National Drug Code, or a mark, symbol, logo, or monogram, or a combination of letters, numbers, and...

  20. [The agent Latrodectus and canine paecilomycotic eclampsia as a laboratory model in the survey of treatment for mycoses and parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Gasparian, E R; Streliaeva, A V; Chebyshev, N V; Sagieva, A T; Polzikov, V V; Lazareva, N B; Kurilov, D V; Zuev, S S; Shcheglova, T A; Sadykov, V M

    2012-01-01

    The extragent used to prepare a Latrodectus mactans hydrocarbon extract is a multicomponent system composed of alkanes, alkenes, and arenes. More than 100 compounds were identified in the hydrocarbon extract (petroleum). The petroleum matrix of Latrodectus mactans was first obtained to manufacture homeopathic remedies. The authors could prepare the first Russian homeopathic medicine from Latrodectus mactans, which proved to be effective in treating canine eclampsia. Canine experiments provide a rationale for the authors' choice as the only homeopathic remedy among thousand known drugs to treat female eclampsia. It is Latrodectus mactans that is in the list of homeopathic medicines permitted for use in accordance with Order No. 335 (Supplement 2) of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Russia, issued on November 29, 1995. It is manufactured from Latrodectus mactans living in the USA.

  1. CHARMS Combined Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard; Thorsen, Tyler

    2016-12-01

    These multi-wavelength lidar data were collected during the Combined HSRL and Raman lidar Measurement Study (CHARMS) IOP that occurred during July through September 2015 at SGP. During CHARMS the University of Wisconsin HSRL was located at SGP and acquired aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm and 1064 nm and aerosol backscatter, extinction, and depolarization profiles at 532 nm. The HSRL aerosol profiles, when combined with the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles (355 nm) collected by the SGP Raman lidar, provide a suite of three aerosol backscatter (355, 532, 1064 nm) and two aerosol extinction (355, 532 nm) profiles for use in advanced aerosol microphysical retrievals. The data files in this PI product contain this suite of aerosol backscatter (355, 532, 1064), extinction (355, 532 nm), and depolarization (532 nm) profiles.

  2. Plastic Membrane Sensor from a Disposed Combined Glass Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marafie, Hayat M.; Shoukry, Adel F.; Alshatti, Laila A.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of combined plastic membrane electrode for hydralazinium cation from a disposed glass electrode is described. A variety of electrodes could be prepared by students using other types of polymers, plasticizers, or exchangers which could also help to study effects of pH and temperature, or environmental investigations.

  3. Preparative Microfluidic Electrosynthesis of Drug Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In vivo, a drug molecule undergoes its first chemical transformation within the liver via CYP450-catalyzed oxidation. The chemical outcome of the first pass hepatic oxidation is key information to any drug development process. Electrochemistry can be used to simulate CYP450 oxidation, yet it is often confined to the analytical scale, hampering product isolation and full characterization. In an effort to replicate hepatic oxidations, while retaining high throughput at the preparative scale, microfluidic technology and electrochemistry are combined in this study by using a microfluidic electrochemical cell. Several commercial drugs were subjected to continuous-flow electrolysis. They were chosen for their various chemical reactivity: their metabolites in vivo are generated via aromatic hydroxylation, alkyl oxidation, glutathione conjugation, or sulfoxidation. It is demonstrated that such metabolites can be synthesized by flow electrolysis at the 10 to 100 mg scale, and the purified products are fully characterized. PMID:24900614

  4. Electrodeposited gels prepared from protein alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yinan; Wang, Siran; Chen, Ying; Wang, Qianrui; Burke, Kelly A; Spedden, Elise M; Staii, Cristian; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    Aim Silk-tropoelastin alloys, composed of recombinant human tropoelastin and regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin, are an emerging, versatile class of biomaterials endowed with tunable combinations of physical and biological properties. Electrodeposition of these alloys provides a programmable means to assemble functional gels with both spatial and temporal controllability. Materials & methods Tropoelastin-modified silk was prepared by enzymatic coupling between tyrosine residues. Hydrogel coatings were electrodeposited using two wire electrodes. Results & discussion Mechanical characterization and in vitro cell culture revealed enhanced adhesive capability and cellular response of these alloy gels as compared with electrogelled silk alone. Conclusion These electro-depositable silk-tropoelastin alloys constitute a suitable coating material for nanoparticle-based drug carriers and offer a novel opportunity for on-demand encapsulation/release of nanomedicine. PMID:25816881

  5. Preparation of feed premix for veterinary purposes.

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš; Lehocký, Róbert; Muselík, Jan; Vetchý, David; Dobšíková, Radka; Modrá, Helena

    2014-10-01

    This experimental study describes the preparation of a veterinary medicated premix containing tetracycline hydrochloride for oral administration to aquatic animals. For the manufacture of the premix, commercially produced animal feed is used, which is intended for consumption in the form of pellets that were coated with a mixture of chlortetracycline hydrochloride and other excipients. Feed pellets were combined with a mixture of an active substance and excipients with a large specific surface (colloidal silica - Aerosil® 200) allowing an easy adhesion to the surface of the pellets, and a solid polymer with a low glass transition point (Eudragit® E) which ensures the formation of a hard coat. A mixture of these substances has been applied to the surface of the pellets either A) in the solid state simply by dry adhesion; B) by coating the pellets with the mixture and additional impregnation with ethanol; or C) the polymer was subsequently applied in solution. In the final stage, the pellets were heated in order to achieve the glass transition point of the polymer to create a solid and mechanically resistant coating. Coated pellets prepared by three methods described above are almost identical in their physical properties. With this technology it is possible to produce a feed mixture with a very low content of the active substance in situ without the need for a complex technological equipment.

  6. Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs), based on both ternary (SiO2-CaO-P2O5) and binary (SiO2-CaO) systems, were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The pH of preparation and the effect of heat treatment temperature were evaluated, as well as the effect of suppressing P in the bioactivity ability of the materials. The morphology and composition of the BG-NPs were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The bioactive character of these materials was accessed in vitro by analyzing the ability for apatite formation onto the surface after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD, EDX and SEM were used to confirm the bioactivity of the materials. The BG-NP effect on cell metabolic activity was assessed by seeding L929 cells with their leachables, proving the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. Finally the most bioactive BG-NPs developed (ternary system prepared at pH 11.5 and treated at 700 °C) were successfully combined with chitosan in the production of biomimetic nanocomposite osteoconductive membranes that could have the potential to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  7. Studies on gas transport through dry cellulose acetate membranes prepared by solvent exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.; Talbot, F.D.F.; Sourirajan, S.; Fouda, A.; Matsuura, T.

    1988-10-01

    The mechanism of gas transport through pores on the surface of dry cellulose acetate membranes under pressure was identified for membranes prepared by the solvent exchange technique using pure gas permeation rate data. The pure gases were helium, methane and carbon dioxide. The variables involved in the membrane preparation variables involved in the membrane preparation are the shrinkage temperature, the first solvent, the second solvent and the combinations thereof. Different conditions of membrane preparation produce different pore sizes. Depending on this pore size, one of the following mechanisms becomes dominant: Knudsen, surface and size exclusion.

  8. Interoperability and Combined Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-15

    34Organization for Joint Operations," MIL RVW, 32:32-39, Feb 1953. Collins, Joseph L. "Building Strength for Western Defense," AID, 9:3-8, Jul 1954...34 MIL RVW, 26:3-9, Aug 1946; 26:10-16, Sep 1946. Johnston, Joseph W. "Combined Operations in Lower Units," MIL RVW, 32:56-62, Jul 1952. Lenschau...1950. Postlethwait, Edward M. "Unified Command in Theaters of Operations," MIL RVW, 29:23-30, Nov 1949. Priestley , H. "Let’s Stick Together," MIL RVW

  9. High School Chemistry: Preparation for College or Preparation for Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Edward T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the present state of science curricula in light of the current crisis in science education, examining the problem of low science enrollment/achievement and its effect on society. Analyzes conflicting demands of preparing students for college and educating the large bulk of students who do not plan science-related careers. (JM)

  10. Preparing a manuscript for submission.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-08-01

    Good manuscripts are sought by journals and publication marks the endpoint of a scientific research project. In preparing a manuscript for submission, the material should be organised into a structure that best showcases the author's material. The manuscript should be written in a style that transmits the author's message with clarity. The author's material should be matched to the most appropriate paper category and the target journal. Having the help of an experienced mentor is invaluable. Authors need to prepare the manuscript meticulously and exactly according to the journal's "Instructions to Authors".

  11. Multistage process for preparing ferroboron

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Wong, F.S.

    1984-12-04

    A process for preparing ferroboron comprises first heating a mixture of boron oxide or boric acid, iron or iron oxide, carbon, and a carbohydrate to produce a foraminous char. During a subsequent two-stage reduction process in an electric or arc plasma furnace, ferroboron is produced and gaseous boric oxides are evolved. The boron values are captured as they move to the cooler regions of the furnace, resulting in high boron yields. The process is particularly useful in preparing pure and inexpensive raw material for the production of amorphous ferroalloys.

  12. Combine electrochemistry with photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodgopal, K.; Kamat, P.V.

    1996-04-01

    Because a substantial percentage of colorant is lost during the dyeing process, remediation efforts have largely been focused on removing these dyes from the wastewater effluents of textile mills and other industrial colorant users. Incomplete decolorization of the effluent before discharge shifts the burden of treatment downstream. In publicly owned water treatment facilities, these dyes often end up as sludges that are dewatered and eventually deposited in landfills. There is a substantial economic impetus to develop a flow reactor to be used onstream by mills to treat colorant effluent and recycle the water. The authors have developed a photocatalytic approach using semiconductors for degrading several azo dyes. They recently found that deposition of semiconductor nanoclusters on a conducting glass surface provides a convenient way to manipulate the photocatalytic reaction by electrochemical methods. The thin semiconductor particulate film can be used as a photosensitive electrode in an electrochemical cell. The paper describes electrode preparation, the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, reaction mechanism, and composite semiconductor films.

  13. Fuel compositions containing alcohol and saponified fatty material and method of preparing same

    SciTech Connect

    Lezcano, M.R.

    1981-11-24

    Internal combustion engine fuels are described comprising solutions of ethyl alcohol containing dissolved saponified grease and solutions of gasoline and ethyl alcohol containing dissolved saponified grease. The method of preparing the solutions comprises predissolving saponified grease in ethanol and then combining the dissolved saponified grease with ethanol or with a combination of ethanol and gasoline.

  14. Method and apparatus for preparing multiconductor cable with flat conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcell, G. V. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preparing flat conductor cable having a plurality of ribbon-like conductors disposed upon and adhesively bonded to the surface of a substrate is described. The conductors are brought into contact with the substrate surface, and while maintained in axial tension on said substrate, the combination is seated on a yieldably compressible layer to permit the conductor to become embedded into the surface of the substrate film.

  15. Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-11-01

    Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis.

  16. The Effective Time Course of Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los, Sander A.; Schut, Marcus L. J.

    2008-01-01

    In reaction time (RT) research on nonspecific preparation, the preparation period is often identified with the foreperiod (FP), the interval between the offset of a neutral warning stimulus (S1) and the onset of the reaction stimulus (S2). However, the "effective preparation period" may be longer than FP: nonspecific preparation may start prior to…

  17. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  18. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  19. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  20. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  1. PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Stethers, H.L.; Johnson, T.R.

    1964-03-24

    A process of preparing uranium monocarbide is de scribed. Uranium metal is dissolved in cadmium, zinc, cadmium-- zinc, or magnesium-- zinc alloy and a small quantity of alkali metal is added. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of carbon at 500 to 820 deg C then precipitates uranium monocarbide. (AEC)

  2. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  3. Preparing Student Mobility through Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giralt, Marta; Jeanneau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, going to a foreign country has become all the more significant for Higher Education (HE) students, as concepts such as internationalisation and intercultural competencies have gained a more prominent role in HE. For students to fully benefit from this experience, it is paramount to prepare them for their stay in a foreign country…

  4. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  5. Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Rabideau, Sherman W.; Campbell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

  6. Preparation of high purity phosphorus

    DOEpatents

    Rupp, Arthur F.; Woo, David V.

    1981-01-01

    High purity phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are prepared by first reacting H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 with a lead compound such as PbO to form Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2. The Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2 is reduced with H.sub.2 at a temperature sufficient to form gaseous phosphorus which can be recovered as a high purity phosphorus product. Phosphorus compounds can be easily prepared by reacting the phosphorus product with gaseous reactants. For example, the phosphorus product is reacted with gaseous Cl.sub.2 to form PCl.sub.5. PCl.sub.5 is reduced to PCl.sub.3 by contacting it in the gaseous phase with solid elemental phosphorus. POCl.sub.3 can be prepared by contacting PCl.sub.5 in the gaseous phase with solid P.sub.2 O.sub.5. The general process is particularly suitable for the preparation of radiophosphorus compounds.

  7. Parenting Education - Preparing for Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The first in a series on parenting education, for American Indians, the booklet looks at preparation for parenthood. Learning to be a good parent begins when one is a child, watching our parents and copying their ways with our own children. The booklet recognizes problems and needs of new parents. Some problems are an unplanned pregnancy,…

  8. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  9. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  10. Preparation of Future School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Lynn Walton

    2007-01-01

    One Educational Leadership preparation program in a rather unexpected location, the Mississippi Delta region, has received national recognition from the Educational Leadership Constituent Council, been asked to use its program report on the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) website as a national example of excellence,…

  11. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  12. Preparing Students for Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    This study is situated in the fields of language education, study abroad (SA) and intercultural communication. The interest in SA is increasing on the part of students, administrators, educators, and business companies for the learning opportunities that it offers. However, SA students are not always prepared to maximize their learning…

  13. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring student access to a highly qualified, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component to a 21st-century education. "Standards for Art Teacher Preparation" represents the…

  14. Preparing Rural Community College Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin L.; Couch, Gene; Dougherty, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of universities offer graduate programs that focus specifically on preparing rural community college leaders. At the same time, community colleges are facing projections of unprecedented turnover in both administrative and instructional leadership. The rural community college is a unique educational institution which faces…

  15. Educational Preparation of Pediatric Audiologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric audiologists play a vital role in detection, diagnosis, and intervention for young children with hearing loss and their families. Preparing the next generation of pediatric audiologists necessitates a creative approach that balances the requirements of a broad curriculum with the special skills needed to serve a unique and varied…

  16. Preparing Workers for Successful Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2010-01-01

    No doubt career and technical education (CTE) is integral in preparing a skilled workforce for today's jobs. Hands-on training is an important element of the CTE classroom, and when that occurs in an actual workplace setting, it may be called internship, apprenticeship or cooperative education. Whatever term is applied, it is another way in which…

  17. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  18. Preparing Slide Presentations on Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elberfeld, John K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggest use of well-organized slide presentation as effective way to introduce computers to large audiences and discusses how to get started--state objective, analyze audience, outline presentation, prepare slides--and equipment needed to obtain slides from television screens, miniature components, and book illustrations. References and sources…

  19. Preparing for harvest without chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New environmental laws may someday restrict defoliant chemical application. To prepare for this possible challenge experimental thermal defoliators were operated in California, New Mexico and Texas from 2001 through 2007. This paper summarizes findings from extensive trials in a variety of field c...

  20. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  1. Practicing Improvisation: Preparing Multicultural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Preparing competent multicultural educators involves a dynamic process requiring constant self-reflection and assisting pre-service teachers to sharpen their cultural vision as they learn to be responsive educators. Reflections on lessons learned as a teacher educator are shared through personal experiences that are identified as keys to prepare…

  2. High School Preparation for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; And Others

    This report contains four studies related to preparation of youth for employment after leaving school. The first study, "Learning as a Product of Exposure and Readiness" (Hotchkiss), examined the effects of curriculum on the learning of basic skills using an interaction model. The data collected revealed statistically significant interactions…

  3. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  4. Process for preparing fluorine-18

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Wells, Dale K.; Lamb, James F.; Beaudry, Samuel B.

    1976-09-21

    An improved process for preparation of fluorine-18 by a neon (deuteron, alpha particle) fluorine-18 nuclear reaction in a non-reactive enclosed reaction zone wherein a ultrapure product is recovered by heating the reaction zone to a high temperature and removing the product with an inert gas.

  5. Gathering and Preparing Wild Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, A. Dudley; Williams, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discussed are the applications of gathering and preparing wild foods to environmental, survival, career, and community education programs. It recommends wild foods activities be used to stimulate social and historical studies of "return-to-nature" life styles. Wild food study also emphasizes man as part of the environment. (MR)

  6. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  7. Careers and Professional Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Robert D.; Clayton, Joyce A.

    1984-01-01

    Health, physical education, recreation, and dance majors have a variety of career options. Education, fitness, medical specialties, sales, management, performance, and communication are some possible employment opportunities. Desirable professional preparation programs should offer interdisciplinary majors, employ competent faculty, and include an…

  8. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  9. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  10. PROCESS OF PREPARING ZIRCONIUM OXYCHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Andrews, M.L.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for preparing zirconyl chloride by mixing solid zirconyl chloride octahydrate and solid zirconium tetrachloride at room temperature whereby both chlorides are converted to zirconyl chloride trinydrate and hydrogen chloride is formed and volatilized by the reaction heat.

  11. The Preparation of Training Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    A study examined the nature and extent of programs and course offerings available in the United States to prepare education and training professionals and analyzed the offerings in terms of a 1983 study done by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD). Colleges and accredited business schools from across the country were…

  12. Preparing the Workforce. NCEDL Spotlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.

    This report summarizes findings of a national survey of institutions of higher education (IHEs) with early childhood programs. The study, conducted by the National Council for Early Development and Learning, surveyed a nationally representative group of chairs/directors of early childhood teacher preparation programs of two- and four-year colleges…

  13. Pregraduate Preparation of Research Mathematicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics, Berkeley, CA.

    Presented are a suggested program and the course outlines for the pregraduate preparation of research mathematicians. The program set forth is designed for the first four years of a sequence of formal course study leading to the Ph.D. in a total of seven years. The proposed program of pre-graduate mathematical studies falls into two parts:…

  14. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  15. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  16. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  17. Preparing Sustainability-Literate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores sustainability as an emerging paradigm for preservice preparation of teachers. Sustainability education, which is rooted in Deweyan ideas about the fundamental social purposes of schooling, attends to the tensions created by the interconnectedness of environmental, economic, and social equity systems.…

  18. [Preparation of cytoplasts from HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Yu, Huangfei; Fang, Ning; Chen, Daixiong

    2013-06-01

    This experimental research was aimed to establish an optimum system of enucleation, purification and identification for preparing the cytoplasts of suspension culture cells in order to undertake cell recombination. Human leukemia HL-60 cells in suspension culture were purified by 42% Percoll density gradient centrifugation and low-speed centrifugation at 1 500r/min, respectively. The purified HL-60 cells were treated with cytochalasin B (CB) alone or combined with colcchicine and enucleated by isopycnic gradient centrifugation on 50% Percoll at 25 degrees C and 34 degrees C, respectively. Cytoplasts made from HL-60 cells were purified through gradient centrifugation by 37%, 38% and 40% Percoll, respectively. The final cytoplasts were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride (DAPI)/5, 6-carboxyflu-orescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) double-staining. The phenotype and mitochondrial membrane potential of HL-60 cytoplasts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the enucleation ratio of HL-60 cells induced by CB combined with colcchicine was up to 91. 98% +/-4. 29%, which was significantly higher than that in CB alone group (74. 95% +/- 3. 02%)(P<0. 01). The rates of enucleation and cytoplast with diameter over 5min in 34 degrees C group were higher than those in 25 degrees C group (all P<0. 01). The cytoplast purities were (95.43 +/- 0. 59)% in 38% Percoll groups,which were higher than those of 40% Percoll (P<0. 05). Nucleus and caryoplasm could be clearly distinguished by DAPI and CFSE double labeling. The results further showed that the phenotype of HL-60 cytoplasts had no significant change, and the activity of the cytoplasts was above 80% within 12h. It is concluded that enucleation throuth density gradient centrifugation on 50% Percoll mediated by CB combined with colcchicine, 38%Percoll of purification followed by DAPI/CFSE double labeling and MMP detection is an optimum scheme for

  19. Newberry Combined Gravity 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Rose

    2016-01-22

    Newberry combined gravity from Zonge Int'l, processed for the EGS stimulation project at well 55-29. Includes data from both Davenport 2006 collection and for OSU/4D EGS monitoring 2012 collection. Locations are NAD83, UTM Zone 10 North, meters. Elevation is NAVD88. Gravity in milligals. Free air and observed gravity are included, along with simple Bouguer anomaly and terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly. SBA230 means simple Bouguer anomaly computed at 2.30 g/cc. CBA230 means terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly at 2.30 g/cc. This suite of densities are included (g/cc): 2.00, 2.10, 2.20, 2.30, 2.40, 2.50, 2.67.

  20. Superconducting combined function magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Fernow, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting accelerators and storage rings, presently under construction or in the design phase, are based on separate dipole and quadrupole magnets. It is here suggested that a hybrid lattice configuration consisting of dipoles and combined function gradient magnets would: (1) reduce the number of magnet units and their total cost; and (2) increase the filling factor and thus the energy at a given field. Coil cross sections are presented for the example of the Brookhaven Colliding Beam Accelerator. An asymmetric two-layer cable gradient magnet would have transfer functions of 10.42 G/A and 0.628 G cm/sup -1//A versus 15.77 G/A and 2.03 G cm/sup -1//A of the present separate dipoles and quadrupoles.

  1. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of

  2. Low Doses of Traditional Nanophytomedicines for Clinical Treatment: Manufacturing Processes and Nonlinear Response Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Sarter, Barbara; Standish, Leanna J; Banerji, Prasanta; Banerji, Pratip

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to (a) summarize evidence for the nanoparticle nature and biological effects of traditional homeopathically-prepared medicines at low and ultralow doses; (b) provide details of historically-based homeopathic green manufacturing materials and methods, relating them to top-down mechanical attrition and plant-based biosynthetic processes in modern nanotechnology; (c) outline the potential roles of nonlinear dose-responses and dynamical interactions with complex adaptive systems in generating endogenous amplification processes during low dose treatment. Possible mechanisms of low dose effects, for which there is evidence involving nanoparticles and/or homeopathically-manufactured medicines, include hormesis, time-dependent sensitization, and stochastic resonance. All of the proposed mechanisms depend upon endogenous nonlinear amplification processes in the recipient organism in interaction with the salient, albeit weak signal properties of the medicine. Conventional ligand-receptor mechanisms relevant to higher doses are less likely involved. Effects, especially for homeopathically-prepared nanophytomedicines, include bidirectional host state-dependent changes in function. Homeopathic clinicians report successful treatment of serious infections and cancers. Preclinical biological evidence is consistent with such claims. Controlled biological data on homeopathically-prepared medicines indicate modulation of gene expression and biological signaling pathways regulating cell cycles, immune reactions, and central nervous system function from studies on cells, animals, and human subjects. As a 200-year old system of traditional medicine used by millions of people worldwide, homeopathy offers a pulsed low dose treatment strategy and strong safety record to facilitate progress in translational nanomedicine with plants and other natural products. In turn, modern nanotechnology methods can improve homeopathic manufacturing procedures

  3. Optimization of Fast Dissolving Etoricoxib Tablets Prepared by Sublimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. M.; Patel, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent. PMID:20390084

  4. Methods and apparatuses for preparing a surface to have catalytic activity

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert G.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Ouyang, Zheng; Goodwin, Michael P.

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides methods and apparatuses that utilize mass spectrometry for preparation of a surface to have catalytic activity through molecular soft-landing of mass selected ions. Mass spectrometry is used to generate combinations of atoms in a particular geometrical arrangement, and ion soft-landing selects this molecular entity or combination of entities and gently deposits the entity or combination intact onto a surface.

  5. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  6. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  7. PREPARATION OF REFRACTORY OXIDE CRYSTALS

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, W.R.; Shaffer, J.H.; Watson, G.M.

    1962-11-13

    A method is given for preparing uranium dioxide, thorium oxide, and beryllium oxide in the form of enlarged individual crystals. The surface of a fused alkali metal halide melt containing dissolved uranium, thorium, or beryllium values is contacted with a water-vapor-bearing inert gas stream at a rate of 5 to 10 cubic centimeters per minute per square centimeter of melt surface area. Growth of individual crystals is obtained by prolonged contact. Beryllium oxide-coated uranium dioxide crystals are prepared by disposing uranium dioxide crystals 5 to 20 microns in diameter in a beryllium-containing melt and contacting the melt with a water-vapor-bearing inert gas stream in the same manner. (AEC)

  8. Optimal preparation of graph states

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J.; Danielsen, Lars Eirik; Portillo, Jose R.

    2011-04-15

    We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

  9. Microfluidic preparation of polymer nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuk, Israfil; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, solid polymer nanospheres with their surface tailored for drug adhesion were prepared using a V-shaped microfluidic junction. The biocompatible polymer solutions were infused using two channels of the microfluidic junction which was also simultaneously fed with a volatile liquid, perfluorohexane using the other channel. The mechanism by which the nanospheres are generated is explained using high speed camera imaging. The polymer concentration (5-50 wt%) and flow rates of the feeds (50-300 µl min-1) were important parameters in controlling the nanosphere diameter. The diameter of the polymer nanospheres was found to be in the range of 80-920 nm with a polydispersity index of 11-19 %. The interior structure and surfaces of the nanospheres prepared were studied using advanced microscopy and showed the presence of fine pores and cracks on surface which can be used as drug entrapment locations.

  10. Preparation Of Energy Storage Materials

    DOEpatents

    Li, Lin Song; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-12-02

    A process is provided for the preparation of a metallic oxide composite including mixing an aqueous solution of a water-soluble metal compound and colloidal silica, depositing the mixture upon a substrate, heating the mixture-coated substrates at temperatures from about 150.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. for time sufficient to form a metallic oxide film, and, removing the silica from the metallic oxide film whereby a porous metal oxide structure is formed.

  11. Preparing for the Next Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    Preparing for the Next Fight EWS Contemporary Issue Paper Submitted by Captain ET Sprague To Major AB Irvin, CG...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...for the Next Fight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  12. Preparation of energy storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Li, Lin Song; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-01-01

    A process is provided for the preparation of a metallic oxide composite including mixing an aqueous solution of a water-soluble metal compound and colloidal silica, depositing the mixture upon a substrate, heating the mixture-coated substrates at temperatures from about 150.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. for time sufficient to form a metallic oxide film, and, removing the silica from the metallic oxide film whereby a porous metal oxide structure is formed.

  13. Method for preparing ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-01-09

    A process is disclosed for preparing ceramic composite comprising blending TiC particulates, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulates and nickel aluminide and consolidating the mixture at a temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite having fracture toughness equal to or greater than 7 MPa m{sup 1/2}, a hardness equal to or greater than 18 GPa. 5 figs.

  14. Preparing for an Uncertain Forecast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Navigating the world of government relations and public policy can be a little like predicting the weather. One can't always be sure what's in store or how it will affect him/her down the road. But there are common patterns and a few basic steps that can help one best prepare for a change in the forecast. Though the forecast is uncertain, early…

  15. Method for preparing ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparing ceramic composite comprising blending TiC particulates, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 particulates and nickle aluminide and consolidating the mixture at a temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite having fracture toughness equal to or greater than 7 MPa m.sup.1/2, a hardness equal to or greater than 18 GPa.

  16. Preparation of Perfluorinated Imidoylamidoxime Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Kratzer, R. H.; Paciorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.

    1982-01-01

    Perfluorinated imidoylamidoxime polymers with excellent resistance to heat, chemicals and solvents are prepared by condensing a perfluorinated nitrile with a perfluorinated amidoxime in vacuum or inert atmosphere from 20 degrees to 70 degrees C. When both reactants are difunctional, oligomeric or polymeric products are obtained. After cyclization of imidoylamidoxime groups to 1,2,4-oxadiazole linkages, process yields highly resistant elastomers. Competing side reactions are inhibited by low processing temperature.

  17. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  18. Variability of NPH insulin preparations.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, M M; Colle, E; DeBelle, R; Murthy, D Y

    1971-01-23

    In 1968-69 certain juvenile diabetics receiving NPH insulin began having pre-breakfast glucosuria and mid-morning hypoglycemic reactions. A mail survey of our clinic population and a study done at the Quebec camp for diabetic children in 1969 revealed that certain lot numbers were associated with poor control and that a change to new lot numbers or alternate insulin preparations resulted in better control. "Suspect" insulin preparations and non-suspect insulins were given to newly diagnosed diabetics, and plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured over a 24-hour period. The data confirmed that the "suspect" insulins were causing early hypoglycemia and failing to control hyperglycemia during the latter hours of the 24-hour period. The lower glucose levels were associated with higher plasma insulin levels. The "suspect" insulins were further found to have elevated levels of free insulin in the supernatant fluid.The requirements for quality control of modified insulin preparations are reviewed and suggestions are offered for their improvement.

  19. Efficacy of a multifactorial strategy for bowel preparation in diabetic patients undergoing colonoscopy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gonzalez, Marco Antonio; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A; Seoane, Agustin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Carot, Laura; Fernandez-Clotet, Agnés; Raga, Agnés; Pantaleon, Miguel A; Barranco, Luis; Bory, Felipe; Lorenzo-Zuñiga, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: Previous studies have reported that diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation. Current guidelines do not recommend a specific preparation for this patient population. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of an adapted preparation protocol for colon cleansing in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: This randomized, single-blind, parallel group, superiority trial compared a conventional bowel preparation protocol (CBP) with a diabetes-specific preparation protocol (DSP). The CBP included a low-fiber diet for 3 days followed by a clear liquid diet for 24 hours before colonoscopy. The DSP included a multifactorial strategy combining an educational intervention, a low-fiber diet, and adjustment of blood glucose-lowering agents. All patients received 4 L of a polyethylene glycol solution in a split-dose regimen. The endoscopists were blinded to the preparation protocol. The primary outcome measure was inadequate bowel preparation according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Secondary outcome measures included hypoglycemic events, tolerability, and acceptability. Results: A total of 150 patients were included in the study (74 CBP and 76 DSP). Both groups were comparable in terms of baseline characteristics. Inadequate bowel cleansing was more frequent following CBP than DSP (20 % vs. 7 %, P = 0.014; risk ratio 3.1, 95 % confidence interval 1.2 - 8). Only CBP and performance status were independently associated with inadequate bowel preparation. Both preparations were equally tolerated and accepted by patients, and side-effects were similar between the groups. Conclusions: A multifactorial strategy for bowel preparation in patients with diabetes undergoing colonoscopy showed a threefold reduction in the rate of inadequate bowel preparation, with no differences in safety and tolerability compared with conventional preparation.

  20. Combination strategies for pain management.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Clark-Vetri, Rachel; Tallarida, Ronald J; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2003-10-01

    At least two factors relating to pain management using oral analgesics suggest that combination strategies merit consideration: many pains arise from more than one physiological cause and current analgesics have adverse effect profiles that might be reduced by combination with another agent in smaller doses or with less frequent dosing. In addition to increased convenience, combinations sometimes also result in the unexpected benefit of synergy. But not all pains, clinical settings or combinations merit the extra expense or other potential negative features of fixed-ratio products. This review examines the multiple basic science, clinical and pharmacoeconomic issues relating to analgesic combinations and the methodologies available for assessing these issues.

  1. Combination therapeutics in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bing; Lu, Cheng; Zheng, Guang; He, Xiaojuan; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping

    2016-12-01

    The biological redundancies in molecular networks of complex diseases limit the efficacy of many single drug therapies. Combination therapeutics, as a common therapeutic method, involve pharmacological intervention using several drugs that interact with multiple targets in the molecular networks of diseases and may achieve better efficacy and/or less toxicity than monotherapy in practice. The development of combination therapeutics is complicated by several critical issues, including identifying multiple targets, targeting strategies and the drug combination. This review summarizes the current achievements in combination therapeutics, with a particular emphasis on the efforts to develop combination therapeutics for complex diseases.

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Combination and... necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds (or be augmented by a separate loan) to pay all or a part of the cost of the necessary site...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Combination and... necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds (or be augmented by a separate loan) to pay all or a part of the cost of the necessary site...

  5. 38 CFR 39.32 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.32 Plan preparation. The State or Tribal Organization must prepare Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project...

  6. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  7. Multiswitching combination-combination synchronization of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ayub; Khattar, Dinesh; Prajapati, Nitish

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel synchronization scheme is investigated for a class of chaotic systems. The multiswitching synchronization scheme is extended to the combination-combination synchronization scheme such that the combination of state variables of two drive systems synchronize with different combination of state variables of two response systems, simultaneously. The new scheme, multiswitching combination-combination synchronization (MSCCS), is a notable extension of the earlier multiswitching schemes concerning only the single drive-response system model. Various multiswitching modified projective synchronization schemes are obtained as special cases of MSCCS, for a suitable choice of scaling factors. Suitable controllers have been designed and using Lyapunov stability theory sufficient condition is obtained to achieve MSCCS between four hyperchaotic systems and the corresponding theoretical proof is given. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the theoretical results.

  8. Professional Development Schools: Combining School Improvement and Teacher Preparation. NEA School Restructuring Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Lucindia, Ed.

    This book focuses on the how-to of developing Professional Development Schools (PDSs) without external funding, challenges of developing such partnerships, and benefits of PDSs to schools and universities. The nine chapters are: (1) "Creating a New Institution" (Nate Essex, Vivian Gunn Morris, Marty M. Harrison, and Fred Johnson); (2)…

  9. Nuclear-grade zirconium prepared by combining combustion synthesis with molten-salt electrorefining technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Park, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Jeong-Guk; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2011-06-01

    Zirconium has a low absorption cross-section for neutrons, which makes it an ideal material for use in nuclear reactor applications. However, hafnium typically contained in zirconium causes it to be far less useful for nuclear reactor materials because of its high neutron-absorbing properties. In the present study, a novel effective method has been developed for the production of hafnium-free zirconium. The process includes two main stages: magnesio-thermic reduction of ZrSiO 4 under a combustion mode, to produce zirconium silicide (ZrSi), and recovery of hafnium-free zirconium by molten-salt electrorefining. It was found that, depending on the electrorefining procedure, it is possible to produce zirconium powder with a low hafnium content: 70 ppm, determined by ICP-AES analysis.

  10. Preparation of Light-responsive Membranes by a Combined Surface Grafting and Postmodification Process

    PubMed Central

    Schöller, Katrin; Baumann, Lukas; Hegemann, Dirk; De Courten, Damien; Wolf, Martin; Rossi, René M.; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to modify the surface tension of commercial available track-edged polymer membranes, a procedure of surface-initiated polymerization is presented. The polymerization from the membrane surface is induced by plasma treatment of the membrane, followed by reacting the membrane surface with a methanolic solution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Special attention is given to the process parameters for the plasma treatment prior to the polymerization on the surface. For example, the influence of the plasma-treatment on different types of membranes (e.g. polyester, polycarbonate, polyvinylidene fluoride) is studied. Furthermore, the time-dependent stability of the surface-grafted membranes is shown by contact angle measurements. When grafting poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) in this way, the surface can be further modified by esterification of the alcohol moiety of the polymer with a carboxylic acid function of the desired substance. These reactions can therefore be used for the functionalization of the membrane surface. For example, the surface tension of the membrane can be changed or a desired functionality as the presented light-responsiveness can be inserted. This is demonstrated by reacting PHEMA with a carboxylic acid functionalized spirobenzopyran unit which leads to a light-responsive membrane. The choice of solvent plays a major role in the postmodification step and is discussed in more detail in this paper. The permeability measurements of such functionalized membranes are performed using a Franz cell with an external light source. By changing the wavelength of the light from the visible to the UV-range, a change of permeability of aqueous caffeine solutions is observed. PMID:24686898

  11. Analysis of a combined refrigerator-generator space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a single-shaft and a two-shaft rotating machinery arrangements using neon for application in a combined refrigerator-generator power system for space missions. The arrangements consist of combined assemblies of a power turbine, alternator, compressor, and cry-turbine with a single-stage radial-flow design. A computer program was prepared to study the thermodynamics of the dual system in the evaluation of its cryocooling/electric capacity and appropriate weight. A preliminary analysis showed that a two-shaft arrangement of the power- and refrigeration-loop rotating machinery provided better output capacities than a single-shaft arrangement, without prohibitive operating compromises.

  12. The combined surgical and orthodontic treatment of mandibular prognathism.

    PubMed

    Lehman, J A; Tabbal, N; Haas, D G; Haas, A J

    1981-12-01

    Patients with severe mandibular prognathism are best managed with a combined orthodontic-surgical approach. In our patients, the orthodontic treatment consisted of six to eighteen months of presurgical preparation, which in some patients may accentuate the dental deformity. This is done to provide two well-aligned dental arches that will fit accurately at surgery. The surgical procedure used was an oblique subcondylar osteotomy. This was followed by six to eight months of orthodontic treatment to complete dental alignment. Thirty patients were treated using this combined approach, with excellent results and few complications.

  13. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  14. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  15. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children

    PubMed Central

    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of computer programs in this area may facilitate important achievements, and it needs to support new studies to be performed. PMID:27366525

  16. Polyimides prepared from perfluoroisopropylidene diamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); O'Rell, Michael K. (Inventor); Hom, Jim M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel aromatic diamine and more particularly to the use of said diamine for the preparation of thermally stable high-molecular weight polymers including, for example, polyamides, polyamideimides, polyimides, and the like. This diamine is obtained by reacting a stoichometric amount of a disodium salt of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane with 4-chloronitrobenzene to obtain an intermediate, 2,2-bis[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane, which is reduced to the corresponding 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane.

  17. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paques, Jerome P; van der Linden, Erik; van Rijn, Cees J M; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the "complexation method", complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocapsules, and complex formation in an aqueous solution is used to form alginate nano-aggregates. In a second method w/o emulsification coupled with gelation of the alginate emulsion droplet can be used to form alginate nanospheres. We review advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and give an overview of the properties of the alginate particles produced with these methods.

  18. METHOD OF PREPARING METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.J.; Sheft, I.

    1959-08-11

    A method is presented for preparing the halides of elements which are relatively non-reactive with halogenating agents. The method involves reacting a mixture of an oxygen containing salt of a difficulty halogenated metal with an oxygen containing salt of an easily halogenated metal with a halogenating agent. Accordingly plutonium tetrafluoride is produced by reacting a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium octaoxide with bromine trifluoride. The reaction proceeds smoothly at moderate temperatures and the resulting plutonium trifluoride may be readily separated from many impurities which form volatile fluorides by volatilizing these volatile fluorides from the reaction chamber.

  19. Trends in mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Aki; Pang, Liyong; Su, Bo; Choi, Yohan

    2014-10-01

    Whether for VSB mask writing or for multibeam mask writing, the shapes we need to write on masks are increasingly complex, increasingly curvilinear, and smaller in minimum width and space. The overwhelming trend in mask data preparation (MDP) is the shift from deterministic, rule-based, geometric, context-independent, shape-modulated, rectangular processing to statistical, simulation-based, context-dependent, dose- and shape-modulated any-shape processing. The paper briefly surveys the history of MDP, and explains through a simulation-based study that 50nm line and space is the tipping point where rule-based processing gives away to simulation-based processing.

  20. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  1. Method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1989-05-02

    A method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes that are substantially free of the reaction materials used to produce the radiopharmaceutical complex is disclosed. The method involves admixing in a suitable first solvent in a container a target seeking ligand or salt or metal adduct thereof, a radionuclide label, and a reducing agent for said radionuclide, thereby forming said radiopharmaceutical complex; coating the interior walls of the container with said pharmaceutical complex; discarding the solvent containing by-products and unreacted starting reaction materials; and removing the radiopharmaceutical complex from said walls by dissolving it in a second solvent, thereby obtaining said radiopharmaceutical complex substantially free of by-products and unreacted starting materials.

  2. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an...

  3. 29 CFR 780.912 - Exempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exempt preparation. 780.912 Section 780.912 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.912 Exempt preparation. The following operations... marketing or first processing, are considered preparation for transportation: Assembling, weighing,...

  4. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall be obtained from the Center for...

  5. 29 CFR 780.912 - Exempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exempt preparation. 780.912 Section 780.912 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.912 Exempt preparation. The following operations... marketing or first processing, are considered preparation for transportation: Assembling, weighing,...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an...

  8. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall be obtained from the Center for...

  9. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for...

  10. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall be obtained from the Center for...

  11. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1432 Vehicle preparation. (a) The test conditions to be... substituted for the vehicle preparation steps described in paragraph (b)(1), (c), and (d) of this section....

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  15. 29 CFR 780.912 - Exempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exempt preparation. 780.912 Section 780.912 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.912 Exempt preparation. The following operations... marketing or first processing, are considered preparation for transportation: Assembling, weighing,...

  16. 29 CFR 780.912 - Exempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt preparation. 780.912 Section 780.912 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.912 Exempt preparation. The following operations... marketing or first processing, are considered preparation for transportation: Assembling, weighing,...

  17. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1432 Vehicle preparation. (a) The test conditions to be... substituted for the vehicle preparation steps described in paragraph (b)(1), (c), and (d) of this section....

  19. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for...

  20. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall be obtained from the Center for...

  1. 29 CFR 780.912 - Exempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exempt preparation. 780.912 Section 780.912 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.912 Exempt preparation. The following operations... marketing or first processing, are considered preparation for transportation: Assembling, weighing,...

  2. 29 CFR 780.913 - Nonexempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonexempt preparation. 780.913 Section 780.913 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.913 Nonexempt preparation. (a) Retail packing... “preparation for transportation.” (Schultz v. Durrence (D. Ga.), 19 WH Cases 747, 63 CCH Lab. Cas. secs....

  3. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall be obtained from the Center for...

  4. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  6. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an...

  8. 29 CFR 780.913 - Nonexempt preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonexempt preparation. 780.913 Section 780.913 Labor...)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.913 Nonexempt preparation. (a) Retail packing... “preparation for transportation.” (Schultz v. Durrence (D. Ga.), 19 WH Cases 747, 63 CCH Lab. Cas. secs....

  9. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  11. Teaching Food Preparation with Video Flash Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.; Cason, Katherine; Cherry, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Food preparation skills are needed to prepare low-cost, nutritious meals that meet current dietary recommendations. Research indicates that many youth and adults can read a recipe for ingredients, but they often do not know basic food preparation techniques such as how to broil, fold, dredge, baste and other cooking methods. To address the need to…

  12. Use of Live Supervision in Counselor Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubenzer, Donald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated live supervision in counselor preparation programs by surveying 307 counselor preparation programs. Live supervision was used at 157 institutions and was used in preparing individual, group, and marriage and family counselors. At least 75 percent of programs provided live supervision weekly. Techniques of cotherapy and remote viewing…

  13. Polymer-based tubular microbots: role of composition and preparation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Uygun, Aysegul; Pei, Allen; Ponedal, Adam; Wang, Joseph

    2012-04-07

    The influence of the composition and electropolymerization conditions upon the propulsion of new template-prepared polymer-based bilayer microtubular microbots is described. The effects of different electropolymerized outer layers, including polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polyaniline (PANI), and of various inner catalytic metal surfaces (Ag, Pt, Au, Ni-Pt alloy), upon the movement of such bilayer microtubes are evaluated and compared. Electropolymerization conditions, such as the monomer concentration and medium (e.g. surfactant, electrolyte), have a profound effect upon the morphology and locomotion of the resulting microtubes. The most efficient propulsion is observed using PEDOT/Pt microbots that offer a record-breaking speed of over 1400 body lengths s(-1) at physiological temperature, which is the fastest relative speed reported to date for all artificial micro/nanomotors. An inner Pt-Ni alloy surface is shown useful for combining magnetic control and catalytic fuel decomposition within one layer, thus greatly simplifying the preparation of magnetically-guided microbots. Polymer-based microbots with an inner gold layer offer efficient biocatalytic propulsion in low peroxide level in connection to an immobilized catalase enzyme. Metallic Au/Pt bilayer microbots can also be prepared electrochemically to offer high speed propulsion towards potential biomedical applications through functionalization of the outer gold surface. Such rational template preparation and systematic optimization of highly efficient microbots hold considerable promise for diverse practical applications.

  14. Investigation of preparation conditions and photocatalytic efficiency of nano ZnO using different polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Yang, Fang-Mai; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2013-08-01

    The development of a complete set of extensive studies combining both the preparation factors of catalysts and photocatalytic experimental factors for the photodegradation of methylene blue, crystal violet, and Congo red using effective nano zinc oxide (ZnO) obtained from polysaccharides (chitosans, corn starch, and sodium alginate) as chelating agents was the main objective of this study. The influence of nature of polysaccharides, ratio of reactants, calcination temperatures during preparation process, and effects of photocatalytic experimental conditions on photodegradation was investigated. Corn starch and sodium alginate were found to be effective chelating agents and optimum preparation parameters were set as 3:3 % ratio of reactants and 450 °C calcination temperature to prepare nano ZnO with good photocatalytic activity. The order of organic dyes based on their photodegradation rates was arranged as crystal violet > methylene blue > Congo red. Our findings shed light on the optimization of both preparation conditions of photocatalysts and photocatalytic experimental conditions.

  15. Preparation of vesicles entrapped lycopene extract.

    PubMed

    Luxsuwong, Dhitaree; Indranupakorn, Ratana; Wongtrakul, Paveena

    2014-01-01

    Lycopene, a lipophilic carotenoid, has been known as an effective antioxidant in supporting the cutaneous defensive system. However, it is unstable when exposed to light and water. In this study, lycopene was isolated from tomatoes and a vesicular delivery system was developed to entrap and stabilize the lycopene in the aqueous system. A simple process, maceration in ethyl acetate, was used to extract lycopene from the tomatoes. The extract was then chromatographed on the Sephadex LH20 column using acetone as a solvent system to yield 995 μg of lycopene per gram of dried tomato weight. The vesicular delivery system was prepared from a combination of ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AP), cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate using a thin film hydration method. The formulation was composed of AP, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate at a 44:44:12 molar ratio and with 2.12 μmol/ml of the isolated lycopene. Both blank vesicles and lycopene loaded vesicles were kept for a period of 3 months at 4±2°C and at the room temperature (28±2°C) to evaluate the effect of the encapsulation on the characteristic of the vesicles and on the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated lycopene. The result implied that lycopene could be stabilized in the vesicles and its scavenging activity against DPPH free radicals was superior to that of the free lycopene solution.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.; Piner, R.; Dommett, G.; Evmenenko, G.; Nguyen, S.; Ruoff, R.

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  17. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  18. Integrating Microcomputing into Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peseau, Bruce A.

    This paper presents an example of a course syllabus that integrates the use of microcomputers as part of a recommendation that administrators become specialists in microcomputing in their preparatory programs. Computers' dramatically reduced costs, in combination with increased power, has made them easily available in the form of microcomputers.…

  19. Use of Spreadsheets for Research Data Collection and Preparation: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Juluru, Krishna; Eng, John

    2015-12-01

    Successful research results from the combination of multiple elements, including an appropriate research question, study design, research method, statistical analysis, and interpretation of results. One element of research that is easy to overlook is proper data collection and preparation for analysis. If data collection or preparation is inadequately planned or executed, the data may not be analyzable by a statistician without significant effort spent on data cleaning. Even worse, the data may contain problems that can be resolved only through time-consuming revision or repeat data collection. In this review, we present some practical guidelines and best practices for preparing data that can reduce the work of subsequent analysis.

  20. Preparation and characterization of superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    During this last year we were involved in a number of studies geared towards understanding the relationship between interfacial disorder and X-ray diffraction from superlattices. In addition, we have performed a number of physical properties studies in order to relate structure to physical properties. These studies include magnetism and superconducting studies in a variety of different thin film systems. A major development was the implementation of a structural refinement program capable of determining the important structural parameters in superlattices and thin films. This program is being supplied to many research groups for the study of related problems. We are currently devoted to detailed, comparative studies of magnetic samples prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and sputtering. The unique facilities available to us not only allow preparing samples by the two different methods but also are capable of determining interfacial structure using in-situ characterization techniques such as Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). We have developed a data acquisition system capable of acquiring electron diffraction in real time during growth. Part of the work done here is a good example of a collaboration between a University (UCSD), a national lab (ANL) and industrial organizations (Amoco, IBM).